Matthias Corvinus, also called Matthias I (Hungarian: Hunyadi
Mátyás, Croatian: Matija Korvin, Romanian: Matei Corvin, Slovak:
Matej Korvín, Czech: Matyáš Korvín; 23 February 1443 – 6
April 1490), was
King of Hungary
King of Hungary and
Croatia from 1458 to 1490. After
conducting several military campaigns, he was elected King of Bohemia
in 1469 and adopted the title
Duke of Austria
Duke of Austria in 1487. He was the son
of John Hunyadi, Regent of Hungary, who died in 1456. In 1457,
Matthias was imprisoned along with his older brother, Ladislaus
Hunyadi, on the orders of King Ladislaus V of Hungary. Ladislaus
Hunyadi was executed, causing a rebellion that forced King Ladislaus
to flee Hungary. After the King died unexpectedly, Matthias's uncle
Michael Szilágyi persuaded the Estates to unanimously proclaim
Matthias king on 24 January 1458. He began his rule under his uncle's
guardianship, but he took effective control of government within two
As king, Matthias waged wars against the Czech mercenaries who
Upper Hungary (today parts of
Slovakia and Northern Hungary)
and against Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, who claimed Hungary for
himself. In this period, the
Ottoman Empire conquered
Bosnia, terminating the zone of buffer states along the southern
frontiers of the Kingdom of Hungary. Matthias signed a peace treaty
with Frederick III in 1463, acknowledging the Emperor's right to style
himself King of Hungary. The Emperor returned the Holy Crown of
Hungary with which Matthias was crowned on 29 April 1464. In this
year, Matthias invaded the territories that had recently been occupied
Ottomans and seized fortresses in Bosnia. He soon realized he
could expect no substantial aid from the Christian powers and gave up
his anti-Ottoman policy.
Matthias introduced new taxes and regularly collected extraordinary
taxes. These measures caused a rebellion in
Transylvania in 1467, but
he subdued the rebels. The next year, Matthias declared war on George
of Poděbrady, the
Hussite King of Bohemia, and conquered Moravia,
Silesia, and Lausitz, but he could not occupy
Bohemia proper. The
Catholic Estates proclaimed him
King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia on 3 May 1469, but the
Hussite lords refused to yield to him even after the death of their
George of Poděbrady
George of Poděbrady in 1471. Instead, they elected Vladislaus
Jagiellon, the eldest son of Casimir IV of Poland. A group of
Hungarian prelates and lords offered the throne to Vladislaus's
younger brother Casimir, but Matthias overcame their rebellion. Having
routed the united troops of Casimir IV and Vladislaus at
Wrocław in Poland) in late 1474, Matthias turned against
the Ottomans, who had devastated the eastern parts of Hungary. He sent
reinforcements to Stephen the Great, Prince of Moldavia, enabling
Stephen to repel a series of Ottoman invasions in the late 1470s. In
1476, Matthias besieged and seized Šabac, an important Ottoman border
fort. He concluded a peace treaty with Vladislaus Jagiellon in 1478,
confirming the division of the
Lands of the Bohemian Crown
Lands of the Bohemian Crown between
them. Matthias waged a war against Emperor Frederick and occupied
Austria between 1482 and 1487.
Matthias established a professional army (the Black Army of Hungary),
reformed the administration of justice, reduced the power of the
barons, and promoted the careers of talented individuals chosen for
their abilities rather than their social statuses. Matthias patronized
art and science; his royal library, the Bibliotheca Corviniana, was
one of the largest collections of books in Europe. With his patronage,
Hungary became the first country to embrace the
Italy. As Matthias the Just, the monarch who wandered among his
subjects in disguise, he remains a popular hero of Hungarian folk
1 Early life
1.1 Childhood (1443–1457)
1.2 Election as king (1457–1458)
2.1 Early rule and consolidation (1458–1464)
2.2 First reforms and internal conflicts (1464–1467)
2.3 War for the
Lands of the Bohemian Crown
Lands of the Bohemian Crown (1468–1479)
2.4 War for
2.5 Last years (1487–1490)
3.2 Building projects
3.3 Royal library
3.4 Patron of scholars
9 Further reading
10 External links
Matthias was born in
Cluj-Napoca in Romania) on 23
February 1443. He was the second son of
John Hunyadi and his wife,
John Hunyadi was a pre-eminent military
commander and political leader of the Kingdom of Hungary, who spent
most of his life away from the family estates. Because of his father's
absence, his mother managed Matthias's education. Many of the most
learned men of Central Europe—including
Gregory of Sanok
Gregory of Sanok and John
Vitéz—frequented John Hunyadi's court when Matthias was a child.
Gregory of Sanok, a former tutor of King Vladislaus III of Poland, was
Matthias's only teacher whose name is known. Under these scholars'
influences, Matthias became an enthusiastic supporter of Renaissance
The house where
Matthias Corvinus was born in
As a child, Matthias learnt many languages and read classical
literature, especially military treatises. According to Antonio
Bonfini, Matthias "was versed in all the tongues of Europe", with the
exceptions of Turkish and Greek. Although this was an exaggeration,
it is without doubt that Matthias spoke Hungarian, Latin, Italian,
Polish, Czech, and German.
According to a treaty between
John Hunyadi and Đorđe Branković,
Despot of Serbia, Matthias and the Despot's granddaughter Elizabeth of
Celje were engaged on 7 August 1451. Elizabeth was the daughter
of Ulrich II, Count of Celje, who was related to King Ladislaus V of
Hungary and an opponent of Matthias's father. Because of new
conflicts between Hunyadi and Ulrich of Celje, the marriage of their
children only took place in 1455. Elizabeth settled in the
Hunyadis' estates but Matthias was soon sent to the royal court,
implying that their marriage was a hidden exchange of hostages between
their families. Elizabeth died before the end of 1455.
John Hunyadi died on 11 August 1456, less than three weeks after his
greatest victory over the
Ottomans in Belgrade. John's elder
son—Matthias's brother—Ladislaus became the head of the
family. Ladislaus's conflict with Ulrich of Celje ended with
Ulrich's capture and assassination on 9 November. Under
duress, the King promised he would never take his revenge against the
Hunyadis for Ulrich's killing. However, the murder turned most
barons—including Palatine Ladislaus Garai,
Judge royal Ladislaus
Pálóci, and Nicholas Újlaki, Voivode of Transylvania—against
Ladislaus Hunyadi. Taking advantage of their resentment, the King
had the Hunyadi brothers imprisoned in
Buda on 14 March 1457.
The royal council condemned them to death for high treason and
Ladislaus Hunyadi was beheaded on 16 March.
Matthias was held in captivity in a small house in Buda. His
mother and her brother
Michael Szilágyi staged a rebellion against
the King and occupied large territories in the regions to the east of
the river Tisza. King Ladislaus fled to
Vienna in mid-1457,
Prague in September, taking Matthias with
him. The civil war between the rebels and the barons loyal
to the monarch continued until the sudden death of the young King on
23 November 1457. Thereafter the
Hussite Regent of
Bohemia—George of Poděbrady—held Matthias captive.
Election as king (1457–1458)
Ladislaus V died childless in 1457. His elder sister Anna and
her husband, William III, Landgrave of Thuringia, laid claim to his
inheritance but received no support from the Estates. The Diet of
Hungary was convoked to Pest to elect a new king in January 1458.
Pope Calixtus III's legate Cardinal Juan Carvajal, who had been John
Hunyadi's admirer, began openly campaigning for Matthias.
The election of Matthias as king was the only way of avoiding a
protracted civil war. Ladislaus Garai was the first baron to
yield. At a meeting with Matthias's mother and uncle, he promised
that he and his allies would promote Matthias's election, and Michael
Szilágyi promised that his nephew would never seek vengeance for
Ladislaus Hunyadi's execution. They also agreed that Matthias
would marry the Palatine's daughter Anna—his executed brother's
Michael Szilágyi arrived at the Diet with 15,000 troops, intimidating
the barons who assembled in Buda. Stirred up by Szilágyi, the
noblemen gathered on the frozen River Danube and unanimously
proclaimed the 14-year-old Matthias King on 24 January. At
the same time, the Diet elected his uncle as regent.
Early rule and consolidation (1458–1464)
See also: Peace Treaty of Wiener Neustadt
George of Poděbrady
George of Poděbrady and Matthias Corvinus—a painting by Mikoláš
Matthias's election was the first time that a member of the nobility
mounted the royal throne in Hungary.
