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MASHRIQI ARABIC (EASTERN ARABIC), or MASHRIQI ʿAMMIYA, is the varieties of Arabic
Arabic
spoken in the Mashriq
Mashriq
, including the countries of Egypt
Egypt
, Sudan
Sudan
, Yemen
Yemen
, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, Lebanon
Lebanon
, Palestine , Israel
Israel
, Kuwait
Kuwait
, Oman
Oman
, the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
, Jordan
Jordan
, Syria
Syria
and Iraq
Iraq
. The variety is sometimes referred to as Eastern Arabic, as opposed to Western Arabic
Arabic
( Maghrebi Arabic
Maghrebi Arabic
or Darija) and includes Mesopotamian Arabic
Mesopotamian Arabic
and Gulf Arabic , along with Levantine Arabic
Levantine Arabic
. Speakers of Mashriqi call their language ʿAMMIYA, which means "dialect" in Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
.

Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
(الفصحى (al-)fushā) is the primary language used in the government, legislation and judiciary of countries in the Mashreq. Mashriqi Arabic
Arabic
is used for almost all spoken communication, as well as in television dramas and on advertising boards in Egypt
Egypt
and Lebanon, but Modern Standard Arabic (الفصحى (al-)fuṣ-ḥā) is used for written communication. In Lebanon, where Mashriqi Arabic
Arabic
as a colloquial language was taught as a separate subject under French colonization, some textbooks exist.

The varieties of Mashriqi have a significant degree of mutual intelligibility, specially between geographically adjacent ones (such as Lebanese and Syrian or between Iraqi and Kuwaiti). Conversely, Darija is very hard to understand for Arabic-speakers from the Mashreq , as it derives from different substrata.

It is widely spoken in countries west of Iran
Iran
and east of Saudi Arabia , such as in Iraq
Iraq
and Kuwait
Kuwait
. It is somewhat different from Saudi Arabic or Egyptian Arabic .

VARIETIES

An overview of the different varieties of Arabic
Arabic
.

* Varieties of Arabic
Varieties of Arabic

* Koinés :

* Egyptian Arabic * Mesopotamian Arabic
Mesopotamian Arabic
* Palestinian Arabic
Palestinian Arabic
* Jordanian Arabic * North Syrian Arabic * Lebanese Arabic
Lebanese Arabic
* Peninsular Arabic
Peninsular Arabic
* Yemeni Arabic

* Bedouin
Bedouin

* Bedawi Arabic
Bedawi Arabic
* Hejazi Arabic
Hejazi Arabic
* Najdi Arabic

REFERENCES

* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Western Asian Arabic". Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ "Mashriq". Britannica. Retrieved 5 July 2015. * ^ "European Neighbourhood Policy in the Mashreq
Mashreq
Countries: Enhancing Prospects for Reform". Retrieved 15 April 2015. * ^ Introduction to Migration and the Mashreq
Mashreq
Archived 2014-02-03 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Migrants from the Maghreb and Mashreq
Mashreq
Countries

FURTHER READING

* Singer, Hans-Rudolf (1980) “Das Westarabische oder Maghribinische” in Wolfdietrich Fischer and Otto Jastrow (eds.) Handbuch der arabischen Dialekte. Otto Harrassowitz: Wiesbaden. 249-76.

LINKS TO RELATED ARTICLES

* v * t * e

Arabic
Arabic
language

OVERVIEWS

* Language * Alphabet * History * Romanization * Numerology * Influence on other languages

ALPHABET

* Nabataean alphabet
Nabataean alphabet
* Perso- Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
* Ancient North Arabian

* Ancient South Arabian script
Ancient South Arabian script

* Zabūr script

* Arabic
Arabic
numerals * Eastern numerals

* Arabic
Arabic
Braille

* Algerian

* Diacritics

* i‘jām * Tashkil
Tashkil
* Harakat
Harakat
* Tanwin * Shaddah
Shaddah
* Hamza
Hamza

* Tāʾ marbūṭah

LETTERS

* ʾAlif * Bāʾ * Tāʾ * Ṯāʾ
Ṯāʾ
* Ǧīm * Ḥāʾ * Ḫāʾ * Dāl * Ḏāl
Ḏāl
* Rāʾ * Zāy * Sīn * Šīn * Ṣād * Ḍād
Ḍād
* Ṭāʾ * Ẓāʾ
Ẓāʾ
* ʿAyn * Ġayn * Fāʾ * Qāf * Kāf * Lām * Mīm * Nūn * Hāʾ * Wāw * Yāʾ

