Matthew Calbraith Perry[Note 1] (April 10, 1794 – March 4, 1858) was
a Commodore of the
United States Navy who commanded ships in several
wars, including the
War of 1812
War of 1812 and the Mexican–American War
(1846–48). He played a leading role in the opening of
Japan to the
West with the
Convention of Kanagawa
Convention of Kanagawa in 1854.
Perry was interested in the education of naval officers, and assisted
in the development of an apprentice system that helped establish the
curriculum at the
United States Naval Academy. With the advent of the
steam engine, he became a leading advocate of modernizing the US Navy
and came to be considered The Father of the Steam Navy in the United
1 Early life
2 Naval career
2.1 Opening of Key West
2.2 Father of the Steam Navy
2.3 Promotion to Commodore
2.4 Mexican–American War
3 The Perry Expedition: Opening of Japan, 1852–1854
3.1 First visit, 1853
3.2 Second visit, 1854
3.3 Return to the United States, 1855
3.4 Last years
4 Personal life
5 Perry's flag and legacy
7 Fictional depictions
8 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
Matthew Perry was the son of Sarah Wallace (née Alexander)
(1768–1830) and Navy Captain Christopher Raymond Perry
(1761–1818). His siblings included Oliver Hazard Perry, Raymond
Henry Jones Perry, Sarah Wallace Perry, Anna Marie Perry (mother of
George Washington Rodgers), James Alexander Perry, Nathaniel Hazard
Perry, and Jane Tweedy Perry (who married William Butler).
His mother was born in County Down,
Ireland and was a descendant of an
uncle of William Wallace,:54 the Scottish knight and landowner who
is known for leading a resistance during the Wars of Scottish
Independence and is today remembered as a patriot and national
hero. His paternal grandparents were James Freeman Perry, a
surgeon, and Mercy Hazard, a descendant of Governor Thomas Prence,
a co-founder of Eastham, Massachusetts, who was a political leader in
both the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies, and governor of
Plymouth; and a descendant of
Mayflower passengers, both of whom were
signers of the
Mayflower Compact, Elder William Brewster, the Pilgrim
colonist leader and spiritual elder of the Plymouth Colony, and George
Soule, through Susannah Barber Perry.
In 1809, Perry received a midshipman's warrant in the Navy, and was
initially assigned to the USS Revenge, under the command of his
elder brother. His early career saw him assigned to several ships,
including the USS President, where he served as an aide to
Commodore John Rodgers. The President was in a victorious engagement
over a British vessel, HMS Little Belt, shortly before the War of
1812 was officially declared. Perry continued aboard President during
War of 1812
War of 1812 and was present at the engagement with
HMS Belvidera. Rodgers fired the first shot of the war at the
Belvidera. A later shot resulted in a cannon bursting, killing several
men and wounding Rodgers, Perry and others. Perry transferred to
the USS United States, commanded by Stephen Decatur, and saw
little fighting in the war afterwards, since the ship was trapped in
port at New London, Connecticut.
Following the signing of the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the war,
Perry served on various vessels in the Mediterranean. Perry served
William Bainbridge during the Second Barbary War. He
then served in African waters aboard USS Cyane during its patrol off
Liberia from 1819–1820. After that cruise, Perry was sent to
suppress piracy and the slave trade in the West Indies. Later during
this period, while in port in Russia, Perry was offered a commission
in the Imperial Russian Navy, which he declined.
Opening of Key West
Perry commanded the USS Shark, a schooner with 12 guns, in
1821–1825. In 1763, when Britain possessed Florida, the Spanish
contended that the
Florida Keys were part of
Cuba and North Havana.
Certain elements within the
United States felt that
Key West (which
was then named Cayo Hueso, meaning "Bone Key") could potentially be
the "Gibraltar of the West" because it guarded the northern edge of
the 90 miles (140 km) wide Straits of Florida—the deep water
route between the
Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico.
