The MASS MEDIA is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication . The technologies through which this communication takes place include a variety of outlets.
Broadcast media transmit information electronically, via such media
as film , radio , recorded music, or television . Digital media
The organizations that control these technologies, such as movie studios, publishing companies, and radio and television stations, are also known as the mass media.
* 1 Issues with definition
* 1.1 Characteristics * 1.2 Mass vs. mainstream and alternative * 1.3 Mass vs. local and speciality
* 2 Forms of mass media
* 2.6 Print media
* 2.7 Outdoor media
* 3 Purposes
* 4 Professions involving mass media
* 5 History
* 6 Influence and sociology
* 6.1 Racism and stereotyping
* 6.1.1 Example
* 7 Ethical issues and criticism * 8 See also
* 9 Notes
* 9.1 Works cited
* 10 Further reading
* 10.1 In other languages
* 11 External links
ISSUES WITH DEFINITION
In the late 20th century, mass media could be classified into eight mass media industries: books, the Internet, magazines, movies, newspapers, radio, recordings, and television. The explosion of digital communication technology in the late 20th and early 21st centuries made prominent the question: what forms of media should be classified as "mass media"? For example, it is controversial whether to include cell phones , computer games (such as MMORPGs ), and video games in the definition. In the 2000s, a classification called the "seven mass media " became popular. In order of introduction, they are:
* Print (books , pamphlets , newspapers , magazines , etc.) from the
late 15th century
* Recordings (gramophone records , magnetic tapes , cassettes ,
cartridges , CDs , and DVDs ) from the late 19th century
* Cinema from about 1900
Each mass medium has its own content types, creative artists,
technicians, and business models. For example, the
While a telephone is a two-way communication device, mass media
communicates to a large group. In addition, the telephone has
transformed into a cell phone which is equipped with
Video games may also be evolving into a mass medium.
Video games (for
example massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs),
RuneScape ) provide a common gaming experience to millions of
users across the globe and convey the same messages and ideologies to
all their users. Users sometimes share the experience with one another
by playing online. Excluding the
Five characteristics of mass communication have been identified by sociologist John Thompson of Cambridge University :
* "omprises both technical and institutional methods of production and distribution" - This is evident throughout the history of mass media, from print to the Internet, each suitable for commercial utility * Involves the "commodification of symbolic forms" - as the production of materials relies on its ability to manufacture and sell large quantities of the work; as radio stations rely on their time sold to advertisements, so too newspapers rely on their space for the same reasons * "eparate contexts between the production and reception of information" * Its "reach to those 'far removed' in time and space, in comparison to the producers" * "nformation distribution" - a "one to many" form of communication, whereby products are mass-produced and disseminated to a great quantity of audiences
MASS VS. MAINSTREAM AND ALTERNATIVE
The term "mass media" is sometimes erroneously used as a synonym for "MAINSTREAM MEDIA ". Mainstream media are distinguished from alternative media by their content and point of view. ALTERNATIVE MEDIA are also "mass media" outlets in the sense that they use technology capable of reaching many people, even if the audience is often smaller than the mainstream.
In common usage, the term "mass" denotes not that a given number of individuals receives the products, but rather that the products are available in principle to a plurality of recipients.
MASS VS. LOCAL AND SPECIALITY
FORMS OF MASS MEDIA
The sequencing of content in a broadcast is called a schedule . With all technological endeavours a number of technical terms and slang have developed. Please see the list of broadcasting terms for a glossary of terms used.
A broadcasting organisation may broadcast several programs
simultaneously, through several channels (frequencies ), for example
When broadcasting is done via the
The term 'FILM\' encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as well as the field in general. The name comes from the photographic film (also called filmstock ), historically the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms for film exist, such as motion pictures (or just pictures and "picture"), the silver screen, photoplays, the cinema, picture shows, flicks, and most common, movies.
Films are produced by recording people and objects with cameras , or by creating them using animation techniques or special effects . Films comprise a series of individual frames, but when these images are shown in rapid succession, an illusion of motion is created. Flickering between frames is not seen because of an effect known as persistence of vision , whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. Also of relevance is what causes the perception of motion: a psychological effect identified as beta movement .
