HOME
The Info List - Mauretania


--- Advertisement ---



 Spain

 ∟ Ceuta  ∟ Melilla

Mauretania
Mauretania
(also spelled Mauritania)[3] is the Latin name for an area in the ancient Maghreb
Maghreb
(Tamazgha). It stretched from central present-day Algeria
Algeria
westwards to the Atlantic, covering northern Morocco, and southward to the Atlas Mountains.[4] Its native inhabitants, seminomadic pastoralists of Berber ancestral stock, were known to the Romans as the Mauri and the Masaesyli.[5] Beginning in 27 BC, the kings of Mauretania
Mauretania
became Roman vassals until about 44 AD when the area was annexed to Rome and divided into two provinces: Mauretania Tingitana
Mauretania Tingitana
and Mauretania
Mauretania
Caesariensis. In the late 3rd century, another province, Mauretania
Mauretania
Sitifensis, was formed out of the eastern part of Caesariensis. When the Vandals
Vandals
arrived in Africa in 429, much of Mauretania
Mauretania
became virtually independent. Christianity had spread rapidly there in the 4th and 5th centuries but was extinguished when the Arabs conquered the region in the 7th century.[5]

Contents

1 Mauri (Moorish) Kingdom 2 Kings 3 Roman province(s) 4 Late Antiquity

4.1 Roman-Moorish kingdoms 4.2 Vandal kingdom 4.3 Praetorian prefecture
Praetorian prefecture
of Africa 4.4 Exarchate of Africa

5 Episcopal sees 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Mauri (Moorish) Kingdom[edit] Further information: North Africa
North Africa
during Antiquity Mauretania
Mauretania
existed as a tribal kingdom of the Berber Mauri people. Mauri (Μαῦροι) is recorded as the native name by Strabo
Strabo
in the early 1st century. This appellation was also adopted into Latin, whereas the Greek name for the tribe was Maurusii (Μαυρούσιοι).[6] The Mauri would later bequeath their name to the Moors
Moors
on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa, from at least the 3rd century BC. The Mediterranean coast of Mauretania
Mauretania
had commercial harbours for trade with Carthage
Carthage
since before the 4th century BC, but the interior was controlled by Berber tribes, who had established themselves in the region by the beginning of the Iron Age. King Atlas was a legendary king of Mauretania
Mauretania
credited with the invention of the celestial globe. The first known historical king of the Mauri is Baga, who ruled during the Second Punic War. The Mauri were in close contact with Numidia. Bocchus I
Bocchus I
(fl. 110 BC) was father-in-law to the redoubted Numidian king Jugurtha. Mauretania
Mauretania
became a client kingdom of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 33 BC. The Romans installed Juba II
Juba II
of Numidia
Numidia
as their client-king. When Juba died in AD 23, his Roman-educated son Ptolemy of Mauretania
Ptolemy of Mauretania
succeeded him. The Emperor Caligula
Caligula
had Ptolemy executed in 40.[7] Emperor Claudius
Claudius
annexed Mauretania
Mauretania
directly as a Roman province
Roman province
in 44, under an imperial governor (either a procurator Augusti, or a legatus Augusti pro praetore). Kings[edit] The known kings of Mauretania
Mauretania
are:

Name Reign Notes Image

Bagas fl. 225 BC

Bocchus I c. 110 – c. 80s BC

Mastanesosus c. 80s BC – 49

Bocchus II 49 – c. 33 BC Co-ruler with Bogud

Bogud 49 – c. 38 BC Co-ruler with Bocchus II

Juba II 25 BC – AD 23 Roman client king

Ptolemy 20–40 Last king of Mauretania Began reign as co-ruler with Juba II Assassinated by Caligula

Roman province(s)[edit] Further information: Mauretania Tingitana
Mauretania Tingitana
and Mauretania
Mauretania
Caesariensis In the 1st century AD, Emperor Claudius
Claudius
divided the Roman province
Roman province
of Mauretania
Mauretania
into Mauretania Caesariensis
Mauretania Caesariensis
and Mauretania Tingitana
Mauretania Tingitana
along the line of the Mulucha (Muluya) River, about 60 km west of modern Oran:

Mauretania Tingitana
Mauretania Tingitana
was named after its capital Tingis
Tingis
(now Tangier); it corresponded to northern Morocco
Morocco
(including the Spanish enclaves). Mauretania Caesariensis
Mauretania Caesariensis
was named after its capital Caesarea (Mauretaniae) and comprised western and central Algeria.

