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Mashriqi Arabic
Arabic
(Eastern Arabic), or Mashriqi ʿAmmiya, is the varieties of Arabic
Arabic
spoken in the Mashriq, including the countries of Egypt, Sudan, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, Kuwait, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Syria
Syria
and Iraq.[2][3][4][5] The variety is sometimes referred to as Eastern Arabic, as opposed to Western Arabic
Arabic
( Maghrebi Arabic
Maghrebi Arabic
or Darija) and includes Mesopotamian Arabic
Arabic
and Gulf Arabic, along with Levantine Arabic. Speakers of Mashriqi call their language ʿAmmiya, which means "dialect" in Modern Standard Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
(الفصحى (al-)fushā) is the primary language used in the government, legislation and judiciary of countries in the Mashreq. Mashriqi Arabic
Arabic
is used for almost all spoken communication, as well as in television dramas and on advertising boards in Egypt
Egypt
and Lebanon, but Modern Standard Arabic (الفصحى (al-)fuṣ-ḥā) is used for written communication. In Lebanon, where Mashriqi Arabic
Arabic
as a colloquial language was taught as a separate subject under French colonization, some textbooks exist. The varieties of Mashriqi have a significant degree of mutual intelligibility, specially between geographically adjacent ones (such as Lebanese and Syrian or between Iraqi and Kuwaiti). Conversely, Darija is very hard to understand for Arabic-speakers from the Mashreq, as it derives from different substrata. It is widely spoken in countries west of Iran
Iran
and east of Saudi Arabia, such as in Iraq
Iraq
and Kuwait. It is somewhat different from Saudi Arabic
Saudi Arabic
or Egyptian Arabic. Varieties[edit]

An overview of the different varieties of Arabic.

Varieties of Arabic Koinés:

Egyptian Arabic Mesopotamian Arabic Palestinian Arabic Jordanian Arabic North Syrian Arabic Lebanese Arabic Peninsular Arabic Yemeni Arabic

Bedouin

Bedawi Arabic Hejazi Arabic Najdi Arabic

References[edit]

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Western Asian Arabic". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ "Mashriq". Britannica. Retrieved 5 July 2015.  ^ "European Neighbourhood Policy in the Mashreq
Mashreq
Countries: Enhancing Prospects for Reform". Retrieved 15 April 2015.  ^ Introduction to Migration and the Mashreq
Mashreq
Archived 2014-02-03 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Migrants from the Maghreb and Mashreq
Mashreq
Countries

Further reading[edit]

Singer, Hans-Rudolf (1980) “Das Westarabische oder Maghribinische” in Wolfdietrich Fischer and Otto Jastrow (eds.) Handbuch der arabischen Dialekte. Otto Harrassowitz: Wiesbaden. 249-76.

Links to related articles

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Arabic
Arabic
language

Overviews

Language Alphabet History Romanization Numerology Influence on other languages

Alphabet

Nabataean alphabet Perso- Arabic
Arabic
alphabet Ancient North Arabian Ancient South Arabian script

Zabūr script

Arabic
Arabic
numerals Eastern numerals Arabic
Arabic
Braille

Algerian

Diacritics

i‘jām Tashkil Harakat Tanwin Shaddah

Hamza Tāʾ marbūṭah

Letters

ʾAlif Bāʾ Tāʾ

Tāʾ marbūṭah

Ṯāʾ Ǧīm Ḥāʾ Ḫāʾ Dāl Ḏāl Rāʾ Zāy Sīn Šīn Ṣād Ḍād Ṭāʾ Ẓāʾ ʿAyn Ġayn Fāʾ Qāf Kāf Lām Mīm Nūn Hāʾ

Tāʾ marbūṭah

Wāw Yāʾ Hamza

Notable varieties

Ancient

Proto-Arabic Old Arabic Ancient North Arabian Old South Arabian

Standardized

Classical Modern Standard Maltese[a]

Regional

Nilo-Egyptian Levantine Maghrebi

Pre-Hilalian dialects Hilalian dialects Moroccan Darija Tunisian Arabic Sa'idi Arabic

Mesopotamian Peninsular

Yemeni Arabic Tihamiyya Arabic

Sudanese Chadian Modern South Arabian

Ethnic / religious

Judeo-Arabic

Pidgins/Creoles

Juba Arabic Nubi language Babalia Creole Arabic Maridi Arabic Maltese

Academic

Literature Names

Linguistics

Phonology Sun and moon letters ʾIʿrāb (inflection) Grammar Triliteral root Mater lectionis IPA Quranic Arabic
Arabic
Corpus

Calligraphy Script

Diwani Jawi script Kufic Rasm Mashq Hijazi script Muhaqqaq Thuluth Naskh (script) Ruqʿah script Taʿlīq script Nastaʿlīq script Shahmukhī script Sini (script)

Technical

Arabic
Arabic
keyboard Arabic
Arabic
script in Unicode ISO/IEC 8859-6 Windows-1256 MS-DOS codepages

