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The MASS MEDIA is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication . The technologies through which this communication takes place include a variety of outlets.

Broadcast media transmit information electronically, via such media as film , radio , recorded music, or television . Digital media comprises both Internet
Internet
and mobile mass communication. Internet
Internet
media comprise such services as email , social media sites, websites , and Internet-based radio and television. Many other mass media outlets have an additional presence on the web, by such means as linking to or running TV ads online, or distributing QR Codes in outdoor or print media to direct mobile users to a website. In this way, they can utilise the easy accessibility and outreach capabilities the Internet affords, as thereby easily broadcast information throughout many different regions of the world simultaneously and cost-efficiently. OUTDOOR MEDIA transmit information via such media as AR advertising ; billboards ; blimps ; flying billboards (signs in tow of airplanes); placards or kiosks placed inside and outside buses, commercial buildings, shops, sports stadiums, subway cars, or trains; signs; or skywriting . PRINT MEDIA transmit information via physical objects, such as books , comics , magazines , newspapers , or pamphlets . Event organizing and public speaking can also be considered forms of mass media.

The organizations that control these technologies, such as movie studios, publishing companies, and radio and television stations, are also known as the mass media.

CONTENTS

* 1 Issues with definition

* 1.1 Characteristics * 1.2 Mass vs. mainstream and alternative * 1.3 Mass vs. local and speciality

* 2 Forms of mass media

* 2.1 Broadcast * 2.2 Film
Film
* 2.3 Video games * 2.4 Audio recording and reproduction

* 2.5 Internet
Internet

* 2.5.1 Blogs (web logs) * 2.5.2 RSS
RSS
feeds * 2.5.3 Podcast * 2.5.4 Mobile

* 2.6 Print media

* 2.6.1 Magazine
Magazine
* 2.6.2 Newspaper
Newspaper

* 2.7 Outdoor media

* 3 Purposes

* 4 Professions involving mass media

* 4.1 Journalism
Journalism
* 4.2 Public relations
Public relations

* 4.3 Publishing
Publishing

* 4.3.1 Software
Software
publishing

* 4.4 Internet
Internet
Based Professions

* 5 History

* 6 Influence and sociology

* 6.1 Racism and stereotyping

* 6.1.1 Example

* 7 Ethical issues and criticism * 8 See also

* 9 Notes

* 9.1 Works cited

* 10 Further reading

* 10.1 In other languages

* 11 External links

ISSUES WITH DEFINITION

In the late 20th century, mass media could be classified into eight mass media industries: books, the Internet, magazines, movies, newspapers, radio, recordings, and television. The explosion of digital communication technology in the late 20th and early 21st centuries made prominent the question: what forms of media should be classified as "mass media"? For example, it is controversial whether to include cell phones , computer games (such as MMORPGs ), and video games in the definition. In the 2000s, a classification called the "seven mass media " became popular. In order of introduction, they are:

* Print (books , pamphlets , newspapers , magazines , etc.) from the late 15th century * Recordings (gramophone records , magnetic tapes , cassettes , cartridges , CDs , and DVDs ) from the late 19th century * Cinema from about 1900 * Radio
Radio
from about 1910 * Television
Television
from about 1950 * Internet
Internet
from about 1990 * Mobile phones from about 2000

Each mass medium has its own content types, creative artists, technicians, and business models. For example, the Internet
Internet
includes blogs , podcasts , web sites , and various other technologies built atop the general distribution network. The sixth and seventh media, Internet
Internet
and mobile phones, are often referred to collectively as digital media ; and the fourth and fifth, radio and TV, as broadcast media . Some argue that video games have developed into a distinct mass form of media.

While a telephone is a two-way communication device, mass media communicates to a large group. In addition, the telephone has transformed into a cell phone which is equipped with Internet
Internet
access. A question arises whether this makes cell phones a mass medium or simply a device used to access a mass medium (the Internet). There is currently a system by which marketers and advertisers are able to tap into satellites, and broadcast commercials and advertisements directly to cell phones, unsolicited by the phone's user. This transmission of mass advertising to millions of people is another form of mass communication.