In 1815 the Spanish governor in
Havana deeded the island of Key West
to Juan Pablo Salas of Saint Augustine. After
Florida was transferred
to the United States, Salas sold
Key West to American businessman John
W. Simonton for $2,000 in 1821. Simonton lobbied the U.S. Government
to establish a naval base on
Key West both to take advantage of its
strategic location and to bring law and order to the area.
On March 25, 1822, Perry sailed Shark to
Key West and planted the U.S.
flag, physically claiming the Keys as
United States territory. Perry
renamed Cayo Hueso "Thompson's Island" for the Secretary of the Navy
Smith Thompson and the harbor "Port Rodgers" for the president of the
Board of Navy Commissioners. Neither name stuck however.
From 1826 to 1827, Perry acted as fleet captain for Commodore Rodgers.
Perry returned to
Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston, South Carolina for shore duty in 1828,
and in 1830 took command of a sloop-of-war, the USS Concord. He
spent the years 1833–1837 as second officer of the New York Navy
Yard (later the Brooklyn Navy Yard), gaining promotion to captain at
the end of this tour.
Father of the Steam Navy
Commodore Matthew C. Perry
U.S. postage, 1953 issue
Perry had an ardent interest and saw the need for the naval education,
supporting an apprentice system to train new seamen, and helped
establish the curriculum for the
United States Naval Academy. He was a
vocal proponent of modernizing the Navy. Once promoted to captain, he
oversaw construction of the Navy's second steam frigate
USS Fulton (1837), which he commanded after its completion.
He was called "The Father of the Steam Navy", and he organized
America's first corps of naval engineers, and conducted the first U.S.
naval gunnery school while commanding Fulton in 1839–1841 off Sandy
Hook on the coast of New Jersey.
Promotion to Commodore
Perry received the title of Commodore in June 1840, when the Secretary
of the Navy appointed him commandant of New York Navy Yard. The
United States Navy did not have ranks higher than captain until 1857,
so the title of commodore carried considerable importance. Officially,
an officer would revert to his permanent rank after the squadron
command assignment had ended, although in practice officers who
received the title of commodore retained the title for life, and Perry
was no exception.
During his tenure in Brooklyn, he lived in
Quarters A in Vinegar Hill,
a building which still stands today. In 1843, Perry took command of
the African Squadron, whose duty was to interdict the slave trade
under the Webster-Ashburton Treaty, and continued in this endeavor
Perry attacked and took San Juan Bautista (
Villahermosa today) in the
Second Battle of Tabasco.
Mexican–American War and Battles of the Mexican–American
In 1845, Commodore David Conner's length of service in command of the
Home Squadron had come to an end. However, the coming of the
Mexican–American War persuaded the authorities not to change
commanders in the face of the war. Perry, who would eventually succeed
Conner, was made second-in-command and captained the
USS Mississippi. Perry captured the Mexican city of Frontera,
demonstrated against Tabasco, being defeated in San Juan Bautista by
Colonel Juan Bautista Traconis in the First Battle of Tabasco, and
took part in the capture of
Tampico (November 14, 1846). He had to
Norfolk, Virginia to make repairs and was still there when
the amphibious landings at Veracruz took place. His return to the U.S.
gave his superiors the chance to finally give him orders to succeed
Commodore Conner in command of the Home Squadron. Perry returned to
the fleet during the siege of Veracruz and his ship supported the
siege from the sea. After the fall of Veracruz,
Winfield Scott moved
inland and Perry moved against the remaining Mexican port cities.
Perry assembled the
Mosquito Fleet and captured Tuxpan in April, 1847.
In July 1847 he attacked
Tabasco personally, leading a 1,173-man
landing force ashore and attacking the city of San Juan Bautista
Villahermosa today) from land  defeating the Mexican forces and
taking the city.