Michael Szilágyi sent John
Prague to discuss the terms of Matthias's release with
George of Poděbrady. Poděbrady—whose daughter Kunigunda
Matthias promised to marry—agreed to release his future son-in-law
for a ransom of 60,000 gold florins. Matthias was surrendered
to the Hungarian delegates in Strážnice on 9 February. With
Poděbrady's mediation, he was reconciled with John Jiskra of
Brandýs, the commander of the Czech mercenaries who dominated most of
Matthias made his state entry into
Buda five days later. He
ceremoniously sat on the throne in the Church of Our Lady, but was not
crowned, because the
Holy Crown of Hungary
Holy Crown of Hungary had been in the possession
Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor for almost two decades.
The 14-year-old monarch administered state affairs independently from
the outset, although he reaffirmed his uncle's position as
Regent. For instance, Matthias instructed the citizens of
Sibiu in Romania) to reconcile their differences with
Prince of Wallachia
Prince of Wallachia on 3 March.
Jiskra was the first baron who turned against Matthias. He offered
the throne to Casimir IV of Poland—the husband of King Ladislaus V's
younger sister Elisabeth—in late March but the
General sejm of
Poland rejected his offer. Matthias's commander Sebastian Rozgonyi
defeated Jiskra's soldiers at
Sárospatak but the Ottomans' invasion
Serbia in April forced Matthias to conclude an armistice with the
Czechs. They were allowed to keep Sáros Castle (now
Šariš Castle, Slovakia) and other fortified places in Upper
Hungary. Matthias sent two prelates—August Salánki, Bishop of
Győr, and Vincent Szilasi, Bishop of Vác—to
Prague to crown George
of Poděbrady king. Upon their demand, the "heretic" Poděbrady
swore loyalty to the Holy See.
Matthias's golden florin depicting Madonna and Child, and King Saint
Matthias's first Diet assembled in Pest in May 1458. The Estates
passed almost fifty decrees that were ratified by Matthias—instead
of the Regent—on 8 June. One decree prescribed that the King
"must call and hold, and order to be held, a diet of all the gentlemen
of the realm in person" every year on Whitsunday. Matthias
held more than 25 Diets during his reign and convoked the Estates more
frequently than his predecessors, especially between 1458 and
1476. The Diets were controlled by the barons, whom
Matthias appointed and dismissed at will. For instance, he
dismissed Palatine Ladislaus Garai and persuaded
Michael Szilágyi to
resign from the Regency after they entered into a league in the summer
of 1458. The King appointed Michael Ország, who had been his
father's close supporter, as the new Palatine. Most of Matthias's
barons were descended from old aristocratic families but he also
promoted the careers of members of the lesser nobility, or even of
skilful commoners. For instance, the noble Zápolya brothers
Emeric and Stephen owed their fortunes to Matthias's favour.
Matthias's ordinary revenues amounted around 250,000 golden florins
per year when his reign began. A decree passed at the Diet of 1458
explicitly prohibited the imposition of extraordinary taxes.
However, an extraordinary tax—one golden florin per each porta or
peasant household—was levied late that year. The Ottomans
occupied the fort of
Serbia in August 1458; Matthias
ordered the mobilization of all noblemen. He made a raid into
Ottoman territory and defeated the enemy forces in minor
skirmishes. King Stephen Thomas of
Bosnia accepted Matthias's
suzerainty. Matthias authorized his new vassal's son Stephen
Tomašević to take possession of the parts of
Serbia that had not
been occupied by the Ottomans.
At the turn of 1458 and 1459, Matthias held a Diet at
prepare for a war against the Ottoman Empire. However, gossip
about a conspiracy compelled him to return to Buda. The rumours
proved to be true because at least 30 barons—including Ladislaus
Garai, Nicholas Újlaki, and Ladislaus Kanizsai—met in Németújvár
Güssing in Austria) and offered the throne to Emperor Frederick
III on 17 February 1459. Although the joint troops of the
Emperor and the rebellious lords defeated a royal army at
27 March, Garai had by that time died and Újlaki soon entered into
negotiations with Matthias' envoys. Skirmishes along the western
borderlands lasted for several months, preventing Matthias from
providing military assistance to Tomašević against the Ottomans.
The latter took
Smederevo on 29 June, completing the conquest of
John Jiskra of Brandýs—a picture by Mikoláš Aleš
Jiskra swore an oath of loyalty to Emperor Frederick on 10 March
Pope Pius II
Pope Pius II offered to mediate a peace treaty between the
Emperor and Matthias.
George of Poděbrady
George of Poděbrady also offered his
assistance. The representatives of the Emperor and Matthias signed
a truce in Olomouc in April 1460. The Pope soon offered financial
support for an anti-Ottoman campaign. However, John Jiskra
returned from Poland, renewing the armed conflicts with Czech
mercenaries in early 1460. Matthias seized a newly erected fort
from the Czechs but he could not force them to obey him. The costs
of his five-month-long campaign in
Upper Hungary were paid for by an
extraordinary tax. Matthias entered into an alliance with the
Emperor's rebellious brother Albert VI, Archduke of Austria.
George of Poděbrady
George of Poděbrady sided with the Emperor, although the marriage of
his daughter—who became known as Catherine in Hungary—to Matthias
was celebrated on 1 May 1461. Relations between Matthias and
his father-in-law deteriorated because of the Czech mercenaries'
continued presence in Upper Hungary. Matthias launched a new
campaign against them after the Diet authorized him to collect an
extraordinary tax in mid-1461. However, he did not defeat Jiskra,
who even captured
Késmárk (now Kežmarok, Slovakia).
The envoys of Matthias and Emperor Frederick agreed a peace treaty on
3 April 1462. According to the agreement, the Emperor was to
Holy Crown of Hungary
Holy Crown of Hungary for 80,000 golden florins, but his
right to use the title
King of Hungary
King of Hungary along with Matthias was
confirmed. In accordance with the treaty, the Emperor adopted
Matthias, which granted him the right to succeed his "son" if Matthias
died without a legitimate heir. Within a month, Jiskra yielded
to Matthias. He surrendered all the forts he held in Upper Hungary
to the King's representatives; as compensation he received a large
domain near the
Tisza and 25,000 golden florins. To pay the large
amounts stipulated in his treaties with the Emperor and Jiskra,
Matthias collected an extraordinary tax with the consent of the Royal
Council. The Diet, which assembled in mid-1462, confirmed this
decision but only after 9 prelates and 19 barons promised that no
extraordinary taxes would be introduced thereafter. Through hiring
mercenaries among Jiskra's companions, Matthias began organizing a
professional army, which became known as the "Black Army" in following
Mehmed II invaded
Wallachia in early 1462.
He did not conquer the country but the Wallachian boyars dethroned the
anti-Ottoman Vlad Dracula, replacing him with the Sultan's favorite,
Radu the Fair. The new Prince was willing to grant concessions
to the Transylvanian Saxon merchants, who had come into bitter
conflict with Vlad Dracula. The latter sought assistance from
Matthias and they met in Brassó (now Brașov, Romania) in
November. However, the Saxons presented Matthias with a letter
allegedly written by
Vlad Dracula to Sultan Mehmed, in which the
Prince offered his support to the Ottomans.  Convinced of Vlad
Dracula's treachery, Matthias had him imprisoned.
In preparation for a war against the Ottomans, Matthias held a Diet at
Tolna in March 1463. Although the Estates authorized him to levy a
one-florin extraordinary tax, he did not intervene when Mehmed II
Bosnia in June. In a month, the
Ottomans murdered King
Stephen Tomašević and conquered the whole country. Matthias
only adopted an offensive foreign policy after the terms of his peace
with Emperor Frederick were ratified in
Wiener Neustadt on 19 July
1463. He led his troops to
Bosnia and conquered
Jajce and other
forts in its northern parts. The conquered regions were organized
into a new defensive province, or banate. Assisted by Stefan
Vukčić, Duke of Saint Sava, Matthias also conquered Bosanska Krajina
and granted it to the Duke, who accepted his suzerainty.
Queen Catherine died in early 1464 during preparations for her
husband's coronation with the Holy Crown, which had been returned by
Emperor Frederick. The ceremony was carried out in full accordance
with the customary law of Hungary on 29 March 1464; Archbishop of
Dénes Szécsi ceremoniously put the Holy Crown on
Matthias's head in Székesfehérvár. At the Diet
assembled on this occasion, the newly crowned King confirmed the
liberties of the nobility. Hereafter the legality of Matthias's
reign could not be questioned.
First reforms and internal conflicts (1464–1467)
Matthias's signature and royal stamp
Matthias's golden florin depicting King Saint Ladislaus and Matthias's
Matthias dismissed his Chief Chancellor Archbishop Szécsi, replacing
him with Stephen Várdai, Archbishop of Kalocsa, and John Vitéz.
Both prelates bore the title of Chief and Secret Chancellor, but
Várdai was the actual leader of the Royal Chancery. Around
the same time, Matthias united the superior courts of justice—the
Court of Royal
Special Presence and the Court of Personal
Presence—into one supreme court. The new supreme court
diminished the authority of the traditional courts presided over by
the barons and contributed to the professionalization of the
administration of justice. He appointed Albert Hangácsi, Bishop
of Csanád as the first Chief Justice.