A video game is a computer -controlled game in which a video display, such as a monitor or television , is the primary feedback device. The term "computer game" also includes games which display only text (and which can, therefore, theoretically be played on a teletypewriter ) or which use other methods, such as sound or vibration, as their primary feedback device, but there are very few new games in these categories. There always must also be some sort of input device , usually in the form of button/joystick combinations (on arcade games), a keyboard and mouse /trackball combination (computer games), a controller (console games), or a combination of any of the above. Also, more esoteric devices have been used for input, e.g., the player's motion. Usually there are rules and goals, but in more open-ended games the player may be free to do whatever they like within the confines of the virtual universe.
In common usage, an "arcade game " refers to a game designed to be played in an establishment in which patrons pay to play on a per-use basis. A "computer game" or "PC game " refers to a game that is played on a personal computer . A " Console game " refers to one that is played on a device specifically designed for the use of such, while interfacing with a standard television set. A "video game" (or "videogame") has evolved into a catchall phrase that encompasses the aforementioned along with any game made for any other device, including, but not limited to, advanced calculators , mobile phones , PDAs , etc.
AUDIO RECORDING AND REPRODUCTION
Sound recording and reproduction
An album is a collection of related audio recordings, released together to the public, usually commercially.
The term record album originated from the fact that 78 RPM Phonograph disc records were kept together in a book resembling a photo album. The first collection of records to be called an "album" was Tchaikovsky\'s Nutcracker Suite , release in April 1909 as a four-disc set by Odeon records . It retailed for 16 shillings —about £ 15 in modern currency.
A music video (also promo) is a short film or video that accompanies
a complete piece of music, most commonly a song . Modern music videos
were primarily made and used as a marketing device intended to promote
the sale of music recordings. Although the origins of music videos go
back much further, they came into their own in the 1980s, when Music
Contrary to some common usage, the
Toward the end of the 20th century, the advent of the World Wide Web
marked the first era in which most individuals could have a means of
exposure on a scale comparable to that of mass media. Anyone with a
web site has the potential to address a global audience, although
serving to high levels of web traffic is still relatively expensive.
It is possible that the rise of peer-to-peer technologies may have
begun the process of making the cost of bandwidth manageable. Although
a vast amount of information, imagery, and commentary (i.e. "content")
has been made available, it is often difficult to determine the
authenticity and reliability of information contained in web pages (in
many cases, self-published). The invention of the
"Cross-media" means the idea of distributing the same message through different media channels. A similar idea is expressed in the news industry as "convergence". Many authors understand cross-media publishing to be the ability to publish in both print and on the web without manual conversion effort. An increasing number of wireless devices with mutually incompatible data and screen formats make it even more difficult to achieve the objective "create once, publish many".
Even the education system relies on the Internet. Teachers can contact the entire class by sending one e-mail. They may have web pages on which students can get another copy of the class outline or assignments. Some classes have class blogs in which students are required to post weekly, with students graded on their contributions.
Blogs (web Logs)
Blogging , too, has become a pervasive form of media. A blog is a website, usually maintained by an individual, with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or interactive media such as images or video. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse chronological order, with most recent posts shown on top. Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject; others function as more personal online diaries. A typical blog combines text, images and other graphics, and links to other blogs, web pages, and related media. The ability for readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of many blogs. Most blogs are primarily textual, although some focus on art (artlog), photographs (photoblog), sketchblog, videos (vlog), music (MP3 blog), audio (podcasting) are part of a wider network of social media. Microblogging is another type of blogging which consists of blogs with very short posts.
Main article: Podcast
A podcast is a series of digital-media files which are distributed
Main article: Mobile media
Mobile phones were introduced in
Similar to the internet, mobile is also an interactive media , but has far wider reach, with 3.3 billion mobile phone users at the end of 2007 to 1.3 billion internet users (source ITU). Like email on the internet, the top application on mobile is also a personal messaging service, but SMS text messaging is used by over 2.4 billion people. Practically all internet services and applications exist or have similar cousins on mobile, from search to multiplayer games to virtual worlds to blogs. Mobile has several unique benefits which many mobile media pundits claim make mobile a more powerful media than either TV or the internet, starting with mobile being permanently carried and always connected. Mobile has the best audience accuracy and is the only mass media with a built-in payment channel available to every user without any credit cards or PayPal accounts or even an age limit. Mobile is often called the 7th Mass Medium and either the fourth screen (if counting cinema, TV and PC screens) or the third screen (counting only TV and PC).
