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Matthias Corvinus, also called Matthias I (Hungarian: Hunyadi Mátyás, Croatian: Matija Korvin, Romanian: Matei Corvin, Slovak: Matej Korvín, Czech: Matyáš Korvín; 23 February 1443 – 6 April 1490), was King of Hungary
King of Hungary
and Croatia
Croatia
from 1458 to 1490. After conducting several military campaigns, he was elected King of Bohemia in 1469 and adopted the title Duke of Austria
Duke of Austria
in 1487. He was the son of John Hunyadi, Regent of Hungary, who died in 1456. In 1457, Matthias was imprisoned along with his older brother, Ladislaus Hunyadi, on the orders of King Ladislaus V of Hungary. Ladislaus Hunyadi was executed, causing a rebellion that forced King Ladislaus to flee Hungary. After the King died unexpectedly, Matthias's uncle Michael Szilágyi
Michael Szilágyi
persuaded the Estates to unanimously proclaim Matthias king on 24 January 1458. He began his rule under his uncle's guardianship, but he took effective control of government within two weeks. As king, Matthias waged wars against the Czech mercenaries who dominated Upper Hungary
Upper Hungary
(today parts of Slovakia
Slovakia
and Northern Hungary) and against Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, who claimed Hungary for himself. In this period, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
conquered Serbia
Serbia
and Bosnia, terminating the zone of buffer states along the southern frontiers of the Kingdom of Hungary. Matthias signed a peace treaty with Frederick III in 1463, acknowledging the Emperor's right to style himself King of Hungary. The Emperor returned the Holy Crown of Hungary with which Matthias was crowned on 29 April 1464. In this year, Matthias invaded the territories that had recently been occupied by the Ottomans and seized fortresses in Bosnia. He soon realized he could expect no substantial aid from the Christian powers and gave up his anti-Ottoman policy. Matthias introduced new taxes and regularly collected extraordinary taxes. These measures caused a rebellion in Transylvania
Transylvania
in 1467, but he subdued the rebels. The next year, Matthias declared war on George of Poděbrady, the Hussite
Hussite
King of Bohemia, and conquered Moravia, Silesia, and Lausitz, but he could not occupy Bohemia
Bohemia
proper. The Catholic Estates proclaimed him King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia
on 3 May 1469, but the Hussite
Hussite
lords refused to yield to him even after the death of their leader George of Poděbrady
George of Poděbrady
in 1471. Instead, they elected Vladislaus Jagiellon, the eldest son of Casimir IV of Poland. A group of Hungarian prelates and lords offered the throne to Vladislaus's younger brother Casimir, but Matthias overcame their rebellion. Having routed the united troops of Casimir IV and Vladislaus at Breslau
Breslau
in Silesia
Silesia
(now Wrocław
Wrocław
in Poland) in late 1474, Matthias turned against the Ottomans, who had devastated the eastern parts of Hungary. He sent reinforcements to Stephen the Great, Prince of Moldavia, enabling Stephen to repel a series of Ottoman invasions in the late 1470s. In 1476, Matthias besieged and seized Šabac, an important Ottoman border fort. He concluded a peace treaty with Vladislaus Jagiellon in 1478, confirming the division of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown
Lands of the Bohemian Crown
between them. Matthias waged a war against Emperor Frederick and occupied Lower Austria
Austria
between 1482 and 1487. Matthias established a professional army (the Black Army of Hungary), reformed the administration of justice, reduced the power of the barons, and promoted the careers of talented individuals chosen for their abilities rather than their social statuses. Matthias patronized art and science; his royal library, the Bibliotheca Corviniana, was one of the largest collections of books in Europe. With his patronage, Hungary became the first country to embrace the Renaissance
Renaissance
from Italy. As Matthias the Just, the monarch who wandered among his subjects in disguise, he remains a popular hero of Hungarian folk tales.

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 Childhood (1443–1457) 1.2 Election as king (1457–1458)

2 Reign

2.1 Early rule and consolidation (1458–1464) 2.2 First reforms and internal conflicts (1464–1467) 2.3 War for the Lands of the Bohemian Crown
Lands of the Bohemian Crown
(1468–1479) 2.4 War for Austria
Austria
(1479–1487) 2.5 Last years (1487–1490)

3 Patronage

3.1 Renaissance
Renaissance
king 3.2 Building projects 3.3 Royal library 3.4 Patron of scholars

4 Family 5 Legacy 6 Gallery 7 Notes 8 Sources 9 Further reading 10 External links

Early life[edit] Childhood (1443–1457)[edit] Matthias was born in Kolozsvár
Kolozsvár
(now Cluj-Napoca
Cluj-Napoca
in Romania) on 23 February 1443.[1] He was the second son of John Hunyadi
John Hunyadi
and his wife, Elisabeth Szilágyi.[1][2] John Hunyadi
John Hunyadi
was a pre-eminent military commander and political leader of the Kingdom of Hungary, who spent most of his life away from the family estates. Because of his father's absence, his mother managed Matthias's education.[1] Many of the most learned men of Central Europe—including Gregory of Sanok
Gregory of Sanok
and John Vitéz—frequented John Hunyadi's court when Matthias was a child.[3] Gregory of Sanok, a former tutor of King Vladislaus III of Poland, was Matthias's only teacher whose name is known.[4] Under these scholars' influences, Matthias became an enthusiastic supporter of Renaissance humanism.[5][6]

The house where Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus
was born in Kolozsvár
Kolozsvár
(present-day Cluj-Napoca, Romania)

As a child, Matthias learnt many languages and read classical literature, especially military treatises.[4] According to Antonio Bonfini, Matthias "was versed in all the tongues of Europe", with the exceptions of Turkish and Greek.[7] Although this was an exaggeration, it is without doubt that Matthias spoke Hungarian, Latin, Italian, Polish, Czech, and German.[4][8] According to a treaty between John Hunyadi
John Hunyadi
and Đorđe Branković, Despot of Serbia, Matthias and the Despot's granddaughter Elizabeth of Celje were engaged on 7 August 1451.[9][10] Elizabeth was the daughter of Ulrich II, Count of Celje, who was related to King Ladislaus V of Hungary and an opponent of Matthias's father.[11][12] Because of new conflicts between Hunyadi and Ulrich of Celje, the marriage of their children only took place in 1455.[13] Elizabeth settled in the Hunyadis' estates but Matthias was soon sent to the royal court, implying that their marriage was a hidden exchange of hostages between their families.[11] Elizabeth died before the end of 1455.[11] John Hunyadi
John Hunyadi
died on 11 August 1456, less than three weeks after his greatest victory over the Ottomans in Belgrade.[14] John's elder son—Matthias's brother—Ladislaus became the head of the family.[11][15] Ladislaus's conflict with Ulrich of Celje ended with Ulrich's capture and assassination on 9 November.[16][17][18] Under duress, the King promised he would never take his revenge against the Hunyadis for Ulrich's killing.[19] However, the murder turned most barons—including Palatine Ladislaus Garai, Judge royal
Judge royal
Ladislaus Pálóci, and Nicholas Újlaki, Voivode of Transylvania—against Ladislaus Hunyadi.[19] Taking advantage of their resentment, the King had the Hunyadi brothers imprisoned in Buda
Buda
on 14 March 1457.[17][20] The royal council condemned them to death for high treason and Ladislaus Hunyadi
Ladislaus Hunyadi
was beheaded on 16 March.[21] Matthias was held in captivity in a small house in Buda.[19][22] His mother and her brother Michael Szilágyi
Michael Szilágyi
staged a rebellion against the King and occupied large territories in the regions to the east of the river Tisza.[19][20] King Ladislaus fled to Vienna
Vienna
in mid-1457, and from Vienna
Vienna
to Prague
Prague
in September, taking Matthias with him.[17][23][24] The civil war between the rebels and the barons loyal to the monarch continued until the sudden death of the young King on 23 November 1457.[19] Thereafter the Hussite
Hussite
Regent of Bohemia—George of Poděbrady—held Matthias captive.[25] Election as king (1457–1458)[edit] Ladislaus V died childless in 1457.[26][27] His elder sister Anna and her husband, William III, Landgrave of Thuringia, laid claim to his inheritance but received no support from the Estates.[26] The Diet of Hungary was convoked to Pest to elect a new king in January 1458.[28] Pope Calixtus III's legate Cardinal Juan Carvajal, who had been John Hunyadi's admirer, began openly campaigning for Matthias.[28][29] The election of Matthias as king was the only way of avoiding a protracted civil war.[28] Ladislaus Garai was the first baron to yield.[29] At a meeting with Matthias's mother and uncle, he promised that he and his allies would promote Matthias's election, and Michael Szilágyi promised that his nephew would never seek vengeance for Ladislaus Hunyadi's execution.[28][29] They also agreed that Matthias would marry the Palatine's daughter Anna—his executed brother's bride.[28][29] Michael Szilágyi
Michael Szilágyi
arrived at the Diet with 15,000 troops, intimidating the barons who assembled in Buda.[17][28] Stirred up by Szilágyi, the noblemen gathered on the frozen River Danube and unanimously proclaimed the 14-year-old Matthias King on 24 January.[28][30][31] At the same time, the Diet elected his uncle as regent.[29][31] Reign[edit] Early rule and consolidation (1458–1464)[edit] See also: Peace Treaty of Wiener Neustadt

George of Poděbrady
George of Poděbrady
and Matthias Corvinus—a painting by Mikoláš Aleš