NOTABLE VARIETIES

ANCIENT

* Proto- Arabic
Arabic
* Old Arabic
Arabic
* Ancient North Arabian * Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian

STANDARDIZED

* Classical * Modern Standard * Maltese

REGIONAL

* Nilo-Egyptian * Levantine

* Maghrebi

* Pre-Hilalian dialects * Hilalian dialects * Moroccan Darija
Moroccan Darija
* Tunisian Arabic
Arabic
* Sa\'idi Arabic
Arabic

* Mesopotamian

* Peninsular

* Yemeni Arabic * Tihamiyya Arabic
Arabic

* Sudanese * Chadian * Modern South Arabian
Modern South Arabian

ETHNIC / RELIGIOUS

* Judeo- Arabic
Arabic

PIDGINS/CREOLES

* Juba Arabic
Arabic
* Nubi language * Babalia Creole Arabic
Arabic
* Maridi Arabic
Arabic
* Maltese

ACADEMIC

* Literature * Names

LINGUISTICS

* Phonology * Sun and moon letters
Sun and moon letters
* ʾIʿrāb (inflection) * Grammar * Triliteral root * Mater lectionis * IPA * Quranic Arabic
Arabic
Corpus

* Calligraphy * Script

* Diwani
Diwani
* Jawi script * Kufic
Kufic
* Rasm * Mashq
Mashq
* Hijazi script
Hijazi script
* Muhaqqaq
Muhaqqaq
* Thuluth
Thuluth
* Naskh (script)
Naskh (script)
* Ruqʿah script
Ruqʿah script
* Taʿlīq script * Nastaʿlīq script
Nastaʿlīq script
* Shahmukhī script * Sini (script)
Sini (script)

TECHNICAL

* Arabic
Arabic
keyboard * Arabic
Arabic
script in Unicode * ISO/IEC 8859-6 * Windows-1256

* MS-DOS codepages

* 708 * 709 * 710 * 711 * 720 * 864

* Mac Arabic
Arabic
encoding

* v * t * e

Varieties of Arabic
Varieties of Arabic

PRE-ISLAMIC

* Old Arabic
Arabic

MODERN LITERARY

* Classical * Modern Standard * Maltese

NILO-EGYPTIAN

* Egyptian * Chadian * Sa\'idi * Sudanese

PENINSULAR

NORTHEASTERN

* Gulf

* Omani * Shihhi * Dhofari * Kuwaiti

* Najdi

WESTERN

* Bareqi

* Hejazi

* Sedentary * Bedouin
Bedouin

SOUTHERN

* Baharna

* Yemeni

* Hadhrami * San\'ani * Ta\'izzi-Adeni * Tihami * Judeo-Yemeni

NORTHWESTERN

* Northwest Arabian

EASTERN

MESOPOTAMIAN

* North Mesopotamian

* Cypriot * Anatolian * Judeo-Iraqi

* South Mesopotamian

* Baghdad Koiné * Khuzestani

CENTRAL ASIAN

* Afghani * Khorasani * Central Asian Arabic
Arabic

LEVANTINE

NORTH LEVANTINE

* North Syrian

* Central Levantine

* Central Syrian * Lebanese

SOUTH LEVANTINE

* Jordanian

* Palestinian

* Urban * Central village

* Outer southern

WESTERN

IBERIAN

* Andalusian

MAGHREBI

PRE-HILALIAN

* Urban

* Eastern Village

* Sahel * Lesser Kabylia

* Western Village

* Traras-Msirda * Mountain

* Judeo- Maghrebi Arabic
Maghrebi Arabic

* Judeo-Moroccan * Judeo-Tripolitanian * Judeo-Tunisian

HILALIAN

* Sulaym

* Libyan koiné

* Eastern Hilal

* Tunisian koiné

* Central Hilal

* Algerian koiné * Algerian Saharan * Eastern Algerian * Western Algerian

* Maqil

* Western Moroccan * Eastern Moroccan * Moroccan koiné * Hassānīya

SICULO-ARABIC

* Maltese * Sicilian

UNDESCRIBED

* Shirvani

JUDEO-ARABIC

* Judeo-Iraqi

* Judeo-Baghdadi

* Judeo-Moroccan * Judeo-Tripolitanian * Judeo-Tunisian * Judeo-Yemeni

CREOLES AND PIDGINS

* Babalia * Bimbashi * Juba * Nubi * Maridi * Turku

Italics indicate extinct languages .