Video games may also be evolving into a mass medium. Video games (for example massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs), such as RuneScape ) provide a common gaming experience to millions of users across the globe and convey the same messages and ideologies to all their users. Users sometimes share the experience with one another by playing online. Excluding the Internet
Internet
however, it is questionable whether players of video games are sharing a common experience when they play the game individually. It is possible to discuss in great detail the events of a video game with a friend one has never played with, because the experience is identical to each. The question, then, is whether this is a form of mass communication.

CHARACTERISTICS

Five characteristics of mass communication have been identified by sociologist John Thompson of Cambridge University :

* "omprises both technical and institutional methods of production and distribution" - This is evident throughout the history of mass media, from print to the Internet, each suitable for commercial utility * Involves the "commodification of symbolic forms" - as the production of materials relies on its ability to manufacture and sell large quantities of the work; as radio stations rely on their time sold to advertisements, so too newspapers rely on their space for the same reasons * "eparate contexts between the production and reception of information" * Its "reach to those 'far removed' in time and space, in comparison to the producers" * "nformation distribution" - a "one to many" form of communication, whereby products are mass-produced and disseminated to a great quantity of audiences

MASS VS. MAINSTREAM AND ALTERNATIVE

The term "mass media" is sometimes erroneously used as a synonym for "MAINSTREAM MEDIA ". Mainstream media are distinguished from alternative media by their content and point of view. ALTERNATIVE MEDIA are also "mass media" outlets in the sense that they use technology capable of reaching many people, even if the audience is often smaller than the mainstream.

In common usage, the term "mass" denotes not that a given number of individuals receives the products, but rather that the products are available in principle to a plurality of recipients.

MASS VS. LOCAL AND SPECIALITY

Mass media
Mass media
are distinguished from LOCAL MEDIA by the notion that whilst mass media aims to reach a very large market, such as the entire population of a country, local media broadcasts to a much smaller population and area, and generally focuses on regional news rather than global events. A third type of media, SPECIALITY MEDIA, provide for specific demographics, such as specialty channels on TV (sports channels , porn channels, etc.). These definitions are not set in stone, and it is possible for a media outlet to be promoted in status from a local media outlet to a global media outlet. Some local media, which take an interest in state or provincial news, can rise to prominence because of their investigative journalism, and to the local region's preference of updates in national politics rather than regional news. The Guardian
The Guardian
, formerly known as the Manchester Guardian, is an example of one such media outlet; once a regional daily newspaper, The Guardian
The Guardian
is currently a nationally respected paper.

FORMS OF MASS MEDIA

BROADCAST

A family listening to a crystal radio in the 1920s. Main articles: Radio
Radio
and Television
Television

The sequencing of content in a broadcast is called a schedule . With all technological endeavours a number of technical terms and slang have developed. Please see the list of broadcasting terms for a glossary of terms used.

Radio
Radio
and television programs are distributed over frequency bands that in the United States are highly regulated. Such regulation includes determination of the width of the bands, range, licensing, types of receivers and transmitters used, and acceptable content.

Cable television
Cable television
programs are often broadcast simultaneously with radio and television programs, but have a more limited audience. By coding signals and requiring a cable converter box at individual recipients' locations, cable also enables subscription -based channels and pay-per-view services.

A broadcasting organisation may broadcast several programs simultaneously, through several channels (frequencies ), for example BBC One
BBC One
and Two . On the other hand, two or more organisations may share a channel and each use it during a fixed part of the day, such as the Cartoon Network
Cartoon Network
/ Adult Swim
Adult Swim
. Digital radio and digital television may also transmit multiplexed programming, with several channels compressed into one ensemble .

When broadcasting is done via the Internet
Internet
the term webcasting is often used. In 2004, a new phenomenon occurred when a number of technologies combined to produce podcasting . Podcasting is an asynchronous broadcast/narrowcast medium. Adam Curry
Adam Curry
and his associates, the Podshow , are principal proponents of podcasting.