Mauretania
Mauretania
gave the empire one emperor, the equestrian Macrinus. He seized power after the assassination of Caracalla
Caracalla
in 217 but was himself defeated and executed by Elagabalus
Elagabalus
the next year. Emperor Diocletian's Tetrarchy
Tetrarchy
reform (293) further divided the area into three provinces, as the small, easternmost region of Sitifensis was split off from Mauretania
Mauretania
Caesariensis. The Notitia Dignitatum
Notitia Dignitatum
(c. 400) mentions them[clarification needed] still, two being under the authority of the Vicarius of the diocese of Africa:

A Dux
Dux
et praeses provinciae Mauritaniae et Caesariensis, i.e. a Roman governor of the rank of Vir spectabilis, who also held the high military command of dux, as the superior of eight border garrison commanders, each styled Praepositus limitis ..., followed by (genitive forms) Columnatensis, Vidensis, inferioris (i.e. lower border), Fortensis, Muticitani, Audiensis, Caputcellensis and Augustensis. A (civilian) Praeses in the province of Mauretania
Mauretania
Sitifensis.

And, under the authority of the Vicarius of the diocese of Hispaniae:

A Comes rei militaris
Comes rei militaris
of (Mauretania, but not mentioning that part of the name)[clarification needed] Tingitana, also ranking as vir spectabilis, in charge of the following border garrison (Limitanei) commanders:

Praefectus alae Herculeae at Tamuco Tribunus cohortis
Tribunus cohortis
secundae Hispanorum at Duga Tribunus cohortis
Tribunus cohortis
primae Herculeae at Aulucos Tribunus cohortis
Tribunus cohortis
primae Ityraeorum at Castrabarensis Another Tribunus cohortis
Tribunus cohortis
at Sala Tribunus cohortis
Tribunus cohortis
Pacatianensis at Pacatiana Tribunus cohortis
Tribunus cohortis
tertiae Asturum at Tabernas Tribunus cohortis
Tribunus cohortis
Friglensis at (and apparently also from, a rarity)[clarification needed] Friglas

and to whom three extraordinary cavalry units were assigned:

Equites
Equites
scutarii seniores Equites
Equites
sagittarii seniores Equites
Equites
Cordueni

A Praeses (civilian governor) of the same province of Tingitana

Late Antiquity[edit] Further information: Diocese
Diocese
of Africa Roman-Moorish kingdoms[edit] Further information: Mauro-Roman Kingdom During the crisis of the 3rd century, parts of Mauretania
Mauretania
were reconquered by Berber tribes. Direct Roman rule became confined to a few coastal cities (such as Septum (Ceuta) in Mauretania Tingitana
Mauretania Tingitana
and Cherchell
Cherchell
in Mauretania
Mauretania
Caesariensis) by the late 3rd century.[8] Historical sources about inland areas are sparse, but these were apparently controlled by local Berber rulers who, however, maintained a degree of Roman culture, including the local cities, and usually nominally acknowledged the suzerainty of the Roman Emperors.[9]

The Western kingdom more distant from the Vandal kingdom
Vandal kingdom
was the one of Altava, a city located at the borders of Mauretania Tingitana
Mauretania Tingitana
and Caesariensis....It is clear that the Mauro-Roman kingdom of Altava
Altava
was fully inside the Western Latin world, not only because of location but mainly because it adopted the military-religious-sociocultural-administrative organization of the Roman Empire...[10]

In an inscription from Altava
Altava
in western Algeria, one of these rulers, Masuna, described himself as rex gentium Maurorum et Romanorum (king of the Roman and Moorish peoples). Altava
Altava
was later the capital of another ruler, Garmul or Garmules, who resisted Byzantine rule in Africa but was finally defeated in 578.[11]

