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Motto(s): Fatti maschii, parole femine (English: Strong Deeds, Gentle Words)[3] The Latin text encircling the seal: Scuto bonæ voluntatis tuæ coronasti nos (With favor Wilt Thou Compass Us as with a Shield) Psalm 5:12[4]

State song(s): "Maryland, My Maryland"

Official language None (English, de facto)

Demonym Marylander

Capital Annapolis

Largest city Baltimore

Largest metro Baltimore- Washington Metro
Washington Metro
Area

Area Ranked 42nd

 • Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km2)

 • Width 196 miles (315 km)

 • Length 119 miles (192 km)

 • % water 21

 • Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N

 • Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29′ W

Population Ranked 19th

 • Total 6,052,177 (2017 est.)[5]

 • Density 619/sq mi  (238/km2) Ranked 5th

 • Median household income $73,594[6] (3rd)

Elevation

 • Highest point Hoye-Crest[7][8] 3,360 ft (1024 m)

 • Mean 350 ft  (110 m)

 • Lowest point Atlantic Ocean[7] Sea level

Before statehood Province of Maryland

Admission to Union April 28, 1788 (7th)

Governor Larry Hogan
Larry Hogan
(R)

Lieutenant Governor Boyd Rutherford
Boyd Rutherford
(R)

Legislature General Assembly

 • Upper house Senate

 • Lower house House of Delegates

U.S. Senators Ben Cardin
Ben Cardin
(D) Chris Van Hollen
Chris Van Hollen
(D)

U.S. House delegation 7 Democrats, 1 Republican (list)

Time zone Eastern: UTC −5/−4

ISO 3166 US-MD

Abbreviations MD, Md.

Website www.maryland.gov

Maryland
Maryland
state symbols

The Flag of Maryland

The Seal of Maryland

Living insignia

Bird Baltimore
Baltimore
oriole

Butterfly Baltimore
Baltimore
checkerspot butterfly

Crustacean Blue crab

Fish Rock fish

Flower Black-eyed susan

Insect Baltimore
Baltimore
checkerspot

Mammal Calico cat Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
Retriever Thoroughbred horse

Reptile Diamondback terrapin

Tree White oak

Inanimate insignia

Beverage Milk

Dance Square dance

Dinosaur Astrodon johnstoni

Food Blue crab Smith Island Cake

Fossil Ecphora gardnerae gardnerae

Gemstone Patuxent River
Patuxent River
stone

Mineral Agate

Motto Fatti maschii, parole femine Literally: manly deeds, womanly words Officially: strong deeds, gentle words[citation needed]

Poem "Maryland, My Maryland" by James Ryder Randall

Slogan Maryland
Maryland
of Opportunity

Song "Maryland, My Maryland"

Sport Jousting

State route marker

State quarter

Released in 2000

Lists of United States
United States
state symbols

Maryland
Maryland
(/ˈmɛrɪlənd/ ( listen))[9] is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
to its south and west; Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
to its north; and Delaware
Delaware
to its east. The state's largest city is Baltimore, and its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, and the Chesapeake Bay State. The state is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria of France.[10][11] One of the original Thirteen Colonies, Maryland
Maryland
is considered to be the birthplace of religious freedom in America,[12][13] when it was formed by George Calvert
George Calvert
in the early 17th century as an intended refuge for persecuted Catholics from England.[12][13][14] George Calvert was the first Lord of Baltimore
Baltimore
and the first English proprietor of the then- Maryland
Maryland
colonial grant.[12][13] Maryland
Maryland
was the seventh state to ratify the United States
United States
Constitution, and played a pivotal role in the founding of Washington, D.C., which was established on land donated by the state. Maryland
Maryland
is one of the smallest U.S. states in terms of area, as well as one of the most densely populated, with around six million residents. As of 2009[update], Maryland
Maryland
had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to the nation's capital and a highly diversified economy spanning manufacturing, services, and biotechnology.[15]

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Description 1.2 Geology 1.3 Flora 1.4 Fauna 1.5 Environment 1.6 Climate

2 History

2.1 17th century

2.1.1 Maryland's first colonial settlement 2.1.2 Persecution of Catholics

2.2 Border disputes (1681–1760) 2.3 18th century 2.4 19th century

2.4.1 Civil War 2.4.2 After the war

2.5 20th and 21st centuries

2.5.1 Early 20th century 2.5.2 1950–present

3 Demographics

3.1 Birth data 3.2 Language 3.3 Settlements 3.4 Ancestry 3.5 Religion

4 Economy

4.1 Baltimore
Baltimore
port 4.2 Agriculture and fishing 4.3 Biotechnology 4.4 Tourism

5 Transportation

5.1 Roads 5.2 Airports 5.3 Rail

6 Law and government

6.1 Taxation 6.2 Elections

7 Media 8 Education

8.1 Primary and secondary education 8.2 Colleges and universities 8.3 Public libraries

9 Sports 10 See also 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 External links

Geography[edit] See also: List of islands of Maryland and List of rivers of Maryland Maryland
Maryland
has an area of 12,406.68 square miles (32,133.2 km2) and is comparable in overall area with Belgium
Belgium
(11,787 square miles (30,530 km2)).[16] It is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii
Hawaii
(10,930.98 square miles (28,311.1 km2)), the next smallest state. The next largest state, its neighbor West Virginia, is almost twice the size of Maryland (24,229.76 square miles (62,754.8 km2)).

Physical regions of Maryland

Description[edit]

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Maryland
Maryland
possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature. It ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to gently rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, and pine groves in the Maryland
Maryland
mountains to the west.

Western Maryland: known for its heavily forested mountains. A panoramic view of Deep Creek Lake
Deep Creek Lake
and the surrounding Appalachian Mountains in Garrett County.

Great Falls on the Potomac River.

Maryland
Maryland
is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its west by West Virginia, on its east by Delaware
Delaware
and the Atlantic Ocean, and on its south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia
Virginia
and Virginia. The mid-portion of this border is interrupted by Washington, D.C., which sits on land that was originally part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland. This land was ceded to the United States
United States
Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia. (The Commonwealth of Virginia
Virginia
gave land south of the Potomac, including the town of Alexandria, Virginia, however Virginia
Virginia
retroceded its portion in 1846). The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore.

Typical freshwater river above the tidal zone. The Patapsco River includes the famous Thomas Viaduct
Thomas Viaduct
and is part of the Patapsco Valley State Park. Later, the river forms the Inner Harbor
Inner Harbor
as it empties into the Chesapeake Bay.

Typical brackish tidal river. Sunset over a marsh at Cardinal Cove on the Patuxent River

Tidal wetlands of the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States
United States
and the largest water feature in Maryland.

Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County (drained by the Youghiogheny River
Youghiogheny River
as part of the watershed of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River), the eastern half of Worcester County (which drains into Maryland's Atlantic coastal bays), and a small portion of the state's northeast corner (which drains into the Delaware
Delaware
River watershed). So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname that has been used by Massachusetts
Massachusetts
for decades. The highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet (1,020 m), is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the border with West Virginia, and near the headwaters of the North Branch of the Potomac River. Close to the small town of Hancock, in western Maryland, about two-thirds of the way across the state, there are 1.83 miles (2.95 km) between its borders. This geographical curiosity makes Maryland
Maryland
the narrowest state,[citation needed] bordered by the Mason–Dixon line
Mason–Dixon line
to the north, and the northwards-arching Potomac River
Potomac River
to the south. Portions of Maryland
Maryland
are included in various official and unofficial geographic regions. For example, the Delmarva Peninsula
Delmarva Peninsula
is composed of the Eastern Shore counties of Maryland, the entire state of Delaware, and the two counties that make up the Eastern Shore of Virginia, whereas the westernmost counties of Maryland
Maryland
are considered part of Appalachia. Much of the Baltimore–Washington corridor lies just south of the Piedmont in the Coastal Plain,[17] though it straddles the border between the two regions. Geology[edit] Earthquakes in Maryland
Maryland
are infrequent and small due to the state's distance from seismic/earthquake zones.[18][19] The M5.8 Virginia earthquake in 2011 was felt moderately throughout Maryland. Buildings in the state are not well-designed for earthquakes and can suffer damage easily.[citation needed] The lack of any glacial history accounts for the scarcity of Maryland's natural lakes, yet the oft-repeated claim[20] that Maryland is the only state without natural lakes is not true. Laurel Oxbow Lake is an over one-hundred-year-old 55-acre natural lake two miles north of Maryland
Maryland
City[21][22][23] and adjacent to Russett. "Chews Lake" is a seven-acre natural lake two miles south-southeast of Upper Marlboro.[24] There are numerous man-made lakes, the largest of them being the Deep Creek Lake, a reservoir in Garrett County in westernmost Maryland. Maryland
Maryland
has shale formations containing natural gas, where fracking is theoretically possible.[25] Flora[edit]

Black-eyed susans, the state flower, grow throughout much of the state.[26]

As is typical of states on the East Coast, Maryland's plant life is abundant and healthy. A good dose of annual precipitation helps to support many types of plants, including seagrass and various reeds at the smaller end of the spectrum to the gigantic Wye Oak, a huge example of white oak, the state tree, which can grow in excess of 70 feet (21 m) tall. Middle Atlantic coastal forests, typical of the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain, grow around Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
and on the Delmarva Peninsula. Moving west, a mixture of Northeastern coastal forests
Northeastern coastal forests
and Southeastern mixed forests
Southeastern mixed forests
cover the central part of the state. The Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
of western Maryland
Maryland
are home to Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests. These give way to Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests near the West Virginia
Virginia
border.[27]

Mature Trachycarpus fortunei in Solomons, Maryland

Many foreign species are cultivated in the state, some as ornamentals, others as novelty species. Included among these are the crape myrtle, Italian cypress, southern magnolia, live oak in the warmer parts of the state,[28] and even hardy palm trees in the warmer central and eastern parts of the state.[29] USDA plant hardiness zones in the state range from Zones 5 and 6 in the extreme western part of the state to Zone 7 in the central part, and Zone 8 around the southern part of the coast, the bay area, and parts of metropolitan Baltimore.[30] Invasive plant species, such as kudzu, tree of heaven, multiflora rose, and Japanese stiltgrass, stifle growth of endemic plant life.[31] Maryland's state flower, the black-eyed susan, grows in abundance in wild flower groups throughout the state. The state insect, the Baltimore
Baltimore
checkerspot butterfly, is not common as it is near the southern edge of its range.[32] 435 species of birds have been reported from Maryland.[33] Fauna[edit] The state harbors a great number of white tailed deer, especially in the woody and mountainous west of the state, and overpopulation can become a problem from year to year. Mammals can be found ranging from the mountains in the west to the central areas and include black bears,[34] bobcats,[35] foxes, coyotes,[36] raccoons, and otters.[34]

On Maryland's Atlantic coastal islands: A feral Chincoteague Pony
Chincoteague Pony
on Assateague

There is a population of rare wild (feral) horses found on Assateague Island.[37] They are believed to be descended from horses who escaped from shipwrecks.[37] Every year during the last week of July, they are captured and waded across a shallow bay for sale at Chincoteague, Virginia, a conservation technique which ensures the tiny island is not overrun by the horses.[37] The ponies and their sale were popularized by the children's book, Misty of Chincoteague. The purebred Chesapeake Bay Retriever
Chesapeake Bay Retriever
dog was bred specifically for water sports, hunting and search and rescue in the Chesapeake area.[38] In 1878 the Chesapeake Bay Retriever
Chesapeake Bay Retriever
was the first individual retriever breed recognized by the American Kennel Club.[38] and was later adopted by the University of Maryland, Baltimore
Baltimore
County as their mascot. Maryland's reptile and amphibian population includes the diamondback terrapin turtle, which was adopted as the mascot of University of Maryland, College Park. The state is part of the territory of the Baltimore
Baltimore
oriole, which is the official state bird and mascot of the MLB team the Baltimore
Baltimore
Orioles.[39] Environment[edit] Maryland
Maryland
joined with neighboring states during the end of the 20th century to improve the health of the Chesapeake Bay. The bay's aquatic life and seafood industry have been threatened by development and by fertilizer and livestock waste entering the bay.[40][41] In 2007, Forbes.com rated Maryland
Maryland
as the fifth "Greenest" state in the country behind three of the Pacific States
Pacific States
and Vermont. Maryland ranks 40th in total energy consumption nationwide, and it managed less toxic waste per capita than all but six states in 2005.[42] In April 2007 Maryland
Maryland
joined the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative
Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative
(RGGI)—a regional initiative formed by all of the Northeastern states, Washington D.C., and three Canadian provinces to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.[citation needed] In March 2017, Maryland
Maryland
became the first state with proven gas reserves to ban fracking by passing a law against it. Vermont
Vermont
has such a law, but no shale gas, and New York has such a ban, though it was made by executive order.[25] Climate[edit]

A map of Köppen climate types in Maryland

Winter in Baltimore, Lancaster Street, Fells Point

Maryland
Maryland
has a wide array of climates, due to local variances in elevation, proximity to water, and protection from colder weather due to downslope winds. The eastern half of Maryland—which includes the cities of Ocean City, Salisbury, Annapolis, and the southern and eastern suburbs of Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
and Baltimore—lies on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, with flat topography and sandy or muddy soil. This region has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with hot, humid summers and a short, mild to cool winter; it falls under USDA Hardiness zone
Hardiness zone
8a.[30] The Piedmont region—which includes northern and western greater Baltimore, Westminster, Gaithersburg, Frederick, and Hagerstown—has average seasonal snowfall totals generally exceeding 20 inches (51 cm) and, as part of USDA Hardiness zones 7b and 7a,[30] temperatures below 10 °F (−12 °C) are less rare. From the Cumberland Valley
Cumberland Valley
on westward, the climate begins to transition to a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa). In western Maryland, the higher elevations of Allegany and Garrett counties—including the cities of Cumberland, Frostburg, and Oakland—display more characteristics of the humid continental zone, due in part to elevation. They fall under USDA Hardiness zones 6b and below.[30] Precipitation in the state is characteristic of the East Coast. Annual rainfall ranges from 35 to 45 inches (890 to 1,140 mm) with more in higher elevations. Nearly every part of Maryland
Maryland
receives 3.5–4.5 inches (89–114 mm) per month of rain. Average annual snowfall varies from 9 inches (23 cm) in the coastal areas to over 100 inches (250 cm) in the western mountains of the state.[43] Because of its location near the Atlantic Coast, Maryland
Maryland
is somewhat vulnerable to tropical cyclones, although the Delmarva Peninsula
Delmarva Peninsula
and the outer banks of North Carolina
North Carolina
provide a large buffer, such that strikes from major hurricanes (category 3 or above) occur infrequently. More often, Maryland
Maryland
gets the remnants of a tropical system which has already come ashore and released most of its energy. Maryland
Maryland
averages around 30–40 days of thunderstorms a year, and averages around six tornado strikes annually.[44]