Matthias's election was the first time that a member of the nobility mounted the royal throne in Hungary.[22] Michael Szilágyi
Michael Szilágyi
sent John Vitéz to Prague
Prague
to discuss the terms of Matthias's release with George of Poděbrady.[32] Poděbrady—whose daughter Kunigunda Matthias promised to marry—agreed to release his future son-in-law for a ransom of 60,000 gold florins.[33][34] Matthias was surrendered to the Hungarian delegates in Strážnice on 9 February.[32] With Poděbrady's mediation, he was reconciled with John Jiskra of Brandýs, the commander of the Czech mercenaries who dominated most of Upper Hungary.[35][36] Matthias made his state entry into Buda
Buda
five days later.[37][38] He ceremoniously sat on the throne in the Church of Our Lady, but was not crowned, because the Holy Crown of Hungary
Holy Crown of Hungary
had been in the possession of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor
for almost two decades.[37][39] The 14-year-old monarch administered state affairs independently from the outset, although he reaffirmed his uncle's position as Regent.[40][41] For instance, Matthias instructed the citizens of Nagyszeben (now Sibiu
Sibiu
in Romania) to reconcile their differences with Vlad Dracula, Prince of Wallachia
Prince of Wallachia
on 3 March.[41] Jiskra was the first baron who turned against Matthias.[35] He offered the throne to Casimir IV of Poland—the husband of King Ladislaus V's younger sister Elisabeth—in late March but the General sejm
General sejm
of Poland rejected his offer.[35] Matthias's commander Sebastian Rozgonyi defeated Jiskra's soldiers at Sárospatak
Sárospatak
but the Ottomans' invasion of Serbia
Serbia
in April forced Matthias to conclude an armistice with the Czechs.[31][42][43] They were allowed to keep Sáros Castle (now Šariš Castle, Slovakia) and other fortified places in Upper Hungary.[44] Matthias sent two prelates—August Salánki, Bishop of Győr, and Vincent Szilasi, Bishop of Vác—to Prague
Prague
to crown George of Poděbrady king.[35] Upon their demand, the "heretic" Poděbrady swore loyalty to the Holy See.[35]

Matthias's golden florin depicting Madonna and Child, and King Saint Ladislaus

Matthias's first Diet assembled in Pest in May 1458.[45] The Estates passed almost fifty decrees that were ratified by Matthias—instead of the Regent—on 8 June.[46] One decree prescribed that the King "must call and hold, and order to be held, a diet of all the gentlemen of the realm in person"[47] every year on Whitsunday.[45] Matthias held more than 25 Diets during his reign and convoked the Estates more frequently than his predecessors, especially between 1458 and 1476.[45][48][49] The Diets were controlled by the barons, whom Matthias appointed and dismissed at will.[45][50] For instance, he dismissed Palatine Ladislaus Garai and persuaded Michael Szilágyi
Michael Szilágyi
to resign from the Regency after they entered into a league in the summer of 1458.[51][34] The King appointed Michael Ország, who had been his father's close supporter, as the new Palatine.[52] Most of Matthias's barons were descended from old aristocratic families but he also promoted the careers of members of the lesser nobility, or even of skilful commoners.[53][54] For instance, the noble Zápolya brothers Emeric and Stephen owed their fortunes to Matthias's favour.[55] Matthias's ordinary revenues amounted around 250,000 golden florins per year when his reign began.[56] A decree passed at the Diet of 1458 explicitly prohibited the imposition of extraordinary taxes.[57] However, an extraordinary tax—one golden florin per each porta or peasant household—was levied late that year.[57][58] The Ottomans occupied the fort of Golubac
Golubac
in Serbia
Serbia
in August 1458; Matthias ordered the mobilization of all noblemen.[59][31] He made a raid into Ottoman territory and defeated the enemy forces in minor skirmishes.[31] King Stephen Thomas of Bosnia
Bosnia
accepted Matthias's suzerainty.[59] Matthias authorized his new vassal's son Stephen Tomašević to take possession of the parts of Serbia
Serbia
that had not been occupied by the Ottomans.[59] At the turn of 1458 and 1459, Matthias held a Diet at Szeged
Szeged
to prepare for a war against the Ottoman Empire.[60] However, gossip about a conspiracy compelled him to return to Buda.[61] The rumours proved to be true because at least 30 barons—including Ladislaus Garai, Nicholas Újlaki, and Ladislaus Kanizsai—met in Németújvár (now Güssing
Güssing
in Austria) and offered the throne to Emperor Frederick III on 17 February 1459.[31][34][62] Although the joint troops of the Emperor and the rebellious lords defeated a royal army at Körmend
Körmend
on 27 March, Garai had by that time died and Újlaki soon entered into negotiations with Matthias' envoys.[62] Skirmishes along the western borderlands lasted for several months, preventing Matthias from providing military assistance to Tomašević against the Ottomans.[60] The latter took Smederevo
Smederevo
on 29 June, completing the conquest of Serbia.[63][64]

John Jiskra of Brandýs—a picture by Mikoláš Aleš

Jiskra swore an oath of loyalty to Emperor Frederick on 10 March 1461.[60] Pope Pius II
Pope Pius II
offered to mediate a peace treaty between the Emperor and Matthias.[34] George of Poděbrady
George of Poděbrady
also offered his assistance.[65] The representatives of the Emperor and Matthias signed a truce in Olomouc in April 1460.[31] The Pope soon offered financial support for an anti-Ottoman campaign.[60] However, John Jiskra returned from Poland, renewing the armed conflicts with Czech mercenaries in early 1460.[60] Matthias seized a newly erected fort from the Czechs but he could not force them to obey him.[60] The costs of his five-month-long campaign in Upper Hungary
Upper Hungary
were paid for by an extraordinary tax.[66] Matthias entered into an alliance with the Emperor's rebellious brother Albert VI, Archduke of Austria.[67] George of Poděbrady
George of Poděbrady
sided with the Emperor, although the marriage of his daughter—who became known as Catherine in Hungary—to Matthias was celebrated on 1 May 1461.[57][68] Relations between Matthias and his father-in-law deteriorated because of the Czech mercenaries' continued presence in Upper Hungary.[69] Matthias launched a new campaign against them after the Diet authorized him to collect an extraordinary tax in mid-1461.[70] However, he did not defeat Jiskra, who even captured Késmárk
Késmárk
(now Kežmarok, Slovakia).[44] The envoys of Matthias and Emperor Frederick agreed a peace treaty on 3 April 1462.[31] According to the agreement, the Emperor was to return the Holy Crown of Hungary
Holy Crown of Hungary
for 80,000 golden florins, but his right to use the title King of Hungary
King of Hungary
along with Matthias was confirmed.[31][65] In accordance with the treaty, the Emperor adopted Matthias, which granted him the right to succeed his "son" if Matthias died without a legitimate heir.[65][71] Within a month, Jiskra yielded to Matthias.[71] He surrendered all the forts he held in Upper Hungary to the King's representatives; as compensation he received a large domain near the Tisza
Tisza
and 25,000 golden florins.[44] To pay the large amounts stipulated in his treaties with the Emperor and Jiskra, Matthias collected an extraordinary tax with the consent of the Royal Council.[72] The Diet, which assembled in mid-1462, confirmed this decision but only after 9 prelates and 19 barons promised that no extraordinary taxes would be introduced thereafter.[72] Through hiring mercenaries among Jiskra's companions, Matthias began organizing a professional army, which became known as the "Black Army" in following decades.[73] The Ottoman Sultan
Ottoman Sultan
Mehmed II
Mehmed II
invaded Wallachia
Wallachia
in early 1462.[74][64] He did not conquer the country but the Wallachian boyars dethroned the anti-Ottoman Vlad Dracula, replacing him with the Sultan's favorite, Radu the Fair.[74][75] The new Prince was willing to grant concessions to the Transylvanian Saxon merchants, who had come into bitter conflict with Vlad Dracula.[76] The latter sought assistance from Matthias and they met in Brassó (now Brașov, Romania) in November.[77] However, the Saxons presented Matthias with a letter allegedly written by Vlad Dracula
Vlad Dracula
to Sultan Mehmed, in which the Prince offered his support to the Ottomans.[74] [78] Convinced of Vlad Dracula's treachery, Matthias had him imprisoned.[74] In preparation for a war against the Ottomans, Matthias held a Diet at Tolna in March 1463.[79] Although the Estates authorized him to levy a one-florin extraordinary tax, he did not intervene when Mehmed II invaded Bosnia
Bosnia
in June.[80] In a month, the Ottomans murdered King Stephen Tomašević and conquered the whole country.[27][81] Matthias only adopted an offensive foreign policy after the terms of his peace with Emperor Frederick were ratified in Wiener Neustadt
Wiener Neustadt
on 19 July 1463.[82] He led his troops to Bosnia
Bosnia
and conquered Jajce
Jajce
and other forts in its northern parts.[83] The conquered regions were organized into a new defensive province, or banate.[83][84] Assisted by Stefan Vukčić, Duke of Saint Sava, Matthias also conquered Bosanska Krajina and granted it to the Duke, who accepted his suzerainty.[83] Queen Catherine died in early 1464 during preparations for her husband's coronation with the Holy Crown, which had been returned by Emperor Frederick.[85] The ceremony was carried out in full accordance with the customary law of Hungary on 29 March 1464; Archbishop of Esztergom Dénes Szécsi
Dénes Szécsi
ceremoniously put the Holy Crown on Matthias's head in Székesfehérvár.[85][71][86] At the Diet assembled on this occasion, the newly crowned King confirmed the liberties of the nobility.[87] Hereafter the legality of Matthias's reign could not be questioned.[86] First reforms and internal conflicts (1464–1467)[edit]

Matthias's signature and royal stamp

Matthias's golden florin depicting King Saint Ladislaus and Matthias's coat-of-arms