FILM

Main article: Film
Film

The term 'FILM\' encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as well as the field in general. The name comes from the photographic film (also called filmstock ), historically the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms for film exist, such as motion pictures (or just pictures and "picture"), the silver screen, photoplays, the cinema, picture shows, flicks, and most common, movies.

Films are produced by recording people and objects with cameras , or by creating them using animation techniques or special effects . Films comprise a series of individual frames, but when these images are shown in rapid succession, an illusion of motion is created. Flickering between frames is not seen because of an effect known as persistence of vision , whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. Also of relevance is what causes the perception of motion: a psychological effect identified as beta movement .

Film
Film
is considered by many to be an important art form; films entertain, educate, enlighten, and inspire audiences. Any film can become a worldwide attraction, especially with the addition of dubbing or subtitles that translate the film message. Films are also artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them.

VIDEO GAMES

A video game is a computer -controlled game in which a video display, such as a monitor or television , is the primary feedback device. The term "computer game" also includes games which display only text (and which can, therefore, theoretically be played on a teletypewriter ) or which use other methods, such as sound or vibration, as their primary feedback device, but there are very few new games in these categories. There always must also be some sort of input device , usually in the form of button/joystick combinations (on arcade games), a keyboard and mouse /trackball combination (computer games), a controller (console games), or a combination of any of the above. Also, more esoteric devices have been used for input, e.g., the player's motion. Usually there are rules and goals, but in more open-ended games the player may be free to do whatever they like within the confines of the virtual universe.

In common usage, an "arcade game " refers to a game designed to be played in an establishment in which patrons pay to play on a per-use basis. A "computer game" or "PC game " refers to a game that is played on a personal computer . A " Console game " refers to one that is played on a device specifically designed for the use of such, while interfacing with a standard television set. A "video game" (or "videogame") has evolved into a catchall phrase that encompasses the aforementioned along with any game made for any other device, including, but not limited to, advanced calculators , mobile phones , PDAs , etc.

AUDIO RECORDING AND REPRODUCTION

Sound recording and reproduction
Sound recording and reproduction
is the electrical or mechanical re-creation or amplification of sound , often as music . This involves the use of audio equipment such as microphones, recording devices, and loudspeakers. From early beginnings with the invention of the phonograph using purely mechanical techniques, the field has advanced with the invention of electrical recording, the mass production of the 78 record , the magnetic wire recorder followed by the tape recorder , the vinyl LP record . The invention of the compact cassette in the 1960s, followed by Sony's Walkman
Walkman
, gave a major boost to the mass distribution of music recordings, and the invention of digital recording and the compact disc in 1983 brought massive improvements in ruggedness and quality. The most recent developments have been in digital audio players .

An album is a collection of related audio recordings, released together to the public, usually commercially.

The term record album originated from the fact that 78 RPM Phonograph disc records were kept together in a book resembling a photo album. The first collection of records to be called an "album" was Tchaikovsky\'s Nutcracker Suite , release in April 1909 as a four-disc set by Odeon records . It retailed for 16 shillings —about £ 15 in modern currency.

A music video (also promo) is a short film or video that accompanies a complete piece of music, most commonly a song . Modern music videos were primarily made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings. Although the origins of music videos go back much further, they came into their own in the 1980s, when Music Television
Television
's format was based on them. In the 1980s, the term "rock video" was often used to describe this form of entertainment, although the term has fallen into disuse.

Music
Music
videos can accommodate all styles of filmmaking, including animation , live action films, documentaries , and non-narrative, abstract film .

INTERNET

See also: Digital media
Digital media

The Internet
Internet
(also known simply as "the Net" or less precisely as "the Web") is a more interactive medium of mass media, and can be briefly described as "a network of networks". Specifically, it is the worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet
Internet
Protocol (IP). It consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and governmental networks, which together carry various information and services, such as email , online chat , file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
.

