A mashup (also mesh, mash up, mash-up, blend, bootleg  and
bastard pop/rock) is a creative work, usually in a form of a song,
created by blending two or more pre-recorded songs, usually by
overlaying the vocal track of one song seamlessly over the
instrumental track of another. To the extent that such works are
"transformative" of original content, in the United States they may
find protection from copyright claims under the "fair use" doctrine of
2.1.1 "The Flying Saucer"
2.1.2 Novelty records
2.1.3 Frank Zappa
2.1.4 John Oswald
2.1.5 Pink Project
2.1.7 The Tape-beatles
2.1.8 Double Dee and Steinski
2.1.9 John Zorn
2.1.10 Evolution Control Committee
2.2.1 2 Many DJs and "A Stroke of Genie-us"
2.2.2 Software tools
2.2.3 Get Your Bootleg On, Mashuptown, Bootie, Boomselection, A.D.D
2.2.4 Bonna Music and "Enjoy the Sheket"
2.2.5 Good Copy Bad Copy
2.2.7 DJ Hero
2.2.8 RIP: A
2.3 Legal issues
2.3.1 Copyright Act of 1976
2.3.2 Fair Use Law
3.1 A vs B
3.2 Version vs Version
3.3 Abstract Mash Ups
3.4 Glitch pop
3.5 Audio-Viz Mash
3.7 Bootleg albums
4 Notable mash-up artists
4.1 Girl Talk
4.2 Djs from Mars
4.3 DJ Earworm
4.4 Mashd N Kutcher
4.5 dj BC
4.6 Max Tannone
4.7 The Kleptones
4.8 DJ Cummerbund
4.9 The Legion of Doom
4.10 The Hood Internet
5 Notable mash-up albums
6 See also
8 Further reading
This section is in a list format that may be better presented using
prose. You can help by converting this section to prose, if
appropriate. Editing help is available. (January 2017)
Mashups are known by a number of different names:
Bootlegs (mostly in Europe, not to be confused with unofficial
Boots (but not "booty" which is a branch of electro)
Smashups (or smash-ups)
Bastard pop (as in the combined songs are unofficial; this term is
rarely used anymore)
Cutups (or cut ups, a term originally coined by William S. Burroughs
to describe some of his literary experiments that involved literally
"cutting up" different texts and rearranging the pieces to create a
Powermixing (usually the pace has to be sped up to allow for more song
to be played and thus cannot play any single blend for the full length
of the song)
Crossovers, but it is in a form of mashup, or version vs. version.
In addition, more traditional terms such as "edits" or (unauthorized)
"remixes" are favored by many "bootleggers" (also known as
The practice of assembling new songs from purloined elements of other
tracks stretches back to the beginnings of recorded music. If one
extends the definition beyond the realm of pop, precursors can be
found in musique concrète, as well as the classical practice of
(re-)arranging traditional folk material and the jazz tradition of
reinterpreting standards. In addition, many elements of mashup culture
have antecedents in hip hop and the
DIY ethic of punk as well as
overlap with the free culture movement.
"The Flying Saucer"
In 1956, Bill Buchanan and
Dickie Goodman released what they called a
"break-in" song, (i.e. material from one song would "break-in" to
another) called "The Flying Saucer". The track, a reinterpretation of
Orson Welles' celebrated War of the Worlds mock-emergency broadcast
interspliced with musical snippets comically dramatizing the
portentous patter of the announcer, spawned a raft of imitations.
Goodman had several other similar hits in the 1960s and 1970s.
There have been a number of novelty records and one-off hits that have
included uncleared samples. The song "Your Woman" by White Town
features an uncredited sample from a 1932 song "My Woman" by the Lew
Stone Band taken from the soundtrack of the
Dennis Potter series
Pennies From Heaven. Other notable one-off bootlegs include DNA's
dance remix of Suzanne Vega's "Tom's Diner" (1990) and "You Got The
Love" by The Source featuring
Candi Staton (1991). Vega received quite
a few unsolicited mixes of her (a cappella) song, and eventually
issued an entire CD of "Tom's Diner" mixes, one notable example being
"Jeannie's Diner", in which a resung verse based on Vega's composition
describes the premise of the situation comedy "I Dream of Jeannie".
"Tom's Diner" is likely to be the first song that was "mash mixed" as
we now know the process.
One series was John Morales' (later one half of M and M productions)
"Deadly Medleys", in which he mixed-up disco hits of the moment to
form beat-consistent collages. In the late 1970s and early 1980s,
Dutch producer Jaap Eggermont produced the
Stars on 45
Stars on 45 series of
records. These records attempted to cram as many hits as possible into
the space of a three and a half-minute pop song, and are more
accurately described as medleys. A similar series by Mirage in the
late 1980s took this further by densely layering the songs on its
"Jack Mix" records so that these were very close to later mashups.