Matthias dismissed his Chief Chancellor Archbishop Szécsi, replacing him with Stephen Várdai, Archbishop of Kalocsa, and John Vitéz.[88] Both prelates bore the title of Chief and Secret Chancellor, but Várdai was the actual leader of the Royal Chancery.[89][90] Around the same time, Matthias united the superior courts of justice—the Court of Royal Special
Special
Presence and the Court of Personal Presence—into one supreme court.[88][91] The new supreme court diminished the authority of the traditional courts presided over by the barons and contributed to the professionalization of the administration of justice.[92] He appointed Albert Hangácsi, Bishop of Csanád as the first Chief Justice.[93][94] Sultan Mehmed II
Mehmed II
returned to Bosnia
Bosnia
and laid siege to Jajce
Jajce
in July 1464.[83][95] Matthias began assembling his troops along the river Száva, forcing the Sultan to raise the siege on 24 August.[95] Matthias and his army crossed the river and seized Srebrnica.[96] He also besieged Zvornik
Zvornik
but the arrival of a large Ottoman army forced him to withdraw to Hungary.[97] The following year, Matthias forced Stefan Vukčić, who had transferred Makarska Krajina to the Republic of Venice, to establish Hungarian garrisons in his forts along the river Neretva.[98] Dénes Szécsi
Dénes Szécsi
died in 1465 and John Vitéz became the new Archbishop of Esztergom.[99][100] Matthias replaced the two Voivodes of Transylvania—Nicholas Újlaki and John Pongrác of Dengeleg—with Counts Sigismund and John Szentgyörgyi, and Bertold Ellerbach.[101] Although Újlaki preserved his office of Ban of Macsó, the King appointed Peter Szokoli to administer the province together with the old Ban.[102] Matthias convoked the Diet to make preparations for an anti-Ottoman campaign in 1466.[102] For the same purpose, he received subsidies from Pope Paul II.[103][104] However, Matthias had realized that no substantial aid could be expected from the Christian powers and tacitly gave up his anti-Ottoman foreign policy.[105] He did not invade Ottoman territory and the Ottomans did not make major incursions into Hungary, implying that he signed a peace treaty with Mehmed II's envoy who arrived in Hungary in 1465.[106] Matthias visited Slavonia
Slavonia
and dismissed the two Bans Nicholas Újlaki and Emeric Zápolya, replacing them with Jan Vitovec and John Tuz in 1466.[101] Early the following year, he mounted a campaign in Upper Hungary against a band of Czech mercenaries who were under the command of Ján Švehla and had seized Kosztolány (now Veľké Kostoľany
Veľké Kostoľany
in Slovakia).[72][107] Matthias routed them and had Švehla and his 150 comrades hanged.[72][71] At the Diet of March 1467, two traditional taxes were renamed; the chamber's profit was thereafter collected as tax of the royal treasury and the thirtieth as the Crown's customs.[108] Because of this change, all previous tax exemptions became void, increasing state revenues.[71][109] Matthias set about centralizing the administration of royal revenues. He entrusted the administration of the Crown's customs to John Ernuszt, a converted Jewish merchant.[110] Within two years, Ernuszt was responsible for the collection of all ordinary and extraordinary taxes, and the management of the salt mines.[111] Matthias's tax reform caused a revolt in Transylvania.[112][88] The representatives of the "Three Nations" of the province—the noblemen, the Saxons and the Székelys—formed an alliance against the King in Kolozsmonostor (now Mănăștur
Mănăștur
district in Cluj-Napoca, Romania) on 18 August, stating that they were willing to fight for the freedom of Hungary.[88][102] Matthias assembled his troops immediately and hastened to the province.[113] The rebels surrendered without resistance but Matthias severely punished their leaders, many of whom were impaled, beheaded, or mercilessly tortured upon his orders.[88][114] Suspecting that Stephen the Great, Prince of Moldavia had supported the rebellion, Matthias invaded Moldavia.[88][115] However, Stephen's forces routed Matthias's at the Battle of Baia
Battle of Baia
on 15 December 1467.[88][115] Matthias suffered severe injuries, forcing him to return to Hungary.[115][116] War for the Lands of the Bohemian Crown
Lands of the Bohemian Crown
(1468–1479)[edit] Further information: Bohemian War (1468–1478) Matthias's former brother-in-law Victor of Poděbrady invaded Austria in early 1468.[117][118] Emperor Frederick appealed to Matthias for support, hinting at the possibility of Matthias's election as King of the Romans—first step towards the imperial throne.[117] Matthias declared war on Victor's father King George of Bohemia
Bohemia
on 31 March.[118] He said he also wanted to help the Czech Catholic lords against their "heretic monarch" whom the Pope had excommunicated.[119] Matthias expelled the Czech troops from Austria
Austria
and invaded Moravia and Silesia.[68][118] He took an active part in the fighting; he was injured during the siege of Třebíč
Třebíč
in May 1468 and was captured at Chrudim
Chrudim
while spying out the enemy camp in disguise in February 1469.[120] On the latter occasion, he was released because he made his prisoners believe he was a local Czech groom.[120] The Diet of 1468 authorized Matthias to levy an extraordinary tax to finance the new war, but only after 8 prelates and 13 secular lords pledged on the King's behalf that he would not demand such charges in the future.[121] Matthias also exercised royal prerogatives to increase his revenues.[121] For instance, he ordered a Palatine's eyre in a county, the cost of which were to be covered by the local inhabitants but soon authorized the county to redeem the cancellation of this irksome duty.[121] The Czech Catholics, who were led by Zdeněk of Šternberk, joined forces with Matthias in February 1469.[122] Their united troops were encircled at Vilémov by George of Poděbrady's army.[68][123] In fear of being captured, Matthias opened negotiations with his former father-in-law.[123] They met in a nearby hovel, where Matthias persuaded George of Poděbrady
George of Poděbrady
to sign an armistice promising that he would mediate a reconciliation between the moderate Hussites and the Holy See.[68][123] Their next meeting took place in Olomouc in April.[122] Here the papal legates came forward with demands including the appointment of a Catholic Archbishop to the See of Prague, which could not be accepted by George of Poděbrady.[123][122] The Czech Catholic Estates elected Matthias King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia
in Olomouc on 3 May but he was never crowned.[124][125] Moravia, Silesia
Silesia
and Lusatia
Lusatia
soon accepted his rule but Bohemia
Bohemia
proper remained faithful to George of Poděbrady.[126][127] The Estates of Bohemia
Bohemia
even acknowledged the right of Vladislaus Jagiello, the eldest son of Casimir IV of Poland, to succeed king George of Poděbrady.[126][71]

Conquests of Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus
in Central Europe

Matthias's relations with Frederick III had in the meantime deteriorated because the Emperor accused Matthias of allowing the Ottomans to march through Slavonia
Slavonia
when raiding the Emperor's realms.[127] The Frangepan
Frangepan
family, whose domains in Croatia
Croatia
were exposed to Ottoman raids, entered into negotiations with the Emperor and the Republic of Venice.[128][129] In 1469, Matthias sent an army to Croatia
Croatia
to prevent the Venetians from seizing the Adriatic coastal town Senj.[130] Matthias expelled George of Poděbrady's troops from Silesia.[126] Matthias's army was encircled and routed at Uherský Brod
Uherský Brod
on 2 November, forcing him to withdraw to Hungary.[71] Matthias soon ordered the collection of an extraordinary tax without holding a Diet, raising widespread discontent among the Hungarian Estates.[131] He visited Emperor Frederick in Vienna
Vienna
on 11 February 1470, hoping the Emperor would contribute to the costs of the war against Poděbrady.[132] Although the negotiations lasted for a month, no compromise was worked out.[132] The Emperor also refused to commit himself to promoting Matthias's election as King of the Romans.[132] After a month, Matthias left Vienna
Vienna
without taking formal leave of Frederick III.[133] Having realised the Hungarian Estates' growing dissatisfaction, Matthias held a Diet in November.[131] The Diet again authorized him to levy an extraordinary tax, stipulating that the sum of all taxes payable per porta could not exceed one florin.[131] The Estates also made it clear that they opposed the war in Bohemia.[131] George of Poděbrady died on 22 March 1471.[134] The Diet of Bohemia
Bohemia
proper elected Vladislaus Jagiello king on 27 May.[135] The papal legate Lorenzo Roverella soon declared Vladislaus's election void and confirmed Matthias's position as King of Bohemia, but the Imperial Diet refused Matthias's claim.[136][137] Matthias was staying in Moravia
Moravia
when he was informed that a group of Hungarian prelates and barons had offered the throne to Casimir, a younger son of King Casimir IV of Poland.[138] The conspiracy was initiated by Archbishop John Vitéz and his nephew Janus Pannonius, Bishop of Pécs, who opposed war against the Catholic Vladislaus Jagiellon.[139] Initially, their plan was supported by the majority of the Estates, but nobody dared to rebel against Matthias, enabling him to return to Hungary without resistance.[140] Matthias held a Diet and promised to refrain from levying taxes without the consent of the Estates and to convoke the Diet in each year.[138] His promises remedied most of the Estates' grievances and almost 50 barons and prelates confirmed their loyalty to him on 21 September.[141][142] Casimir Jagiellon invaded on 2 October 1471.[71] With Bishop Janus Pannonius's support, he seized Nyitra (now Nitra
Nitra
in Slovakia), but only two barons, John Rozgonyi and Nicholas Perényi, joined him.[142][143][144] Within five months Prince Casimir withdrew from Hungary, Bishop Janus Pannonius
Janus Pannonius
died while fleeing, and Archbishop John Vitéz was forbidden to leave his see.[142][143] Matthias appointed the Silesian Johann Beckensloer
Johann Beckensloer
to administer the Archdiocese of Esztergom.[142] Vitéz died and Beckensloer succeeded him in a year.[143] The Ottomans had meanwhile seized the Hungarian forts along the river Neratva.[145] Matthias nominated the wealthy baron Nicholas Újlaki as King of Bosnia
Bosnia
in 1471, entrusting the defence of the province to him.[143] Uzun Hassan, head of the Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
Turkmens, proposed an anti-Ottoman alliance to Matthias but he refrained from attacking the Ottoman Empire.[146] Matthias supported the Austrian noblemen who rebelled against Emperor Frederick in 1472.[147] The following year, Matthias, Casimir IV and Vladislaus entered into negotiations on the terms of a peace treaty, but the discussions lasted for months.[71][144] Matthias tried to unify the government of Silesia, which consisted of dozens of smaller duchies, through appointing a captain-general.[148] However, the Estates refused to elect his candidate Duke Frederick I of Liegnitz.[148]

