Tuscany (Italian: Matilde di
Canossa [maˈtilde di
kaˈnɔssa], Latin: Matilda, Mathilda; 1046 – 24 July 1115) was a
powerful feudal, Margrave of Tuscany, ruler in northern Italy and the
chief Italian supporter of
Pope Gregory VII
Pope Gregory VII during the Investiture
Controversy; in addition, she was one of the few medieval women to be
remembered for her military accomplishments, thanks to which she was
able to dominate all the territories north of the Church States.
In 1076 she came into possession of a vast territory that included
present-day Lombardy, Emilia, the
Romagna and Tuscany, and made the
castle of Canossa, in the Apennines south of Reggio, the centre of her
domains. Between 6 and 11 May 1111 she was crowned Imperial Vicar and
Vice-Queen of Italy by
Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor at the Castle of
Bianello (Quattro Castella, Reggio Emilia).
Sometimes called la Gran Contessa ("the Great Countess") or Matilda of
Canossa after her ancestral castle of Canossa, Matilda was certainly
one of the most important and interesting figures of the Italian
Middle Ages. She lived in a period of constant battles, intrigues and
excommunications, and was able to demonstrate an extraordinary force,
even enduring great pain and humiliation, showing an innate leadership
2 First marriage
4 Investiture Controversy
5 Second marriage
6 The final victory against Henry IV
7 Vice-Queen of Italy
8 Foundation of churches
11 See also
14 External links
Matilda's parents, Boniface (l) and Beatrice (r)
In an illustration of the Vita Mathildis by the monk
Donizo (or, in
Italian, Donizone), Matilda is referred to as "Mathildis Lucens" (from
Lucca). She was descended from the nobleman Sigifredo of Lucca.
Matilda was the youngest of the three children of Margrave Boniface
III of Tuscany, ruler of a vast territory in
Northern Italy and one of
the most powerful vassals of the
Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor Henry III.
Matilda's mother, Beatrice of Lorraine, was the Emperor's first cousin
and closely connected to the imperial household. Renowned for her
learning, Matilda was literate in Latin, as well as reputed to speak
German and French. The extent of Matilda's education in military
matters is debated. It has been asserted that she was taught strategy,
tactics, riding and wielding weapons, but recent scholarship finds
these claims contentious.
Following the death of their father in 1052, Matilda's brother,
Frederick, inherited the family lands and titles under the regency of
their mother. Matilda's sister, Beatrice, died the next year,
making Matilda heir presumptive to Frederick's personal holdings. In
1054, determined to safeguard the interests of her children as well as
her own, her mother married Godfrey the Bearded, a distant
kinsman who had been stripped of the
Duchy of Upper Lorraine
Duchy of Upper Lorraine after
openly rebelling against Emperor Henry III.
Henry was enraged by Beatrice of Lorraine's unauthorised union with
his most vigorous adversary and took the opportunity to have her
arrested, along with Matilda, when he marched south to attend a synod
in Florence on
Pentecost in 1055. Frederick's rather suspicious
death soon thereafter made Matilda the last member of the House of
Canossa. Mother and daughter were taken to Germany, but Godfrey
successfully avoided capture. Unable to defeat him, Henry sought a
rapproachment. The Emperor's death in October 1056, which brought to
throne the underage Henry IV, seems to have accelerated the
negotiations. Godfrey was reconciled with the crown and recognized as
Margrave of Tuscany
Margrave of Tuscany in December, while Beatrice and Matilda were
released. By the time she and her mother returned to Italy, in the
company of Pope Victor II, Matilda was formally acknowledged as heir
to the greatest territorial lordship in the south of the Empire.
Matilda's mother and stepfather became heavily involved in the series
of disputed papal elections during their regency, supporting the
Gregorian Reforms. Godfrey's brother Frederick became Pope Stephen IX,
while both of the following two popes, Nicholas II and Alexander II,
had been Tuscan bishops. Matilda made her first journey to
her family in the entourage of Nicholas in 1059. Godfrey and Beatrice
actively assisted them in dealing with antipopes, while the adolescent
Matilda's role remains unclear. A contemporary account of her
stepfather's 1067 expedition against Prince
Richard I of Capua on
behalf of the papacy mentions Matilda's participation in the campaign,
describing it as the "first service that the most excellent daughter
of Boniface offered to the blessed prince of the apostles."