Map of the Romano-moorish kingdoms during the late Roman empire

The Byzantine historian Procopius
Procopius
also mentions another independent ruler, Mastigas, who controlled most of Mauretania Caesariensis
Mauretania Caesariensis
in the 530s. In the 7th century there were eight Romano-Moorish kingdoms: Altava, Ouarsenis, Hodna, Aures, Nemenchas, Capsa, Dorsale and Cabaon.[12] The last resistance against the Arab invasion was sustained in the second half of the 7th century mainly by the Roman-Moorish kingdoms -with the last Byzantine troops in the region- under the leadership of the Christian king of Altava
Altava
Caecilius, but later ended in complete defeat in 703 AD (when the Christian Queen Kahina
Kahina
died in battle). Vandal kingdom[edit] Main article: Vandal kingdom The Vandals
Vandals
conquered the Roman province
Roman province
beginning in the 420s. The city of Hippo Regius
Hippo Regius
fell to the Vandals
Vandals
in 431 after a prolonged siege, and Carthage
Carthage
also fell in 439. Theodosius II
Theodosius II
dispatched an expedition to deal with the Vandals
Vandals
in 441, which failed to progress farther than Sicily.[clarification needed] The Western Empire under Valentinian III
Valentinian III
secured peace with the Vandals
Vandals
in 442, confirming their control of Proconsular Africa. For the next 90 years, Africa was firmly under the Vandal control. The Vandals
Vandals
were ousted from Africa in the Vandalic War
Vandalic War
of 533–534, from which time Mauretania
Mauretania
at least nominally became a Roman province
Roman province
once again. The old provinces of the Roman Diocese
Diocese
of Africa were mostly preserved by the Vandals, but large parts, including almost all of Mauretania Tingitana, much of Mauretania Caesariensis
Mauretania Caesariensis
and Mauretania
Mauretania
Sitifensis and large parts of the interior of Numidia
Numidia
and Byzacena, had been lost to the inroads of Berber tribes, now collectively called the Mauri (later Moors) as a generic term for "the Berber tribes in the province of Mauretania". Praetorian prefecture
Praetorian prefecture
of Africa[edit] Main article: Praetorian prefecture
Praetorian prefecture
of Africa In 533, the Roman army under Belisarius
Belisarius
defeated the Vandals. In April 534, Justinian
Justinian
published a law concerning the administrative organization of the newly acquired territories. Nevertheless, Justinian
Justinian
restored the old administrative division, but raised the overall governor at Carthage
Carthage
to the supreme administrative rank of praetorian prefect, thereby ending the Diocese
Diocese
of Africa's traditional subordination to the Prefecture of Italy (then still under Ostrogoth rule). Exarchate of Africa[edit] The emperor Maurice sometime between 585 and 590 AD created the office of "Exarch", which combined the supreme civil authority of a praetorian prefect and the military authority of a magister militum, and enjoyed considerable autonomy from Constantinople. Two exarchates were established, one in Italy, with seat at Ravenna
Ravenna
(hence known as the Exarchate of Ravenna), and one in Africa, based at Carthage
Carthage
and including all imperial possessions in the Western Mediterranean. The first African exarch was the patricius Gennadius.[13] Mauretania Caesariensis
Mauretania Caesariensis
and Mauretania Sitifensis
Mauretania Sitifensis
were merged to form the new province of Mauretania
Mauretania
Prima, while Maretania Tingitana, effectively reduced to the city of Septum (Ceuta), was combined with the citadels of the Spanish coast (Spania) and the Balearic islands to form Mauretania
Mauretania
Secunda. The African exarch was in possession of Mauretania
Mauretania
Secunda, which was little more than a tiny outpost in southern Spain, beleaguered by the Visigoths. The last Spanish strongholds were conquered by the Visigoths
Visigoths
in 624 AD, reducing " Mauretania
Mauretania
Seconda" opposite Gibraltar to only the fort of Septum. Episcopal sees[edit] Ancient episcopal sees of the late Roman province
Roman province
of Mauretania Sitifensis, listed in the Annuario Pontificio
Annuario Pontificio
as titular sees:[14]