Matthias's great coat-of-arms. In the middle are personal coat of arms of Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus
(Quartered: 1. Hungary's two-barred cross, 2. Árpád
Árpád
dynasty, 3. Bohemia, and 4. Hunyadi family) and that of his wife Beatrice of Naples
Beatrice of Naples
(Quartered: 1. and 4. Arpad dynasty – France ancient – Jerusalem Impaled; 2. and 3. Aragon), above them a royal crown. On the outer edge there are coat of arms of various lands, beginning from the top clockwise they are: Bohemia, Luxemburg, Lower Lusatia, Moravia, Austria, Galicia–Volhynia, Silesia, Dalmatia-Croatia, Beszterce county

Ali Bey Mihaloğlu, Bey of Smederevo, pillaged eastern parts of Hungary, destroyed Várad, and took 16,000 prisoners with him in January 1474.[149] The next month, the envoys of Matthias and Casimir IV signed a peace treaty and a three-year truce between Matthias and Vladislaus Jagiellon was also declared.[150] Within a month, however, Vladislaus entered into an alliance with Emperor Frederick and Casimir IV joined them.[150][144] Casimir IV and Vladislaus invaded Silesia and laid siege to Matthias in Breslau
Breslau
(now Wrocław
Wrocław
in Poland) in October.[144] He prevented the besiegers from accumulating provisions, forcing them to raise the siege.[151] Thereafter the Silesian Estates willingly elected Matthias's new candidate Stephen Zápolya as captain-general.[148] The Moravian Estates elected Ctibor Tovačovský as captain-general.[152] Matthias confirmed this decision, although Tovačovský had been Vladislaus Jagiellon's partisan.[152] The Ottomans invaded Wallachia
Wallachia
and Moldavia
Moldavia
at the end of 1474.[153] Matthias sent reinforcements under the command of Blaise Magyar
Blaise Magyar
to Stephen the Great.[154] Their united forces routed the invaders in the Battle of Vaslui
Battle of Vaslui
on 10 January 1475.[155] Fearing a new Ottoman invasion, the Prince of Moldavia
Prince of Moldavia
swore fealty to Matthias on 15 August.[153] Sultan Mehmed II
Mehmed II
proposed peace but Matthias refused him.[153] Instead, he stormed into Ottoman territory and captured Šabac, an important fort on the river Száva, on 15 February 1476.[156][157] During the siege, Matthias barely escaped capture while he was watching the fortress from a boat.[158] For unknown reasons, Archbishop Johann Beckensloer
Johann Beckensloer
left Hungary, taking the treasury of the Esztergom See with him in early 1476.[151][159] He fled to Vienna
Vienna
and offered his funds to the Emperor.[160] Matthias accused the Emperor of having incited the Archbishop against him.[160] Mehmed II
Mehmed II
launched a campaign against Moldavia
Moldavia
in the summer of 1476.[155] Although he won the Battle of Valea Albă
Battle of Valea Albă
on 26 July, the lack of provisions forced him to retreat.[161] Matthias sent auxiliary troops to Moldavia
Moldavia
under the command of Vlad Dracula—whom he had released—and Stephen Báthory [157][162] The allied forces defeated an Ottoman army at the Siret River
Siret River
in August.[163] With Hungarian and Moldavian support, Vlad Dracula
Vlad Dracula
was reinstalled as Prince of Wallachia but he was killed fighting against his opponent Basarab Laiotă.[164][165] Matthias's bride Beatrice of Naples
Beatrice of Naples
arrived in Hungary in late 1476.[166] Matthias married her in Buda
Buda
on 22 December that year.[166] The new Queen soon established a rigid etiquette, making direct contacts between the King and his subjects more difficult.[167] According to Bonfini, Matthias also "improved his board and manner of life, introduced sumptuous banquets, disdaining humility at home and beautified the dining rooms" after his marriage.[168] According to a contemporaneous record, around that time Matthias's revenues amounted about 500,000 florins, half of which derived from the tax of the royal treasury and the extraordinary tax.[169] Matthias concluded an alliance with the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
and the Bishopric of Ermland
Bishopric of Ermland
against Poland in March 1477.[151] However, instead of Poland, he declared war on Emperor Frederick after he learnt that the Emperor had confirmed Vladislaus Jagiellon's position as King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia
and Prince-elector.[151][170] Matthias invaded Lower Austria
Austria
and imposed a blockade on Vienna.[171] Vladislaus Jagiellon denied to support the Emperor, forcing him to seek reconciliation with Matthias.[171] With the mediation of Pope Sixtus IV, Venice, and Ferdinand I of Naples, Matthias concluded a peace treaty with Frederick III, which was signed on 1 December.[171][172] The Emperor promised to confirm Matthias as the lawful ruler of Bohemia
Bohemia
and to pay him an indemnity of 100,000 florins.[170][171][173] They met in Korneuburg
Korneuburg
where Frederick III installed Matthias as King of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Matthias swore loyalty to the Emperor.[174] Negotiations between the envoys of Matthias and Vladislaus Jagiellon accelerated during the next few months.[175] The first draft of a treaty was agreed upon on 28 March 1478, and the text was completed by the end of 1477.[107] The treaty authorized both monarchs to use the title of King of Bohemia—although Vladislaus could omit to style Matthias as such in their correspondence—and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown were divided between them; Vladislaus ruled in Bohemia proper and Matthias in Moravia, Silesia
Silesia
and Lusatia.[151][136] They solemnly ratified the peace treaty at their meeting in Olomouc on 21 July.[107] War for Austria
Austria
(1479–1487)[edit] Further information: Austrian-Hungarian War (1477–88), Siege of Vienna
Vienna
(1485), and Siege of Wiener Neustadt

Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of Matthias Corvinus, guarded by Black Army heavy infantry. Matthias Church, Budapest. The damaged art relic was renovated in 1893.

Emperor Frederick only paid off half of the indemnity due to Matthias according to their treaty of 1477.[174][176] Matthias concluded a treaty with the Swiss Confederacy on 26 March 1479, hindering the recruitment of Swiss mercenaries by the Emperor.[174] He also entered into an alliance with Archbishop of Salzburg
Archbishop of Salzburg
Bernhard II of Rohr, who allowed him to take possession of the fortresses of the Archbishopric in Carinthia, Carniola
Carniola
and Styria.[170][177][178] An Ottoman army supported by Basarab Țepeluș of Wallachia
Wallachia
invaded Transylvania
Transylvania
and set fire to Szászváros (now Orăștie
Orăștie
in Romania) in late 1479.[179][154] Stephen Báthory and Paul Kinizsi
Paul Kinizsi
annihilated the marauders in the Battle of Breadfield
Battle of Breadfield
on 13 October.[154][180] Matthias united the command of all forts along the Danube to the west of Belgrade
Belgrade
in the hand of Paul Kinizsi
Paul Kinizsi
to improve the defence of the southern frontier.[73] Matthias sent reinforcements to Stephen the Great, who invaded pro-Ottoman Wallachia
Wallachia
in early 1480; Matthias launched a campaign as far as Sarajevo
Sarajevo
in Bosnia
Bosnia
in November.[181][154] He set up five defensive provinces, or banates, centred around the forts of Szörényvár
Szörényvár
(now Drobeta-Turnu Severin in Romania), Belgrade, Šabac, Srebrenik and Jajce.[73] The next year, Matthias initiated a criminal case against the Frankapans, the Zrinskis and other leading Croatian and Slavonian magnates for their alleged participation in the 1471 conspiracy.[130] Most barons were pardoned as soon as they consented to the introduction of a new land tax.[130] In 1481, for a loan of 100,000 florins, Matthias seized the town of Mautern in Styria
Styria
and Sankt Pölten
Sankt Pölten
in Lower Austria
Austria
from Friedrich Mauerkircher, one of the two candidates to the Bishopric of Passau.[178] Sultan Mehmed II
Mehmed II
died on 3 May 1481.[182] A civil war ensued in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
between his sons Bayezid II
Bayezid II
and Cem.[183] Defeated, Cem fled to Rhodes, where the Knights Hospitaller
Knights Hospitaller
kept him in custody.[183] Matthias claimed Cem's custody in the hope of using him to gain concessions from Bayezid, but Venice and Pope Innocent VIII strongly opposed this plan.[183] In late 1481, Hungarian auxiliary troops supported Matthias's father-in-law Ferdinand I of Naples
Ferdinand I of Naples
to reoccupy Otranto, which had been lost to the Ottomans the year before.[184] Although the "Black Army" had already laid siege to Hainburg an der Donau in January 1482, Matthias officially declared a new war on Emperor Frederick three months later.[170] He directed the siege in person from the end of June and the town fell to him in October.[185] In the next three months, Matthias also captured Sankt Veit an der Glan, Enzersdorf an der Fischa, and Kőszeg.[185] The papal legate, Bartolomeo Maraschi tried to mediate a peace treaty between Matthias and the Emperor, but Matthias refused.[185] Instead, he signed a five-year truce with Sultan Bayezid.[184] Matthias's marriage to Beatrice of Naples
Beatrice of Naples
did not produce sons; he tried to strengthen the position of his illegitimate son John Corvinus.[186] The child received Sáros Castle and inherited the extensive domains of his grandmother Elizabeth Szilágyi with his father's consent.[186] Matthias also forced Victor of Poděbrady to renounce the Duchy of Troppau
Duchy of Troppau
in Silesia
Silesia
in favour of John Corvinus
John Corvinus
in 1485.[187] Queen Beatrice opposed Matthias's favouritism towards his son.[187] Even so, Matthias nominated her eight-year-old nephew Ippolito d'Este
Ippolito d'Este
Archbishop of Esztergom.[188] The Pope refused to confirm the child's appointment for years.[189] The "Black Army" encircled Vienna
Vienna
in January 1485.[190] The siege lasted for five months and ended with the triumphal entry of Matthias, at the head of 8,000 veterans, into Vienna
Vienna
on 1 June.[190] The King soon moved the royal court to the newly conquered town.[107] He summoned the Estates of Lower Austria
Austria
to Vienna
Vienna
and forced them to swear loyalty to him.[191]

Matthias, by the grace of God, king of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Rama, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Cumania, and Bulgaria, Duke of Silesia
Silesia
and Luxemburg and Margrave of Moravia
Moravia
and Lusatia, for the everlasting memory of the matter. It is fitting that kings and princes who by heavenly decree are placed at the summit of the highest office, be adorned not only by arms but also by laws and that the people subjected to them, as well as the reins of authority, are restrained by the strength of good and stable institutions rather than by the harshness of absolute power and reprehensible abuse.