Mehmed II returned to
Bosnia and laid siege to
Jajce in July
1464. Matthias began assembling his troops along the river
Száva, forcing the Sultan to raise the siege on 24 August.
Matthias and his army crossed the river and seized Srebrnica. He
Zvornik but the arrival of a large Ottoman army forced
him to withdraw to Hungary. The following year, Matthias forced
Stefan Vukčić, who had transferred Makarska Krajina to the Republic
of Venice, to establish Hungarian garrisons in his forts along the
Dénes Szécsi died in 1465 and John Vitéz became the new Archbishop
of Esztergom. Matthias replaced the two Voivodes of
Transylvania—Nicholas Újlaki and John Pongrác of Dengeleg—with
Counts Sigismund and John Szentgyörgyi, and Bertold Ellerbach.
Although Újlaki preserved his office of Ban of Macsó, the King
appointed Peter Szokoli to administer the province together with the
Matthias convoked the Diet to make preparations for an anti-Ottoman
campaign in 1466. For the same purpose, he received subsidies
from Pope Paul II. However, Matthias had realized that no
substantial aid could be expected from the Christian powers and
tacitly gave up his anti-Ottoman foreign policy. He did not
invade Ottoman territory and the
Ottomans did not make major
incursions into Hungary, implying that he signed a peace treaty with
Mehmed II's envoy who arrived in Hungary in 1465.
Slavonia and dismissed the two Bans Nicholas Újlaki
and Emeric Zápolya, replacing them with Jan Vitovec and John Tuz in
1466. Early the following year, he mounted a campaign in Upper
Hungary against a band of Czech mercenaries who were under the command
of Ján Švehla and had seized Kosztolány (now
Veľké Kostoľany in
Slovakia). Matthias routed them and had Švehla and his 150
At the Diet of March 1467, two traditional taxes were renamed; the
chamber's profit was thereafter collected as tax of the royal treasury
and the thirtieth as the Crown's customs. Because of this change,
all previous tax exemptions became void, increasing state
revenues. Matthias set about centralizing the administration
of royal revenues. He entrusted the administration of the Crown's
customs to John Ernuszt, a converted Jewish merchant. Within two
years, Ernuszt was responsible for the collection of all ordinary and
extraordinary taxes, and the management of the salt mines.
Matthias's tax reform caused a revolt in Transylvania. The
representatives of the "Three Nations" of the province—the noblemen,
the Saxons and the Székelys—formed an alliance against the King in
Mănăștur district in Cluj-Napoca, Romania) on
18 August, stating that they were willing to fight for the freedom of
Hungary. Matthias assembled his troops immediately and
hastened to the province. The rebels surrendered without
resistance but Matthias severely punished their leaders, many of whom
were impaled, beheaded, or mercilessly tortured upon his
orders. Suspecting that Stephen the Great, Prince of Moldavia
had supported the rebellion, Matthias invaded Moldavia.
However, Stephen's forces routed Matthias's at the
Battle of Baia
Battle of Baia on
15 December 1467. Matthias suffered severe injuries, forcing
him to return to Hungary.
War for the
Lands of the Bohemian Crown
Lands of the Bohemian Crown (1468–1479)
Further information: Bohemian War (1468–1478)
Matthias's former brother-in-law
Victor of Poděbrady invaded Austria
in early 1468. Emperor Frederick appealed to Matthias for
support, hinting at the possibility of Matthias's election as King of
the Romans—first step towards the imperial throne. Matthias
declared war on Victor's father King George of
Bohemia on 31
March. He said he also wanted to help the Czech Catholic lords
against their "heretic monarch" whom the Pope had excommunicated.
Matthias expelled the Czech troops from
Austria and invaded Moravia
and Silesia. He took an active part in the fighting; he was
injured during the siege of
Třebíč in May 1468 and was captured at
Chrudim while spying out the enemy camp in disguise in February
1469. On the latter occasion, he was released because he made his
prisoners believe he was a local Czech groom.
The Diet of 1468 authorized Matthias to levy an extraordinary tax to
finance the new war, but only after 8 prelates and 13 secular lords
pledged on the King's behalf that he would not demand such charges in
the future. Matthias also exercised royal prerogatives to
increase his revenues. For instance, he ordered a Palatine's eyre
in a county, the cost of which were to be covered by the local
inhabitants but soon authorized the county to redeem the cancellation
of this irksome duty.
The Czech Catholics, who were led by Zdeněk of Šternberk, joined
forces with Matthias in February 1469. Their united troops were
encircled at Vilémov by George of Poděbrady's army. In fear
of being captured, Matthias opened negotiations with his former
father-in-law. They met in a nearby hovel, where Matthias
George of Poděbrady
George of Poděbrady to sign an armistice promising that he
would mediate a reconciliation between the moderate Hussites and the
Holy See. Their next meeting took place in Olomouc in
April. Here the papal legates came forward with demands including
the appointment of a Catholic Archbishop to the See of Prague, which
could not be accepted by George of Poděbrady. The Czech
Catholic Estates elected Matthias
King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia in Olomouc on 3 May
but he was never crowned. Moravia,
accepted his rule but
Bohemia proper remained faithful to George of
Poděbrady. The Estates of
Bohemia even acknowledged the
right of Vladislaus Jagiello, the eldest son of Casimir IV of Poland,
to succeed king George of Poděbrady.
Matthias Corvinus in Central Europe
Matthias's relations with Frederick III had in the meantime
deteriorated because the Emperor accused Matthias of allowing the
Ottomans to march through
Slavonia when raiding the Emperor's
Frangepan family, whose domains in
exposed to Ottoman raids, entered into negotiations with the Emperor
and the Republic of Venice. In 1469, Matthias sent an army
Croatia to prevent the Venetians from seizing the Adriatic coastal
Matthias expelled George of Poděbrady's troops from Silesia.
Matthias's army was encircled and routed at
Uherský Brod on 2
November, forcing him to withdraw to Hungary. Matthias soon
ordered the collection of an extraordinary tax without holding a Diet,
raising widespread discontent among the Hungarian Estates. He
visited Emperor Frederick in
Vienna on 11 February 1470, hoping the
Emperor would contribute to the costs of the war against
Poděbrady. Although the negotiations lasted for a month, no
compromise was worked out. The Emperor also refused to commit
himself to promoting Matthias's election as King of the Romans.
After a month, Matthias left
Vienna without taking formal leave of
Having realised the Hungarian Estates' growing dissatisfaction,
Matthias held a Diet in November. The Diet again authorized him
to levy an extraordinary tax, stipulating that the sum of all taxes
payable per porta could not exceed one florin. The Estates also
made it clear that they opposed the war in Bohemia. George of
Poděbrady died on 22 March 1471. The Diet of
elected Vladislaus Jagiello king on 27 May. The papal legate
Lorenzo Roverella soon declared Vladislaus's election void and
confirmed Matthias's position as King of Bohemia, but the Imperial
Diet refused Matthias's claim.
Matthias was staying in
Moravia when he was informed that a group of
Hungarian prelates and barons had offered the throne to Casimir, a
younger son of King Casimir IV of Poland. The conspiracy was
initiated by Archbishop John Vitéz and his nephew Janus Pannonius,
Bishop of Pécs, who opposed war against the Catholic Vladislaus
Jagiellon. Initially, their plan was supported by the majority of
the Estates, but nobody dared to rebel against Matthias, enabling him
to return to Hungary without resistance. Matthias held a Diet and
promised to refrain from levying taxes without the consent of the
Estates and to convoke the Diet in each year. His promises
remedied most of the Estates' grievances and almost 50 barons and
prelates confirmed their loyalty to him on 21 September.
Casimir Jagiellon invaded on 2 October 1471. With Bishop Janus
Pannonius's support, he seized Nyitra (now
Nitra in Slovakia), but
only two barons,
John Rozgonyi and Nicholas Perényi, joined
him. Within five months Prince Casimir withdrew from
Janus Pannonius died while fleeing, and Archbishop
John Vitéz was forbidden to leave his see. Matthias
appointed the Silesian
Johann Beckensloer to administer the
Archdiocese of Esztergom. Vitéz died and Beckensloer succeeded
him in a year.
Ottomans had meanwhile seized the Hungarian forts along the river
Neratva. Matthias nominated the wealthy baron Nicholas Újlaki as
Bosnia in 1471, entrusting the defence of the province to
him. Uzun Hassan, head of the
Aq Qoyunlu Turkmens, proposed an
anti-Ottoman alliance to Matthias but he refrained from attacking the
Ottoman Empire. Matthias supported the Austrian noblemen who
rebelled against Emperor Frederick in 1472. The following year,
Matthias, Casimir IV and Vladislaus entered into negotiations on the
terms of a peace treaty, but the discussions lasted for
months. Matthias tried to unify the government of Silesia,
which consisted of dozens of smaller duchies, through appointing a
captain-general. However, the Estates refused to elect his
candidate Duke Frederick I of Liegnitz.