Monthly average high and low temperatures for various Maryland
Maryland
cities and landmarks (covering breadth and width of the state)

City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Hyattsville 47 °F (8 °C) 29 °F (−2 °C) 51 °F (11 °C) 31 °F (−1 °C) 60 °F (16 °C) 38 °F (3 °C) 70 °F (21 °C) 46 °F (8 °C) 78 °F (26 °C) 55 °F (13 °C) 86 °F (30 °C) 64 °F (18 °C) 89 °F (32 °C) 69 °F (21 °C) 87 °F (31 °C) 67 °F (19 °C) 81 °F (27 °C) 60 °F (16 °C) 71 °F (22 °C) 49 °F (9 °C) 61 °F (16 °C) 41 °F (5 °C) 50 °F (10 °C) 32 °F (0 °C)

Oakland 34 °F (1 °C) 16 °F (−9 °C) 38 °F (3 °C) 17 °F (−8 °C) 48 °F (9 °C) 25 °F (−4 °C) 59 °F (15 °C) 34 °F (1 °C) 68 °F (20 °C) 45 °F (7 °C) 75 °F (24 °C) 53 °F (12 °C) 79 °F (26 °C) 58 °F (14 °C) 78 °F (26 °C) 56 °F (13 °C) 71 °F (22 °C) 49 °F (9 °C) 62 °F (17 °C) 37 °F (3 °C) 50 °F (10 °C) 28 °F (−2 °C) 39 °F (4 °C) 21 °F (−6 °C)

Cumberland 41 °F (5 °C) 22 °F (−6 °C) 46 °F (8 °C) 24 °F (−4 °C) 56 °F (13 °C) 32 °F (0 °C) 68 °F (20 °C) 41 °F (5 °C) 77 °F (25 °C) 51 °F (11 °C) 85 °F (29 °C) 60 °F (16 °C) 89 °F (32 °C) 65 °F (18 °C) 87 °F (31 °C) 63 °F (17 °C) 80 °F (27 °C) 55 °F (13 °C) 69 °F (21 °C) 43 °F (6 °C) 57 °F (14 °C) 34 °F (1 °C) 45 °F (7 °C) 26 °F (−3 °C)

Hagerstown 39 °F (4 °C) 22 °F (−6 °C) 42 °F (6 °C) 23 °F (−5 °C) 52 °F (11 °C) 30 °F (−1 °C) 63 °F (17 °C) 39 °F (4 °C) 72 °F (22 °C) 50 °F (10 °C) 81 °F (27 °C) 59 °F (15 °C) 85 °F (29 °C) 64 °F (18 °C) 83 °F (28 °C) 62 °F (17 °C) 76 °F (24 °C) 54 °F (12 °C) 65 °F (18 °C) 43 °F (6 °C) 54 °F (12 °C) 34 °F (1 °C) 43 °F (6 °C) 26 °F (−3 °C)

Frederick 42 °F (6 °C) 26 °F (−3 °C) 47 °F (8 °C) 28 °F (−2 °C) 56 °F (13 °C) 35 °F (2 °C) 68 °F (20 °C) 45 °F (7 °C) 77 °F (25 °C) 54 °F (12 °C) 85 °F (29 °C) 63 °F (17 °C) 89 °F (32 °C) 68 °F (20 °C) 87 °F (31 °C) 66 °F (19 °C) 80 °F (27 °C) 59 °F (15 °C) 68 °F (20 °C) 47 °F (8 °C) 56 °F (13 °C) 38 °F (3 °C) 45 °F (7 °C) 30 °F (−1 °C)

Baltimore 42 °F (6 °C) 29 °F (−2 °C) 46 °F (8 °C) 31 °F (−1 °C) 54 °F (12 °C) 39 °F (4 °C) 65 °F (18 °C) 48 °F (9 °C) 75 °F (24 °C) 57 °F (14 °C) 85 °F (29 °C) 67 °F (19 °C) 90 °F (32 °C) 72 °F (22 °C) 87 °F (31 °C) 71 °F (22 °C) 80 °F (27 °C) 64 °F (18 °C) 68 °F (20 °C) 52 °F (11 °C) 58 °F (14 °C) 43 °F (6 °C) 46 °F (8 °C) 33 °F (1 °C)

Elkton 42 °F (6 °C) 24 °F (−4 °C) 46 °F (8 °C) 26 °F (−3 °C) 55 °F (13 °C) 32 °F (0 °C) 67 °F (19 °C) 42 °F (6 °C) 76 °F (24 °C) 51 °F (11 °C) 85 °F (29 °C) 61 °F (16 °C) 88 °F (31 °C) 66 °F (19 °C) 87 °F (31 °C) 65 °F (18 °C) 80 °F (27 °C) 57 °F (14 °C) 69 °F (21 °C) 45 °F (7 °C) 58 °F (14 °C) 36 °F (2 °C) 46 °F (8 °C) 28 °F (−2 °C)

Ocean City 45 °F (7 °C) 28 °F (−2 °C) 46 °F (8 °C) 29 °F (−2 °C) 53 °F (12 °C) 35 °F (2 °C) 61 °F (16 °C) 44 °F (7 °C) 70 °F (21 °C) 53 °F (12 °C) 79 °F (26 °C) 63 °F (17 °C) 84 °F (29 °C) 68 °F (20 °C) 82 °F (28 °C) 67 °F (19 °C) 77 °F (25 °C) 60 °F (16 °C) 68 °F (20 °C) 51 °F (11 °C) 58 °F (14 °C) 39 °F (4 °C) 49 °F (9 °C) 32 °F (0 °C)

Waldorf 44 °F (7 °C) 26 °F (−3 °C) 49 °F (9 °C) 28 °F (−2 °C) 58 °F (14 °C) 35 °F (2 °C) 68 °F (20 °C) 43 °F (6 °C) 75 °F (24 °C) 53 °F (12 °C) 81 °F (27 °C) 62 °F (17 °C) 85 °F (29 °C) 67 °F (19 °C) 83 °F (28 °C) 65 °F (18 °C) 78 °F (26 °C) 59 °F (15 °C) 68 °F (20 °C) 47 °F (8 °C) 59 °F (15 °C) 38 °F (3 °C) 48 °F (9 °C) 30 °F (−1 °C)

Point Lookout State Park 47 °F (8 °C) 29 °F (−2 °C) 51 °F (11 °C) 31 °F (−1 °C) 60 °F (16 °C) 38 °F (3 °C) 70 °F (21 °C) 46 °F (8 °C) 78 °F (26 °C) 55 °F (13 °C) 86 °F (30 °C) 64 °F (18 °C) 89 °F (32 °C) 69 °F (21 °C) 87 °F (31 °C) 67 °F (19 °C) 81 °F (27 °C) 60 °F (16 °C) 71 °F (22 °C) 49 °F (9 °C) 61 °F (16 °C) 41 °F (5 °C) 50 °F (10 °C) 32 °F (0 °C)

[45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54]

History[edit] Main article: History of Maryland 17th century[edit]

Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, 1st Proprietor of the Maryland colony.

