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The Marzabotto
Marzabotto
massacre was a World War II
World War II
war crime consisting in a mass murder of at least 770 civilians by Nazis, which took place in the territory around the small village of Marzabotto, in the mountainous area south of Bologna. It was the worst massacre of civilians committed by the Waffen SS
Waffen SS
in Western Europe
Western Europe
during the war.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Massacre 2 Justice 3 In popular culture 4 See also 5 References 6 Sources 7 External links

Massacre[edit] In reprisal for the local support given to the partisans and the Resistance between 29 September and 5 October 1944, SS- Sturmbannführer
Sturmbannführer
Walter Reder
Walter Reder
led soldiers of the 16th SS Panzergrenadier Division Reichsführer-SS to systematically kill hundreds of people in Marzabotto. They also killed numerous residents of the adjacent Grizzana Morandi
Grizzana Morandi
and Monzuno, the area of the massif of Monte Sole (part of the Apennine range in the province of Bologna).

Some victims

Historians have struggled to document the number of victims: some sources report up to 1,830 victims; others estimate 955 people killed. Today, the Peace School Foundation of Monte Sole reports 770 victims. This number is close to the official report by Sturmbannführer
Sturmbannführer
Reder, who reported the "execution of 728 bandits". Among the victims, 155 were less than 10 years old, 95 were aged 10 to 16, 142 were over 60 years old, 454 were male, 316 were female and five were Catholic priests. Giovanni Fornasini (it), a parish priest and member of the Resistance, risked his life to protect the defenseless population from the Nazis during the massacres. By his actions, Fornasini saved the lives of many of his parishioners, and managed to escape immediate death. As he was burying the bodies of those killed in the massacre, which was forbidden by the Nazis, Fornasini was discovered by an SS officer. The officer accused Fornasini of crimes committed in the Marzabotto
Marzabotto
area. When Fornasini confessed to having helped the villagers avoid execution, the officer shot and killed him. On 18 October 1998, Cardinal Biffi opened in Bologna
Bologna
the process for the beatification of Fornasini and two other priests (Ferdinando Casagrande and Ubaldo Marchioni), considered the "martyrs of Sonnenberg". Today Fornasini is remembered as "the angel of Marzabotto". A memorial commemorates him and four other priests in the cemetery of San Martino di Caprara. Justice[edit]

The British tried SS General Max Simon
Max Simon
for his part in the massacre. He was sentenced to death, later changed to life in prison. Simon was pardoned in 1954 and died in 1961. The Americans arrested SS Major Walter Reder, an Austrian national, in Salzburg, and passed him to the Italians via the British. In 1951 he was tried in an Italian military court in Bologna. He was sentenced to life imprisonment in the military prison at Gaeta. He was released in 1985 and died six years later in 1991. In 1998, on the 54th anniversary of the massacre, the German President Johannes Rau
Johannes Rau
made a formal apology to Italy
Italy
and expressed his "profound sorrow and shame" to the families of the victims of Marzabotto. In January 2007, 10 of 17 suspected former SS members were found guilty in absentia by an Italian military tribunal in the north Italian town of La Spezia. They were sentenced to life imprisonment for the massacre. The Italian media reported that the 10 were also ordered to pay roughly €100 million to the survivors and relatives of the victims. Seven suspects were acquitted.[1]

In popular culture[edit]

L'uomo Che Verrà (2009) tells the story of the local Italian people, partisans and the Marzabotto
Marzabotto
Massacre. It has won numerous awards. It features Raffaele Zabban playing Don Giovanni Fornasini, and Germano Maccioni playing Don Ubaldo Marchioni.

See also[edit]

Giovanni Fornasini (it) (1915-1944), priest, l'angelo di Marzabotto, Gold Medal of Military Valour, Servo di Dio Ubaldo Marchioni  (it) (1918-1944), priest, Servo di Dio Sant'Anna di Stazzema massacre Lidice Kľak Oradour-sur-Glane massacre Ochota massacre Khatyn massacre Italian Campaign (World War II) List of massacres in Italy German war crimes

References[edit]

^ " Italy
Italy
convicts Nazis of massacre". BBC News. 2007-01-13. Retrieved 2007-01-15. 

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Marzabotto
Marzabotto
massacre.

Sources[edit]

Marzabotto: The Crimes of Walter Reder
Walter Reder
- SS-Sturmbannführer, by Christian Ortner (Vienna, 1985) Silence on Monte Sole, by Jack Olsen (New York City, 1968) ISBN 0-213-17794-3 Don Giovanni Fornasini, Associazione Nazionale Partigiani d'Italia

External links[edit]

Peace School Foundation of Monte Sole, in Italian Monte Sole Park, in Italian Massacres and Atrocities of World War II The Man Who Will Come (L'uomo Che Verra)

Coordinates: 44°18′37″N 11°13′11″E / 44.31028°N 11.21972°E /

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