Matthias's great coat-of-arms. In the middle are personal coat of arms
Matthias Corvinus (Quartered: 1. Hungary's two-barred cross, 2.
Árpád dynasty, 3. Bohemia, and 4. Hunyadi family) and that of his
Beatrice of Naples
Beatrice of Naples (Quartered: 1. and 4. Arpad dynasty –
France ancient – Jerusalem Impaled; 2. and 3. Aragon), above
them a royal crown. On the outer edge there are coat of arms of
various lands, beginning from the top clockwise they are: Bohemia,
Luxemburg, Lower Lusatia, Moravia, Austria, Galicia–Volhynia,
Silesia, Dalmatia-Croatia, Beszterce county
Ali Bey Mihaloğlu, Bey of Smederevo, pillaged eastern parts of
Hungary, destroyed Várad, and took 16,000 prisoners with him in
January 1474. The next month, the envoys of Matthias and Casimir
IV signed a peace treaty and a three-year truce between Matthias and
Vladislaus Jagiellon was also declared. Within a month, however,
Vladislaus entered into an alliance with Emperor Frederick and Casimir
IV joined them. Casimir IV and Vladislaus invaded Silesia
and laid siege to Matthias in
Wrocław in Poland) in
October. He prevented the besiegers from accumulating provisions,
forcing them to raise the siege. Thereafter the Silesian Estates
willingly elected Matthias's new candidate
Stephen Zápolya as
captain-general. The Moravian Estates elected Ctibor Tovačovský
as captain-general. Matthias confirmed this decision, although
Tovačovský had been Vladislaus Jagiellon's partisan.
Moldavia at the end of 1474.
Matthias sent reinforcements under the command of
Blaise Magyar to
Stephen the Great. Their united forces routed the invaders in the
Battle of Vaslui
Battle of Vaslui on 10 January 1475. Fearing a new Ottoman
Prince of Moldavia
Prince of Moldavia swore fealty to Matthias on 15
Mehmed II proposed peace but Matthias refused
him. Instead, he stormed into Ottoman territory and captured
Šabac, an important fort on the river Száva, on 15 February
1476. During the siege, Matthias barely escaped capture
while he was watching the fortress from a boat.
For unknown reasons, Archbishop
Johann Beckensloer left Hungary,
taking the treasury of the Esztergom See with him in early
1476. He fled to
Vienna and offered his funds to the
Emperor. Matthias accused the Emperor of having incited the
Archbishop against him.
Mehmed II launched a campaign against
Moldavia in the summer of
1476. Although he won the
Battle of Valea Albă
Battle of Valea Albă on 26 July, the
lack of provisions forced him to retreat. Matthias sent auxiliary
Moldavia under the command of Vlad Dracula—whom he had
released—and Stephen Báthory  The allied forces defeated
an Ottoman army at the
Siret River in August. With Hungarian and
Vlad Dracula was reinstalled as Prince of Wallachia
but he was killed fighting against his opponent Basarab
Beatrice of Naples
Beatrice of Naples arrived in Hungary in late
1476. Matthias married her in
Buda on 22 December that year.
The new Queen soon established a rigid etiquette, making direct
contacts between the King and his subjects more difficult.
According to Bonfini, Matthias also "improved his board and manner of
life, introduced sumptuous banquets, disdaining humility at home and
beautified the dining rooms" after his marriage. According to a
contemporaneous record, around that time Matthias's revenues amounted
about 500,000 florins, half of which derived from the tax of the royal
treasury and the extraordinary tax.
Matthias concluded an alliance with the
Teutonic Knights and the
Bishopric of Ermland
Bishopric of Ermland against Poland in March 1477. However,
instead of Poland, he declared war on Emperor Frederick after he
learnt that the Emperor had confirmed Vladislaus Jagiellon's position
King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia and Prince-elector. Matthias invaded
Austria and imposed a blockade on Vienna. Vladislaus
Jagiellon denied to support the Emperor, forcing him to seek
reconciliation with Matthias. With the mediation of Pope Sixtus
IV, Venice, and Ferdinand I of Naples, Matthias concluded a peace
treaty with Frederick III, which was signed on 1 December.
The Emperor promised to confirm Matthias as the lawful ruler of
Bohemia and to pay him an indemnity of 100,000 florins.
They met in
Korneuburg where Frederick III installed Matthias as King
Bohemia and Matthias swore loyalty to the Emperor.
Negotiations between the envoys of Matthias and Vladislaus Jagiellon
accelerated during the next few months. The first draft of a
treaty was agreed upon on 28 March 1478, and the text was completed by
the end of 1477. The treaty authorized both monarchs to use the
title of King of Bohemia—although Vladislaus could omit to style
Matthias as such in their correspondence—and the Lands of the
Bohemian Crown were divided between them; Vladislaus ruled in Bohemia
proper and Matthias in Moravia,
Silesia and Lusatia. They
solemnly ratified the peace treaty at their meeting in Olomouc on 21
Further information: Austrian-Hungarian War (1477–88), Siege of
Vienna (1485), and Siege of Wiener Neustadt
Coat of arms
Coat of arms of Matthias Corvinus, guarded by Black Army heavy
infantry. Matthias Church, Budapest. The damaged art relic was
renovated in 1893.
Emperor Frederick only paid off half of the indemnity due to Matthias
according to their treaty of 1477. Matthias concluded a
treaty with the Swiss Confederacy on 26 March 1479, hindering the
recruitment of Swiss mercenaries by the Emperor. He also entered
into an alliance with
Archbishop of Salzburg
Archbishop of Salzburg Bernhard II of Rohr, who
allowed him to take possession of the fortresses of the Archbishopric
Carniola and Styria.
An Ottoman army supported by Basarab Țepeluș of
Transylvania and set fire to Szászváros (now
Orăștie in Romania)
in late 1479. Stephen Báthory and
Paul Kinizsi annihilated
the marauders in the
Battle of Breadfield
Battle of Breadfield on 13 October.
Matthias united the command of all forts along the Danube to the west
Belgrade in the hand of
Paul Kinizsi to improve the defence of the
southern frontier. Matthias sent reinforcements to Stephen the
Great, who invaded pro-Ottoman
Wallachia in early 1480; Matthias
launched a campaign as far as
November. He set up five defensive provinces, or banates,
centred around the forts of
Szörényvár (now Drobeta-Turnu Severin
in Romania), Belgrade, Šabac, Srebrenik and Jajce. The next year,
Matthias initiated a criminal case against the Frankapans, the
Zrinskis and other leading Croatian and Slavonian magnates for their
alleged participation in the 1471 conspiracy. Most barons were
pardoned as soon as they consented to the introduction of a new land
tax. In 1481, for a loan of 100,000 florins, Matthias seized the
town of Mautern in
Sankt Pölten in Lower
Friedrich Mauerkircher, one of the two candidates to the Bishopric of
Mehmed II died on 3 May 1481. A civil war ensued in the
Ottoman Empire between his sons
Bayezid II and Cem. Defeated, Cem
fled to Rhodes, where the
Knights Hospitaller kept him in
custody. Matthias claimed Cem's custody in the hope of using him
to gain concessions from Bayezid, but Venice and Pope Innocent VIII
strongly opposed this plan. In late 1481, Hungarian auxiliary
troops supported Matthias's father-in-law
Ferdinand I of Naples
Ferdinand I of Naples to
reoccupy Otranto, which had been lost to the
Ottomans the year
Although the "Black Army" had already laid siege to Hainburg an der
Donau in January 1482, Matthias officially declared a new war on
Emperor Frederick three months later. He directed the siege in
person from the end of June and the town fell to him in October.
In the next three months, Matthias also captured Sankt Veit an der
Glan, Enzersdorf an der Fischa, and Kőszeg. The papal legate,
Bartolomeo Maraschi tried to mediate a peace treaty between Matthias
and the Emperor, but Matthias refused. Instead, he signed a
five-year truce with Sultan Bayezid.