Maryland's first colonial settlement[edit] Main article: Province of Maryland The Catholic George Calvert, 1st Lord Baltimore
Baltimore
(1579–1632), sought a charter from King Charles I for the territory between Massachusetts to the north and Virginia
Virginia
to the immediate south.[55] After the first Lord Baltimore
Baltimore
died in April 1632, the charter was granted to his son, Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore
Baltimore
(1605–1675), on June 20, 1632. Officially, the new " Maryland
Maryland
Colony" was named in honor of Henrietta Maria of France, wife of Charles I of England,[56] known in English as "Queen Mary", by agreement between Lord Baltimore
Baltimore
and the king.[57] Some Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
scholars and historians believe Baltimore
Baltimore
may have wanted the name of Maryland
Maryland
in honour of Mary, the mother of Jesus, but his original intent may never fully be known. The specific name given in the charter was "Terra Mariae, anglice, Maryland". The English name was preferred due to undesired associations of Mariae with the Spanish Jesuit Juan de Mariana, linked to the Inquisition.[citation needed] Henrietta Maria was never referred to by both her names together, and by a decree of her husband she was known in England as Mary, although she did not like the name and signed her letters "Henriette R".[58] The original capital of Maryland
Maryland
was St. Mary's City, on the north shore of the Potomac River, and the county surrounding it, the first erected/created in the province,[59] was named St. Mary's County, supporting the contention that the choice of the name Maryland
Maryland
honored Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ. The great seal of Maryland
Maryland
is neutral on the point, reading TERRÆ MARIÆ,[60] which translates in Latin as "Land of Mary".[61] Lord Baltimore's first settlers arrived in the new colony in March 1634, with his younger brother Leonard Calvert
Leonard Calvert
(1606–1647), as first provincial Governor of Maryland. They made their first permanent settlement at St. Mary's City in what is now St. Mary's County. They purchased the site from the paramount chief of the region, who was eager to establish trade. St. Mary's became the first capital of Maryland, and remained so for 60 years until 1695. More settlers soon followed. Their tobacco crops were successful and quickly made the new colony profitable. However, given the incidence of malaria, yellow fever and typhoid, life expectancy in Maryland
Maryland
was about 10 years less than in New England.[62] Persecution of Catholics[edit] See also: Plundering Time Maryland
Maryland
was founded for the purpose of providing religious toleration of England's Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
minority.[63] Although Maryland
Maryland
was the most heavily Catholic of the England mainland colonies, this religious group was still in the minority, consisting of less than 10% of the total population.[64] In 1642 a number of Puritans left Virginia
Virginia
for Maryland
Maryland
and founded Providence (now called Annapolis) on the western shore of the upper Chesapeake Bay.[65] A dispute with traders from Virginia
Virginia
over Kent Island in the Chesapeake led to armed conflict. In 1644 William Claiborne, a Puritan, seized Kent Island
Kent Island
while his associate, the pro-Parliament Puritan
Puritan
Richard Ingle, took over St. Mary's.[66] Both used religion as a tool to gain popular support. The two years from 1644–1646 that Claiborne and his Puritan
Puritan
associates held sway were known as "The Plundering Time". They captured Jesuit priests, imprisoned them, then sent them back to England. In 1646 Leonard Calvert
Leonard Calvert
returned with troops, recaptured St. Mary's City, and restored order. The House of Delegates passed the "Act concerning Religion" in 1649 granting religious liberty to all Trinitarian Christians.[62] In 1650 the Puritans revolted against the proprietary government. "Protestants swept the Catholics out of the legislature ...and religious strife returned".[62] The Puritans set up a new government prohibiting both Roman Catholicism and Anglicanism. The Puritan revolutionary government persecuted Maryland
Maryland
Catholics during its reign, known as the "plundering time". Mobs burned down all the original Catholic churches of southern Maryland. The Puritan
Puritan
rule lasted until 1658 when the Calvert family and Lord Baltimore
Baltimore
regained proprietary control and re-enacted the Toleration Act. After England's "Glorious Revolution" of 1688, Maryland
Maryland
outlawed Catholicism. In 1704, the Maryland General Assembly
Maryland General Assembly
prohibited Catholics from operating schools, limited the corporate ownership of property to hamper religious orders from expanding or supporting themselves, and encouraged the conversion of Catholic children.[64] The celebration of the Catholic sacraments was also officially restricted. This state of affairs lasted until after the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783). Wealthy Catholic planters built chapels on their land to practice their religion in relative secrecy. Into the 18th century, individual priests and lay leaders claimed Maryland
Maryland
farms belonging to the Jesuits as personal property and bequeathed these and other properties to other religious or lay people in order to evade the legal restrictions on religious organizations – such as the Society of Jesus – owning property.[64] Border disputes (1681–1760)[edit] Main articles: Penn–Calvert Boundary Dispute
Penn–Calvert Boundary Dispute
and Cresap's War The royal charter granted Maryland
Maryland
the land north of the Potomac River up to the 40th parallel. A problem arose when Charles II granted a charter for Pennsylvania. The grant defined Pennsylvania's southern border as identical to Maryland's northern border, the 40th parallel. But the grant indicated that Charles II and William Penn
William Penn
assumed the 40th parallel would pass close to New Castle, Delaware
Delaware
when it falls north of Philadelphia, the site of which Penn had already selected for his colony's capital city. Negotiations ensued after the problem was discovered in 1681. A compromise proposed by Charles II in 1682 was undermined by Penn's receiving the additional grant of what is now Delaware.[67] Penn successfully argued that the Maryland
Maryland
charter entitled Lord Baltimore only to unsettled lands, and Dutch settlement in Delaware
Delaware
predated his charter. The dispute remained unresolved for nearly a century, carried on by the descendants of William Penn
William Penn
and Lord Baltimore — the Calvert family, which controlled Maryland, and the Penn family, which controlled Pennsylvania.[67] The border dispute with Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
led to Cresap's War
Cresap's War
in the 1730s. Hostilities erupted in 1730 and escalated through the first half of the decade, culminating in the deployment of military forces by Maryland
Maryland
in 1736 and by Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
in 1737. The armed phase of the conflict ended in May 1738 with the intervention of King George II, who compelled the negotiation of a cease-fire. A provisional agreement had been established in 1732.[67] Negotiations continued until a final agreement was signed in 1760. The agreement defined the border between Maryland
Maryland
and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
as the line of latitude now known as the Mason–Dixon line. Maryland's border with Delaware
Delaware
was based on a Transpeninsular Line
Transpeninsular Line
and the Twelve-Mile Circle
Twelve-Mile Circle
around New Castle.[67] 18th century[edit] Main article: Maryland
Maryland
in the American Revolution Most of the English colonists arrived in Maryland
Maryland
as indentured servants, and had to serve a several years' term as laborers to pay for their passage.[68] In the early years, the line between indentured servants and African slaves or laborers was fluid, and white and black laborers commonly lived and worked together, and formed unions. Mixed-race
Mixed-race
children born to white mothers were considered free by the principle of partus sequitur ventrem, by which children took the social status of their mothers, a principle of slave law that was adopted throughout the colonies, following Virginia
Virginia
in 1662. During the colonial era, families of free people of color were formed most often by unions of white women and African men.[69]