Jonathan King anticipated the mashup genre with
several novelty singles. In 1987, King accused the
Pet Shop Boys
Pet Shop Boys of
plagiarizing the melody of Cat Stevens' "Wild World" for their song
"It's A Sin". To prove the point, King recorded a version of "Wild
World" with an arrangement virtually identical to that of "It's A
Sin". King performed an analogous stunt with a version of "He's So
The Chiffons arranged in the style of George Harrison's "My
Sweet Lord", making a cheeky reference to the plagiarism suit over the
similarities between the two songs.
Little Roger and the Goosebumps released their single "Gilligan's
Island (Stairway)", later renamed "Stairway to Gilligan's Island" in
May 1978 on their own Splash Records label. The song combines the
lyrics to the theme song of the television show
Gilligan's Island with
the music of "Stairway to Heaven" by Led Zeppelin. Later in 1978,
Damaskas and Barnes & Barnes were inspired by Little Roger and the
Goosebumps to record "
A Day in the Life
A Day in the Life of Green Acres," a song that
combined the music of The Beatles' "A Day in the Life" with the lyrics
to the theme song of the television show Green Acres.
In the 1970s,
Frank Zappa developed a technique he called "xenochrony"
in which a guitar solo was extracted from its original context and
placed into a completely different song. His recording engineer
referred to this as "the Ampex guitar". In his rock opera Joe's Garage
(1979), for example, Zappa's xenochrony can be heard on every track
apart from Watermelon in Easter Hay.
"Rubber Shirt" from the album
Sheik Yerbouti consists of a bass track
and a drum track taken from two different live performances melded
together in the studio.
John Oswald has been devising illegitimate compositions since the late
1960s. His 1975 track "Power" married frenetic
Led Zeppelin guitars to
the impassioned exhortations of a Southern American evangelist at the
same time that hip hop was discovering the potency of the same (and
related) kinds of ingredients. Similarly, his 1990 track "Vane", which
pitted two different versions of the song "You're So Vain" (the Carly
Simon original and a cover by Faster Pussycat) against each other, was
a blueprint for the contemporary mashup subgenre, glitch pop. Oswald
coined the term "plunderphonics" to describe his illegitimate craft.
In 1993, he released Plexure. Arguably his most ambitious composition
to date, it attempted to microsample the history of CD music up to
that point (1982–1992) in a 20-minute collage of bewildering
complexity. The ambition of this piece would later be recalled by the
British bootlegger Osymyso, whose "Intro-Inspection" captured the
pop-junkie feel of Plexure. Osymyso, who at the time was unaware of
Oswald's work, used the same structure of an accelerando (arranging
his source material in order from the slowest tempo to the fastest) to
link a few bars each of 100 songs, creating a simpler sound than the
thousands of overlapping and morphing pop "electroquotations" in
Italo disco composer and producer Stefano Pulga, under the
name Pink Project, had a substantial hit with "Disco Project", a
completely re-recorded version of The Alan Parsons Project's
instrumental track "Mammagamma" (from the album Eye in the Sky), using
"Sirius" (from the same album) as an intro, and featuring the
schoolchildren's choir vocals (also entirely re-recorded by female
session vocalists) from Pink Floyd's "Another Brick in the Wall, Part
2" on top of the Parsons track. Technically more similar to a medley
of cover versions (as it did not include any elements directly taken
from the original records) than to a mashup, the record was
nevertheless identified with the nascent genre by Italian radio DJs.
Negativland are seldom acknowledged as musical antecedents of
mashups, lacking perhaps the sense of fun many contemporary
practitioners seek in their craft, their struggle against various
forms of "censorship" (in their terms) and legal coercion (for
instance, their single "U2" was one of the first pieces of music to be
withdrawn for its use of unauthorised samples) has made them poster
children for some mashup commentators who approach the issue from a
more critical perspective, and with an eye to the complicated cultural
issues raised by both accidental and deliberate plundering within
music and culture generally.
Also known as "Public Works",
The Tape-beatles have used collage
techniques to create works of materials appropriated from various
Double Dee and Steinski
Working under the name Steinski, New York copywriter DJ Steve Stein
began (in conjunction with engineer and fellow studio boffin Doug
"Double Dee" DiFranco) the next chapter in the evolution of illicit
pop by producing a trio of underground 12" singles (entitled "The
Payoff Mix" (1983), "Lesson 2 (The James Brown Mix)" (1984) and
"Lesson 3 (History of Hiphop)" (1985)) which exerted a powerful
influence on an entire generation of "samplists".