Acufida (Cafrida) Arae in Mauretania
Mauretania
(Ksar-Tarmounth) Assava (Hammam-Guergour) Asuoremixta Castellum in Mauretania
Mauretania
(ruins of Aïn-Castellou?) Cedamusa (near the Fdoulès mountains) Cellae in Mauretania
Mauretania
(Kherbet-Zerga) Cova (Ziama Mansouriah) Eminentiana Equizetum (Lacourbe, Ouled Agla) Ficus (in the region of El-Ksar or Djemâa-Si-Belcassem) Flumenpiscense (ruins of Kherbet-Ced-Bel-Abbas?) Gegi Horrea (ruins of Sidi-Rehane or of Aïn-Zada?) Horrea Aninici (ruins of Aïn-Roua) Ierafi (in the valley of Bou-Sellam?) Lemellefa (Bordj-Redir) Lemfocta (between Tiklat and Mlakou) Lesvi Macri Macriana in Mauretania Maronana (ruins of Aïn-Melloud?) Medjana
Medjana
(Medianas Zabuniorum) Molicunza (ruins of Makou?) Mons in Mauretania
Mauretania
(ruins of Henchir-Casbalt?) Mopta (ruins of El-Ouarcha?) Murcona Novaliciana (Kherbet Madjouba or Beni-Fouda) Oliva (ruins of Drâa-El-Arba?, ruins of Tala, Mellal?) Parthenia Perdices (ruins of Aïn-Hamiet?) Privata (near Safiet-El-Hamra Mountain) Saldae Satafis (Aïn El Kebira) Sertei (Kherbet-Guidra) Sitifis, Metropolitan Archdiocese Socia Surista Tamagrista (near Mount Magris) Tamallula (Ras El Oued) Tamascani (Kerbet-Zembia-Cerez?) Thibuzabetum (Aïn-Melloul?) Thucca in Mauretania Tinista Vamalia (ruins of Biar-Haddada?) Zabi (Bechilga) Zallata

See also[edit]

Gaetuli
Gaetuli
tribe (namesake of Getulia) Mauretania
Mauretania
Caesariensis Mauretania
Mauretania
Tingitana Syphax Victor Maurus, a Christian Mauretanian martyr and saint Zeno of Verona

References[edit]

^ http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/836 ^ "Iol - ancient city, Algeria". Encyclopedia Britannica. 28 Aug 2008. Retrieved 25 March 2017.  ^ The Classic Latin Dictionary, Follett, 1957, only gives "Mauritania" ^ Phillip C. Naylor (7 May 2015). Historical Dictionary of Algeria. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 376. ISBN 978-0-8108-7919-5.  ^ a b "region, North Africa". Encyclopedia Britannica. August 9, 2007. Retrieved 25 March 2017.  ^ οἰκοῦσι δ᾽ ἐνταῦθα Μαυρούσιοι μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν Ἑλλήνων λεγόμενοι, Μαῦροι δ᾽ ὑπὸ τῶν Ῥωμαίων καὶ τῶν ἐπιχωρίων "Here dwell a people called by the Greeks Maurusii, and by the Romans and the natives Mauri" Strabo, Geographica 17.3.2. Lewis and Short, Latin Dictionary, 1879 s.v. "Mauri" ^ Anthony A. Barrett, Caligula: The Corruption of Power, (Routledge, 1989), pp. 116–117. ^ Wickham, Chris (2005). Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean, 400 - 800. Oxford University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-19-921296-5.  ^ Wickham, Chris (2005). Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean, 400 - 800. Oxford University Press. p. 335. ISBN 978-0-19-921296-5.  ^ Noé Villaverde, Vega: "El Reino mauretoromano de Altava, siglo VI" (The Mauro-Roman kingdom of Altava) p.355 ^ Aguado Blazquez, Francisco (2005). El Africa Bizantina: Reconquista y ocaso (PDF). p. 46. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-07.  ^ Map showing the eight romano-berber kingdoms ^ Julien (1931, v.1, p.273) ^ Annuario Pontificio
Annuario Pontificio
2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), "Sedi titolari", pp. 819-1013

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Mauretania.

Notitia dignitatum & Tingitana[permanent dead link] Westermann, Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (in German)

v t e

Provinces of the early Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(117 AD)

Achaea Aegyptus Africa proconsularis Alpes Cottiae Alpes Maritimae Alpes Poeninae Arabia Petraea Armenia Asia Assyria Bithynia
Bithynia
and Pontus Britannia Cappadocia Cilicia Corsica
Corsica
and Sardinia Crete and Cyrenaica Cyprus Dacia Dalmatia Epirus Galatia Gallia Aquitania Gallia Belgica Gallia Lugdunensis Gallia Narbonensis Germania Inferior Germania Superior Hispania Baetica Hispania Tarraconensis Italia † Iudaea Lusitania Lycia
Lycia
et Pamphylia Macedonia Mauretania
Mauretania
Caesariensis Mauretania
Mauretania
Tingitana Mesopotamia Moesia
Moesia
Inferior Moesia
Moesia
Superior Noricum Pannonia Inferior Pannonia Superior Raetia Sicilia Syria Thracia

† Italy was never constituted as a province, instead retaining a special juridical status until Diocletian's reforms.

v t e

Late Roman provinces (4th–7th centuries AD)

History

As found in the Notitia Dignitatum. Provincial administration reformed and dioceses established by Diocletian, c. 293. Permanent praetorian prefectures established after the death of Constantine I. Empire permanently partitioned after 395. Exarchates of Ravenna
Ravenna
and Africa established after 584. After massive territorial losses in the 7th century, the remaining provinces were superseded by the theme system in c. 640–660, although in Asia Minor and parts of Greece they survived under the themes until the early 9th century.