Preamble to the Decretum Maius[192]

Upon the monarch's initiative, the Diet of 1485 passed the so-called Decretum maius, a systematic law-code which replaced many previous contradictory decrees.[193][194] The law-code introduced substantial reforms in the administration of justice; the Palatine's eyre and the extraordinary county assemblies were abolished, which strengthened the position of the county courts.[193] Matthias also decreed that in cases of the monarch's absence or minority, the Palatine was authorized to rule as Regent.[193] Emperor Frederick persuaded six of the seven Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
to proclaim his son Maximilian King of the Romans
King of the Romans
on 16 February 1486.[195] The Emperor, however, had failed to invite the King of Bohemia—either Matthias or Vladislaus Jagiellon—to the assembly.[195][175] In an attempt to prevail on Vladislaus to protest, Matthias invited him to a personal meeting.[175][196] Although they formed an alliance in Jihlava
Jihlava
in September, the Estates of Bohemia refused to confirm it and Vladislaus recognized Maximilian's election.[196] In the meantime Matthias continued his war against the Emperor.[197] The "Black Army" seized several towns in Lower Austria, including Laa an der Thaya, and Stein in 1485 and 1486.[197] He set up his chancery for Lower Austria
Austria
in 1486 but he never introduced a separate seal for this realm.[191] Matthias assumed the title of Duke of Austria
Duke of Austria
at the Diet of the Lower Austrian Estates in Ebenfurth
Ebenfurth
in 1487.[198] He appointed Stephen Zápolya captain-general, Urban Nagylucsei administrator of the Archdiocese of Vienna, and entrusted the defence of the occupied towns and forts to Hungarian and Bohemian captains, but otherwise continued to employ Emperor Frederick's officials who accepted his rule.[198][199] Wiener Neustadt, the last town resisting Matthias in Lower Austria, fell to him on 17 August 1487.[170][197] He started negotiations with Duke Albert III of Saxony, who arrived at the head of the imperial army to fight for Emperor Frederick III.[197] They signed a six-month armistice in Sankt Pölten
Sankt Pölten
on 16 December, which ended the war.[197][200] Last years (1487–1490)[edit]

Europe at the end of the reign of King Matthias

According to the contemporaneous Philippe de Commines, Matthias's subjects feared their King in the last years of his life because he rarely showed mercy towards those he suspected of treachery.[201] He had Archbishop Peter Váradi imprisoned in 1484 and ordered the execution of his Chancellor of Bohemia
Bohemia
Jaroslav Boskovic in 1485.[202][203] He also imprisoned Nicholas Bánfi, a member of a magnate family, in 1487, although he had earlier avoided punishing the old aristocracy.[204] Bánfi's imprisonment seems to have been connected to his marriage to a daughter of John the Mad, Duke of Glogau because Matthias tried to seize this duchy for John Corvinus.[204] John the Mad entered into an alliance with the Duke of Münsterberg Henry of Poděbrady, and declared a war on Matthias on 9 May.[205][206] Six month later, the Black Army invaded and occupied his duchy.[205] In the meantime, the citizens of Ancona, a town in the Papal States, hoisted Matthias's flag in the hope he would protect them against Venice.[207] Pope Innocent VIII
Pope Innocent VIII
soon protested, but Matthias refused to reject the overture, stating that the link between him and the town would never harm the interests of the Holy See.[207] He also sent an auxiliary troop to his father-in-law, who was waging a war against the Holy See
Holy See
and Venice.[208] The 1482 truce between Hungary and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was prolonged for two years in 1488.[209][205] On this occasion, it was stipulated that the Ottomans were to refrain from invading Wallachia
Wallachia
and Moldavia.[209] The following year, Matthias granted two domains to Stephen the Great
Stephen the Great
of Moldavia
Moldavia
in Transylvania.[179] Matthias, who suffered from gout, could not walk and was carried in a litter after March 1489.[210][211] Hereafter, his succession caused bitter conflicts between Queen Beatrice and John Corvinus.[211] Matthias asked Beatrice's brother Alfonso, Duke of Calabria, to persuade her not to strive for the Crown, stating that the "Hungarian people are capable of killing up unto the last man rather than submit to the government of a woman".[212][213] To strengthen his illegitimate son's position, Matthias even proposed withdrawing from Austria
Austria
and to confirm Emperor Frederick's right to succeede him, provided the Emperor was willing to grant Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia
Bosnia
to John Corvinus with the title of King.[214][213] Matthias participated in the lengthy Palm Sunday
Palm Sunday
ceremony in Vienna
Vienna
in 1490, although he had felt so ill that morning that he could not eat breakfast.[210][215] Around noon, he tasted a fig that proved to be rotten and he became very agitated and suddenly felt faint.[216] The next day he was unable to speak.[216] After two days of suffering, Matthias died in the morning of 6 April.[216][215] According to Professor Frigyes Korányi, Matthias died of a stroke; Dr. Herwig Egert does not exclude the possibility of poisoning.[216] Matthias's funeral was held in St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna
Vienna
and he was buried in Székesfehérvár
Székesfehérvár
Cathedral on 24 or 25 April 1490.[217][218] Patronage[edit] Renaissance
Renaissance
king[edit]

Matthias's illegitimate son, John Corvinus
John Corvinus
triumphed in Vienna
Vienna
in 1485

Matthias was the first non-Italian monarch promoting the spread of Renaissance
Renaissance
style in his realm.[5][6] His marriage to Beatrice of Naples strengthened the influence of contemporaneous Italian art and scholarship,[219] and it was under his reign that Hungary became the first land outside Italy to embrace the Renaissance.[220] The earliest appearance of Renaissance
Renaissance
style buildings and works outside Italy was in Hungary.[221][222] The Italian scholar Marsilio Ficino
Marsilio Ficino
introduced Matthias to Plato's ideas of a philosopher-king uniting wisdom and strength in himself, which fascinated Matthias.[223] Matthias is the main character in Aurelio Lippo Brandolini's Republics and Kingdoms Compared, a dialogue on the comparison of the two forms of government.[224][225] According to Brandolini, Matthias said a monarch "is at the head of the law and rules over it" when summing up his own concepts of state.[225] Matthias also cultivated traditional art.[226] Hungarian epic poems and lyric songs were often sung at his court.[226] He was proud of his role as the defender of Roman Catholicism against the Ottomans and the Hussites.[227] He initiated theological debates, for instance on the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, and surpassed both the Pope and his legate "with regard to religious observance", according to the latter.[228] Matthias issued coins in the 1460s bearing an image of the Virgin Mary, demonstrating his special devotion to her cult.[229] Upon Matthias's initiative, Archbishop John Vitéz and Bishop Janus Pannonius persuaded Pope Paul II
Pope Paul II
to authorize them to set up a university in Pressburg
Pressburg
(now Bratislava
Bratislava
in Slovakia) on 29 May 1465.[230][71] The Academia Istropolitana
Academia Istropolitana
was closed shortly after the Archbishop's death.[231][232] Matthias was contemplating establishing a new university in Buda
Buda
but this plan was not accomplished.[231] Building projects[edit] Further information: Buda Castle
Buda Castle
and Visegrád Matthias started at least two major building projects.[233] The works in Buda
Buda
and Visegrád
Visegrád
began in about 1479.[234] Two new wings and a hanging garden were built at the royal castle of Buda, and the palace at Visegrád
Visegrád
was rebuilt in Renaissance
Renaissance
style.[234][235] Matthias appointed the Italian Chimenti Camicia and the Dalmatian Giovanni Dalmata to direct these projects.[234] Matthias commissioned the leading Italian artists of his age to embellish his palaces: for instance, the sculptor Benedetto da Majano and the painters Filippino Lippi
Filippino Lippi
and Andrea Mantegna
Andrea Mantegna
worked for him.[236] A copy of Mantegna's portrait of Matthias survived.[237] Matthias also hired the Italian military engineer Aristotele Fioravanti to direct the rebuilding of the forts along the southern frontier.[238] He had new monasteries built in Late Gothic style for the Franciscans
Franciscans
in Kolozsvár, Szeged
Szeged
and Hunyad, and for the Paulines in Fejéregyháza.[227][239] Royal library[edit] Main article: Bibliotheca Corviniana

The Royal Palace in Buda, engraving from the 1480s

The Renaissance
Renaissance
palaces of the summer residence at Visegrád, engraving from the 1480s