Comte du Bourg (left) and Baron von Closen on their way to Yorktown, September 1781

Many of the free black families migrated to Delaware, where land was cheaper.[69] As the flow of indentured laborers to the colony decreased with improving economic conditions in England, planters in Maryland
Maryland
imported thousands more slaves and racial caste lines hardened. The economy's growth and prosperity was based on slave labor, devoted first to the production of tobacco as the commodity crop. Maryland
Maryland
was one of the thirteen colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution. Near the end of the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), on February 2, 1781, Maryland
Maryland
became the last and 13th state to approve the ratification of the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, first proposed in 1776 and adopted by the Second Continental Congress
Second Continental Congress
in 1778, which brought into being the United States
United States
as a united, sovereign and national state. It also became the seventh state admitted to the Union after ratifying the new federal Constitution in 1788. In December 1790, Maryland
Maryland
donated land selected by first President George Washington
George Washington
to the federal government for the creation of the new national capital of Washington, D.C. The land was provided along the north shore of the Potomac River from Montgomery and Prince George's counties, as well as from Fairfax County and Alexandria on the south shore of the Potomac in Virginia; however, the land donated by the Commonwealth of Virginia
Virginia
was later returned to that state by the District of Columbia retrocession
District of Columbia retrocession
in 1846. 19th century[edit]

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The bombardment of Fort McHenry
Fort McHenry
in Baltimore
Baltimore
inspired the song, "Star Spangled Banner".

Influenced by a changing economy, revolutionary ideals, and preaching by ministers, numerous planters in Maryland
Maryland
freed their slaves in the 20 years after the Revolutionary War. Across the Upper South the free black population increased from less than 1% before the war to 14% by 1810.[70] During the War of 1812, the British military attempted to capture Baltimore, which was protected by Fort McHenry. During this bombardment the song "Star Spangled Banner" was written by Francis Scott Key; it was later adopted as the national anthem. The National Road (U.S. Hwy 40 today) was authorized in 1817 and ran from Baltimore
Baltimore
to St. Louis – the first federal highway. The Baltimore
Baltimore
and Ohio
Ohio
Railroad
Railroad
(B&O) was the first chartered railroad in the United States. It opened its first section of track for regular operation in 1830 between Baltimore
Baltimore
and Ellicott City,[71] and in 1852 it became the first rail line to reach the Ohio River
Ohio River
from the eastern seaboard.[72] Civil War[edit] Main article: Maryland
Maryland
in the American Civil War The state remained with the Union during the Civil War,[73] due in significant part to demographics and Federal intervention. By 1860, 49% of Maryland's African Americans
African Americans
were free blacks.[70]

The Battle of Antietam
Battle of Antietam
was the single bloodiest day of the Civil War with nearly 23,000 casualties.

Governor Thomas Holliday Hicks
Thomas Holliday Hicks
suspended the state legislature, and to help ensure the election of a new pro-union governor and legislature, President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
had a number of its pro-slavery politicians arrested, including the Mayor of Baltimore, George William Brown; suspended several civil liberties, including habeas corpus; and ordered artillery placed on Federal Hill overlooking Baltimore. Historians debate the constitutionality of these wartime actions, and the suspension of civil liberties was later deemed illegal by the U.S. Supreme Court.[citation needed] In April 1861 Federal units and state regiments were attacked as they marched through Baltimore, sparking the Baltimore
Baltimore
riot of 1861, the first bloodshed in the Civil War.[74] Of the 115,000 men from Maryland who joined the military during the Civil War, 85,000, or 77%, joined the Union army, while the remainder joined the Confederate Army.[citation needed] The largest and most significant battle in the state was the Battle of Antietam
Battle of Antietam
on September 17, 1862, near Sharpsburg. Although a tactical draw, the battle was considered a strategic Union victory and a turning point of the war. After the war[edit] A new state constitution in 1864 abolished slavery and Maryland
Maryland
was first recognized as a "Free State" in that context.[75] Following passage of constitutional amendments that granted voting rights to freedmen, in 1867 the state extended suffrage to non-white males. The Democratic Party rapidly regained power in the state from Republicans. Democrats replaced the Constitution of 1864 with the Constitution of 1867. Following the end of Reconstruction in 1877, Democrats devised means of disfranchising blacks, initially by physical intimidation and voter fraud, later by constitutional amendments and laws. Blacks and immigrants, however, resisted Democratic Party disfranchisement efforts in the state. Maryland blacks were part of a biracial Republican coalition elected to state government in 1896–1904 and comprised 20% of the electorate.[76] Compared to some other states, blacks were better established both before and after the civil war. Nearly half the population was free before the war, and some had accumulated property. Half the population lived in cities. Literacy was high among blacks and, as Democrats crafted means to exclude them, suffrage campaigns helped reach blacks and teach them how to resist.[76] Whites did impose racial segregation in public facilities and Jim Crow
Jim Crow
laws, which effectively lasted until passage of federal civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s. Baltimore
Baltimore
grew significantly during the Industrial Revolution, due in large part to its seaport and good railroad connections, attracting European immigrant labor. Many manufacturing businesses were established in the Baltimore
Baltimore
area after the Civil War. Baltimore businessmen, including Johns Hopkins, Enoch Pratt, George Peabody, and Henry Walters, founded notable city institutions that bear their names, including a university, library, music school and art museum. Cumberland was Maryland's second-largest city in the 19th century. Nearby supplies of natural resources along with railroads fostered its growth into a major manufacturing center.[77] 20th and 21st centuries[edit]

