Matsu dialect
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The Matsu dialect (
Eastern Min Eastern Min or Min Dong (, Foochow Romanized: Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄), is a branch of the Min Chinese, Min group of Sinitic languages of China. The prestige form and most-cited representative form is the Fuzhou dialect, the speech of the capital a ...
: / ) is the local dialect of
Matsu Islands The Matsu Islands (; Foochow Romanized: Mā-cū liĕk-dō̤), officially Lienchiang County (; Foochow Romanized: :cdo:Lièng-gŏng-gâing, Lièng-gŏng-gâing), are an archipelago of 36 islands and islets in the East China Sea governed by the Rep ...
,
Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The main islan ...

Taiwan
. Native speakers also call it Bàng-huâ (), meaning the language spoken in everyday life. It is recognised as one of the statutory languages for public transport announcements in
Lienchiang County The Matsu Islands (; Foochow Romanized: Mā-cū liĕk-dō̤) are an archipelago of 36 islands and islets in the East China Sea officially named Lienchiang County (; Foochow Romanized: :cdo:Lièng-gŏng-gâing, Lièng-gŏng-gâing) in the Republi ...
, Taiwan. The dialect is a subdialect of the
Fuzhou dialect The Fuzhou dialect (, FR: ), also Foochow, Hokchew, Hok-chiu, or Fuzhounese, is the prestige Prestige refers to a good reputation or high esteem; in earlier usage, ''prestige'' meant "showiness". (19th c.) Prestige may also refer to: Arts, ...
of
Eastern Min Eastern Min or Min Dong (, Foochow Romanized: Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄), is a branch of the Min Chinese, Min group of Sinitic languages of China. The prestige form and most-cited representative form is the Fuzhou dialect, the speech of the capital a ...
. The Matsu dialect is quite similar to the Changle dialect, another subdialect of the Fuzhou dialect.


Phonology

The Matsu dialect has 17 initials, 46 rimes and 7 tones.


Initials

// and // exist only in connected speech.


Rimes

There are 46 rimes in the Matsu dialect. Many rimes come in pairs: in the table above, the one to the left represents a close rime (), while the other represents an open rime (). The close/open rimes are closely related with the tones (''
see below See or SEE may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Music: ** See (album), ''See'' (album), studio album by rock band The Rascals *** "See", song by The Rascals, on the album ''See'' ** See (Tycho song), "See" (Tycho song), song by Tycho * T ...
'').


Tone


The relationship between tone and rime

In the Matsu dialect, level tone (), rising tone () and light entering () should read in close rimes (); departing tone and dark entering should read in open rimes (). For example, "" have two pronunciations, // in close rime and // in open rime; "" have two pronunciations, // in close rime and // in open rime. so we get the table: Close rime tone "" should be pronounced as instead of ; and open rime tone "" should be pronounced as instead of .


Sandhi and assimilation


Tone sandhi

The Matsu dialect has extremely extensive tone sandhi rules: in an utterance, only the last syllable pronounced is not affected by the rules. The two-syllable tonal sandhi rules are shown in the table below (the rows give the first syllable's original citation tone, while the columns give the citation tone of the second syllable): In the table above, "dark entering A" means dark entering coda ended with , "dark entering B" means ended with . In mordern spoken language, it's hard to distinguish with each other in individual syllable, but we can find their differences in tone sandhi. Like the
Fuzhou dialect The Fuzhou dialect (, FR: ), also Foochow, Hokchew, Hok-chiu, or Fuzhounese, is the prestige Prestige refers to a good reputation or high esteem; in earlier usage, ''prestige'' meant "showiness". (19th c.) Prestige may also refer to: Arts, ...
, the tonal sandhi rules of more than two syllables display further complexities.


Perseverative assimilation

The two-syllable initial Assimilation (phonology), assimilation rules are shown in the table below:


Anticipatory assimilation

In the Matsu dialect, if rime type of the former syllable is changed while #Tone sandhi, tone sandhi occurred, the rime of the former syllable should be changed to adapt #The relationship between tone and rime, the rule of close/open rimes. For example, "" is a syllable which has dark departing tone, it's an open rime; "" has a dark level tone. When combined as the phrase "" (technician), "" changes its tonal value to rising tone. Rising tone is a close rime tone, therefore the pronunciation as a whole is .


References


Further reading

*


External links

*
Fuzhou Dialect Textbook
Elementary school textbook in Matsu.

{{Languages of Taiwan Eastern Min Languages of Taiwan Matsu Islands