The states of the
Apennine Peninsula in the second half of the 11th
In 1069, Godfrey the Bearded lay dying in Verdun. Beatrice and Matilda
hastened to reach Lorraine, anxious to ensure a smooth transition of
power. Matilda was present at her stepfather's deathbed, and on that
occasion she is for the first time clearly mentioned as the wife of
her stepbrother, Godfrey the Hunchback, to whom she had been
betrothed since childhood. The marriage proved a failure; the
death of their only child (a daughter called Beatrice) shortly after
birth in August 1071 and Godfrey's physical deformity may have helped
fuel deep animosity between the spouses.
By the end of 1071, Matilda had left her husband and returned to
Tuscany. Matilda's bold decision to repudiate her husband came at
a cost, but ensured her independence. Beatrice started preparing
Matilda for rule by holding court jointly with her and,
eventually, encouraging her to issue charters on her own as countess
(comitissa) and duchess (ducatrix).
Godfrey fiercely protested the separation and demanded that Matilda
come back to him, which she repeatedly refused. The Duke descended
into Italy in 1072, determined to save the marriage. He sought
the help of both Matilda's mother and her ally, the newly elected Pope
Gregory VII, promising military aid to the latter. Matilda's
resolution was unshakable, and Godfrey returned to Lorraine
alone. He had lost all hope by 1074. Rather than supporting the
Pope as promised, Godfrey turned his attention to imperial affairs.
Meanwhile, the conflict later known as the
Investiture Controversy was
brewing between Gregory and Henry, with both men claiming the right to
appoint bishops and abbots within the Empire. Matilda and Godfrey soon
found themselves on opposing sides of the dispute, leading to a
further detoriation of their difficult relationship. German
chroniclers, writing of the synod held at Worms in January 1076, even
suggested that Godfrey inspired Henry's allegation of a licentious
affair between Gregory and Matilda.
Matilda became a widow on 26 February 1076.
Godfrey the Hunchback
Godfrey the Hunchback was
assassinated in Flanders while "answering the call of nature". Having
been accused of adultery with the Pope the previous month, Matilda was
suspected of ordering her estranged husband's death. She could not
have known about the proceedings at the
Synod of Worms at the time,
however, since the news took three months to reach the Pope himself,
and it is more likely that Godfrey was killed at the instigation of an
enemy nearer to him. Within two months, Beatrice was dead as well.
Matilda's power was considerably augmented by these deaths; she was
now the undisputed heir of all her parents' allodial lands. Her
inheritance would have been threatened had Godfrey survived her
mother, but she now enjoyed the privileged status of a widow. It
seemed unlikely, however, that Henry would formally invest her with
Between 1076 and 1080, Matilda travelled to Lorraine to lay claim to
her husband's estate in Verdun, which he had willed (along with the
rest of his patrimony) to his sister Ida's son, Godfrey of
Godfrey of Bouillon
Godfrey of Bouillon also disputed her right to Stenay
and Mosay, which her mother had received as dowry. The quarrel between
aunt and nephew over the episcopal county of
Verdun was eventually
settled by Theoderic, Bishop of Verdun, who enjoyed the right to
nominate the counts. He easily found in favor of Margravine Matilda,
as such verdict happened to please both Pope Gregory and King Henry.
Matilda then proceeded to enfeoff
Verdun to her pro-reform relative,
Albert III of Namur. The deep animosity between Matilda and her
nephew is thought to have prevented her from travelling to Jerusalem
during the First Crusade, led by him in the late 1090s.
Main article: Walk to Canossa
Miniature of Matilda from the frontispiece of Donizo’s Vita
Mathildis (Codex Vat. Lat. 4922, fol. 7v.). Matilda is depicted
seated. On her right,
Donizo is presenting her with a copy of the Vita
Mathildis, on her left is a man with a sword (possibly her
man-at-arms). The script underneath reads: Mathildis lucens, precor
hoc cape cara volumen (Resplendent Matilda, please accept this book,
oh you dear one.)