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Early 20th century[edit] The Progressive Era
Progressive Era
of the late 19th and early 20th centuries brought political reforms. In a series of laws passed between 1892 and 1908, reformers worked for standard state-issued ballots (rather than those distributed and marked by the parties); obtained closed voting booths to prevent party workers from "assisting" voters; initiated primary elections to keep party bosses from selecting candidates; and had candidates listed without party symbols, which discouraged the illiterate from participating. These measures worked against ill-educated whites and blacks. Blacks resisted such efforts, with suffrage groups conducting voter education. Blacks defeated three efforts to disfranchise them, making alliances with immigrants to resist various Democratic campaigns.[76] Disfranchising bills in 1905, 1907, and 1911 were rebuffed, in large part because of black opposition. Blacks comprised 20% of the electorate and immigrants comprised 15%, and the legislature had difficulty devising requirements against blacks that did not also disadvantage immigrants.[76] The Progressive Era
Progressive Era
also brought reforms in working conditions for Maryland's labor force. In 1902 the state regulated conditions in mines; outlawed child laborers under the age of 12; mandated compulsory school attendance; and enacted the nation's first workers' compensation law. The workers' compensation law was overturned in the courts, but was redrafted and finally enacted in 1910. The Great Baltimore
Baltimore
Fire of 1904 burned over 30 hours, destroying 1,526 buildings and spanning 70 city blocks. More than 1,231 firefighters worked to bring the blaze under control. With the nation's entry into World War I in 1917, new military bases such as Camp Meade, the Aberdeen Proving Ground, and the Edgewood Arsenal
Edgewood Arsenal
were established. Existing facilities, including Fort McHenry, were greatly expanded. After Georgia congressman William D. Upshaw
William D. Upshaw
criticized Maryland
Maryland
openly in 1923 for not passing Prohibition laws, Baltimore
Baltimore
Sun editor Hamilton Owens coined the "Free State" nickname for Maryland
Maryland
in that context, which was popularized by H. L. Mencken
H. L. Mencken
in a series of newspaper editorials.[75][78] Maryland's urban and rural communities had different experiences during the Great Depression. The "Bonus Army" marched through the state in 1932 on its way to Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Maryland
Maryland
instituted its first ever income tax in 1937 to generate revenue for schools and welfare.[79] Baltimore
Baltimore
was a major war production center during World War II. The biggest operations were Bethlehem Steel's Fairfield Yard, which built Liberty ships; and Glenn Martin, an aircraft manufacturer. 1950–present[edit] Maryland
Maryland
experienced population growth following World War II, particularly in the Baltimore
Baltimore
and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
suburbs. Agricultural tracts gave way to residential communities such as Columbia and Montgomery Village. Concurrently the Interstate Highway System was built throughout the state, most notably I-95 and the Capital Beltway, altering travel patterns. In 1952 the eastern and western halves of Maryland
Maryland
were linked for the first time by the Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
Bridge, which replaced a nearby ferry service.[80] Maryland's regions experienced economic changes following WWII. Heavy manufacturing declined in Baltimore. In Maryland's four westernmost counties, industrial, railroad, and coal mining jobs declined. On the lower Eastern Shore, family farms were bought up by major concerns and large-scale poultry farms and vegetable farming became prevalent. In Southern Maryland, tobacco farming nearly vanished due to suburban development and a state tobacco buy-out program. In an effort to reverse depopulation due to the loss of working-class industries, Baltimore
Baltimore
initiated urban renewal projects in the 1960s with Charles Center
Charles Center
and the Baltimore
Baltimore
World Trade Center. Some resulted in the break-up of intact residential neighborhoods, producing social volatility, and some older residential areas around the harbor have had units renovated and have become popular with new populations. Demographics[edit] See also: List of counties in Maryland, List of incorporated places in Maryland, and List of census-designated places in Maryland

Maryland's counties

Geographic regions of Maryland

The United States
United States
Census Bureau estimates that the population of Maryland
Maryland
was 6,006,401 on July 1, 2015, a 4.03% increase since the 2010 United States
United States
Census.[81] In 2015 Maryland
Maryland
had an estimated population of 6,006,401, which is an increase of 29,994, from the prior year and an increase of 232,849, or 4.03% percent, since 2010. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 189,158 people (that is 464,251 births minus 275,093 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 116,713 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States
United States
resulted in a net increase of 129,730 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 13,017 people. The center of population of Maryland
Maryland
is located on the county line between Anne Arundel County
Anne Arundel County
and Howard County, in the unincorporated community of Jessup.[82] Maryland's history as a border state has led it to exhibit characteristics of both the Northern and Southern regions of the United States. Generally, rural Western Maryland
Western Maryland
between the West Virginian Panhandle and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
has an Appalachian culture; the Southern and Eastern Shore regions of Maryland
Maryland
embody a Southern culture,[83] while densely populated Central Maryland—radiating outward from Baltimore
Baltimore
and Washington, D.C.—has more in common with that of the Northeast.[84] The U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
designates Maryland as one of the South Atlantic States, but it is commonly associated with the Mid-Atlantic States
Mid-Atlantic States
and/or Northeastern United States
United States
by other federal agencies, the media, and some residents.[85][86][87][88][89] Birth data[edit] As of 2011, 58.0 percent of Maryland's population younger than age 1 were non-white.[90] Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother

Race 2013[91] 2014[92] 2015[93]

White: 41,474 (57.6%) 42,525 (57.5%) 42,471 (57.7%)

Non-Hispanic White 32,568 (45.2%) 33,178 (44.9%) 32,412 (44.0%)

Black 24,764 (34.4%) 25,339 (34.3%) 25,017 (34.0%)

Asian 5,415 (7.5%) 5,797 (7.8%) 5,849 (7.9%)

Native 300 (0.4%) 260 (0.3%) 279 (0.4%)

Hispanic (of any race) 10,515 (14.6%) 10,974 (14.8%) 11,750 (16.0%)

Total Maryland 71,953 (100%) 73,921 (100%) 73,616 (100%)

Language[edit] Spanish (including Spanish Creole) is the second-most-spoken language in Maryland, after English. The third- and fourth-most-spoken languages are French (including Patois and Cajun) and Chinese. Other commonly spoken languages include various African languages, Korean, German, Tagalog, Russian, Vietnamese, Italian, various Asian languages, Persian, Hindi
Hindi
and other Indic languages, Greek and Arabic.[94] Settlements[edit] See also: Maryland
Maryland
statistical areas

Maryland's population is concentrated mostly in the Baltimore
Baltimore
and Washington metropolitan areas.

Most of the population of Maryland
Maryland
lives in the central region of the state, in the Baltimore
Baltimore
Metropolitan Area and Washington Metropolitan Area, both of which are part of the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area. The majority of Maryland's population is concentrated in the cities and suburbs surrounding Washington, D.C., as well as in and around Maryland's most populous city, Baltimore. Historically, these and many other Maryland
Maryland
cities developed along the Fall Line, the line along which rivers, brooks, and streams are interrupted by rapids and/or waterfalls. Maryland's capital city, Annapolis, is one exception to this pattern, since it lies along the banks of the Severn River, close to where it empties into the Chesapeake Bay. The Eastern Shore is less populous and more rural, as are the counties of western Maryland. The two westernmost counties of Maryland, Allegany and Garrett, are mountainous and sparsely populated, resembling West Virginia
Virginia
and Appalachia
Appalachia
more than they do the rest of Maryland. Both eastern and western Maryland
Maryland
are, however, dotted with cities of regional importance, such as Ocean City, Princess Anne, and Salisbury on the Eastern Shore and Cumberland, Frostburg, and Hancock in Western Maryland. Southern Maryland
Southern Maryland
is still somewhat rural, but suburbanization from Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
has encroached significantly since the 1960s; important local population centers include Lexington Park, Prince Frederick, and Waldorf.[95][96]

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Maryland 2010 U.S. Census populations

Rank Name County Pop.

Baltimore

Columbia 1 Baltimore Independent city 620,961

Germantown

Silver Spring

2 Columbia Howard 99,615

3 Germantown Montgomery 86,395

4 Silver Spring Montgomery 71,452

5 Waldorf Charles 67,752

6 Glen Burnie Anne Arundel 67,639

7 Ellicott City Howard 65,834

8 Frederick Frederick 65,239

9 Dundalk Baltimore 63,597

10 Rockville Montgomery 61,209

Ancestry[edit]

Historical population

Census Pop.