The Perry Expedition: Opening of Japan, 1852–1854
Perry Expedition and Bakumatsu
Japanese woodblock print of Perry (center) and other high-ranking
In 1852, Perry was assigned a mission by American President Millard
Fillmore to force the opening of Japanese ports to American trade,
through the use of gunboat diplomacy if necessary. The growing
commerce between the
United States and China, the presence of American
whalers in waters offshore Japan, and the increasing monopolization of
potential coaling stations by the British and French in Asia were all
contributing factors. The Americans were also driven by concepts of
manifest destiny and the desire to expand western civilization to what
they perceived as more backward Asian nations. The Japanese were
forewarned by the Dutch of Perry’s voyage, but were unwilling to
change their 250-year-old policy of national seclusion. There was
considerable internal debate in
Japan on how best to meet this
potential threat to Japan’s economic and political sovereignty.
On November 24, 1852, Perry embarked from
Norfolk, Virginia for Japan,
in command of the
East India Squadron
East India Squadron in pursuit of a Japanese trade
treaty. He chose the paddle-wheeled steam frigate Mississippi as his
flagship, and made port calls at
Madeira (December 11–15), St Helena
Cape Town (January 24 – February 3), Mauritius
Ceylon (March 10–15),
Singapore (March 25–29)
Hong Kong (April 7–28), where he met with
American-born Sinologist Samuel Wells Williams, who provided Chinese
language translations of his official letters, and where he
rendezvoused with Plymouth. He continued to
Shanghai (May 4–17),
where he met with the Dutch-born American diplomat, Anton L. C.
Portman, who translated his official letters into the Dutch language,
and where he rendezvoused with Susquehanna.
Perry then switched his flag to Susquehanna and made call at
Great Lewchew Island (now Okinawa) from May 17–26. Ignoring the
Satsuma Domain to the islands, he demanded an audience with
the Ryukyuan King
Shō Tai at
Shuri Castle and secured promises that
the Kingdom would be open to trade with the United States. Continuing
on to the Ogasawara islands in mid-June, Perry met with the local
inhabitants and purchased a plot of land.
First visit, 1853
Perry finally reached Uraga at the entrance to
Edo Bay in
July 8, 1853. His actions at this crucial juncture were informed by a
careful study of Japan's previous contacts with Western ships and what
he knew about the Japanese hierarchical culture. As he arrived, Perry
ordered his ships to steam past Japanese lines towards the capital of
Edo, and turn their guns towards the town of Uraga. Perry refused
Japanese demands to leave, or to proceed to Nagasaki, the only
Japanese port open to foreigners.
Perry attempted to intimidate the Japanese by presenting them a white
flag and a letter which told them that in case they chose to fight,
the Americans would destroy them. He also fired blank shots
from his 73 cannons, which he claimed was in celebration of the
American Independence Day. Perry's ships were equipped with new
Paixhans shell guns, cannons capable of wreaking great explosive
destruction with every shell. He also ordered his ship boats
to commence survey operations of the coastline and surrounding waters
over the objections of local officials.
Commodore Perry's visit in 1854
In the meantime, the Japanese government was paralyzed due to the
incapacitation by illness of shōgun
Tokugawa Ieyoshi and by political
indecision on how to handle the unprecedented threat to the nation's
capital. On July 11,
Abe Masahiro temporized, deciding that
simply accepting a letter from the Americans would not constitute a
violation of Japanese sovereignty. The decision was conveyed to Uraga,
and Perry was asked to move his fleet slightly southwest to the beach
Kurihama (in modern-day Yokosuka), where he was allowed to land on
July 14, 1853. After presenting the letter to attending delegates,
Perry departed for Hong Kong, promising to return the following year
for the Japanese reply.
Second visit, 1854
Commodore Perry's fleet for his second visit to Japan, 1854
An exact replica of the Gokoku-ji Bell which Commodore Perry brought
back from Okinawa, claiming it was a gift from the Ryukyu Kingdom.
Currently stationed at the entrance of
Bancroft Hall at the United
States Naval Academy in Annapolis, MD. The original bell was returned
Okinawa in 1987.