Western Empire (395–476)

Praetorian Prefecture of Gaul

Diocese
Diocese
of Gaul

Alpes Poeninae
Alpes Poeninae
et Graiae Belgica I Belgica II Germania I Germania II Lugdunensis I Lugdunensis II Lugdunensis III Lugdunensis IV Maxima Sequanorum

Diocese
Diocese
of Vienne1

Alpes Maritimae Aquitanica I Aquitanica II Narbonensis I Narbonensis II Novempopulania Viennensis

Diocese
Diocese
of Spain

Baetica Balearica Carthaginensis Gallaecia Lusitania Mauretania
Mauretania
Tingitana Tarraconensis

Diocese
Diocese
of the Britains

Britannia I Britannia II Flavia Caesariensis Maxima Caesariensis Valentia (?)

Praetorian Prefecture of Italy

Diocese
Diocese
of Suburbicarian Italy

Apulia et Calabria Campania Corsica Lucania et Bruttii Picenum
Picenum
Suburbicarium Samnium Sardinia Sicilia Tuscia et Umbria Valeria

Diocese
Diocese
of Annonarian Italy

Alpes Cottiae Flaminia et Picenum
Picenum
Annonarium Liguria et Aemilia Raetia
Raetia
I Raetia
Raetia
II Venetia et Istria

Diocese
Diocese
of Africa2

Africa proconsularis (Zeugitana) Byzacena Mauretania
Mauretania
Caesariensis Mauretania
Mauretania
Sitifensis Numidia
Numidia
Cirtensis Numidia
Numidia
Militiana Tripolitania

Diocese
Diocese
of Pannonia3

Dalmatia Noricum
Noricum
mediterraneum Noricum
Noricum
ripense Pannonia I Pannonia II Savia Valeria ripensis

Eastern Empire (395–c. 640)

Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum

Diocese
Diocese
of Dacia

Dacia Mediterranea Dacia Ripensis Dardania Moesia
Moesia
I Praevalitana

Diocese
Diocese
of Macedonia

Achaea Creta Epirus
Epirus
Nova Epirus
Epirus
Vetus Macedonia Prima Macedonia II Salutaris Thessalia

Praetorian Prefecture of the East

Diocese
Diocese
of Thrace5

Europa Haemimontus Moesia
Moesia
II4 Rhodope Scythia4 Thracia

Diocese
Diocese
of Asia5

Asia Caria4 Hellespontus Insulae4 Lycaonia
Lycaonia
(370) Lycia Lydia Pamphylia Pisidia Phrygia Pacatiana Phrygia Salutaris

Diocese
Diocese
of Pontus5

Armenia I5 Armenia II5 Armenia Maior5 Armenian Satrapies5 Armenia III
Armenia III
(536) Armenia IV
Armenia IV
(536) Bithynia Cappadocia I5 Cappadocia II5 Galatia I5 Galatia II Salutaris5 Helenopontus5 Honorias5 Paphlagonia5 Pontus Polemoniacus5

Diocese
Diocese
of the East5

Arabia Cilicia I Cilicia II Cyprus4 Euphratensis Isauria Mesopotamia Osroene Palaestina I Palaestina II Palaestina III Salutaris Phoenice I Phoenice II Libanensis Syria I Syria II Salutaris Theodorias (528)

Diocese
Diocese
of Egypt5

Aegyptus I Aegyptus II Arcadia Augustamnica I Augustamnica II Libya Superior Libya Inferior Thebais Superior Thebais Inferior

Other territories

Taurica Quaestura exercitus (536) Spania
Spania
(552)

1 Later the Septem Provinciae 2 Re-established after reconquest by the Eastern Empire in 534 as the separate Prefecture of Africa 3 Later the Diocese
Diocese
of Illyricum 4 Placed under the Quaestura exercitus in 536 5 Affected (i.e. boundaries modified, abolished or renamed) by Justinian
Justinian
I's administrative reorganiz

.