The disagreement between
Pope Gregory VII
Pope Gregory VII and King Henry IV culminated
in the aftermath of the
Synod of Worms in February 1076. Gregory
declared Henry excommunicated, releasing all his subjects from
allegiance to him and providing the perfect reason for rebellion
against his rule. Insubordinate southern German princes gathered
in Trebur, awaiting the Pope. Matilda's first military endeavor, as
well as the first major task altogether as ruler, turned out to be
protecting the Pope during his perilous journey north. Gregory could
rely on nobody else; as the sole heir to the Attonid patrimony,
Matilda controlled all the Apennine passes and nearly all the rest
that connected central Italy to the north. The Lombard bishops, who
were also excommunicated for taking part in the synod and whose sees
bordered Matilda's domain, were keen to capture Gregory. Gregory was
aware of the danger, and recorded that all his advisors except Matilda
counselled him against travelling to Trebur.
Henry had other plans, however. He decided to descend into Italy and
intercept Gregory, who was thus delayed. The German dukes held a
council by themselves and informed the King that he had to submit to
the Pope or be replaced. Henry's predecessors dealt easily with
troublesome pontiffs - they simply deposed them, and the
excommunicated Lombard bishops rejoiced at this prospect. When Matilda
heard about Henry's approach, she urged Gregory to take refuge in the
Castle of Canossa, her family's eponymous stronghold. Gregory took her
advice. It soon became clear that the intention behind Henry's walk to
Canossa was to show penance. By 25 January 1077, the King stood
barefoot in the snow before the gates of Matilda's castle, accompanied
by his mother-in-law, Margravine Adelaide of Susa. He remained there,
humbled, until 28 January, when Matilda convinced the Pope to see him.
Matilda and Adelaide brokered a deal between the men. Henry was taken
back into the Church, with the margravines acting as sponsors and
formally swearing to the agreement.
In 1079, Matilda gave the Pope all her domains, in open defiance of
Henry IV's claims both as the overlord of some of those domains, and
as her close relative. Two years later the fortunes of Papacy and
Empire turned again: in 1080 Henry IV summoned a council in Brixen,
which deposed Gregory VII. The following year the Emperor decided to
travel again to Italy to reinstate his overlordship over his
territories. He also declared Matilda, on account of her 1079 donation
to the Church, forfeit and be banned from the Empire; although this
wasn't enough to eliminate her as a source of trouble, for she
retained substantial allodial holdings. On 15 October 1080 near Volta
Mantovana the Imperial troops (with Guibert of
Ravenna as the newly
Antipope Clement III) defeated the troops loyal to Gregory VII
and controlled by Matilda. This was the first serious military defeat
of Matilda (Battle of Volta Mantovana).
Matilda, however, didn't surrender. While Gregory VII was forced into
exile, she, retaining control over all the western passes in the
Apennines, could force Henry IV to approach
Rome via Ravenna; even
with this route open, the Emperor would find it hard to besiege Rome
with a hostile territory at his back. In December 1080 the citizens of
Lucca, then the capital of Tuscany, had revolted and driven out her
ally Bishop Anselm. She is believed to have commissioned the renowned
Ponte della Maddalena
Ponte della Maddalena where the
Via Francigena crosses the river
Borgo a Mozzano
Borgo a Mozzano just north of Lucca.
Matilda remained Pope Gregory VII's chief intermediary for
communication with northern Europe even as he lost control of
was holed up in the Castel Sant'Angelo. After Henry caught hold of the
Pope's seal, Matilda wrote to supporters in Germany only to trust
papal messages that came through her.
Henry IV's control of
Rome enabled him to enthrone
III, who, in turn, crowned him Emperor. After this, Henry IV returned
to Germany, leaving it to his allies to attempt Matilda's
dispossession. These attempts floundered after Matilda (with help of
the city of Bologna) defeated them at Sorbara near
Modena on 2 July
Gregory VII died in 1085, and Matilda's forces, with those of Prince
Jordan I of Capua
Jordan I of Capua (her off and on again enemy), took to the field in
support of a new pope, Victor III. In 1087, Matilda led an expedition
Rome in an attempt to install Victor, but the strength of the
imperial counterattack soon convinced the pope to withdraw from the
In 1088 Matilda was facing a new attempt at invasion by Henry IV, and
decided to pre-empt it by means of a political marriage. In 1089
Matilda (in her early forties) married Welf V, who was probably
fifteen to seventeen years old. Welf was heir to the Duchy of
Bavaria. He was also a member of the Welf dynasty: the Welfs/Guelphs
were important papal supporters from the eleventh to the fifteenth
centuries in their conflict with the German emperors (see Guelphs and
Ghibellines). Matilda and Welf's wedding was part of a network of
alliances approved by the new pope, Urban II, in order to effectively
counter Henry IV.