On his way back to Japan, Perry anchored off of
Keelung in Formosa,
known today as Taiwan, for ten days. Perry and crewmembers landed on
Formosa and investigated the potential of mining the coal deposits in
that area. He emphasized in his reports that
Formosa provided a
convenient, mid-way trade location. Perry's reports noted that the
island was very defensible and it could serve as a base for
exploration in a similar way that
Cuba had done for the Spanish in the
Formosa could help the
United States counter
European monopolization of the major trade routes. The United States
government failed to respond to Perry's proposal to claim sovereignty
Perry returned on 13 February 1854, after only half a year rather than
the full year promised, and with ten ships and 1600 men. Both actions
were calculated to put even more pressure onto the Japanese. After
initial resistance, Perry was permitted to land at Kanagawa, near the
site of present-day
Yokohama on March 8, 1854, where, after
negotiations lasting for around a month, the Convention of Kanagawa
was signed on March 31, 1854. Perry signed as American
plenipotentiary, and Hayashi Akira, also known by his title of
Daigaku-no-kami signed for the Japanese side.
Perry departed, mistakenly believing the agreement had been made with
imperial representatives, not understanding the true position of the
shōgun, the de facto ruler of Japan. Perry then visited Hakodate
on the northern island of
Hokkaido and Shimoda, the two ports which
the treaty stipulated would be opened to visits by American ships.
Return to the United States, 1855
When Perry returned to the
United States in 1855, Congress voted to
grant him a reward of $20,000 (US$ 525,000 in 2018) in appreciation of
his work in Japan. He used part of this money to prepare and publish a
report on the expedition in three volumes, titled Narrative of the
Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan. He was
also promoted to the grade of rear-admiral on the retired list (when
his health began to fail) as a reward for his service in the Far
Matthew C. Perry. 1855–56.
Perry spent his last years preparing for the publication of his
account of the
Japan expedition, announcing its completion on December
28, 1857. Two days later he was detached from his last post, an
assignment to the Naval Efficiency Board. He died awaiting further
orders on March 4, 1858, in New York City, of rheumatic fever that had
spread to the heart, compounded by complications of gout and
Living in his adopted home of New York City, Perry's health began to
fail as he suffered from cirrhosis of the liver due to heavy drinking.
Perry was known to have struggled with alcoholism, which compounded
the health complications leading to his death. He also suffered
severe arthritis that left him in frequent pain, and on occasion
precluded him from his duties.
Initially interred in a vault on the grounds of St. Mark's Church
in-the-Bowery, in New York City, his remains were moved to the Island
Newport, Rhode Island
Newport, Rhode Island on March 21, 1866, along with
those of his daughter, Anna, who died in 1839.
In 1873, an elaborate monument was placed by his widow over his grave
Commodore Perry was married to Jane Slidell Perry (1816–1864) and
had ten children:
Jane Slidell Perry (c. 1817)
Sarah Perry (1818–1905), who married Col. Robert Smith Rodgers
Jane Hazard Perry (1819–1881), who married John Hone (1819–1891)
Frederic de Peyster
Frederic de Peyster (1796–1882)
Matthew Calbraith Perry (1821–1873), a captain in the United States
Navy and veteran of the Mexican War and the Civil War.
Susan Murgatroyde Perry (c. 1825)
Oliver Hazard Perry
Oliver Hazard Perry (c. 1825–1870)
William Frederick Perry (1828–1884), a 2nd Lieutenant, United States
Marine Corps, 1847-1848.
Caroline Slidell Perry Belmont (1829–1892), who married financier
Isabella Bolton Perry (1834–1912), who married George T. Tiffany
Anna Rodgers Perry (c. 1838)
Perry's flag and legacy
Commodore Perry's flag (upper left corner) was flown from Annapolis to
Tokyo for display at the surrender ceremonies which officially ended
World War II
A replica of Perry's US flag is on display on board the
USS Missouri (BB-63) memorial in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii,
attached to the bulkhead just inboard of the Japanese surrender
signing site on the starboard side of the ship. The original flag was
brought from the
U.S. Naval Academy Museum
U.S. Naval Academy Museum to
Japan for the Japan
surrender ceremony and was displayed on that occasion at the request
of Douglas MacArthur, who was himself a blood-relative of Perry.