1790 319,728

1800 341,548

6.8%

1810 380,546

11.4%

1820 407,350

7.0%

1830 447,040

9.7%

1840 470,019

5.1%

1850 583,034

24.0%

1860 687,049

17.8%

1870 780,894

13.7%

1880 934,943

19.7%

1890 1,042,390

11.5%

1900 1,188,044

14.0%

1910 1,295,346

9.0%

1920 1,449,661

11.9%

1930 1,631,526

12.5%

1940 1,821,244

11.6%

1950 2,343,001

28.6%

1960 3,100,689

32.3%

1970 3,922,399

26.5%

1980 4,216,975

7.5%

1990 4,781,468

13.4%

2000 5,296,486

10.8%

2010 5,773,552

9.0%

Est. 2017 6,052,177

4.8%

Source: 1910–2010[97]

Maryland
Maryland
Racial Breakdown of Population

Racial composition 1970[98] 1990[98] 2000[99] 2010[100]

White 81.5% 71.0% 64.0% 60.8%

Black 17.8% 24.9% 27.9% 29.8%

Asian 0.5% 2.9% 4.0% 5.5%

Native 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3%

Other race 0.1% 0.9% 1.8% 3.6%

Two or more races – – 2.0% 2.9%

Non-Hispanic whites 80.4% 69.6% 62.1% 54.7%

In 1970 the Census Bureau reported Maryland's population as 17.8 percent African-American and 80.4 percent non-Hispanic White.[101] African Americans
African Americans
form a sizable portion of the state's population – nearly 30 percent in 2010.[102] Most are descendants of people transported to the area as slaves from West Africa, and many are of mixed race, including European and Native American ancestry. New residents of African descent include 20th-century and later immigrants from Nigeria, particularly of the Igbo and Yoruba tribes.[103] Concentrations of African Americans
African Americans
live in Baltimore
Baltimore
City, Prince George's County, a suburb of Washington, D.C., where many work; Charles County, western parts of Baltimore
Baltimore
County, and the southern Eastern Shore. The top reported ancestries by Maryland
Maryland
residents are: German (15%), Irish (11%), English (8%), American (7%), Italian (6%), and Polish (3%).[104] Irish American
Irish American
populations can be found throughout the Baltimore area,[105] and the Northern and Eastern suburbs of Washington D.C.
Washington D.C.
in Maryland
Maryland
(descendents of those who moved out to the suburbs[106] of Washington's once predominantly Irish neighborhoods[106][107]), as well as Western Maryland, where Irish immigrant laborers helped to build the B & O Railroad.[105] Smaller but much older Irish populations can be found in Southern Maryland, with some roots dating as far back as the early Maryland
Maryland
colony.[108] This population, however, still remains culturally very active and yearly festivals are held.[109] A large percentage of the population of the Eastern Shore and Southern Maryland
Maryland
are descendants of British American
British American
ancestry. The Eastern Shore was settled by Protestants, chiefly Methodist
Methodist
and the southern counties were initially settled by English Catholics. Western and northern Maryland
Maryland
have large German-American
German-American
populations. More recent European immigrants of the late 19th and early 20th century settled first in Baltimore, attracted to its industrial jobs. Many of their ethnic Italian, Polish, Czech, Lithuanian, and Greek descendants still live in the area. Large ethnic minorities include Eastern Europeans such as Croatians, Belarusians, Russians and Ukrainians. The shares of European immigrants born in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
increased significantly between 1990 and 2010. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia, many immigrants from Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
came to the United States
United States
- 12 percent of which currently reside in Maryland.[110][111] Hispanic immigrants of the later 20th century have settled in Aspen Hill, Hyattsville/Langley Park, Glenmont/Wheaton, Bladensburg, Riverdale Park, Gaithersburg, as well as Highlandtown and Greektown in East Baltimore. Salvadorans are the largest Hispanic group in Maryland. Other Hispanic groups with significant populations in the state include Mexicans and Puerto Ricans and Hondurans. Though the Salvadoran population is more concentrated in the area around Washington, D.C., and the Puerto Rican population is more concentrated in the Baltimore
Baltimore
area, all other major Hispanic groups in the state are evenly dispersed between these two areas. Maryland
Maryland
has one of the most diverse Hispanic populations in the country, with significant populations from various Caribbean and Central American nations.[112] Jews are numerous throughout Montgomery County and in Pikesville and Owings Mills
Owings Mills
northwest of Baltimore. Asian Americans
Asian Americans
are concentrated in the suburban counties surrounding Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
and in Howard County, with Korean American
Korean American
and Taiwanese American
Taiwanese American
communities in Rockville, Gaithersburg, and Germantown and a Filipino American community in Fort Washington. Numerous Indian Americans
Americans
live across the state, especially in central Maryland. Amish/ Mennonite
Mennonite
communities are found in St. Mary's, Garrett, and Cecil counties.[113] Attracting educated Asians and Africans to the professional jobs in the region, Maryland
Maryland
has the fifth-largest proportions of racial minorities in the country.[114] In 2006 645,744 were counted as foreign born, which represents mainly people from Latin America and Asia. About 4.0 percent are undocumented immigrants.[115] Maryland
Maryland
also has a large Korean American population.[116] In fact, 1.7 percent are Korean, while as a whole, almost 6.0 percent are Asian.[117] According to The Williams Institute's analysis of the 2010 U.S. Census, 12,538 same-sex couples are living in Maryland, representing 5.8 same-sex couples per 1,000 households.[118] As of 2016, non-Hispanic white Americans
Americans
were 51.5% of Maryland's population, making Maryland
Maryland
on the verge of becoming a majority minority state. 48.5% of Maryland's population is non-white and/or Hispanic/Latino, the highest percentage of any state on the East Coast and the highest percentage after the majority minority states of Hawaii, New Mexico, Texas, California
California
and Nevada.[119] Non-Hispanic White Americans
White Americans
in Maryland, the majority as of 2016, are expected to become the plurality ethnic group within 5 years of 2015.[120] After Nevada
Nevada
in 2016, Maryland
Maryland
is projected to be the next state to become majority minority due to growing African-American, Asian and Latino populations. By 2031, minorities are projected to become the majority of voting eligible residents of Maryland.[121] Religion[edit]

Religion in Maryland
Maryland
(2014)[122]

religion

percent

Protestant

52%

None

23%

Catholic

15%

Jewish

3%

Other faiths

2%

Buddhist

1%

Hindu

1%

Islam

1%

Mormon

1%

Orthodox Christian

1%

The Baltimore
Baltimore
Basilica was the first Catholic cathedral built in the U.S..