Cosmas of Prague
Cosmas of Prague (writing in the early twelfth century), included a
letter in his Chronica Boemorum, which he claimed that Matilda sent to
her future husband, but which is now thought to be spurious:
Not for feminine lightness or recklessness, but for the good of all my
kingdom, I send you this letter: agreeing to it, you take with it
myself and the rule over the whole of Lombardy. I'll give you so many
cities, so many castles and noble palaces, so much gold and silver,
that you will have a famous name, if you endear yourself to me; do not
reproof me for boldness because I first address you with the proposal.
It's reason for both male and female to desire a legitimate union, and
it makes no difference whether the man or the woman broaches the first
line of love, sofar as an indissoluble marriage is sought.
After this, Matilda sent an army of thousands to the border of
Lombardy to escort her bridegroom, welcomed him with honors, and after
the marriage (mid-1089), she organized 120 days of wedding
festivities, with such splendor that any other medieval ruler's pale
Cosmas also reports that for two nights after the wedding, Welf V,
fearing witchcraft, refused to share the marital bed. The third day,
Matilda appeared naked on a table especially prepared on sawhorses,
and told him that everything is in front of you and there is no hidden
malice. But the Duke was dumbfounded; Matilda, furious, slapped him
and spat in his face, taunting him: Get out of here, monster, you
don't deserve our kingdom, you vile thing, viler than a worm or a
rotten seaweed, don't let me see you again, or you'll die a miserable
death.... Matilda and her young husband separated a few years
later (1095); they had no children.
Later Matilda allied with the two sons of Henry IV, Conrad and Henry,
who rebelled against their father. This forced Henry to return to
Italy, where he chased Matilda into the mountains. He was humbled
before Canossa, this time in a military defeat in October 1092, from
which his influence in Italy never recovered.
The final victory against Henry IV
Matilda's signature ("Matilda, Dei gratia si quid est"), quite
tremulous due to her old age. Notitia Confirmationis (Prato, June
1107), Archivio Storico Diocesano of Lucca, Diplomatico Arcivescovile,
perg. ++ I29
After several victories, including one against the Saxons, Henry IV
prepared in 1090 his third descent to Italy, in order to inflict the
final defeat on the Church. His route was the usual one, Brenner and
Verona, along the border of Matilda's possessions, which began outside
the cities' gates. The opposing armies would meet near Mantua. Matilda
secured the loyalty of the townspeople by exempting them from some
taxes, such as teloneo and ripatico, and with the promise of Lombard
franchise, entailing the rights to hunt, fish and cut wood on both
banks of the Tartaro river.
Mantua people stood by Matilda until the so-called " Holy Thursday
betrayal, when the townspeople, won over by additional concessions
from Henry, who had meanwhile besieged the city, sided with him. In
1092 Matilda escaped to the Reggiano Apennines and her most
inexpugnable strongholds. Since the times of Adalbert Atto the power
Canossa family had been based on a network of castles,
fortresses and fortified villages in the Val d'Enza, forming a complex
polygonal defense that had always resisted all attack from the
Apennines. After several bloody battles with mutual defeats, the
powerful imperial army was surrounded.
In spite of its fearful power, the Imperial army was defeated by
Matilda's liegemen. Among them were small landowners and holders of
fortified villages, which remained completely loyal to the Canossas
even against the Holy Roman Emperor. Their familiarity with the
territory, their quick communications and maneuvering to all the high
places of the Val d'Enza gave them victory over Henry's might. It
seems that Matilda personally participated, with a handful of chosen
faithful men, to the battle, galvanizing the allies with the cry of
Just War. The Imperial army was taken as in a vice in the meandering
mountain creek. The overall import of Henry's rout was more than a
military defeat. The Emperor realized it was impossible to penetrate
those places, wholly different from the plains of the Po Valley or of
Saxe. There he faced not boundaries drawn by the rivers of Central
Europe, but steep trails, ravines, inaccessible places protecting
Matilda's fortresses, and high tower houses, whence the defenders
could unload on anyone approaching missiles of all kinds: spears,
arrows, perhaps even boiling oil, javelins, stones.