Contrary to some common usage, the Internet
Internet
and the World Wide Web are not synonymous: the Internet
Internet
is the system of interconnected computer networks, linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections etc.; the Web is the contents, or the interconnected documents, linked by hyperlinks and URLs . The World Wide Web is accessible through the Internet, along with many other services including e-mail, file sharing and others described below.

Toward the end of the 20th century, the advent of the World Wide Web marked the first era in which most individuals could have a means of exposure on a scale comparable to that of mass media. Anyone with a web site has the potential to address a global audience, although serving to high levels of web traffic is still relatively expensive. It is possible that the rise of peer-to-peer technologies may have begun the process of making the cost of bandwidth manageable. Although a vast amount of information, imagery, and commentary (i.e. "content") has been made available, it is often difficult to determine the authenticity and reliability of information contained in web pages (in many cases, self-published). The invention of the Internet
Internet
has also allowed breaking news stories to reach around the globe within minutes. This rapid growth of instantaneous, decentralized communication is often deemed likely to change mass media and its relationship to society.

"Cross-media" means the idea of distributing the same message through different media channels. A similar idea is expressed in the news industry as "convergence". Many authors understand cross-media publishing to be the ability to publish in both print and on the web without manual conversion effort. An increasing number of wireless devices with mutually incompatible data and screen formats make it even more difficult to achieve the objective "create once, publish many".

The Internet
Internet
is quickly becoming the center of mass media. Everything is becoming accessible via the internet. Rather than picking up a newspaper, or watching the 10 o'clock news, people can log onto the internet to get the news they want, when they want it. For example, many workers listen to the radio through the Internet
Internet
while sitting at their desk.

Even the education system relies on the Internet. Teachers can contact the entire class by sending one e-mail. They may have web pages on which students can get another copy of the class outline or assignments. Some classes have class blogs in which students are required to post weekly, with students graded on their contributions.

Blogs (web Logs)

Blogging , too, has become a pervasive form of media. A blog is a website, usually maintained by an individual, with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or interactive media such as images or video. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse chronological order, with most recent posts shown on top. Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject; others function as more personal online diaries. A typical blog combines text, images and other graphics, and links to other blogs, web pages, and related media. The ability for readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of many blogs. Most blogs are primarily textual, although some focus on art (artlog), photographs (photoblog), sketchblog, videos (vlog), music (MP3 blog), audio (podcasting) are part of a wider network of social media. Microblogging is another type of blogging which consists of blogs with very short posts.

RSS
RSS
Feeds

RSS
RSS
is a format for syndicating news and the content of news-like sites, including major news sites like Wired , news-oriented community sites like Slashdot , and personal blogs. It is a family of Web feed formats used to publish frequently updated content such as blog entries, news headlines, and podcasts. An RSS
RSS
document (which is called a "feed" or "web feed" or "channel") contains either a summary of content from an associated web site or the full text. RSS
RSS
makes it possible for people to keep up with web sites in an automated manner that can be piped into special programs or filtered displays.

Podcast

Main article: Podcast

A podcast is a series of digital-media files which are distributed over the Internet
Internet
using syndication feeds for playback on portable media players and computers. The term podcast, like broadcast, can refer either to the series of content itself or to the method by which it is syndicated; the latter is also called podcasting. The host or author of a podcast is often called a podcaster.

Mobile

Main article: Mobile media

Mobile phones were introduced in Japan
Japan
in 1979 but became a mass media only in 1998 when the first downloadable ringing tones were introduced in Finland. Soon most forms of media content were introduced on mobile phones, tablets and other portable devices, and today the total value of media consumed on mobile vastly exceeds that of internet content, and was worth over 31 billion dollars in 2007 (source Informa). The mobile media content includes over 8 billion dollars worth of mobile music (ringing tones, ringback tones, truetones, MP3 files, karaoke, music videos, music streaming services etc.); over 5 billion dollars worth of mobile gaming; and various news, entertainment and advertising services. In Japan
Japan
mobile phone books are so popular that five of the ten best-selling printed books were originally released as mobile phone books.