* v * t * e

Semitic languages
Semitic languages

EAST SEMITIC LANGUAGES

* Akkadian
Akkadian
* Eblaite

WEST SEMITIC AND CENTRAL SEMITIC LANGUAGES

NORTHWEST

CANAANITE

HEBREW

* Biblical * Mishnaic * Medieval * Mizrahi * Yemenite * Sephardi * Ashkenazi * Samaritan * Modern

PHOENICIAN

* Punic

OTHERS

* Ammonite * Moabite * Edomite

ARAMAIC

WESTERN

* Jewish Palestinian * Samaritan * Christian Palestinian * Nabataean * Western Neo-Aramaic
Western Neo-Aramaic

EASTERN

* Biblical * Hatran * Syriac * Jewish Babylonian Aramaic * Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
* Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
* Senaya * Koy Sanjaq Surat * Hértevin * Turoyo * Mlahsô * Mandaic * Judeo-Aramaic * Syriac Malayalam

OTHERS

* Amorite * Eteocypriot * Ugaritic
Ugaritic

ARABIC

LITERARY

* Classical * Modern Standard

DIALECTS

MASHRIQI (EASTERN)

ARABIAN PENINSULAR

* Dhofari

* Gulf

* Bahrani * Shihhi

* Hejazi * Najdi * Omani

* Yemeni

* Judeo-Yemeni

BEDOUIN

* Eastern Egyptian and Peninsular Bedawi

OTHERS

* Egyptian

* Sa\'idi Arabic
Arabic

* Levantine

* Cypriot * Lebanese * Palestinian

* Mesopotamian

* North Mesopotamian * Judeo-Iraqi

* Sudanese

* Central Asian

* Tajiki * Uzbeki

* Shirvani

MAGHREBI (WESTERN)

* Algerian * Saharan * Shuwa * Hassānīya * Andalusian

* Libyan Arabic
Arabic

* Judeo-Tripolitanian

* Sicilian

* Maltese

* Moroccan Arabic
Arabic

* Judeo-Moroccan

* Tunisian Arabic
Arabic

* Judeo-Tunisian

OTHERS

* Old Arabic
Arabic
* Nabataean Arabic
Arabic

SOUTH SEMITIC LANGUAGES

WESTERN SOUTH

OLD SOUTH

* Sabaean * Minaean * Qatabanian * Hadramautic * Awsānian

ETHIOPIAN

NORTH

* Ge\'ez * Tigrinya * Tigre * Dahalik

SOUTH

AMHARIC

* Argobba

HARARI

* Silt\'e (Wolane, Ulbareg, Inneqor) * Zay

OUTER

N-GROUP

* Gafat * Soddo

TT-GROUP

* Mesmes * Muher

* West Gurage

* Mesqan * Ezha * Chaha * Gura * Gumer * Gyeto * Ennemor * Endegen

MODERN SOUTH ARABIAN

* Bathari * Harsusi * Hobyot * Mehri * Shehri * Soqotri

* v * t * e

Languages of the Mashriq
Mashriq

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE

* Standard Arabic
Arabic

* Kurdish

EXTINCT LANGUAGES AND VARIETIES OF ARABIC

* Punic language * Roman language * Pre-Hilalian Arabic
Arabic
* Classical Arabic
Arabic

JEWISH VARIETIES

* Judeo-Iraqi Arabic
Arabic
* Judeo- Yemeni Arabic

EXISTING VARIETIES OF ARABIC

* Mashriqi Arabic
Arabic

* Saudi Arabic * Egyptian Arabic * North Syrian Arabic * Iraqi Arabic
Arabic
* Lebanese Arabic
Lebanese Arabic
* Jordanian Arabic * Palestinian Arabic
Palestinian Arabic
* Kuwaiti Arabic
Arabic
* Saudi Arabic * Yemeni Arabic

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Arabic
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