Matthias started the systematic collection of books after the arrival of his first librarian, Galeotto Marzio, a friend of Janus Pannonius from Ferrara
Ferrara
in around 1465.[240][241] The exchange of letters between Taddeo Ugoleto, who succeeded Marzio in 1471, and Francesco Bandini contributed to the development of the royal library because the latter regularly informed his friend of new manuscripts.[240] Matthias also employed scriptors, illuminators, and book-binders.[242] Although the exact number of his books is unknown, his Bibliotheca Corviniana
Bibliotheca Corviniana
was one of Europe's largest collections of books when he died.[243] According to Marcus Tanne, the surviving 216 volumes of the King's library "show that Matthias had the literary tastes of a classic 'alpha male' ", who preferred secular books to devotional works. For instance, a Latin translation of Xenophon's biography of Cyrus the Great, Quintus Curtius Rufus's book of Alexander the Great, and a military treatise by the contemporaneous Roberto Valturio
Roberto Valturio
survived. Matthias enjoyed reading, as demonstrated by a letter in which he thanked the Italian scholar Pomponio Leto
Pomponio Leto
who had sent him Silius Italicus's work of the Second Punic War.[244] Patron of scholars[edit] Matthias enjoyed the company of Humanists and had lively discussions on various topics with them.[245] The fame of his magnanimity encouraged many scholars—mostly Italian—to settle in Buda.[219] Antonio Bonfini, Pietro Ranzano, Bartolomeo Fonzio, and Francesco Bandini spent many years in Matthias's court.[246][245] This circle of educated men introduced the ideas of Neo-Platonism
Neo-Platonism
to Hungary.[247][248] Like all intellectuals of his age, Matthias was convinced that the movements and combinations of the stars and planets exercised influence on individuals' life and on the history of nations.[249] Galeotto Marzio described him as "king and astrologer", and Antonio Bonfini said Matthias "never did anything without consulting the stars".[250] Upon his request, the famous astronomers of the age, Johannes Regiomontanus
Johannes Regiomontanus
and Marcin Bylica, set up an observatory in Buda
Buda
and installed it with astrolabes and celestial globes.[228] Regiomontanus dedicated his book on navigation that was used by Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
to Matthias.[219] The King appointed Bylica as his advisor in 1468.[251] According to Scott E. Hendrix, "establishing a prominent astrologer as his political advisor provided an anxiety-reduction mechanism that boosted morale for the political elites within his realm while strengthening his sense of control in the face of the multiple adversities the Hungarians faced" in his reign.[252] Family[edit]

Ancestors of Matthias Corvinus[253][254][255]

16. Costea (?)

8. Serbe

4. Voyk
Voyk
Hunyadi

2. John Hunyadi

1. Matthias Corvinus

24. Roland Szilágyi

12. Nicholas Szilágyi

6. Ladislaus Szilágyi

3. Elisabeth Szilágyi

28. Michael Bellyéni

14. Stephen Bellyéni

7. Catherina Bellyéni

Matthias's first wife Elizabeth of Celje was a child when their marriage took place in 1455.[11] She died in September before the marriage was consummated.[11][256] His second wife Catherine of Poděbrady was born in 1449.[257] She died in childbirth in January or February 1464.[257][57] The child did not survive.[57] Matthias approached Emperor Frederick to suggest a new bride for him among Frederick's relatives.[85] Frederick II, Elector of Brandenburg proposed one of his daughters to Matthias but the Hungarian Estates opposed this plan.[85] In an attempt to enter into an alliance with King Casimir IV of Poland, Matthias proposed to the King's daughter Hedvig but he was refused.[258][259] During the 1470 meeting of Emperor Frederick and Matthias, a marriage between Matthias and the Emperor's five-year-old daughter Kunigunde of Austria
Austria
was also discussed, but the Emperor was not willing to commit himself to the marriage.[260] Matthias's third wife Beatrice of Naples
Beatrice of Naples
was born in 1457.[261] Their engagement was announced in Breslau
Breslau
on 30 October 1474, during the siege of the town by Casimir IV and Vladislaus Jagiellon.[262] Her dowry amounted to 200,000 gold pieces.[263] Beatrice survived her husband and returned to Naples where she died in 1508.[264] Matthias's only known child John Corvinus
John Corvinus
was born out of wedlock in 1473.[265][266] His mother Barbara Edelpöck—the daughter of a citizen of Stein in Lower Austria—met the King in early 1470.[265] John Corvinus
John Corvinus
died on 12 October 1504.[257] Legacy[edit]

Matthias Corvinus Monument
Matthias Corvinus Monument
in front of St. Michael's Church (Cluj-Napoca)

According to Marcus Tanner, Matthias ruled "a European superpower" at the end of his reign.[267] His conquests, however, were lost within months of his death.[268] The burghers of Breslau
Breslau
soon murdered his captain Heinz Dompnig.[191] The Emperor's rule in Vienna
Vienna
and Wiener Neustadt was restored without resistance.[269] Stephen Zápolya said the King's death relieved "Hungary of the trouble and oppression from which it had suffered so far".[270] Royal authority quickly diminished because various claimants—John Corvinus, Maximilian of the Romans, Vladislaus Jagiellon, and the latter's younger brother, John Albert—were fighting for the crown.[271][272] Vladislaus Jagiellon triumphed because the barons regarded him as a weak ruler and he gained the support of Matthias's wealthy widow by promising to marry her.[271][270] Vladislaus was elected king after he promised he would abolish all "harmful innovations" introduced by Matthias, especially the extraordinary tax.[273] Vladislaus could not finance the maintenance of the Black Army and the unpaid mercenaries began plundering the countryside.[271] A royal force led by Paul Kinizsi
Paul Kinizsi
eliminated them on the river Száva in 1492.[271][274] The burden of Matthias's wars and splendid royal court mainly fell on the peasants, who paid at least 85% of the taxes.[275][276] The Chronicle of Dubnic, written in eastern Hungary in 1479, says "widows and orphans" cursed the King for the high taxes.[277] However, stories about "Matthias the Just", who wandered in disguise throughout his realm to deliver justice to his subjects, seem to have spread during Matthias's reign.[278] The saying "Dead is Matthias, lost is justice" became popular soon after his death, reflecting that commoners were more likely to have received a fair trial in Matthias's reign than under his successors.[194][279] Matthias is also the subject of popular folk tales in Croatia, Hungary, Serbia, and Slovenia.[280] For instance, the philandering King Matjaž
King Matjaž
is one of the sleeping kings of Slovenian folklore.[281][280] Gallery[edit]

Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus
depicted in Johannes de Thurocz's Chronica Hungarorum

Matthias as young monarch (after a contemporary miniature from the Corviniana collection of the British Museum)

The roughly 50-year-old Matthias in the style of Constantine the Great (contemporary sculpture from Buda
Buda
Castle)

Notes[edit]