Similar to the internet, mobile is also an interactive media , but has far wider reach, with 3.3 billion mobile phone users at the end of 2007 to 1.3 billion internet users (source ITU). Like email on the internet, the top application on mobile is also a personal messaging service, but SMS text messaging is used by over 2.4 billion people. Practically all internet services and applications exist or have similar cousins on mobile, from search to multiplayer games to virtual worlds to blogs. Mobile has several unique benefits which many mobile media pundits claim make mobile a more powerful media than either TV or the internet, starting with mobile being permanently carried and always connected. Mobile has the best audience accuracy and is the only mass media with a built-in payment channel available to every user without any credit cards or PayPal accounts or even an age limit. Mobile is often called the 7th Mass Medium and either the fourth screen (if counting cinema, TV and PC screens) or the third screen (counting only TV and PC).

PRINT MEDIA

Main articles: Newspaper
Newspaper
and Magazine
Magazine
See also: Publishing
Publishing
§ Industry sub-divisions , and Printing
Printing

Magazine

A magazine is a periodical publication containing a variety of articles, generally financed by advertising or purchase by readers.

Magazines are typically published weekly , biweekly , monthly , bimonthly or quarterly , with a date on the cover that is in advance of the date it is actually published. They are often printed in color on coated paper, and are bound with a soft cover .

Magazines fall into two broad categories: consumer magazines and business magazines. In practice, magazines are a subset of periodicals , distinct from those periodicals produced by scientific, artistic, academic or special interest publishers which are subscription-only, more expensive, narrowly limited in circulation, and often have little or no advertising.

Magazines can be classified as:

* General interest magazines (e.g. Frontline , India Today
India Today
, The Week
Week
, The Sunday Times
The Sunday Times
etc.) * Special
Special
interest magazines (women's, sports, business, scuba diving , etc.)

Newspaper

A newspaper is a publication containing news and information and advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called newsprint . It may be general or special interest, most often published daily or weekly. The most important function of newspapers is to inform the public of significant events. Local newspapers inform local communities and include advertisements from local businesses and services, while national newspapers tend to focus on a theme, which can be exampled with "The Wall Street Journal" as they offer news on finance and business related-topics. The first printed newspaper was published in 1605, and the form has thrived even in the face of competition from technologies such as radio and television. Recent developments on the Internet
Internet
are posing major threats to its business model, however. Paid circulation is declining in most countries, and advertising revenue, which makes up the bulk of a newspaper's income, is shifting from print to online; some commentators, nevertheless, point out that historically new media such as radio and television did not entirely supplant existing.

OUTDOOR MEDIA

Outdoor media is a form of mass media which comprises billboards, signs, placards placed inside and outside commercial buildings/objects like shops/buses, flying billboards (signs in tow of airplanes), blimps, skywriting, AR Advertising. Many commercial advertisers use this form of mass media when advertising in sports stadiums. Tobacco and alcohol manufacturers used billboards and other outdoor media extensively. However, in 1998, the Master Settlement Agreement between the US and the tobacco industries prohibited the billboard advertising of cigarettes. In a 1994 Chicago-based study, Diana Hackbarth and her colleagues revealed how tobacco- and alcohol-based billboards were concentrated in poor neighbourhoods. In other urban centers, alcohol and tobacco billboards were much more concentrated in African-American neighborhoods than in white neighborhoods.

PURPOSES

A panel in the Newseum
Newseum
in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
, shows the September 12 headlines in America and around the world.

Mass media
Mass media
encompasses much more than just news, although it is sometimes misunderstood in this way. It can be used for various purposes:

* Advocacy , both for business and social concerns. This can include advertising , marketing , propaganda , public relations , and political communication. * Entertainment
Entertainment
, traditionally through performances of acting , music , and TV shows along with light reading; since the late 20th century also through video and computer games . * Public service announcements and emergency alerts (that can be used as political device to communicate propaganda to the public).