John Zorn album Naked City features a version of Ornette
Coleman's "Lonely Woman" set over the bassline of Roy Orbison's
Evolution Control Committee
In 1994, the experimental band
Evolution Control Committee
Evolution Control Committee released
the first modern mashup tracks on their hand-made cassette album,
Gunderphonic. These "Whipped Cream Mixes" combined a pair of Public
Enemy a cappellas with instrumentals by
Herb Alpert and the Tijuana
Brass. First released on home-made cassettes in early 1992, it was
later pressed on 7" vinyl, and distributed by
Eerie Materials in the
mid-1990s, the tracks gained some degree of notoriety on college radio
stations in the United States.
2 Many DJs and "A Stroke of Genie-us"
Pop Will Eat Itself
Pop Will Eat Itself was taken from an
NME feature on the band
Jamie Wednesday, written by David Quantick, which proposed the theory
that because popular music simply recycles good ideas continuously,
the perfect pop song could be written by [combining] the best of those
ideas into one track. Hence, Pop Will Eat Itself.
The movement gained momentum again in 2001 with the release of the 2
Many DJs album, As Heard on Radio
Soulwax Pt. 2, by Soulwax's Dewaele
brothers, which combined 45 different tracks; the same year a remix of
Christina Aguilera's "Genie in a Bottle" was also released by
Freelance Hellraiser, which coupled the pop star with the raucous
guitars of "Hard To Explain" by New York's
The Strokes in an
infectious concoction entitled "A Stroke of Genie-us".
As a result of this, industry standard tools such as the digital audio
Cubase and the sound editors Wavelab,
Soundforge and Cool
Edit Pro quickly became ubiquitous. Moreover, new tools such as
Ableton Live and Sonic Foundry's (now Sony's)
ACID Pro were tweaked to
accommodate the needs of this new "scene". Most notably, such features
as beat-mapping (a technique that simplifies the synchronization of
samples of different tempos) and online previewing (allowing the
composer to audition a sample, playing at the right pitch and tempo,
alongside their existing composition) made it easy for many people
with musical ability but little professional studio experience to
knock together new combinations in a fraction of the time it would
take with traditional tools, such as the magnetic tape John Oswald
(and even Coldcut) slaved over in their early days.
Mark Vidler, known as Go Home Productions, summarized it by saying the
benefits of such technology of AcidPro: "You don't need a distributor,
because your distribution is the internet. You don't need a record
label, because it's your bedroom, and you don't need a recording
studio, because that's your computer. You do it all yourself."
Get Your Bootleg On, Mashuptown, Bootie, Boomselection, A.D.D
Around 2001–2002, the blog Boomselection was launched. It
publicised various challenges which resulted in hundreds, if not
thousands, of new bootlegs being uploaded to sites around the world.
While the scene began as a primarily British phenomenon, the U.S.,
France and Germany are currently the hotbeds of the modern mashup
movement. However, there are notable bootleggers to be found in
practically every corner of the globe – wherever an Internet
connection and a record collection can be found – including
Australia, Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden.
The Get Your Bootleg on site (affectionately abbreviated to GYBO)
became an important launchpad for new mashup tunes, and was the home
of a lively community of bootleggers who offered critiques of new
songs, tips for newbies, pointers on where to find a cappellas, legal
advice, publicity for mashup events and general discussion of issues
surrounding the mashup phenomenon.
The name "Get Your Bootleg On" comes from the
Missy Elliott track "Get
Ur Freak On", which alongside Eminem’s "Without Me" remains perhaps
the most bootlegged, manipulated, remixed and reinterpreted song from
the heyday of the genre. Other popular, frequently bootlegged artists
include Britney Spears, Christina Aguilera, Madonna and Beyoncé.
In early 2005, Boomselection retired itself after a long period of
inactivity. The year also marked a series of cease-and-desist orders
brought against a number of bootleg sites, and in early 2006 GYBO
received its first such notice. To survive, the site prohibited the
posting of direct links to copyrighted material within the forums, but
allowed users to post links to their own sites containing such
material, the defence being that now GYBO was no more in violation of
copyright law than Google. For the most part, the community has
rallied around the site, and continues to support it in its new form.
The void left by Boomselection's demise was rapidly replaced by
Mashuptown which was started in early 2005 and is currently the
biggest blog source of mashups on the Internet. The site has recently
become the official supplier of mashups to Adam Curry's Daily Source
Also in 2005, Bootie, the biggest bootleg mashup party in the world,
began its monthly Bootie Top 10 where it posts for free download
its ten best mashups, as selected by Bootie creators and DJs A Plus D.