^ a b c Kubinyi 2008, p. 23. ^ Mureşanu 2001, p. 49. ^ Tanner 2009, pp. 27–28. ^ a b c Kubinyi 2008, p. 24. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 161. ^ a b Klaniczay 1992, p. 165. ^ Tanner 2009, p. 28. ^ Tanner 2009, p. 28, 86. ^ Mureşanu 2001, p. 174. ^ Engel 2001, p. 292. ^ a b c d e f Kubinyi 2008, p. 25. ^ Engel 2001, pp. 290–292. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 25–26. ^ Engel 2001, pp. 280, 296. ^ Engel 2001, p. 296. ^ Fine 1994, p. 569. ^ a b c d Cartledge 2011, p. 61. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 26. ^ a b c d e Engel 2001, p. 297. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 27. ^ Tanner 2009, p. 49. ^ a b Tanner 2009, p. 50. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 28. ^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 30. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 30. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 29. ^ a b Magaš 2007, p. 75. ^ a b c d e f g Engel 2001, p. 298. ^ a b c d e Kubinyi 2008, p. 31. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 31–32. ^ a b c d e f g h i Bartl et al. 2002, p. 51. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 54. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 53–54. ^ a b c d Engel 2001, p. 299. ^ a b c d e Kubinyi 2008, p. 57. ^ Engel 2001, p. 300. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 55. ^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 32. ^ Engel 2001, pp. 282, 299. ^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 33. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 56. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 57–58. ^ Fine 1994, p. 573. ^ a b c Kubinyi 2008, p. 58. ^ a b c d Engel 2001, p. 315. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 60. ^ Bak et al. 1996, p. 7. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 125–126. ^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 51. ^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 49. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 61. ^ Markó 2006, p. 244. ^ Engel 2001, pp. 311–313. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 122, 181. ^ Engel 2001, pp. 311–312. ^ Tanner 2009, p. 63. ^ a b c d e Kubinyi 2008, p. 67. ^ Engel 2001, pp. 310–311. ^ a b c Fine 1994, p. 574. ^ a b c d e f Kubinyi 2008, p. 65. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 63, 65. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 63. ^ Fine 1994, p. 575. ^ a b Engel 2001, p. 301. ^ a b c Cartledge 2011, p. 62. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 69. ^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 37. ^ a b c d Šmahel 2011, p. 167. ^ Engel 2001, p. 303. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 58, 68–69. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bartl et al. 2002, p. 52. ^ a b c d Kubinyi 2008, p. 59. ^ a b c Engel 2001, p. 309. ^ a b c d Pop 2005, p. 264. ^ Florescu & McNally 1989, pp. 150–152. ^ Florescu & McNally 1989, p. 157. ^ Florescu & McNally 1989, p. 156. ^ Babinger 1978, p. 208. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 68. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 68–69, 71. ^ Fine 1994, pp. 584–585. ^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 39. ^ a b c d Fine 1994, p. 586. ^ Babinger 1978, p. 229. ^ a b c d E. Kovács 1990, p. 161. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 73. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 302. ^ a b c d e f g Engel 2001, p. 302. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 74. ^ Kubinyi 2004, p. 29. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 75–76. ^ Bak 1994, p. 73. ^ Kubinyi 2004, p. 32. ^ Bónis 1971, p. vi. ^ a b Babinger 1978, p. 231. ^ Babinger 1978, pp. 231–232. ^ Babinger 1978, p. 232. ^ Fine 1994, pp. 586–587. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 80. ^ Engel 2001, p. 449. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 81. ^ a b c Kubinyi 2008, p. 82. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 81–82. ^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 135. ^ Magaš 2007, p. 76. ^ Engel 2001, p. 307. ^ a b c d Bartl et al. 2002, p. 53. ^ Engel 2001, p. 310. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 77–78. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 76. ^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 61. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 78, 82. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 82–83. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 83. ^ a b c Pop 2005, p. 266. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 84. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 85. ^ a b c Engel 2001, p. 304. ^ E. Kovács 1990, pp. 100, 103. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 86. ^ a b c Kubinyi 2008, p. 88. ^ a b c E. Kovács 1990, p. 103. ^ a b c d Tanner 2009, p. 65. ^ Šmahel 2011, pp. 167–168. ^ Tanner 2009, p. 66. ^ a b c E. Kovács 1990, p. 104. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 87. ^ Magaš 2007, pp. 76–77. ^ Fine 1994, p. 590. ^ a b c Magaš 2007, p. 77. ^ a b c d Kubinyi 2008, p. 90. ^ a b c Kubinyi 2008, p. 89. ^ Tanner 2009, p. 79. ^ Šmahel 2011, p. 168. ^ Boubín 2011, pp. 173–174. ^ a b Boubín 2011, p. 174. ^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 108. ^ a b Tanner 2009, p. 70. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 91–92. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 92. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 92–93. ^ a b c d E. Kovács 1990, p. 158. ^ a b c d Kubinyi 2008, p. 93. ^ a b c d Engel 2001, p. 305. ^ Fine 1994, p. 588. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 108. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 95–96. ^ a b c Kubinyi 2008, p. 101. ^ Engel 2001, pp. 307–308. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 96. ^ a b c d e Kubinyi 2008, p. 97. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 100. ^ a b c Kubinyi 2008, p. 109. ^ a b c d Engel 2001, p. 308. ^ a b Pop 2005, p. 267. ^ Babinger 1978, p. 325. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 110. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 176. ^ Engel 2001, pp. 305–306. ^ a b Tanner 2009, p. 92. ^ Babinger 1978, pp. 351–352. ^ Florescu & McNally 1989, pp. 170–171. ^ Florescu & McNally 1989, p. 171. ^ Florescu & McNally 1989, pp. 171–175. ^ Pop 2005, pp. 264–265. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 136. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 137. ^ Tanner 2009, p. 108. ^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 67. ^ a b c d e Engel 2001, p. 306. ^ a b c d Kubinyi 2008, p. 98. ^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 118. ^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 119. ^ a b c E. Kovács 1990, p. 120. ^ a b c E. Kovács 1990, p. 109. ^ Cartledge 2011, p. 65. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 99. ^ a b E. Kovács 1990, p. 122. ^ a b Dörner 2005, p. 318. ^ Babinger 1978, pp. 374–376. ^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 142. ^ Babinger 1978, p. 404. ^ a b c E. Kovács 1990, p. 143. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 112. ^ a b c E. Kovács 1990, p. 125. ^ a b Engel 2001, p. 317. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 143. ^ Engel 2001, p. 313. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 138. ^ a b E. Kovács 1990, p. 127. ^ a b c Kubinyi 2008, p. 102. ^ Bak et al. 1996, p. 41. ^ a b c Engel 2001, p. 316. ^ a b Bak 1994, p. 74. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 146. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 147. ^ a b c d e E. Kovács 1990, p. 128. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 103. ^ Markó 2006, p. 242. ^ Bartl et al. 2002, p. 54. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 132. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 121, 132. ^ Teke 1981, p. 310. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 122. ^ a b c Teke 1981, p. 315. ^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 110. ^ a b E. Kovács 1990, p. 149. ^ Teke 1981, p. 314. ^ a b E. Kovács 1990, pp. 144–145. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 149. ^ a b Tanner 2009, p. 138. ^ Tanner 2009, p. 137. ^ a b Teke 1981, p. 316. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 148. ^ a b E. Kovács 1990, p. 187. ^ a b c d Kubinyi 2008, p. 150. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 150–151. ^ Teke 1981, p. 317. ^ a b c Cartledge 2011, p. 67. ^ Waldman & Farbaky 2011, p. Abstract. ^ Johnson 2007, p. 175. ^ Kaufmann 1995, p. 30. ^ Cacioppe 2007. ^ Rubinstein 1991, p. 35. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 164. ^ a b Klaniczay 1992, p. 173. ^ a b Klaniczay 1992, p. 168. ^ a b Tanner 2009, p. 99. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 184. ^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 182. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 169. ^ Bak 1994, p. 75. ^ E. Kovács 1990, pp. 177, 180–181. ^ a b c Engel 2001, p. 319. ^ E. Kovács 1990, pp. 180–181. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 171–172. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 172. ^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 181. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 183. ^ a b E. Kovács 1990, pp. 183–184. ^ Tanner 2009, p. 52. ^ Klaniczay 1992, pp. 166–167. ^ Tanner 2009, pp. 8–10. ^ Tanner 2009, p. 7. ^ a b Klaniczay 1992, p. 166. ^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 185. ^ Klaniczay 1992, p. 167. ^ Engel 2001, p. 321. ^ Hendrix 2013, p. 59. ^ Hendrix 2013, pp. 63, 65. ^ Hendrix 2013, p. 57. ^ Hendrix 2013, p. 58. ^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 13. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 203–204. ^ Mureşanu 2001, pp. 43–44. ^ Tanner 2009, p. 48. ^ a b c E. Kovács 1990, p. 26. ^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 105. ^ Teke 1981, p. 290. ^ Tanner 2009, p. 78. ^ Tanner 2009, p. 80. ^ Teke 1981, p. 296. ^ Tanner 2009, p. 88. ^ Tanner 2009, p. 150. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 134. ^ Tanner 2009, p. 94. ^ Tanner 2009, p. xi. ^ Tanner 2009, p. xv. ^ Tanner 2009, pp. 151–152. ^ a b Engel 2001, p. 345. ^ a b c d Cartledge 2011, p. 69. ^ Engel 2001, p. 344. ^ Bak 1994, p. 76. ^ Teke 1981, p. 321. ^ Cartledge 2011, pp. 66–67. ^ Bak 1994, p. 71. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 166. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 174–175. ^ Cartledge 2011, p. 63. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 177. ^ Lukács 2010, pp. 371–379.

Sources[edit]

Babinger, Franz (1978). Mehmed the Conqueror and His Time. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09900-6.  Bak, János (1994). "The Late Medieval period (1382–1526)". In Sugar, Peter F.; Hanák, Péter; Frank, Tibor. A History of Hungary. Indiana University Press. pp. 54–82. ISBN 0-253-20867-X.  Bak, János M.; Domonkos, Leslie S.; Harvey, Paul B.; Garay, Kathleen (1996). The Laws of the Medieval Kingdom of Hungary, 1458–1490 (The Laws of Hungary, Series I: Volume3). Charles Schlacks, Jr. ISBN 1-884445-26-8.  Bartl, Július; Čičaj, Viliam; Kohútova, Mária; Letz, Róbert; Segeš, Vladimír; Škvarna, Dušan (2002). Slovak History: Chronology & Lexicon. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Slovenské Pedegogické Nakladatel'stvo. ISBN 0-86516-444-4.  Bónis, György (1971). A jogtudó értelmiség a Mohács előtti Magyarországon [Hungarian intelligentsia having legal expertise in the period before the battle of Mohács] (in Hungarian). Akadémiai Kiadó.  Boubín, Jaroslav (2011). "The Bohemian Crownlands under the Jagiellons (1471–1526)". In Pánek, Jaroslav; Tůma, Oldřich. A History of the Czech Lands. Charles University in Prague. pp. 173–187. ISBN 978-80-246-1645-2.  Cacioppe, Ron (2007). "Marsilio Ficino: Magnus of the Renaissance, Shaper of Leaders". Integral Leadership Review. Integral Publishers. 7 (2). ISSN 1554-0790.  Cartledge, Bryan (2011). The Will to Survive: A History of Hungary. C. Hurst & Co. ISBN 978-1-84904-112-6.  Dörner, Anton E. (2005). " Transylvania
Transylvania
between stability and crisis (1457–1541)". In Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Nägler, Thomas. The History of Transylvania, Vol. I. (until 1541). Romanian Cultural Institute. pp. 299–348. ISBN 973-7784-04-9.  E. Kovács, Péter (1990). Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus
(in Hungarian). Officina Nova. ISBN 963-7835-49-0.  Engel, Pál (2001). The Realm of St Stephen: A History of Medieval Hungary, 895–1526. I.B. Tauris Publishers. ISBN 1-86064-061-3.  Fine, John V. A (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. The University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08260-4.  Florescu, Radu R.; McNally, Raymond T. (1989). Dracula Prince of Many Faces: His Life and His Ties. Back Bay Books. ISBN 978-0-316-28656-5.  Hendrix, Scott E. (2013). "Astrological forecasting and the Turkish menace in the Renaissance
Renaissance
Balkans" (PDF). Anthropology. Universitatis Miskolciensis. 13 (2): 57–72. ISSN 1452-7243.  Johnson, Paul (2007). The Renaissance: A Short History. Random House. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-307-43255-1.  Kaufmann, Thomas DeCosta (1995). Court, Cloister, and City: The Art and Culture of Central Europe, 1450–1800. University of Chicago Press. p. 30. ISBN 0-226-42729-3.  Klaniczay, Tibor (1992). "The age of Matthias Corvinus". In Porter, Roy; Teich, Mikuláš. The Renaissance
Renaissance
in National Context. Cambridge University Press. pp. 164–179. ISBN 0-521-36970-3.  Kubinyi, András (2004). "Adatok a Mátyás-kori királyi kancellária és az 1464. évi kancelláriai reform történetéhez [On the history of the Royal Chancellery in the reign of Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus
and of the 1464 reform of the chancellery]" (PDF). Publicationes Universitatis Miskolciensis. Sectio Philosophica (in Hungarian). Universitatis Miskolciensis. IX (1): 25–58. ISSN 1219-543X.  Kubinyi, András (2008). Matthias Rex. Balassi Kiadó. ISBN 978-963-506-767-1.  Lukács, István (2010). "King Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus
in the Collective Memory of the Slovenian Nation". Studia Slavica 55 (2). Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 371–379.  Magaš, Branka (2007). Croatia
Croatia
Through History. SAQI. ISBN 978-0-86356-775-9.  Markó, László (2006). A magyar állam főméltóságai Szent Istvántól napjainkig: Életrajzi Lexikon [Great Officers of State in Hungary from King Saint Stephen to Our Days: A Biographical Encyclopedia] (in Hungarian). Helikon Kiadó. ISBN 963-547-085-1.  Mureşanu, Camil (2001). John Hunyadi: Defender of Christendom. The Center for Romanian Studies. ISBN 973-9432-18-2.  Pop, Ioan-Aurel (2005). "The Romanians in the 14th–16th centuries from the "Christian Republic" to the "Restoration of Dacia"". In Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Bolovan, Ioan. History of Romania: Compendium. Romanian Cultural Institute (Center for Transylvanian Studies). pp. 209–314. ISBN 978-973-7784-12-4.  Rubinstein, Nicolai (1991). "Italian political thought, 1450–1530". In Burns, J. H.; Goldie, Mark. The Cambridge History of Political Thought, 1450–1700. Cambridge University Press. pp. 30–65. ISBN 0-521-24716-0.  Šmahel, František (2011). "The Hussite
Hussite
Revolution (1419–1471)". In Pánek, Jaroslav; Tůma, Oldřich. A History of the Czech Lands. Charles University in Prague. pp. 149–169. ISBN 978-80-246-1645-2.  Tanner, Marcus (2009). The Raven King: Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus
and the Fate of his Lost Library. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-15828-1.  Teke, Zsuzsa (1981). "A középkori magyar állam virágzása és bukása, 1301–1526: 1458–1490 [Flourishing and Fall of Medieval Hungary, 1301–1526: 1458–1490]". In Solymosi, László. Magyarország történeti kronológiája, I: a kezdetektől 1526-ig [Historical Chronology of Hungary, Volume I: From the Beginning to 1526] (in Hungarian). Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 79–187. ISBN 963-05-2661-1.  Waldman, Louis Alexander; Farbaky, Péter (2011). Italy & Hungary: Humanism and Art in the Early Renaissance. Harvard University Graduate School of Design. ISBN 0-674-06346-5. 