Matthias's marriage to
Beatrice of Naples
Beatrice of Naples did not produce sons; he
tried to strengthen the position of his illegitimate son John
Corvinus. The child received Sáros Castle and inherited the
extensive domains of his grandmother Elizabeth Szilágyi with his
father's consent. Matthias also forced
Victor of Poděbrady to
Duchy of Troppau
Duchy of Troppau in
Silesia in favour of
John Corvinus in
1485. Queen Beatrice opposed Matthias's favouritism towards his
son. Even so, Matthias nominated her eight-year-old nephew
Ippolito d'Este Archbishop of Esztergom. The Pope refused to
confirm the child's appointment for years. The "Black Army"
Vienna in January 1485. The siege lasted for five
months and ended with the triumphal entry of Matthias, at the head of
8,000 veterans, into
Vienna on 1 June. The King soon moved the
royal court to the newly conquered town. He summoned the Estates
Vienna and forced them to swear loyalty to
Matthias, by the grace of God, king of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia,
Croatia, Rama, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Cumania, and Bulgaria, Duke
Silesia and Luxemburg and Margrave of
Moravia and Lusatia, for the
everlasting memory of the matter. It is fitting that kings and princes
who by heavenly decree are placed at the summit of the highest office,
be adorned not only by arms but also by laws and that the people
subjected to them, as well as the reins of authority, are restrained
by the strength of good and stable institutions rather than by the
harshness of absolute power and reprehensible abuse.
Preamble to the Decretum Maius
Upon the monarch's initiative, the Diet of 1485 passed the so-called
Decretum maius, a systematic law-code which replaced many previous
contradictory decrees. The law-code introduced substantial
reforms in the administration of justice; the Palatine's eyre and the
extraordinary county assemblies were abolished, which strengthened the
position of the county courts. Matthias also decreed that in
cases of the monarch's absence or minority, the Palatine was
authorized to rule as Regent.
Emperor Frederick persuaded six of the seven Prince-electors of the
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire to proclaim his son Maximilian
King of the Romans
King of the Romans on
16 February 1486. The Emperor, however, had failed to invite the
King of Bohemia—either Matthias or Vladislaus Jagiellon—to the
assembly. In an attempt to prevail on Vladislaus to protest,
Matthias invited him to a personal meeting. Although they
formed an alliance in
Jihlava in September, the Estates of Bohemia
refused to confirm it and Vladislaus recognized Maximilian's
In the meantime Matthias continued his war against the Emperor.
The "Black Army" seized several towns in Lower Austria, including Laa
an der Thaya, and Stein in 1485 and 1486. He set up his chancery
Austria in 1486 but he never introduced a separate seal for
this realm. Matthias assumed the title of
Duke of Austria
Duke of Austria at the
Diet of the Lower Austrian Estates in
Ebenfurth in 1487. He
Stephen Zápolya captain-general, Urban Nagylucsei
administrator of the Archdiocese of Vienna, and entrusted the defence
of the occupied towns and forts to Hungarian and Bohemian captains,
but otherwise continued to employ Emperor Frederick's officials who
accepted his rule. Wiener Neustadt, the last town resisting
Matthias in Lower Austria, fell to him on 17 August 1487. He
started negotiations with Duke Albert III of Saxony, who arrived at
the head of the imperial army to fight for Emperor Frederick III.
They signed a six-month armistice in
Sankt Pölten on 16 December,
which ended the war.
Last years (1487–1490)
Europe at the end of the reign of King Matthias
According to the contemporaneous Philippe de Commines, Matthias's
subjects feared their King in the last years of his life because he
rarely showed mercy towards those he suspected of treachery. He
had Archbishop Peter Váradi imprisoned in 1484 and ordered the
execution of his Chancellor of
Bohemia Jaroslav Boskovic in
1485. He also imprisoned Nicholas Bánfi, a member of a
magnate family, in 1487, although he had earlier avoided punishing the
old aristocracy. Bánfi's imprisonment seems to have been
connected to his marriage to a daughter of John the Mad, Duke of
Glogau because Matthias tried to seize this duchy for John
Corvinus. John the Mad entered into an alliance with the Duke of
Münsterberg Henry of Poděbrady, and declared a war on Matthias on 9
May. Six month later, the Black Army invaded and occupied
In the meantime, the citizens of Ancona, a town in the Papal States,
hoisted Matthias's flag in the hope he would protect them against
Pope Innocent VIII
Pope Innocent VIII soon protested, but Matthias refused
to reject the overture, stating that the link between him and the town
would never harm the interests of the Holy See. He also sent an
auxiliary troop to his father-in-law, who was waging a war against the
Holy See and Venice. The 1482 truce between Hungary and the
Ottoman Empire was prolonged for two years in 1488. On this
occasion, it was stipulated that the
Ottomans were to refrain from
Wallachia and Moldavia. The following year, Matthias
granted two domains to
Stephen the Great
Stephen the Great of
Matthias, who suffered from gout, could not walk and was carried in a
litter after March 1489. Hereafter, his succession caused
bitter conflicts between Queen Beatrice and John Corvinus.
Matthias asked Beatrice's brother Alfonso, Duke of Calabria, to
persuade her not to strive for the Crown, stating that the "Hungarian
people are capable of killing up unto the last man rather than submit
to the government of a woman". To strengthen his
illegitimate son's position, Matthias even proposed withdrawing from
Austria and to confirm Emperor Frederick's right to succeede him,
provided the Emperor was willing to grant
Bosnia to John
Corvinus with the title of King.
Matthias participated in the lengthy
Palm Sunday ceremony in
1490, although he had felt so ill that morning that he could not eat
breakfast. Around noon, he tasted a fig that proved to be
rotten and he became very agitated and suddenly felt faint. The
next day he was unable to speak. After two days of suffering,
Matthias died in the morning of 6 April. According to
Professor Frigyes Korányi, Matthias died of a stroke; Dr. Herwig
Egert does not exclude the possibility of poisoning. Matthias's
funeral was held in St. Stephen's Cathedral,
Vienna and he was buried
Székesfehérvár Cathedral on 24 or 25 April 1490.
Matthias's illegitimate son,
John Corvinus triumphed in
Vienna in 1485
Matthias was the first non-Italian monarch promoting the spread of
Renaissance style in his realm. His marriage to Beatrice of
Naples strengthened the influence of contemporaneous Italian art and
scholarship, and it was under his reign that Hungary became the
first land outside Italy to embrace the Renaissance. The earliest
Renaissance style buildings and works outside Italy was
in Hungary. The Italian scholar
Marsilio Ficino introduced
Matthias to Plato's ideas of a philosopher-king uniting wisdom and
strength in himself, which fascinated Matthias. Matthias is the
main character in Aurelio Lippo Brandolini's Republics and Kingdoms
Compared, a dialogue on the comparison of the two forms of
government. According to Brandolini, Matthias said a monarch
"is at the head of the law and rules over it" when summing up his own
concepts of state.
Matthias also cultivated traditional art. Hungarian epic poems
and lyric songs were often sung at his court. He was proud of his
role as the defender of Roman Catholicism against the
Ottomans and the
Hussites. He initiated theological debates, for instance on the
doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, and surpassed both the Pope and
his legate "with regard to religious observance", according to the
latter. Matthias issued coins in the 1460s bearing an image of
the Virgin Mary, demonstrating his special devotion to her cult.
Upon Matthias's initiative, Archbishop John Vitéz and Bishop Janus
Pope Paul II
Pope Paul II to authorize them to set up a
Bratislava in Slovakia) on 29 May
Academia Istropolitana was closed shortly after the
Archbishop's death. Matthias was contemplating establishing
a new university in
Buda but this plan was not accomplished.
Buda Castle and Visegrád
Matthias started at least two major building projects. The works
Visegrád began in about 1479. Two new wings and a
hanging garden were built at the royal castle of Buda, and the palace
Visegrád was rebuilt in
Renaissance style. Matthias
appointed the Italian
Chimenti Camicia and the Dalmatian Giovanni
Dalmata to direct these projects.
Matthias commissioned the leading Italian artists of his age to
embellish his palaces: for instance, the sculptor Benedetto da Majano
and the painters
Filippino Lippi and
Andrea Mantegna worked for
him. A copy of Mantegna's portrait of Matthias survived.
Matthias also hired the Italian military engineer Aristotele
Fioravanti to direct the rebuilding of the forts along the southern
frontier. He had new monasteries built in Late Gothic style for
Franciscans in Kolozsvár,
Szeged and Hunyad, and for the Paulines
Main article: Bibliotheca Corviniana
The Royal Palace in Buda, engraving from the 1480s
Renaissance palaces of the summer residence at Visegrád,
engraving from the 1480s
Matthias started the systematic collection of books after the arrival
of his first librarian, Galeotto Marzio, a friend of Janus Pannonius
Ferrara in around 1465. The exchange of letters between
Taddeo Ugoleto, who succeeded Marzio in 1471, and Francesco Bandini
contributed to the development of the royal library because the latter
regularly informed his friend of new manuscripts. Matthias also
employed scriptors, illuminators, and book-binders. Although the
exact number of his books is unknown, his
Bibliotheca Corviniana was
one of Europe's largest collections of books when he died.