Launched in San Francisco in 2003, Bootie was the first club night in
the United States dedicated solely to the burgeoning art form of the
bootleg mashup, and now hosts monthly parties in several cities around
the globe, including Los Angeles, Paris, Boston, Munich, and New York
City. The party's slogan, "Music for the A.D.D. Generation" also
inspired the creation of "A.D.D", Israel's first mash-up dedicated
Bonna Music and "Enjoy the Sheket"
Legal mashups are hard to find, but in some relatively small music
markets, legal mashups have been released. Some say that this is
because publishers have understood the potential of clearing the
rights of major international artist to be combined with local
repertoires, to create a wider consumption for both artists on a given
In Israel, for example, a group called Bonna Music remixed the Depeche
Mode song "Enjoy the Silence" with Balagan's "Sheket" (Hebrew:
שקט; "Silence"). The mashup was approved by
Martin Gore and
released officially a month before Depeche Mode's new album Playing
the Angel in 2005. It was a major hit locally and when Depeche Mode's
first single was released they were more welcome in a market where the
local repertoire is dominant.
Good Copy Bad Copy
Good Copy Bad Copy
Good Copy Bad Copy is a 2007 documentary about the current state of
copyright and culture. It has a heavy focus on the mashup community,
containing interviews with Girl
Talk and Danger Mouse that reveal an
emerging understanding of digital works and the obstacle to their
authoring copyright presents.
Main article: Glee (TV series)
Mash-ups have been featured on many episodes of the popular American
TV series Glee. They first appeared in the episode "Vitamin D", which
featured mashing up Bon Jovi's "It's My Life" with Usher's
"Confessions Part II" and
Beyoncé Knowles's "Halo" with "Walking on
Sunshine" by Katrina and the Waves.
Main article: DJ Hero
The 2009 video game
DJ Hero brought mash-ups together with gameplay
elements from the
Guitar Hero series using many of the same songs that
are routinely cut-up in the online remixing scene. Notably, the tracks
which use musical ideas from "Bitter Sweet Symphony" credit the sample
Andrew Oldham Orchestra rather than The Verve, even though the
Verve's use of the sample and the surrounding legal controversy is
what popularized the frequent use of the sample in mash-ups.
Main article: RiP!: A
Remix Manifesto is an open source documentary created by Brett
Gaylor and Greg Gillis (Girl Talk). The film consists of a remix of
clips submitted by numerous contributors to the Open Source Cinema
project. It focuses in particular on the legal "grey area" of remixing
existing copyrighted works.
Copyright Act of 1976
Lists the rights of copyright holders in the United States, including
several copyright provision amendments. It became a law in October
1976 and was implemented in January 1978.
Mashup artists are permitted to remake an original song as long as the
new song is substantially similar to the original song. In turn, the
mashup artist must pay the original artist $0.94 for every copy of the
song they sell for a profit.
Asking permission to use the song is not required, as long as payment
Fair Use Law
There are 4 factors a piece of work being considered for infringement
must go through:
1. Purpose and character of the use
2. Nature of the work being used
3. Amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the
4. Effect on the market for the original
A vs B
See also: List of mashup songs
The original manifestation of mashups in the 2000s was putting an a
cappella against a completely different backing track, in order to
make a "third song". Following "A Stroke of Genie-us" in 2001, the
genre has continued to focus on this basic premise.
Another notable "versus" song is "Zombi – Zombie Nation" which
combined Zombie Nation's "Kernkraft 400" with Goblin's Zombi theme and
was featured on the official soundtrack of the film Shaun of the Dead.
In addition, Go Home Productions,
Party Ben and DJ BC, amongst many
others, have produced a number of critically acclaimed songs in this
vein, and in some instances have secured record deals on the back of
these exercises, which arguably serve as "demo MP3s" of their musical
and production skills.
Another example of a legitimate release on the back of an unofficial
one can be seen in Illicit's "Sneaky Armada", which combined
Groove Armada's "I See You Baby" with Teddy Pendergrass's "You Can't
Hide From Yourself". This was subsequently re-played, re-vocalised and
re-released on Azuli's Yola label as "Cheeky Armada" in September
2001 when it reached number 72 in the UK Singles Chart. Illicit
also released numerous other unofficial "versus" songs during the same
However, not all mash-ups are as simple as A vs B. In some cases, DJs
will mash 3, 4, 5, and even 6 songs to form one complete track. Mixing
more than two tracks together can be a daunting task, and it requires
a great deal of skill. Notably,
DJ Earworm has combined the yearly top
25 songs according to Billboard into a single mashup since 2007, which
has spawned similar creations from popular DJs such as Robin Skouteris
or Daniel Kim. These mashups are typically uploaded to
attract a lot of attention in the pop culture world.
Talk is known for his style of multi-track mashing; most of his
mashups contain samples from 20–30 different tracks. Girl
famous for his style of "cutting" through different songs and often
building to the climax of a song, upon which the song settles into a
groove before cutting away again.
Version vs Version
Mixing two or more versions of a song to create a duet or alternative
version of a song is what a version vs version is set to accomplish.