Further reading[edit]

Bárány, Attila; Györkös, Attila, eds. (2008). Matthias and his Legacy: Cultural and Political Encounters between East and West. University of Debrecen. ISBN 978-963-473-276-1.  Birnbaum, Marianna D. (1996). The Orb and the Pen: Janus Pannonius, Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus
and the Buda
Buda
Court. Balassi Kiadó. ISBN 963-506-087-4.  Farbaky, Péter; Spekner, Enikő; Szende, Katalin; et al., eds. (2008). Matthias Corvinus, the King: Tradition and Renewal in the Hungarian Royal Court 1458–1490. Budapest History Museum. ISBN 978-963-9340-69-5.  Farbaky, Peter; Waldman, Louis A. (2011). Italy & Hungary: Humanism and Art in the Early Renaissance. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674063464.  Feuer-Tóth, Rózsa (1990). Art and Humanism in Hungary in the Age of Matthias Corvinus. Akadémiai Kiadó. ISBN 963-05-5646-4.  Gastgeber, Christian; Mitsiou, Ekaterini; Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Popović, Mihailo; Preiser-Kapeller, Johannes; Simon, Alexandru (2011). Matthias Corvinus und seine Zeit: Europa am Übergang vom Mittelalter zur Neuzeit zwischen Wien und Konstantinopel [ Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus
and His Time: Europe in Transition from the Middle Ages to Modern Times between Vienna
Vienna
and Constantinople] (in German). David Brown Book Company. ISBN 978-3-7001-6891-1.  Klaniczay, Tibor; Jankovics, József (1994). Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus
and the Humanism in Central Europe. Balassi Kiadó. ISBN 963-7873-72-4. 

External links[edit]

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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Matthias Corvinus.

The Squash and the Colt, a folk tale reflecting Matthias' wisdom and sense of justice His picture on the Hungarian 1000 forint banknote Bibliotheca Corviniana
Bibliotheca Corviniana
Digitalis – National Széchényi Library, Hungary Map of Europe in 1500.  "Matthias Corvinus". Catholic Encyclopedia. 1913. 

Matthias Corvinus House of Hunyadi Born: 23 February 1443  Died: 6 April 1490

Regnal titles

Vacant Title last held by Ladislaus V King of Hungary
King of Hungary
and Croatia 1458–1490 Succeeded by Vladislaus II

Preceded by George King of Bohemia (disputed) 1469–1490

Preceded by Frederick V Duke of Austria (disputed) 1487–1490 Succeeded by Frederick V

v t e

Monarchs of Hungary

Family tree

House of Árpád

Grand Princes

Álmos
Álmos
(c. 850–c. 895) Árpád
Árpád
(c. 895–c. 907) Zoltán (c. 907–c. 947) Fajsz
Fajsz
(c. 947–c. 955) Taksony (c. 955–c. 972) Géza (c. 972–997) Stephen (997–1000)

Kings

Stephen I (1000–1038) Peter (1038–1041; 1044–1046) Samuel (1041–1044) Andrew I (1046–1060) Béla I (1060–1063) Solomon (1063–1074) Géza I (1074–1077) Ladislaus I (1077–1095) Coloman (1095–1116) Stephen II (1116–1131) Béla II (1131–1141) Géza II (1141–1162) Stephen III (1162–1172)

Ladislaus II (1162–1163) Stephen IV (1163–1165)

Béla III (1172–1196) Emeric (1196–1204) Ladislaus III (1204–1205) Andrew II (1205–1235) Béla IV (1235–1270) Stephen V (1270–1272) Ladislaus IV (1272–1290) Andrew III (1290–1301)

House of Přemysl

Wenceslaus (1301–1305)

House of Wittelsbach

Otto (1305–1307)

Capetian House of Anjou

Charles I (1308–1342) Louis I (1342–1382) Mary (1382–1385; 1386–1395) Charles II (1385–1386)

House of Luxembourg

Sigismund (1387–1437)

House of Habsburg

Albert (1437–1439) Ladislaus V (1440–1457)

House of Jagiellon

Vladislaus I (1440–1444)

House of Hunyadi

Matthias I (1458–1490)

House of Jagiellon

Vladislaus II (1490–1516) Louis II (1516–1526)

House of Zápolya

John (1526–1540) John Sigismund (1540–1570)

House of Habsburg

Ferdinand I (1526–1564) Maximilian (1564–1576) Rudolph (1576–1608) Matthias II (1608–1619) Ferdinand II (1619–1637) Ferdinand III (1637–1657)

Ferdinand IV (1647–1654)

Leopold I (1657–1705) Joseph I (1705–1711) Charles III (1711–1740) Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
(1740–1780)

House of Habsburg-Lorraine

Joseph II (1780–1790) Leopold II (1790–1792) Francis (1792–1835) Ferdinand V (1835–1848) Francis Joseph (1848–1916) Charles IV (1916–1918)

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics.

v t e

Monarchs of Bohemia

Přemyslid

c. 870–1198 (Dukes)

Bořivoj I Spytihněv I Vratislaus I Saint Wenceslaus Boleslaus I Boleslaus II Boleslaus III Vladivoj Boleslaus the Brave1 Jaromír Oldřich Bretislaus I Spytihněv II Vratislaus II (I)2 Conrad I Bretislaus II Bořivoj II Svatopluk the Lion Vladislaus I Sobeslaus I Vladislaus II (I)2 Frederick Sobeslaus II Frederick Conrad II Otto Wenceslaus II Ottokar I Henry Bretislaus Vladislaus III Henry

1198–1306 (Kings)

Ottokar I Wenceslaus I Ottokar II Wenceslaus II Wenceslaus III

Non-dynastic

1306–1310

Henry the Carinthian Rudolph I

Luxembourg

1310–1437

John the Blind Charles IV (I) Wenceslaus IV Sigismund

Habsburg

1437–1457

Albert Interregnum Ladislaus the Posthumous

Non-dynastic

1457–1471

George Matthias Corvinus3

Jagiellonian

1471–1526

Vladislaus II Louis

Habsburg

1526–1780

Ferdinand I Maximilian Rudolph II Matthias Ferdinand II Frederick4 Ferdinand III Leopold I Joseph I Charles II Charles Albert (II)3, 5 Maria Theresa

Habsburg-Lorraine

1780–1918

Joseph II Leopold II Francis II (I) Ferdinand V Francis Joseph Charles I (III)

1 Duke of Poland from the Piast dynasty 2 During his reign obtained non-hereditary royal title 3 Antiking 4 Elector Palatine from the Wittelsbach dynasty 5 Prince-elector
Prince-elector
of Bavaria from the Wittelsbach dynasty

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 4938768 LCCN: n50006566 ISNI: 0000 0001 2118 5284 GND: 118579029 SELIBR: 194424 SUDOC: 027707210 BNF: cb11969220f (data) NKC: jn20000701

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