According to Marcus Tanne, the surviving 216 volumes of the King's
library "show that Matthias had the literary tastes of a classic
'alpha male' ", who preferred secular books to devotional works. For
instance, a Latin translation of Xenophon's biography of Cyrus the
Great, Quintus Curtius Rufus's book of Alexander the Great, and a
military treatise by the contemporaneous
Roberto Valturio survived.
Matthias enjoyed reading, as demonstrated by a letter in which he
thanked the Italian scholar
Pomponio Leto who had sent him Silius
Italicus's work of the Second Punic War.
Patron of scholars
Matthias enjoyed the company of Humanists and had lively discussions
on various topics with them. The fame of his magnanimity
encouraged many scholars—mostly Italian—to settle in Buda.
Antonio Bonfini, Pietro Ranzano, Bartolomeo Fonzio, and Francesco
Bandini spent many years in Matthias's court. This circle of
educated men introduced the ideas of
Like all intellectuals of his age, Matthias was convinced that the
movements and combinations of the stars and planets exercised
influence on individuals' life and on the history of nations.
Galeotto Marzio described him as "king and astrologer", and Antonio
Bonfini said Matthias "never did anything without consulting the
stars". Upon his request, the famous astronomers of the age,
Johannes Regiomontanus and Marcin Bylica, set up an observatory in
Buda and installed it with astrolabes and celestial globes.
Regiomontanus dedicated his book on navigation that was used by
Christopher Columbus to Matthias. The King appointed Bylica as
his advisor in 1468. According to Scott E. Hendrix, "establishing
a prominent astrologer as his political advisor provided an
anxiety-reduction mechanism that boosted morale for the political
elites within his realm while strengthening his sense of control in
the face of the multiple adversities the Hungarians faced" in his
Ancestors of Matthias Corvinus
16. Costea (?)
2. John Hunyadi
1. Matthias Corvinus
24. Roland Szilágyi
12. Nicholas Szilágyi
6. Ladislaus Szilágyi
3. Elisabeth Szilágyi
28. Michael Bellyéni
14. Stephen Bellyéni
7. Catherina Bellyéni
Matthias's first wife
Elizabeth of Celje was a child when their
marriage took place in 1455. She died in September before the
marriage was consummated. His second wife Catherine of
Poděbrady was born in 1449. She died in childbirth in January or
February 1464. The child did not survive.
Matthias approached Emperor Frederick to suggest a new bride for him
among Frederick's relatives. Frederick II, Elector of Brandenburg
proposed one of his daughters to Matthias but the Hungarian Estates
opposed this plan. In an attempt to enter into an alliance with
King Casimir IV of Poland, Matthias proposed to the King's daughter
Hedvig but he was refused. During the 1470 meeting of
Emperor Frederick and Matthias, a marriage between Matthias and the
Emperor's five-year-old daughter Kunigunde of
Austria was also
discussed, but the Emperor was not willing to commit himself to the
Matthias's third wife
Beatrice of Naples
Beatrice of Naples was born in 1457. Their
engagement was announced in
Breslau on 30 October 1474, during the
siege of the town by Casimir IV and Vladislaus Jagiellon. Her
dowry amounted to 200,000 gold pieces. Beatrice survived her
husband and returned to Naples where she died in 1508.
Matthias's only known child
John Corvinus was born out of wedlock in
1473. His mother Barbara Edelpöck—the daughter of a
citizen of Stein in Lower Austria—met the King in early 1470.
John Corvinus died on 12 October 1504.
Matthias Corvinus Monument
Matthias Corvinus Monument in front of St. Michael's Church
According to Marcus Tanner, Matthias ruled "a European superpower" at
the end of his reign. His conquests, however, were lost within
months of his death. The burghers of
Breslau soon murdered his
captain Heinz Dompnig. The Emperor's rule in
Vienna and Wiener
Neustadt was restored without resistance.
Stephen Zápolya said the King's death relieved "Hungary of the
trouble and oppression from which it had suffered so far". Royal
authority quickly diminished because various claimants—John
Corvinus, Maximilian of the Romans, Vladislaus Jagiellon, and the
latter's younger brother, John Albert—were fighting for the
crown. Vladislaus Jagiellon triumphed because the barons
regarded him as a weak ruler and he gained the support of Matthias's
wealthy widow by promising to marry her. Vladislaus was
elected king after he promised he would abolish all "harmful
innovations" introduced by Matthias, especially the extraordinary
tax. Vladislaus could not finance the maintenance of the Black
Army and the unpaid mercenaries began plundering the countryside.
A royal force led by
Paul Kinizsi eliminated them on the river Száva
The burden of Matthias's wars and splendid royal court mainly fell on
the peasants, who paid at least 85% of the taxes. The
Chronicle of Dubnic, written in eastern Hungary in 1479, says "widows
and orphans" cursed the King for the high taxes. However, stories
about "Matthias the Just", who wandered in disguise throughout his
realm to deliver justice to his subjects, seem to have spread during
Matthias's reign. The saying "Dead is Matthias, lost is justice"
became popular soon after his death, reflecting that commoners were
more likely to have received a fair trial in Matthias's reign than
under his successors. Matthias is also the subject of
popular folk tales in Croatia, Hungary, Serbia, and Slovenia. For
instance, the philandering
King Matjaž is one of the sleeping kings
of Slovenian folklore.
Matthias Corvinus depicted in Johannes de Thurocz's Chronica
Matthias as young monarch (after a contemporary miniature from the
Corviniana collection of the British Museum)
The roughly 50-year-old Matthias in the style of Constantine the Great
(contemporary sculpture from
^ a b c Kubinyi 2008, p. 23.
^ Mureşanu 2001, p. 49.
^ Tanner 2009, pp. 27–28.
^ a b c Kubinyi 2008, p. 24.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 161.
^ a b Klaniczay 1992, p. 165.
^ Tanner 2009, p. 28.
^ Tanner 2009, p. 28, 86.
^ Mureşanu 2001, p. 174.
^ Engel 2001, p. 292.
^ a b c d e f Kubinyi 2008, p. 25.
^ Engel 2001, pp. 290–292.
^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 25–26.
^ Engel 2001, pp. 280, 296.
^ Engel 2001, p. 296.
^ Fine 1994, p. 569.
^ a b c d Cartledge 2011, p. 61.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 26.
^ a b c d e Engel 2001, p. 297.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 27.
^ Tanner 2009, p. 49.
^ a b Tanner 2009, p. 50.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 28.
^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 30.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 30.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 29.
^ a b Magaš 2007, p. 75.
^ a b c d e f g Engel 2001, p. 298.
^ a b c d e Kubinyi 2008, p. 31.
^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 31–32.
^ a b c d e f g h i Bartl et al. 2002, p. 51.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 54.
^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 53–54.
^ a b c d Engel 2001, p. 299.
^ a b c d e Kubinyi 2008, p. 57.
^ Engel 2001, p. 300.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 55.
^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 32.
^ Engel 2001, pp. 282, 299.
^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 33.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 56.
^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 57–58.
^ Fine 1994, p. 573.
^ a b c Kubinyi 2008, p. 58.
^ a b c d Engel 2001, p. 315.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 60.
^ Bak et al. 1996, p. 7.
^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 125–126.
^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 51.
^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 49.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 61.
^ Markó 2006, p. 244.
^ Engel 2001, pp. 311–313.
^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 122, 181.
^ Engel 2001, pp. 311–312.
^ Tanner 2009, p. 63.
^ a b c d e Kubinyi 2008, p. 67.
^ Engel 2001, pp. 310–311.
^ a b c Fine 1994, p. 574.
^ a b c d e f Kubinyi 2008, p. 65.
^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 63, 65.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 63.
^ Fine 1994, p. 575.
^ a b Engel 2001, p. 301.
^ a b c Cartledge 2011, p. 62.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 69.
^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 37.
^ a b c d Šmahel 2011, p. 167.
^ Engel 2001, p. 303.
^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 58, 68–69.
^ a b c d e f g h i j Bartl et al. 2002, p. 52.
^ a b c d Kubinyi 2008, p. 59.
^ a b c Engel 2001, p. 309.
^ a b c d Pop 2005, p. 264.
^ Florescu & McNally 1989, pp. 150–152.
^ Florescu & McNally 1989, p. 157.
^ Florescu & McNally 1989, p. 156.
^ Babinger 1978, p. 208.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 68.
^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 68–69, 71.
^ Fine 1994, pp. 584–585.
^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 39.
^ a b c d Fine 1994, p. 586.
^ Babinger 1978, p. 229.
^ a b c d E. Kovács 1990, p. 161.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 73.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 302.
^ a b c d e f g Engel 2001, p. 302.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 74.
^ Kubinyi 2004, p. 29.
^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 75–76.
^ Bak 1994, p. 73.
^ Kubinyi 2004, p. 32.
^ Bónis 1971, p. vi.