It can mix two different versions of a song, such as a ballad and
original version, or a cover version of the song. Some of the more
popular version to version mixes are language mixes, which is mixing
multiple languages into one song. A slightly less popular style of
this is mashing two different remixes or the original and a specific
remix of a song together. Version vs Version mashups usually have the
same original instrumental but sometimes it is changed to benefit the
Abstract Mash Ups
Music collages which refer to avant-garde music practice and Musique
Concrète. These are not intended for the dance floor and are made
using all types of music and sound as valid sound sources to be played
simultaneously and often manipulated. Beat matching and stylistic or
aesthetic similarities are not an important factor in these mash ups.
Chaos, dissonance and harmony are all possible results.
An early example of this can be heard on John Cage's multi-radio
composition "Imaginary Landscapes No. 4" (1951) for 12 radios, 24
performers and a conductor. Perhaps the most famous Abstract Mash Up
The Beatles "Revolution 9" featuring on their White Album from 1968
which includes samples of conversations, classical music and edited
and manipulated samples played simultaneously. Other examples of the
psychedelic nature of these mash ups can be heard on "Heart Beat, Pig
Pink Floyd from the soundtrack to the film Zabriskie Point;
The Beatles Play the Residents and the Residents Play the Beatles"
and the album
The Third Reich 'n Roll by
The Residents and early
turntable work by Christian Marclay.
A current (2013) example of Abstract Mash Ups can be heard on radio
shows by Joel Cahen (a.k.a. 'Spax') on
Resonance fm in London. The
series of shows which began in 2005, feature live abstract mash ups
using MP3s, turntables, CDs, DVDs and field recordings as
simultaneously played sound sources. The third season of this series,
Soundsoup, March 2008–April 2010, veered the style towards a more
narrative based one.
Glitch pop is a subgenre of the mashup scene which marries the Digital
Signal Processing (DSP) wizardry associated with
Kid 606 and
Tigerbeat6 records to the ostensibly familiar contours of pop.
Sometimes this is done in a spirit of "homage"; sometimes it serves
merely as a form of ridicule and even vilification; often it is both
at the same time.
An example of the "double science" at play in glitch pop is Skkatter's
"Dirty Pop", which takes a song that is already an epic of carefully
constructed digital micro-malfunctions (BT's deconstruction of
*NSYNC's "Pop") and pushes it even further out to the margins of
musical mayhem. Similarly, Australian bootlegger and glitch pop
co-conspirator Dsico (real name Luke Collinson) has reworked a number
of R&B tunes by such artists as
The Neptunes and (again)
a spirit that is at once both satirical and steeped in fanboydom. In
most cases these remixes render ostensibly mainstream songs "avant
garde" and fresh, sometimes by working against the spirit of the
original, but often by leveraging the sugar rush at the heart of much
of the best contemporary pop, and adding sonic CGI to its emotional
SiX DwArF is a non-commercial mashup artist from Scotland in the UK
with a twist. He creates cross-genre mashup tunes but also invents
mashup promo videos to go with them which feature on Mash TV, hosted
on Veetle and on various video hosting sites. SiX DwArF also creates
homemade promos to champion songs that do not already have one in
which he feels deserves it, receiving praise from various artists. His
modus operandi is: "There's no campaigns, zero commercial gain, no
vested interests. Nothing is sacred. Don't do genre... it's stereotype
by another name."
Technically, all mashups are remixes. But while most are made up
entirely of plundered material, some bootleggers have fused old a
cappella tracks with completely new compositions of their own device.
An example of popular remix artists that primarily remixes single
songs but also mashes songs are The White Panda. The Chicago-based
duo has emerged as one of the biggest upcoming DJs.
Another popular example with fans of Japanese pop is Evil Morning, an
album which combines vocal tracks from
Morning Musume and their
associated artists with new instrumental tracks that rearrange or
replay the original music in the style of hard rock or heavy metal.
DJ Danger Mouse's critically acclaimed remix project The Grey Album
effectively launched a new pop subgenre. While
The Beatles had made
appearances on several mash-up tracks prior to this album (for
instance PPM's "A Life in the Day" and JPL's "Let It Be Missy Elliott
The Grey Album
The Grey Album distinguished itself by being made up
entirely of samples from The Beatles' White Album and vocals from
Jay-Z's The Black Album. The project received considerable attention
following EMI's legal threats towards distributors of the album.
Another album is Jon Moskowitz Presents Blue Eyes Meets Bed-Stuy,
produced by DJ Cappel & Smitty (2005). This is a remix/mash-up
The Notorious B.I.G.