Photographs of the signing ceremony show that this flag was displayed
properly as all flags on vessels (known as ensigns) on the starboard
side are, with the stars in the upper right corner. The cloth of the
historic flag was so fragile that the conservator at the Museum
directed that a protective backing be sewn on it. Today, the flag
is preserved and on display at the Naval Academy Museum in Annapolis,
The pattern for the Union canton on this flag is different from the
standard 31-star flag then in use. Perry's flag had columns of five
stars save the last column which had six stars. Perry's US flag was
unique when it was first flown in Tokyo Bay in 1853–1854. The
replica of this historic flag on board the USS Missouri memorial is
also placed in the same location on the bulkhead of the veranda deck
where it had been initially mounted on the morning of September 2,
1945 by Chief Carpenter Fred Miletich.
Perry's statue in Touro Park
In his birthplace, Newport, Rhode Island, there is a memorial plaque
in Trinity Church, Newport, and a statue of Perry in Touro Park. It
was designed by John Quincy Adams Ward, erected in 1869, and dedicated
by his daughter. He was buried in Newport's Island Cemetery, near his
parents and brother. There are also exhibits and research collections
concerning his life at the
Naval War College Museum
Naval War College Museum and at the Newport
There is a Perry Park in
Kurihama which has a monolith monument
(dedicated July 14, 1901) to the landing of Perry's forces.
Within the park there is a small museum dedicated to the events of
1854. Admission is free, and the museum is open from 10 a.m. to
4 p.m., seven days a week.
Matthew C. Perry
Matthew C. Perry Elementary and High School can be found on Marine
Corps Air Station, Iwakuni, Japan.
The U.S. Navy's Perry-class frigates (purchased in the 1970s and
1980s) were named after Perry's brother, Commodore Oliver Hazard
On December 2, 2008,
Secretary of the Navy
Secretary of the Navy
Donald C. Winter
Donald C. Winter announced
that the ninth ship of the Lewis and Clark class of
dry-cargo-ammunition vessels would be named USNS Matthew Perry
(T-AKE-9) for Commodore Perry.
Japanese woodblock print of Commodore Perry, c. 1854. The caption
reads "North American" (top line, written from right to left in Kanji)
and "Perry's portrait" (first line, written from top to bottom).
The story of the opening of
Japan was the basis of Stephen Sondheim
and John Weidman's Pacific Overtures.
Richard Boone played Commodore Perry in the highly fictionalized
1981 film The Bushido Blade.
The coming of Commodore Perry's ships was indirectly part of a plot in
one of the arcs of the anime series
Rurouni Kenshin and in the first
episode of Hikaru no Go. Another anime series in which Perry briefly
appears is Bludgeoning Angel Dokuro-Chan. The manga
Fruits Basket also
refers to the event while the main character is studying. The anime
Sayonara Zetsubou Sensei
Sayonara Zetsubou Sensei also depicts Commodore Perry as a "troubled
foreigner who isn't satisfied by opening ports and needs to open
The anime series Samurai Champloo, in an episode entitled "Baseball
Blues", depicts a fictional character named 'Admiral Joy Cartwright'
whose fleet has been challenged by Kagemaru (secret agent and former
ninja) to a baseball (Yakyū) game in order to prevent the
establishment trade relations. The character is named after Alexander
Joy Cartwright ("the father of baseball") and modeled after Commodore
In Jikkyō Powerful Pro
Yakyū 2011, Perry is the final boss of the
game´s success mode after the player unifies Japan.
Perry's visit is also mentioned in the 1965
Hideo Gosha film Sword of
Popotan has several references to Perry throughout the series.