^ a b Babinger 1978, p. 231.
^ Babinger 1978, pp. 231–232.
^ Babinger 1978, p. 232.
^ Fine 1994, pp. 586–587.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 80.
^ Engel 2001, p. 449.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 81.
^ a b c Kubinyi 2008, p. 82.
^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 81–82.
^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 135.
^ Magaš 2007, p. 76.
^ Engel 2001, p. 307.
^ a b c d Bartl et al. 2002, p. 53.
^ Engel 2001, p. 310.
^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 77–78.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 76.
^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 61.
^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 78, 82.
^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 82–83.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 83.
^ a b c Pop 2005, p. 266.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 84.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 85.
^ a b c Engel 2001, p. 304.
^ E. Kovács 1990, pp. 100, 103.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 86.
^ a b c Kubinyi 2008, p. 88.
^ a b c E. Kovács 1990, p. 103.
^ a b c d Tanner 2009, p. 65.
^ Šmahel 2011, pp. 167–168.
^ Tanner 2009, p. 66.
^ a b c E. Kovács 1990, p. 104.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 87.
^ Magaš 2007, pp. 76–77.
^ Fine 1994, p. 590.
^ a b c Magaš 2007, p. 77.
^ a b c d Kubinyi 2008, p. 90.
^ a b c Kubinyi 2008, p. 89.
^ Tanner 2009, p. 79.
^ Šmahel 2011, p. 168.
^ Boubín 2011, pp. 173–174.
^ a b Boubín 2011, p. 174.
^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 108.
^ a b Tanner 2009, p. 70.
^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 91–92.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 92.
^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 92–93.
^ a b c d E. Kovács 1990, p. 158.
^ a b c d Kubinyi 2008, p. 93.
^ a b c d Engel 2001, p. 305.
^ Fine 1994, p. 588.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 108.
^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 95–96.
^ a b c Kubinyi 2008, p. 101.
^ Engel 2001, pp. 307–308.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 96.
^ a b c d e Kubinyi 2008, p. 97.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 100.
^ a b c Kubinyi 2008, p. 109.
^ a b c d Engel 2001, p. 308.
^ a b Pop 2005, p. 267.
^ Babinger 1978, p. 325.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 110.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 176.
^ Engel 2001, pp. 305–306.
^ a b Tanner 2009, p. 92.
^ Babinger 1978, pp. 351–352.
^ Florescu & McNally 1989, pp. 170–171.
^ Florescu & McNally 1989, p. 171.
^ Florescu & McNally 1989, pp. 171–175.
^ Pop 2005, pp. 264–265.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 136.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 137.
^ Tanner 2009, p. 108.
^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 67.
^ a b c d e Engel 2001, p. 306.
^ a b c d Kubinyi 2008, p. 98.
^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 118.
^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 119.
^ a b c E. Kovács 1990, p. 120.
^ a b c E. Kovács 1990, p. 109.
^ Cartledge 2011, p. 65.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 99.
^ a b E. Kovács 1990, p. 122.
^ a b Dörner 2005, p. 318.
^ Babinger 1978, pp. 374–376.
^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 142.
^ Babinger 1978, p. 404.
^ a b c E. Kovács 1990, p. 143.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 112.
^ a b c E. Kovács 1990, p. 125.
^ a b Engel 2001, p. 317.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 143.
^ Engel 2001, p. 313.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 138.
^ a b E. Kovács 1990, p. 127.
^ a b c Kubinyi 2008, p. 102.
^ Bak et al. 1996, p. 41.
^ a b c Engel 2001, p. 316.
^ a b Bak 1994, p. 74.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 146.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 147.
^ a b c d e E. Kovács 1990, p. 128.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 103.
^ Markó 2006, p. 242.
^ Bartl et al. 2002, p. 54.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 132.
^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 121, 132.
^ Teke 1981, p. 310.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 122.
^ a b c Teke 1981, p. 315.
^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 110.
^ a b E. Kovács 1990, p. 149.
^ Teke 1981, p. 314.
^ a b E. Kovács 1990, pp. 144–145.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 149.
^ a b Tanner 2009, p. 138.
^ Tanner 2009, p. 137.
^ a b Teke 1981, p. 316.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 148.
^ a b E. Kovács 1990, p. 187.
^ a b c d Kubinyi 2008, p. 150.
^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 150–151.
^ Teke 1981, p. 317.
^ a b c Cartledge 2011, p. 67.
^ Waldman & Farbaky 2011, p. Abstract.
^ Johnson 2007, p. 175.
^ Kaufmann 1995, p. 30.
^ Cacioppe 2007.
^ Rubinstein 1991, p. 35.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 164.
^ a b Klaniczay 1992, p. 173.
^ a b Klaniczay 1992, p. 168.
^ a b Tanner 2009, p. 99.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 184.
^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 182.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 169.
^ Bak 1994, p. 75.
^ E. Kovács 1990, pp. 177, 180–181.
^ a b c Engel 2001, p. 319.
^ E. Kovács 1990, pp. 180–181.
^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 171–172.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 172.
^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 181.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 183.
^ a b E. Kovács 1990, pp. 183–184.
^ Tanner 2009, p. 52.
^ Klaniczay 1992, pp. 166–167.
^ Tanner 2009, pp. 8–10.
^ Tanner 2009, p. 7.
^ a b Klaniczay 1992, p. 166.
^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 185.
^ Klaniczay 1992, p. 167.
^ Engel 2001, p. 321.
^ Hendrix 2013, p. 59.
^ Hendrix 2013, pp. 63, 65.
^ Hendrix 2013, p. 57.
^ Hendrix 2013, p. 58.
^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 13.
^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 203–204.
^ Mureşanu 2001, pp. 43–44.
^ Tanner 2009, p. 48.
^ a b c E. Kovács 1990, p. 26.
^ E. Kovács 1990, p. 105.
^ Teke 1981, p. 290.
^ Tanner 2009, p. 78.
^ Tanner 2009, p. 80.
^ Teke 1981, p. 296.
^ Tanner 2009, p. 88.
^ Tanner 2009, p. 150.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 134.
^ Tanner 2009, p. 94.
^ Tanner 2009, p. xi.
^ Tanner 2009, p. xv.
^ Tanner 2009, pp. 151–152.
^ a b Engel 2001, p. 345.
^ a b c d Cartledge 2011, p. 69.
^ Engel 2001, p. 344.
^ Bak 1994, p. 76.
^ Teke 1981, p. 321.
^ Cartledge 2011, pp. 66–67.
^ Bak 1994, p. 71.
^ Kubinyi 2008, p. 166.
^ Kubinyi 2008, pp. 174–175.
^ Cartledge 2011, p. 63.
^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p. 177.
^ Lukács 2010, pp. 371–379.
Babinger, Franz (1978). Mehmed the Conqueror and His Time. Princeton
University Press. ISBN 0-691-09900-6.
Bak, János (1994). "The Late Medieval period (1382–1526)". In
Sugar, Peter F.; Hanák, Péter; Frank, Tibor. A History of Hungary.
Indiana University Press. pp. 54–82.
Bak, János M.; Domonkos, Leslie S.; Harvey, Paul B.; Garay, Kathleen
(1996). The Laws of the Medieval Kingdom of Hungary, 1458–1490 (The
Laws of Hungary, Series I: Volume3). Charles Schlacks, Jr.
Bartl, Július; Čičaj, Viliam; Kohútova, Mária; Letz, Róbert;
Segeš, Vladimír; Škvarna, Dušan (2002). Slovak History: Chronology
& Lexicon. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Slovenské Pedegogické
Nakladatel'stvo. ISBN 0-86516-444-4.
Bónis, György (1971). A jogtudó értelmiség a Mohács előtti
Magyarországon [Hungarian intelligentsia having legal expertise in
the period before the battle of Mohács] (in Hungarian). Akadémiai
Boubín, Jaroslav (2011). "The Bohemian Crownlands under the
Jagiellons (1471–1526)". In Pánek, Jaroslav; Tůma, Oldřich. A
History of the Czech Lands. Charles University in Prague.
pp. 173–187. ISBN 978-80-246-1645-2.
Cacioppe, Ron (2007). "Marsilio Ficino: Magnus of the Renaissance,
Shaper of Leaders". Integral Leadership Review. Integral Publishers. 7
(2). ISSN 1554-0790.
Cartledge, Bryan (2011). The Will to Survive: A History of Hungary. C.
Hurst & Co. ISBN 978-1-84904-112-6.
Dörner, Anton E. (2005). "
Transylvania between stability and crisis
(1457–1541)". In Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Nägler, Thomas. The History of
Transylvania, Vol. I. (until 1541). Romanian Cultural Institute.
pp. 299–348. ISBN 973-7784-04-9.