The Notorious B.I.G. and Frank Sinatra. The project was very
well received, with major online and print coverage. It was conceived
and executive produced by Jon Moskowitz. DJ Cappel and Smitty took The
Notorious B.I.G.'s a cappellas and remixed them with notable Frank
Sinatra songs, by contributing Sinatra's solos, hooks and
The Best of Bootie mashup compilation series is compiled and produced
each year by A Plus D, creators of the international mashup club
Bootie. The compilations have been released in December every year
since 2005, and are annual Internet sensations, with each album
garnering over 5000GB+ of downloads.
While there is some overlap between the terms "cut up" and "mash up",
the former has increasingly come to refer to pieces that rely on the
humour (or pathos) of reconstructed spoken word and video material.
This may be due to the fact that the term "cut up" was used decades
earlier by novelist and artist
William S. Burroughs
William S. Burroughs to refer to his
literary cutups as well as his tape recorder experiments, which
featured spliced vocal tracks in the same way that his written cut-ups
literally cut up and rearranged various texts.
The best known cutups remix political speeches and rallies to
satirical effect. Simon Hunt, under the pseudonym Pauline Pantsdown
used the speeches of Pauline Hanson, an anti-immigration,
controversial Australian politician to parodic effect in the songs I
Don't Like It and Backdoor Man. Johan Söderberg's "Endless Love", in
George W. Bush
George W. Bush and
Tony Blair appear to serenade each other like
lovebirds, Chris Morris' "Bushwhacked", a détournement of Bush's 2003
State of the Union Address, or Sarkoskanking by Polémix and La Voix
Off, a cut-off of Nicolas Sarkozy's speeches.
Notable cut up artists include Cassetteboy, Osymyso, rx, Cartel
Communique and Evolution Control Committee.
Notable mash-up artists
One of the most well known artists in the mashup industry is Gregg
Michael Gillis, otherwise known as Girl Talk. He studied engineering
in college and then quit the industry in 2007 in order to focus solely
on his music career. He is originally from Pittsburgh, PA and is one
of many artists under the record label, Illegal Art, which specializes
in music sampling. Other artists with
Illegal Art include Junk Culture
and People Like Us. Girl
Talk has released five albums with Illegal
Art: Secret Diary, Unstoppable, Night Ripper, Feed the Animals, and
All Day. Girl
Talk does not believe that they are violating any factor
of the Fair Use Laws as the law does not specify for mashups and
remixes and the length of the song that is used. Thus, Girl
that they should not have to pay the sustained artists a fee for the
work they are using. However, others feel that Girl
Talk is violating
the Fair Use Law and should be penalized.
Djs from Mars
With the rise of electronic dance music in the mainstream media,
Djs from Mars
Djs from Mars became a notable act in mash-up making. Most
well known for mixing opposite genres, on a 128BPM club beat, the duo
has toured the world extensively and their mashups have been played by
DJs such as David Guetta, Bob Sinclar, Martin Solveig, among others.
Wearing box-masks over their heads, the satirical duo has been mixing
Lady Gaga with Metallica,
Skrillex with Oasis and over 30 different
songs into one with their "Megashuffle MultiBootleg". Djs from Mars'
success was confirmed in March 2011, when the pair opened a show for
Tiesto, in Atlantic City.
Jordan Roseman (a.k.a. DJ Earworm) gained popularity when he came out
with his mashup "United States of Pop" in 2007. The mashup contains
the top 25 songs of the year according to the Billboard Year-End Hot
100 singles of 2007. He has since released one at the end of each
year. Earworm has also released mashups he has done for Capital FM's
Summertime Ball since 2010. In addition, Earworm was asked to create
multiple mixes for the
2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics to be played at various
venues throughout London.
Mashd N Kutcher
Mashd N Kutcher are an Australian live electronic act established in
2014. The duo found acclaim through the mashup releases ‘Mash
Machine’, combining vocal rock and pop anthems with current
electronic club music. Most well known for their mashup style
‘Collab’ videos, the duo amassed over 1 million followers on
Facebook, and are known for their live mashup performances throughout
North America and Europe, regularly supporting DJ acts such as
Tiesto and DJ Snake. In 2016
Mashd N Kutcher signed with
Universal Music Group
Universal Music Group and have achieved multiple gold record status
with their singles ‘Do It Now’ and ‘My Sunshine’.
Bob Cronin (a.k.a. dj BC) has been heard on radio stations from New
York to Paris. He is known for founding both Mash Ave and Bootie
Boston. dj BC is associated with the fictional band
The Beastles which
BC created in 2004. The band is a combination of music from The
Beatles and the Beastie Boys. BC's band has released three albums, dj
BC presents The Beastles, Let It Beast, and Ill Submarine. Other
notable works from BC are Glassbreaks, in which the music of Philip
Glass is combined with artists such as
Lil Jon and Kanye West, and Wu
Orleans, a mashup of
Wu-Tang Clan and the local music found in New
Orleans, Louisiana for the first anniversary of Hurricane Katrina.