Taiga drama Ryōmaden, which deals with the Bakumatsu
period, portrayed Perry as a menacing, steadfast military commander
who was able to subjugate the then-seemingly invincible Tokugawa
shogunate through blunt negotiation. He was played by Timothy Harris.
In the 2013
Taiga drama Yae no Sakura, which deals with the
Bakumatsu period, he is portrayed by Steven Ashton.
Perry is the main antagonist in the
Code Geass alternate universe
manga "Tales of an Alternate Shogunate". He uses Geass to force Japan
to open its ports, but does so on unequal terms and oppresses Japan,
much like Britannia did in the original series. He faces opposition
from Zero and the Black Knights, as well as from Princess Euphemia and
Suzaku after they realize that he is trying to make
Japan his own
property, and he is ultimately defeated and forced to surrender. He
pilots the "Black Ship", a flying ship that can transform into a
Two designers, Charles and Ray Eames, made a short film titled The
Black Ships (1970). It depicts the opening of
Japan with Japanese
prints and drawings from the time.
In the 2012–2013 Japanese anime,
Bakumatsu Gijinden Roman. Man
believed to be Admiral Perry, returns to
Japan ten years after his
last historical visit. In this fictional portrayal he commands a
high-tech Ironclad, with the ambition of conquering the country for
Nintendo DS game, Ganbare Goemon: Tōkai Dōchū Ōedo Tengu ri
Kaeshi no Maki, features an antagonist named Peruri, who comes to
Japan to conduct foreign trade, but the people were afraid of him. He
was later met by a person named Sakura, who promises to help him if he
helps him obtain the three Weapons of the Heavens.
The anime Dagashi Kashi on episode 11 shows a short story of Perry
bringing Lemonade to
Japan as trump card to force the Japanese to open
their borders for trade which works out but the Japanese mispronounced
"Lemonade" as "Ramune", therefore creating Ramune.
History of Japan
Yokohama Archives of History
Bibliography of early American naval history
List of Westerners who visited
Japan before 1868
^ Copes, Jan M. (Fall 1994). "The Perry Family: A Newport Naval
Dynasty of the Early Republic". Newport History: Bulletin of the
Newport Historical Society. Newport, RI: Newport Historical Society.
66, Part 2 (227): 49–77.
^ Skaggs, David Curtis. "Oliver Hazard Perry: Honor, Courage, and
Patriotism in the Early U.S. Navy". US Naval Institute Press, 2006. P.
^ "BBC – History – William Wallace". Retrieved 2016-05-14.
^ Phillipson, Mark. "PhpGedView User Login - PhpGedView".
www.clayfox.com. Retrieved 2016-05-14.
^ Genealogies of the Raymond Families of New England, 1630–1 to
1886: With a Historical Sketch of Some of the Raymonds of Early Times,
Their Origin, Etc. Press of J.J. Little & Company.
^ Griffis, 1887 p.40
^ Sewall, John S. (1905). The Logbook of the Captain's Clerk:
Adventures in the China Seas, p. xxxvi.
^ Griffis, William Elliot. (1887). Matthew Calbraith Perry: A Typical
American Naval Officer, pp. 154-155.
^ "National Register of Historic Places : Quarters A :
Matthew C. Perry
Matthew C. Perry House" (PDF).
Pdfhost.focus.nps.gov. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
^ Sewell, p. xxxvi.
^ J. W. Hall, Japan, p.207.
^ W. G. Beasley, The Meiji Restoration, p.88.
^ a b The Perry Mission to Japan, 1853–1854 – Google Books.
Books.google.com. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
^ John H. Schroeder. Matthew Calbraith Perry: antebellum sailor and
diplomat. Books.google.com. p. 286. Retrieved 2015-03-09. The
letter threatened that in the event the Japanese elected war rather
than negotiation, he could use the white flag to sue for peace, since
victory would naturally belong to the Americans
^ The Economic Aspects of the History of the Civilization of
Yosaburō Takekoshi – Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved
^ Arms and Men: A Study in American Military History – Walter Millis
– Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
^ Black Ships Off Japan: The Story of Commodore Perry's Expedition –
Arthur Walworth – Google Books. Books.google.com. 1982-01-01.