A magazine is a periodical publication containing a variety of articles, generally financed by advertising or purchase by readers.
Magazines are typically published weekly , biweekly , monthly , bimonthly or quarterly , with a date on the cover that is in advance of the date it is actually published. They are often printed in color on coated paper, and are bound with a soft cover .
Magazines fall into two broad categories: consumer magazines and business magazines. In practice, magazines are a subset of periodicals , distinct from those periodicals produced by scientific, artistic, academic or special interest publishers which are subscription-only, more expensive, narrowly limited in circulation, and often have little or no advertising.
Magazines can be classified as:
* General interest magazines (e.g. Frontline ,
A newspaper is a publication containing news and information and
advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called newsprint . It
may be general or special interest, most often published daily or
weekly. The most important function of newspapers is to inform the
public of significant events. Local newspapers inform local
communities and include advertisements from local businesses and
services, while national newspapers tend to focus on a theme, which
can be exampled with "The Wall Street Journal" as they offer news on
finance and business related-topics. The first printed newspaper was
published in 1605, and the form has thrived even in the face of
competition from technologies such as radio and television. Recent
developments on the
Outdoor media is a form of mass media which comprises billboards, signs, placards placed inside and outside commercial buildings/objects like shops/buses, flying billboards (signs in tow of airplanes), blimps, skywriting, AR Advertising. Many commercial advertisers use this form of mass media when advertising in sports stadiums. Tobacco and alcohol manufacturers used billboards and other outdoor media extensively. However, in 1998, the Master Settlement Agreement between the US and the tobacco industries prohibited the billboard advertising of cigarettes. In a 1994 Chicago-based study, Diana Hackbarth and her colleagues revealed how tobacco- and alcohol-based billboards were concentrated in poor neighbourhoods. In other urban centers, alcohol and tobacco billboards were much more concentrated in African-American neighborhoods than in white neighborhoods.
Advocacy , both for business and social concerns. This can include
advertising , marketing , propaganda , public relations , and
PROFESSIONS INVOLVING MASS MEDIA
* Corporations use marketing public relations to convey information about the products they manufacture or services they provide to potential customers to support their direct sales efforts. Typically, they support sales in the short and long term, establishing and burnishing the corporation's branding for a strong, ongoing market. * Corporations also use public relations as a vehicle to reach legislators and other politicians, seeking favorable tax, regulatory, and other treatment, and they may use public relations to portray themselves as enlightened employers, in support of human-resources recruiting programs. * Nonprofit organizations , including schools and universities, hospitals, and human and social service agencies, use public relations in support of awareness programs, fund-raising programs, staff recruiting, and to increase patronage of their services. * Politicians use public relations to attract votes and raise money, and when successful at the ballot box, to promote and defend their service in office, with an eye to the next election or, at career’s end, to their legacy.
Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works
such as books and newspapers . With the advent of digital information
systems and the
As a business , publishing includes the development, marketing , production , and distribution of newspapers, magazines, books, literary works , musical works , software , other works dealing with information.
Publication is also important as a legal concept ; (1) as the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy, and; (2) as the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation ; that is, the alleged libel must have been published.
A software publisher is a publishing company in the software industry between the developer and the distributor . In some companies, two or all three of these roles may be combined (and indeed, may reside in a single person, especially in the case of shareware ).
Developers may use publishers to reach larger or foreign markets, or to avoid focussing on marketing. Or publishers may use developers to create software to meet a market need that the publisher has identified.
INTERNET BASED PROFESSIONS
A YouTuber is anyone who has made their fame from creating and
promoting videos on the public video-sharing site,
Early wooden printing press, depicted in 1520.
The history of mass media can be traced back to the days when dramas
were performed in various ancient cultures. This was the first time
when a form of media was "broadcast" to a wider audience. The first
dated printed book known is the "