Max Tannone is a New York-based producer who has released multiple
mashup albums. He is most well known for his first album entitled
Jaydiohead released in 2009. The album combined the music of
Radiohead. Tannone has since released seven more albums, Doublecheck
Your Head, Mos Dub, Dub Kweli, Selene, Ghostfunk, Mic Check 1234!, and
Champagne Jerry - For Real, You Guys.
The Kleptones is a one-man musical group led by English producer Eric
Kleptone. Their first release was in 2003 with their album Yoshimi
Battles the Hip-Hop Robots. It was not until 2004 though that they
received attention with their album A Night at the Hip-Hopera. The
album combined the music of Queen with various music selections from
rap, movies, and other various sources. In 2005, Eric Kleptone was
Webby Award for Artist of the Year by the International
Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences.
NY-based DJ Craigory Morgoone (a.k.a. DJ Cummerbund) received
worldwide attention and critical acclaim after releasing his mashup
"The Sound of Smash Mouth" which featured a variety of sad movie
scenes to accompany the melancholy amalgamation of All Star by Smash
Mouth and a cover of
The Sound of Silence
The Sound of Silence by American heavy metal band
Disturbed. Since then, he continues to release mashups via
YouTube and occasionally perform live DJ sets in the NY metro area.
The Legion of Doom
The Legion of Doom is an electronic production team consisting of Chad
Blinman and Trever Keith. The group is most known for their album
Incorporated which featured a variety of A vs B style mashups. The
album was originally leaked online due to multiple artists not wanting
their music being used in mashups. The album has since been
released through Illegal Art.
The Hood Internet
The Hood Internet is a
Chicago duo consisting of Aaron Brink and Steve
Reidell. The duo specializes in combining hip hop and indie rock
music. They have released one studio album, FEAT released under the
Decon record label. In 2009 at the
BRIT Awards the musical group The
Ting Tings performed a pairing of songs that
The Hood Internet had
released the year earlier. The pairing was The Ting Tings' "Shut Up
and Let Me Go" and "American Boy" by Estelle.
French DJ and producer Hugo Pierre Leclercq (a.k.a. Madeon) received
acclaim when his
YouTube video "Pop Culture", in which Leclercq
performs a live mashup, went viral. He has since released three more
mashups along with multiple remixes, singles, and production and
songwriting credits. In addition, he has released two EPs, The City
and Japan Only EP.
Notable mash-up albums
Albums by A-Trak
2007: fr:Dirty South Dance
Albums by Girl Talk
2006: Night Ripper
2008: Feed the Animals
2010: All Day
Albums by The Kleptones
Yoshimi Battles the Hip-Hop Robots
Yoshimi Battles the Hip-Hop Robots (rappers over The Flaming
Lips' Yoshimi Battles the Pink Robots)
A Night at the Hip Hopera
A Night at the Hip Hopera (rappers over Queen)
2010: Uptime / Downtime
Albums by Max Tannone
2009: Doublecheck Your Head
2010: Mos Dub
2010: Dub Kweli
Albums by wait what
2010: the notorious xx
Albums by TenDJiz
De La Soulviet –
De La Soul
De La Soul with Soviet soul and jazz
Commonasm – Common and
Nas with Soviet soul and jazz
Albums by Neil Cicierega
2014: Mouth Sounds
2014: Mouth Silence
2017: Mouth Moods
Other notable albums and individual tracks
American Edit album by
Dean Gray (a collaboration between Party
Ben and Team9) was based on the album
American Idiot by
Green Day and
carried the original version of one of the most well-known mashups,
"Boulevard of Broken Songs".
"Toca's Miracle" by
Fragma – mashup of Coco Star's "I Need a
Miracle" and Fragma's "Toca Me".
The Grey Album
The Grey Album by Danger Mouse (2004) – mashup of Jay Z's The Black
Album with The Beatles' The White Album
"Doctor Pressure" originally created by Phil 'n' Dog in 2004,
eventually released by
Mylo in 2005.
Linkin Park & Jay Z, the most popular of the six
mash-ups on their album Collision Course. The song was a hit amongst
radio stations and eventually went on to win a Grammy.
"Love" by the Beatles (for the
Cirque du Soleil
Cirque du Soleil show, Love) in 2006.
"Everyday Chemistry" a mashup album consisting of several solo Beatle
songs to make one album credited to The Beatles. And this album is to
have been supposedly found in an alternate universe by a man with the
name 'James Richards'
"One Song to the Tune of Another"
^  Archived 17 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Bootiemashup.com - About". Retrieved 13 November 2017.
^ Geoghegan, Michael and Klass, Dan (2005).