^ "Perry Ceremony Today; Japanese and U. S. Officials to Mark 100th
Anniversary." The New York Times, July 14, 1953
^ Sewall, pp. 183–195.
^ Sewall, pp. 243–264.
^ Sewall, p. lxxxvii.
^ Morison, Samuel Eliot. (1967). 'Old Bruin' Commodore Matthew
Calbraith Perry p. 431.
^ "Commodore Matthew C Perry". mymexicanwar.com 2012. Retrieved
December 15, 2017.
^ "Commodore Perry's Expedition to Japan". Ben Griffiths 2005.
Retrieved September 12, 2009.
^ "Matthew Calbraith Perry (1794–1858)". Find a Grave. Retrieved
January 9, 2011.
^ "MONUMENT TO COMMODORE M.C. PERRY. - View Article - NYTimes.com".
The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
^ "Matthew Calbraith Perry" by
William Elliot Griffis
William Elliot Griffis 1887
^ a b Tsustsumi, Cheryl Lee. "Hawaii's Back Yard: Mighty Mo memorial
re-creates a powerful history," Star-Bulletin (Honolulu). August 26,
^ Broom, Jack. "Memories on Board Battleship," Seattle Times, May 21,
^ Sewall, pp. 197–198.
^ "The Black Ships (1970)". IMDb.com. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
Arnold, Josh Makoto (2005). Diplomacy Far Removed: A Reinterpretation
of the U.S. Decision to Open Diplomatic Relations with
University of Arizona.
Cullen, Louis M. (2003). A History of Japan, 1582–1941: Internal and
External Worlds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 0-521-82155-X (cloth), ISBN 0-521-52918-2 (paper)
Griffis, William Elliot (1887). Matthew Calbraith Perry: a typical
American naval officer.
Cupples and Hurd, Boston. p. 459. ISBN 1-163-63493-X. ,
Hawks, Francis. (1856). Narrative of the Expedition of an American
Squadron to the China Seas and
Japan Performed in the Years 1852, 1853
and 1854 under the Command of Commodore M.C. Perry, United States
Navy. Washington: A.O.P. Nicholson by order of Congress, 1856;
originally published in Senate Executive Documents, No. 34 of 33rd
Congress, 2nd Session. [reprinted by London:Trafalgar Square, 2005.
ISBN 1-84588-026-9 (paper)]
Morison, Samuel Eliot. (1967). "Old Bruin" Commodore Matthew Calbraith
Perry Little, Brown and Company, Boston 
Sewall, John S. (1905). The Logbook of the Captain's Clerk: Adventures
in the China Seas. Bangor, Maine: Chas H. Glass & Co. [reprint by
Chicago: R.R. Donnelly & Sons, 1995] ISBN 0-548-20912-X
^ Perry's middle name is often misspelled as Galbraith instead of
Perry, Matthew Calbraith. (1856). Narrative of the expedition of an
American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan, 1856. New York :
D. Appleton and Company. digitized by University of Hong Kong
Libraries, Digital Initiatives, "China Through Western Eyes."
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Matthew Perry (naval officer).
A short timeline of Perry's life
Perry Visits Japan: A Visual History
Matthew C. Perry
Matthew C. Perry at Find a Grave
Kitahara, Michio. Commodore Perry and the Japanese: A Study in the
Dramaturgy of Power, 1986
Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas
and Japan, by M.C. Perry, at archive.org
"Diplomacy Far Removed: A Reinterpretation of the U.S. Decision to
Open Diplomatic Relations with
Japan Bruce Makoto Arnold".
Academia.edu. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
John H. Aulick
Commander, East India Squadron
ISNI: 0000 0001 1442 0477
BNF: cb144281121 (data)