After Matilda's victory several cities, such as Milan, Cremona, Lodi
and Piacenza, sided with her to free themselves of Imperial rule. In
1093 the Emperor's eldest son, Conrad, supported by the Pope, Matilda
and a group of Lombard cities, was crowned King of Italy. Matilda
freed and even gave refuge to Henry IV's wife, Eupraxia of Kiev, who,
at the urging of Pope Urban II, made a public confession before the
church Council of Piacenza. She accused her husband of imprisoning
her in Verona after forcing her to participate in orgies, and,
according to some later accounts, of attempting a black mass on her
naked body. Thanks to these scandals and division within the
Imperial family, the prestige and power of Henry IV was increasingly
In 1095, Henry attempted to reverse his fortunes by seizing Matilda's
castle of Nogara, but the countess's arrival at the head of an army
forced him to retreat. In 1097, Henry withdrew from Italy altogether,
after which Matilda reigned virtually unchallenged, although she did
continue to launch military operations to restore her authority and
regain control of the towns that had remained loyal to the
emperor. With the assistance of the French armies
heading off to the First Crusade, she was finally able to restore
Urban to Rome. She ordered or led successful expeditions against
Prato (1107) and
Vice-Queen of Italy
Henry IV died now defeated in 1106; and after the deposition and death
of Conrad (1101), his second son and new Holy Roman Emperor, Henry V,
began to turn the fight against the Church and Italy. This time the
attitude of Matilda against the imperial house had to change and she
accepted the will of the Emperor. In 1111, on his way back to Germany,
Henry V met her at the Castle of Bianello, near Reggio Emilia. Matilda
confirmed him the inheritance rights over the fiefs that Henry IV
disputed her, thus ending a fight that had lasted over twenty years.
Henry V gave Matilda a new title: between 6 and 11 May 1111, the
Emperor crowned Matilda as Imperial Vicar and Vice-Queen of Italy.
This episode was the decisive step towards the Concordat of Worms.
Foundation of churches
By legend Matilda of
Canossa is said to have founded one hundred
churches. Documents and local legend identify well over one hundred
churches, monasteries, hospices, and bridges built or restored between
the Alps and
Rome by Matilda and her mother, Beatrice. Today, churches
and monasteries in the regions of Lombardy, Reggio Emilia, Tuscany,
and even the Veneto attribute their foundation to her. Built
originally with hospices for travelers attached, these churches
created a network that united the supporters of the Gregorian reform
of the Roman Church which Matilda supported. This network also
provided protection for pilgrims, merchants and travelers assisting
the Renaissance in culture that occurred in the centuries after
Most of these churches continue today to be vital centers of their
communities. They include rural churches located along the Po and Arno
rivers, and their tributaries; churches built along the Apennine
mountain passes which Matilda’s family controlled and those along
the ancient highways of the via Emilia, the via Cassia, the via
Aurelia and the via Francigena. Among these are monuments listed by
UNESCO as among the heritage of our world, including churches in
Florence, Ferrara, Lucca, Mantua, Modena, Pisa,
Verona and Volterra.
Her cultural legacy is enormous throughout Northern Italy.
Some churches traditionally said to have been founded by Matilda
Sant'Andrea Apostolo of Vitriola, at
Sant'Anselmo, Pieve di Coriano (Province of Mantua).
San Giovanni Decollato, at
Pescarolo ed Uniti
Pescarolo ed Uniti (Cremona).
Santa Maria Assunta, at
San Martino in Barisano, near Forlì.
San Zeno, at
It seems that even the foundation of the Church of San Salvaro in
Legnago (Verona) was made by Matilda.
Matilda's tombstone at St. Peter's Basilica, by Bernini.
Matilda's death from gout in 1115 at Bondeno di Roncore marked the end
of an era in Italian politics. It is widely reported that she
bequeathed her allodial property to the Pope. Unaccountably, however,
this donation was never officially recognized in
Rome and no record
exists of it. Henry V had promised some of the cities in her territory
that he would appoint no successor after he deposed her. In her place
the leading citizens of these cities took control, and the era of the
city-states in northern Italy began.
Matilda was at first buried in the Abbey of San Benedetto in Polirone,
located in the town of San Benedetto Po; then, in 1633, at the behest
of Pope Urban VIII, her body was moved to
Rome and placed in Castel
Sant'Angelo. Finally, in 1645 her remains were definitely deposited in
the Vatican, where they now lie in St. Peter's Basilica. She is one of
only six women who have the honor of being buried in the Basilica, the
others being Queen Christina of Sweden, Maria Clementina Sobieska
(wife of James Francis Edward Stuart), St. Petronilla, Queen Charlotte
of Cyprus and Agnesina Colonna Caetani.