Podcast Solutions: The
Complete Guide to Podcasting, p.45. ISBN 1-59059-554-8.
^ Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Online Video Archived 2 June
2010 at the Wayback Machine., American University, Center for Social
^ Dancing in Your Head. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 18 December
^ [dead link]
^ "Who the hell is Clint Mansell?". Sickamongthepure.com. Archived
from the original on 10 October 2004. Retrieved 18 December
^ Wolk, Douglas (21 January 2008). "Barely Legal". Villagevoice.com.
Retrieved 18 December 2014.
^ "DYMTEST". Boomselection.info. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
^ "GYBO - Index page". Gybo5.com. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
^ "Mashuptown.com". Retrieved 18 December 2014.
^ "Bootie Blog". Bootieusa.com. Archived from the original on 22
December 2009. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
^ Jam, Billy (May 23, 2007). "Music For Generation ADD: Mashups
quietly mature into a thriving subculture". New York Press. Archived
from the original on July 25, 2008.
^ "Sneaky Armada". Discogs.com. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
^ "Cheeky Armada". Discogs.com. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
^ Roberts, David. Guinness Book of British Hit Singles & Albums.
Guinness World Records Ltd 17th edition (2004), p. 267
^ "Not On Label (Illicit
Remix Series)". Discogs.com. Retrieved 18
^ "The White Panda". www.thewhitepanda.com. Retrieved
^ Rambarran, Shara (2013). "'99 Problems' but Danger Mouse Ain't One:
The Creative and Legal Difficulties of Brian Burton, 'Author' of The
Grey Album". Popular Musicology.
^ "Mashup best-of 2006 album". Boing Boing. Retrieved 18 December
^  Archived 3 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Shed A Tear For This Sad
Remix Of Smash Mouth's 'All Star'".
nerdist.com. Retrieved 15 May 2016.
^ "'PantsFeet' Is The Cool New Nickelback Jam That Will Speak To Your
Soul". digg.com. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
^ "Rush's YYZ finally gets a vocal in mysterious Milkshake mash-up".
teamrock.com. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
^ "The Legion of Doom » Blog Archive » 'Incorporated'
goes live". The-legion-of-doom.com. Archived from the original on 10
February 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
^ "The Legion of Doom leak own album". Punknews.org. Retrieved 18
^ "The Hood Internet". Thehoodinternet.com. Archived from the original
on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
De La Soul
De La Soul + Soviet soul and jazz = De La Soulviet" – Los Angeles
Times, 28 October 2011
TenDJiz Talks Soviet Jazz and Hip-Hop Mashup Album CommoNasm" –
Miami New Times, Jule 9, 2012
^ ""Numb/Encore" wins a Grammy", '
Linkin Park Win Best
Rap/Sung Collaboration Grammy'. Rockdirt.com 9 February 2006
Paul Morley (2003). Words and Music: A History of Pop in the Shape of
a City. Bloomsbury. ISBN 0-7475-5778-0.
Jeremy J. Beadle (1993). Will Pop Eat Itself? Faber & Faber.
Roseman, Jordan (2006). Audio Mashup Construction Kit.
Hughes, J. & Lang, K. (2006). Transmutability: Digital
Decontextualization, Manipulation, and Recontextualization as a New
Source of Value in the Production and Consumption of Culture Products.
In Proceedings of the 39th Annual Hawaii International Conference on
System Sciences – Volume 08.
Sinnreich, Aram (2010). Mashed Up: Music, Technology & the Rise of
Configurable Culture . ISBN 1-55849-829-X.
Intellectual property activism
Digital rights management
Legal aspects of file sharing
Monopolies of knowledge
software patent debate
All rights reversed
Alternative compensation system
Business models for open-source software
Commercial use of copyleft works
Commons-based peer production
Free software license
Open Music Model
Video on demand
Access to Knowledge movement
Free culture movement
Free software movement
Electronic Frontier Foundation
Free Software Foundation
Open Rights Group
Organization for Transformative Works
The Pirate Bay
Students for Free Culture
Steal This Film
Steal This Film (2006, 2007)
Good Copy Bad Copy
Good Copy Bad Copy (2007)
Remix Manifesto (2008)
The Pirate Bay
The Pirate Bay Away From Keyboard (2013)
The Internet's Own Boy
The Internet's Own Boy (2014)
Appropriation in the arts
List of musical medleys
Literature / theatre
Painting / comics /
Comic strip switcheroo
By source material
Cinema / television /
Imitation in art
Source criticism in the arts
Archetypal literary criticism
Readymades of Marcel Duchamp
Author of the Quixote" (1939)
Reality Hunger: A Manifesto (2010)
Palimpsests: Literature in the Second Degree
Appropriation in sociology
Articulation in sociology