708 709 710 711 720 864

Mac Arabic
Arabic
encoding

aSociolinguistically not Arabic

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Varieties of Arabic

Pre-Islamic

Old Arabic

Modern literary

Classical Modern Standard

Nilo-Egyptian

Egyptian Chadian Sa'idi Sudanese

Peninsular

Northeastern

Gulf

Omani Shihhi Dhofari Kuwaiti

Najdi

Western

Bareqi Hejazi

Sedentary Bedouin

Southern

Baharna Yemeni

Hadhrami San'ani Ta'izzi-Adeni Tihami Judeo-Yemeni

Northwestern

Northwest Arabian

Eastern

Mesopotamian

North Mesopotamian

Cypriot Anatolian Judeo-Iraqi

South Mesopotamian

Baghdad Koiné Khuzestani

Central Asian

Afghani Khorasani Central Asian Arabic

Levantine

North Levantine

North Syrian Central Levantine

Central Syrian Lebanese

South Levantine

Jordanian Palestinian

Urban Central village

Outer southern

Western

Iberian

Andalusian

Maghrebi

Pre-Hilalian

Urban

North-Eastern Tunisian

Eastern Village

Sahel Sfaxian Lesser Kabylia

Western Village

Traras-Msirda Mountain

Judeo-Maghrebi Arabic

Judeo-Moroccan Judeo-Tripolitanian Judeo-Tunisian

Hilalian

Sulaym

Libyan koiné

Eastern Hilal

Tunisian koiné

Central Hilal

Algerian koiné Algerian Saharan Eastern Algerian Western Algerian

Maqil

Western Moroccan Eastern Moroccan Moroccan koiné Hassānīya

Siculo-Arabic

Sicilian Arabic
Arabic
(extinct ancestor of Maltese which is not part of the Arabic
Arabic
macrolanguage[1])

Undescribed

Shirvani

Judeo-Arabic

Judeo-Iraqi

Judeo-Baghdadi

Judeo-Moroccan Judeo-Tripolitanian Judeo-Tunisian Judeo-Yemeni

Creoles and pidgins

Babalia Bimbashi Juba Nubi Maridi Turku

Italics indicate extinct languages.

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Semitic languages

East Semitic languages

Akkadian Eblaite

West Semitic and Central Semitic languages

Northwest

Canaanite

Hebrew

Biblical Mishnaic Medieval Mizrahi Yemenite Sephardi Ashkenazi Samaritan Modern

Phoenician

Punic

Others

Ammonite Moabite Edomite

Aramaic

Western

Jewish Palestinian Samaritan Christian Palestinian Nabataean Western Neo-Aramaic

Eastern

Biblical Hatran Syriac Jewish Babylonian Aramaic Chaldean Neo-Aramaic Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Senaya Koy Sanjaq Surat Hértevin Turoyo Mlahsô Mandaic Judeo-Aramaic Syriac Malayalam

Others

Amorite Eteocypriot Ugaritic

Arabic

Literary

Classical Modern Standard

Dialects

Mashriqi (Eastern)

Arabian Peninsular

Dhofari Gulf

Bahrani Shihhi

Hejazi Najdi Omani Yemeni

Judeo-Yemeni

Bedouin

Eastern Egyptian and Peninsular Bedawi

Others

Egyptian

Sa'idi Arabic

Levantine

Cypriot Lebanese Palestinian

Mesopotamian

North Mesopotamian Judeo-Iraqi

Sudanese Central Asian

Tajiki Uzbeki

Shirvani

Maghrebi (Western)

Algerian Saharan Shuwa Hassānīya Andalusian Libyan Arabic

Judeo-Tripolitanian

Sicilian

Maltese

Moroccan Arabic

Judeo-Moroccan

Tunisian Arabic

Judeo-Tunisian

Others

Old Arabic Nabataean Arabic

South Semitic languages

Western South

Old South

Sabaean Minaean Qatabanian Hadramautic Awsānian

Ethiopian

North

Ge'ez Tigrinya Tigre Dahalik

South

Amharic

Argobba

Harari

Silt'e (Wolane, Ulbareg, Inneqor) Zay

Outer

n-group

Gafat Soddo

tt-group

Mesmes Muher West Gurage

Mesqan Ezha Chaha Gura Gumer Gyeto Ennemor Endegen

Modern South Arabian

Bathari Harsusi Hobyot Mehri Shehri Soqotri

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Languages of the Mashriq

Official language

Standard Arabic

Kurdish

Extinct languages and varieties of Arabic

Punic language Roman language Pre-Hilalian Arabic Classical Arabic

Jewish varieties

Judeo-Iraqi Arabic Judeo-Yemeni Arabic

Existing varieties of Arabic

Mashriqi Arabic

Saudi Arabic Egyptian Arabic North Syrian Arabic Iraqi Arabic Lebanese Arabic Jordanian Arabic Palestinian Arabic Kuwaiti Arabic Saudi Arabic Yemeni Arabic

^ "Documentation for ISO 639 ident

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