A memorial tomb for Matilda, commissioned by
Pope Urban VIII
Pope Urban VIII and
designed by Gianlorenzo Bernini, marks her burial place in St Peter's
and is often called the Honor and Glory of Italy.
After her death, an aura of legend came to surround Matilda. Church
historians gave her the character of a semi-nun, solely dedicated to
contemplation and faith. Some argue, instead, that she was a woman of
strong passions of both spiritual and carnal nature (indicated by her
supposed affairs with Popes Gregory VII and Urban II).
She has been posited by some critics as the origin of the mysterious
"Matilda" who appears to Dante gathering flowers in the earthly
paradise in Dante's Purgatorio.
The story of Matilda and Henry IV is the main plot device in Luigi
Pirandello's play Enrico IV. She is the main historical character in
Kathleen McGowan's novel The Book of Love (Simon & Schuster,
House of Canossa
March of Tuscany
^ Every year, usually in the last Sunday of May, this episode is
recreated in the Corteo Storico Matildico.
^ a b c Villalon 2003, p. 358.
^ Ferrante 1997, p. 88.
^ Beeler 1971, p. 206.
^ a b c Hay 2008, p. 35.
^ a b Luscombe & Riley-Smith 2004, p. 78-79.
^ a b c Hay 2008, p. 44.
^ a b Hay 2008, p. 34.
^ Robinson 2004, p. 49.
^ a b c d e Villalon 2003, p. 361.
^ a b c d e f Hay 2008, p. 43.
^ a b Hay 2008, p. 65.
^ Hay 2008, p. 67.
^ Healey 2013, p. 55-56.
^ Hay 2008, p. 164.
^ Hay 2008, p. 68.
^ Hay 2008, p. 70.
^ Paolo Golinelli: Sant’Anselmo, Mantova e la lotta per le
^ Hay 2008, p. 124-129.
^ W. Goez and E. Goez, Die Urkunden und Briefen der Markgraefin
Mathilde von Tuszien (Hannover, 1998), no. 140 (1089), p. 361,
accessible online at: Monumenta Germaniae Historica (in German and
Latin); and J. Chodor, ‘Queens in Early Medieval Chronicles of East
Central Europe’, East Central Europe 1: 21–23 (1991), 9–50, at
^ Cosmas of Prague, Chronica Boemorum, II, ch. 32, MGH SS 9 p.88,
accessible online in Latin and with an English translation at:
Epistolae: Medieval Women's Latin Letters.
^ Cosmas of Prague, Chronica Boemorum, II, ch.32, in B. Bretholz and
W. Weinberger, ed., Die Chronik der Böhmen des Cosmas von Prag, MGH
SS rer Germ NS 2 (Berlin, 1923), pp. 128f., accessible online at:
Monumenta Germaniae Historica (in Latin).
^ Eads 2010, p. 23-68.
^ At the time, the oil was obtained only by cold pressing of the
olives; was therefore very rare and expensive.
^ Althoff 2006, p. 213.
^ Robinson 2003, p. 289.
^ Robinson 2003, p. 289ff..
^ Women of Ancient Rus (In Russian).
^ Peters 1971, p. 34.
^ Spike, 2015, Bologna
^ Spike, 2015, Florence
^ Provincia di Modena. Chiesa Sant’Andrea Apostolo di Vitriola
[retrieved 13 April 2015].
^ Comune di Pescarolo ed Uniti. Pieve di San Giovanni Decollato
[retrieved 13 April 2015].
^ Binyon 1978.
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Spike, Michele (2016). Matilda di
Canossa (1046-1115): la donna che
mutò il corso della storia / Matilda of
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women who changed the course of history, exhibition catalogue in
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Matilda of Tuscany.
Tuscany at Encyclopædia Britannica
Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Matilda of Canossa". Catholic
Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
Women's Biography: Matilda of Tuscany, countess of Tuscany, duchess of
Lorraine, contains several letters to and from Matilda.
Godfrey the Hunchback
Margravine of Tuscany
Title next held by
ISNI: 0000 0000 8117 1784