E. Kovács, Péter (1990).
Matthias Corvinus (in Hungarian). Officina
Nova. ISBN 963-7835-49-0.
Engel, Pál (2001). The Realm of St Stephen: A History of Medieval
Hungary, 895–1526. I.B. Tauris Publishers.
Fine, John V. A (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey
from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. The
University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08260-4.
Florescu, Radu R.; McNally, Raymond T. (1989). Dracula Prince of Many
Faces: His Life and His Ties. Back Bay Books.
Hendrix, Scott E. (2013). "Astrological forecasting and the Turkish
menace in the
Renaissance Balkans" (PDF). Anthropology. Universitatis
Miskolciensis. 13 (2): 57–72. ISSN 1452-7243.
Johnson, Paul (2007). The Renaissance: A Short History. Random House.
p. 175. ISBN 978-0-307-43255-1.
Kaufmann, Thomas DeCosta (1995). Court, Cloister, and City: The Art
and Culture of Central Europe, 1450–1800. University of Chicago
Press. p. 30. ISBN 0-226-42729-3.
Klaniczay, Tibor (1992). "The age of Matthias Corvinus". In Porter,
Roy; Teich, Mikuláš. The
Renaissance in National Context. Cambridge
University Press. pp. 164–179. ISBN 0-521-36970-3.
Kubinyi, András (2004). "Adatok a Mátyás-kori királyi kancellária
és az 1464. évi kancelláriai reform történetéhez [On the history
of the Royal Chancellery in the reign of
Matthias Corvinus and of the
1464 reform of the chancellery]" (PDF). Publicationes Universitatis
Miskolciensis. Sectio Philosophica (in Hungarian). Universitatis
Miskolciensis. IX (1): 25–58. ISSN 1219-543X.
Kubinyi, András (2008). Matthias Rex. Balassi Kiadó.
Lukács, István (2010). "King
Matthias Corvinus in the Collective
Memory of the Slovenian Nation". Studia Slavica 55 (2). Akadémiai
Kiadó. pp. 371–379.
Magaš, Branka (2007).
Croatia Through History. SAQI.
Markó, László (2006). A magyar állam főméltóságai Szent
Istvántól napjainkig: Életrajzi Lexikon [Great Officers of State in
Hungary from King Saint Stephen to Our Days: A Biographical
Encyclopedia] (in Hungarian). Helikon Kiadó.
Mureşanu, Camil (2001). John Hunyadi: Defender of Christendom. The
Center for Romanian Studies. ISBN 973-9432-18-2.
Pop, Ioan-Aurel (2005). "The Romanians in the 14th–16th centuries
from the "Christian Republic" to the "Restoration of Dacia"". In Pop,
Ioan-Aurel; Bolovan, Ioan. History of Romania: Compendium. Romanian
Cultural Institute (Center for Transylvanian Studies).
pp. 209–314. ISBN 978-973-7784-12-4.
Rubinstein, Nicolai (1991). "Italian political thought, 1450–1530".
In Burns, J. H.; Goldie, Mark. The Cambridge History of Political
Thought, 1450–1700. Cambridge University Press. pp. 30–65.
Šmahel, František (2011). "The
Hussite Revolution (1419–1471)". In
Pánek, Jaroslav; Tůma, Oldřich. A History of the Czech Lands.
Charles University in Prague. pp. 149–169.
Tanner, Marcus (2009). The Raven King:
Matthias Corvinus and the Fate
of his Lost Library. Yale University Press.
Teke, Zsuzsa (1981). "A középkori magyar állam virágzása és
bukása, 1301–1526: 1458–1490 [Flourishing and Fall of Medieval
Hungary, 1301–1526: 1458–1490]". In Solymosi, László.
Magyarország történeti kronológiája, I: a kezdetektől 1526-ig
[Historical Chronology of Hungary, Volume I: From the Beginning to
1526] (in Hungarian). Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 79–187.
Waldman, Louis Alexander; Farbaky, Péter (2011). Italy & Hungary:
Humanism and Art in the Early Renaissance. Harvard University Graduate
School of Design. ISBN 0-674-06346-5.
Bárány, Attila; Györkös, Attila, eds. (2008). Matthias and his
Legacy: Cultural and Political Encounters between East and West.
University of Debrecen. ISBN 978-963-473-276-1.
Birnbaum, Marianna D. (1996). The Orb and the Pen: Janus Pannonius,
Matthias Corvinus and the
Buda Court. Balassi Kiadó.
Farbaky, Péter; Spekner, Enikő; Szende, Katalin; et al., eds.
(2008). Matthias Corvinus, the King: Tradition and Renewal in the
Hungarian Royal Court 1458–1490. Budapest History Museum.
Farbaky, Peter; Waldman, Louis A. (2011). Italy & Hungary:
Humanism and Art in the Early Renaissance. Harvard University Press.
Feuer-Tóth, Rózsa (1990). Art and Humanism in Hungary in the Age of
Matthias Corvinus. Akadémiai Kiadó. ISBN 963-05-5646-4.
Gastgeber, Christian; Mitsiou, Ekaterini; Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Popović,
Mihailo; Preiser-Kapeller, Johannes; Simon, Alexandru (2011). Matthias
Corvinus und seine Zeit: Europa am Übergang vom Mittelalter zur
Neuzeit zwischen Wien und Konstantinopel [
Matthias Corvinus and His
Time: Europe in Transition from the Middle Ages to Modern Times
Vienna and Constantinople] (in German). David Brown Book
Company. ISBN 978-3-7001-6891-1.
Klaniczay, Tibor; Jankovics, József (1994).
Matthias Corvinus and the
Humanism in Central Europe. Balassi Kiadó.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Matthias Corvinus.
The Squash and the Colt, a folk tale reflecting Matthias' wisdom and
sense of justice
His picture on the Hungarian 1000 forint banknote
Bibliotheca Corviniana Digitalis – National Széchényi
Map of Europe in 1500.
"Matthias Corvinus". Catholic Encyclopedia. 1913.
House of Hunyadi
Born: 23 February 1443 Died: 6 April 1490
Title last held by
King of Hungary
King of Hungary and Croatia
King of Bohemia
Duke of Austria
Monarchs of Hungary
House of Árpád
Álmos (c. 850–c. 895)
Árpád (c. 895–c. 907)
Zoltán (c. 907–c. 947)
Fajsz (c. 947–c. 955)
Taksony (c. 955–c. 972)
Géza (c. 972–997)
Stephen I (1000–1038)
Peter (1038–1041; 1044–1046)
Andrew I (1046–1060)
Béla I (1060–1063)
Géza I (1074–1077)
Ladislaus I (1077–1095)
Stephen II (1116–1131)
Béla II (1131–1141)
Géza II (1141–1162)
Stephen III (1162–1172)
Ladislaus II (1162–1163)
Stephen IV (1163–1165)
Béla III (1172–1196)
Ladislaus III (1204–1205)
Andrew II (1205–1235)
Béla IV (1235–1270)
Stephen V (1270–1272)
Ladislaus IV (1272–1290)
Andrew III (1290–1301)
House of Přemysl
House of Wittelsbach
Capetian House of Anjou
Charles I (1308–1342)
Louis I (1342–1382)
Mary (1382–1385; 1386–1395)
Charles II (1385–1386)
House of Luxembourg
House of Habsburg
Ladislaus V (1440–1457)
House of Jagiellon
Vladislaus I (1440–1444)
House of Hunyadi
Matthias I (1458–1490)
House of Jagiellon
Vladislaus II (1490–1516)
Louis II (1516–1526)
House of Zápolya
John Sigismund (1540–1570)
House of Habsburg
Ferdinand I (1526–1564)
Matthias II (1608–1619)
Ferdinand II (1619–1637)
Ferdinand III (1637–1657)
Ferdinand IV (1647–1654)
Leopold I (1657–1705)
Joseph I (1705–1711)
Charles III (1711–1740)
Maria Theresa (1740–1780)
House of Habsburg-Lorraine
Joseph II (1780–1790)
Leopold II (1790–1792)
Ferdinand V (1835–1848)
Francis Joseph (1848–1916)
Charles IV (1916–1918)
Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics.
Monarchs of Bohemia
c. 870–1198 (Dukes)
Boleslaus the Brave1
Vratislaus II (I)2
Svatopluk the Lion
Vladislaus II (I)2
Conrad II Otto
Vladislaus III Henry
Henry the Carinthian
John the Blind
Charles IV (I)
Ladislaus the Posthumous
Charles Albert (II)3, 5
Francis II (I)
Charles I (III)
1 Duke of Poland from the Piast dynasty
2 During his reign obtained non-hereditary royal title
4 Elector Palatine from the Wittelsbach dynasty
Prince-elector of Bavaria from the Wittelsbach dynasty
ISNI: 0000 0001 2118 5284
BNF: cb11969220f (data)