PROFESSIONS INVOLVING MASS MEDIA

JOURNALISM

Journalism
Journalism
is the discipline of collecting, analyzing, verifying and presenting information regarding current events , trends , issues and people . Those who practice journalism are known as journalists .

News
News
-oriented journalism is sometimes described as the "first rough draft of history" (attributed to Phil Graham ), because journalists often record important events, producing news articles on short deadlines. While under pressure to be first with their stories, news media organizations usually edit and proofread their reports prior to publication, adhering to each organization's standards of accuracy, quality and style. Many news organizations claim proud traditions of holding government officials and institutions accountable to the public, while media critics have raised questions about holding the press itself accountable to the standards of professional journalism .

PUBLIC RELATIONS

Public relations
Public relations
is the art and science of managing communication between an organization and its key publics to build, manage and sustain its positive image. Examples include:

* Corporations use marketing public relations to convey information about the products they manufacture or services they provide to potential customers to support their direct sales efforts. Typically, they support sales in the short and long term, establishing and burnishing the corporation's branding for a strong, ongoing market. * Corporations also use public relations as a vehicle to reach legislators and other politicians, seeking favorable tax, regulatory, and other treatment, and they may use public relations to portray themselves as enlightened employers, in support of human-resources recruiting programs. * Nonprofit organizations , including schools and universities, hospitals, and human and social service agencies, use public relations in support of awareness programs, fund-raising programs, staff recruiting, and to increase patronage of their services. * Politicians use public relations to attract votes and raise money, and when successful at the ballot box, to promote and defend their service in office, with an eye to the next election or, at career’s end, to their legacy.

PUBLISHING

Publishing
Publishing
is the industry concerned with the production of literature or information – the activity of making information available for public view. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers.

Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books and newspapers . With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet
Internet
, the scope of publishing has expanded to include websites , blogs , and the like.

As a business , publishing includes the development, marketing , production , and distribution of newspapers, magazines, books, literary works , musical works , software , other works dealing with information.

Publication is also important as a legal concept ; (1) as the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy, and; (2) as the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation ; that is, the alleged libel must have been published.

Software
Software
Publishing

A software publisher is a publishing company in the software industry between the developer and the distributor . In some companies, two or all three of these roles may be combined (and indeed, may reside in a single person, especially in the case of shareware ).

Software
Software
publishers often license software from developers with specific limitations, such as a time limit or geographical region. The terms of licensing vary enormously, and are typically secret.

Developers may use publishers to reach larger or foreign markets, or to avoid focussing on marketing. Or publishers may use developers to create software to meet a market need that the publisher has identified.

INTERNET BASED PROFESSIONS

A YouTuber is anyone who has made their fame from creating and promoting videos on the public video-sharing site, YouTube
YouTube
. Many YouTube
YouTube
celebrities have made a profession from their site through sponsorships, advertisements, product placement, and network support.

HISTORY

Early wooden printing press, depicted in 1520.

The history of mass media can be traced back to the days when dramas were performed in various ancient cultures. This was the first time when a form of media was "broadcast" to a wider audience. The first dated printed book known is the " Diamond Sutra
Diamond Sutra
", printed in China in 868 AD, although it is clear that books were printed earlier. Movable clay type was invented in 1041 in China. However, due to the slow spread of literacy to the masses in China, and the relatively high cost of paper there, the earliest printed mass-medium was probably European popular prints from about 1400. Although these were produced in huge numbers, very few early examples survive, and even most known to be printed before about 1600 have not survived. The term "mass media" was coined with the creation of print media, which is notable for being the first example of mass media, as we use the term today. This form of media started in Europe in the Middle Ages.

Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gutenberg
's invention of the printing press allowed the mass production of books to sweep the nation. He printed the first book, a Latin Bible, on a printing press with movable type in 1453. The invention of the printing press gave rise to some of the first forms of mass communication, by enabling the publication of books and newspapers on a scale much larger than was pr

.