According to Pew research 69 percent of Maryland's population identifies as Christian.[122] The largest religious groups in Maryland as of 2010 were: the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
with 837,338 adherents in Maryland, followed by non-denominational Evangelical Protestants with 298,921 members, and the United Methodist
Methodist
Church with 238,774. The Southern Baptist Convention
Southern Baptist Convention
has 150,345 members.[123] Judaism
Judaism
is the largest non-Christian religion in Maryland
Maryland
with 241,000 adherents, or 4 percent of the total population.[124] The Seventh-day Adventist Church's World Headquarters and Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslims national Headquarters is located in Silver Spring, just outside the District of Columbia. Maryland
Maryland
has been prominent in U.S. Catholic tradition, partially because it was intended by George Calvert
George Calvert
as a haven for English Catholics. Baltimore
Baltimore
was the seat of the first Catholic bishop in the U.S. (1789), and Emmitsburg
Emmitsburg
was the home and burial place of the first American-born citizen to be canonized, St. Elizabeth Ann Seton. Georgetown University, the first Catholic University, was founded in 1789 in what was then part of Maryland.[125] The Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary in Baltimore
Baltimore
was the first Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
cathedral built in the United States, and the Archbishop of Baltimore
Baltimore
is, albeit without formal primacy, the United States' quasi-primate,[citation needed] and often a cardinal. Among the immigrants of the 19th and 20th century from eastern and southern Europe were many Catholics. Economy[edit] See also: Business in Maryland, List of federal installations in Maryland, List of shopping malls in Maryland, and Maryland
Maryland
locations by per capita income

The Port of Baltimore

The Bureau of Economic Analysis
Bureau of Economic Analysis
estimates that Maryland's gross state product in 2016 was $382.4 billion.[126] However, Maryland
Maryland
has been using Genuine Progress Indicator, an indicator of well-being, to guide the state's development, rather than relying only on growth indicators like GDP.[127][128] According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Maryland households are currently the wealthiest in the country, with a 2013 median household income of $72,483[129] which puts it ahead of New Jersey and Connecticut, which are second and third respectively. Two of Maryland's counties, Howard and Montgomery, are the second and eleventh wealthiest counties in the nation respectively. Maryland ranked No. 1 with the most millionaires per capita in 2013, with a ratio of 7.7 percent.[130] Also, the state's poverty rate of 7.8 percent is the lowest in the country.[131][132][133] per capita personal income in 2006 was $43,500, fifth in the nation. As of May 2014, the state's unemployment rate was 5.5 percent.[134]

A map showing Maryland's median income by county. Data is sourced from the 2014 ACS 5-year Estimate report published by the US Census Bureau.

Maryland's economy benefits from the state's close proximity to the federal government in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
with an emphasis on technical and administrative tasks for the defense/aerospace industry and bio-research laboratories, as well as staffing of satellite government headquarters in the suburban or exurban Baltimore/Washington area. Ft. Meade serves as the headquarters of the Defense Information Systems Agency, United States
United States
Cyber Command, and the National Security Agency/Central Security Service. In addition, a number of educational and medical research institutions are located in the state. In fact, the various components of The Johns Hopkins
Johns Hopkins
University and its medical research facilities are now the largest single employer in the Baltimore
Baltimore
area. Altogether, white collar technical and administrative workers comprise 25 percent of Maryland's labor force,[citation needed] attributable in part to nearby Maryland
Maryland
being a part of the Washington Metro Area
Washington Metro Area
where the federal government office employment is relatively high. Manufacturing, while large in dollar value, is highly diversified with no sub-sector contributing over 20 percent of the total. Typical forms of manufacturing include electronics, computer equipment, and chemicals. The once mighty primary metals sub-sector, which at one time included what was then the largest steel factory in the world at Sparrows Point, still exists, but is pressed with foreign competition, bankruptcies, and mergers. During World War II
World War II
the Glenn Martin Company (now part of Lockheed Martin) airplane factory employed some 40,000 people. Mining
Mining
other than construction materials is virtually limited to coal, which is located in the mountainous western part of the state. The brownstone quarries in the east, which gave Baltimore
Baltimore
and Washington much of their characteristic architecture in the mid-19th century, were once a predominant natural resource. Historically, there used to be small gold-mining operations in Maryland, some near Washington, but these no longer exist. Baltimore
Baltimore
port[edit] One major service activity is transportation, centered on the Port of Baltimore
Baltimore
and its related rail and trucking access. The port ranked 17th in the U.S. by tonnage in 2008.[135] Although the port handles a wide variety of products, the most typical imports are raw materials and bulk commodities, such as iron ore, petroleum, sugar, and fertilizers, often distributed to the relatively close manufacturing centers of the inland Midwest
Midwest
via good overland transportation. The port also receives several different brands of imported motor vehicles and is the number one auto port in the U.S.[136] Baltimore
Baltimore
City is the eighth largest port in the nation, and was at the center of the February 2006 controversy over the Dubai Ports World deal because it was considered to be of such strategic importance. The state as a whole is heavily industrialized, with a booming economy and influential technology centers. Its computer industries are some of the most sophisticated in the United States, and the federal government has invested heavily in the area. Maryland
Maryland
is home to several large military bases and scores of high level government jobs. The Chesapeake and Delaware
Delaware
Canal
Canal
is a 14 miles (23 km) canal on the Eastern Shore that connects the waters of the Delaware
Delaware
River with those of the Chesapeake Bay, and in particular with the Port of Baltimore, carrying 40 percent of the port's ship traffic.[137] Agriculture and fishing[edit] Maryland
Maryland
has a large food-production sector. A large component of this is commercial fishing, centered in the Chesapeake Bay, but also including activity off the short Atlantic seacoast. The largest catches by species are the blue crab, oysters, striped bass, and menhaden. The Bay also has overwintering waterfowl in its wildlife refuges. The waterfowl support a tourism sector of sportsmen.

Agriculture is an important part of the state's economy

Maryland
Maryland
has large areas of fertile agricultural land in its coastal and Piedmont zones, though this land use is being encroached upon by urbanization. Agriculture is oriented to dairy farming (especially in foothill and piedmont areas) for nearby large city milksheads plus specialty perishable horticulture crops, such as cucumbers, watermelons, sweet corn, tomatoes, muskmelons, squash, and peas (Source:USDA Crop Profiles). In addition, the southern counties of the western shoreline of Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
are warm enough to support a tobacco cash crop zone, which has existed since early Colonial times but declined greatly after a state government buyout in the 1990s. There is also a large automated chicken-farming sector in the state's southeastern part; Salisbury is home to Perdue Farms. Maryland's food-processing plants are the most significant type of manufacturing by value in the state. Biotechnology[edit] Maryland
Maryland
is a major center for life sciences research and development. With more than 400 biotechnology companies located there, Maryland
Maryland
is the fourth-largest nexus in this field in the United States.[138] Institutions and government agencies with an interest in research and development located in Maryland
Maryland
include the Johns Hopkins
Johns Hopkins
University, the Johns Hopkins
Johns Hopkins
Applied Physics Laboratory, more than one campus of the University System of Maryland, Goddard Space Flight Center, the United States
United States
Census Bureau, the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
(NIH), the National Institute of Standards and Technology
National Institute of Standards and Technology
(NIST), the National Institute of Mental Health
National Institute of Mental Health
(NIMH), the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, the federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Celera Genomics company, the J. Craig Venter Institute
J. Craig Venter Institute
(JCVI), and MedImmune
MedImmune
– recently purchased by AstraZeneca. Maryland
Maryland
is home to defense contractor Emergent BioSolutions, which manufactures and provides an anthrax vaccine to U.S. government military personnel.[139] Tourism[edit]

The beach resort town of Ocean City along the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
is a popular tourist destination in Maryland

See also: List of National Historic Landmarks in Maryland Tourism is popular in Maryland, with tourists visiting the city of Baltimore, the beaches of the Eastern Shore, and the nature of western Maryland, as well as many passing through en route to Washington, D.C. Baltimore
Baltimore
attractions include the Harborplace, the Baltimore
Baltimore
Aquarium, Fort McHenry, as well as the Camden Yards
Camden Yards
baseball stadium. Ocean City on the Atlantic Coast has been a popular beach destination in summer, particularly since the Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
Bridge was built in 1952 connecting the Eastern Shore to the more populated Maryland cities.[80] The state capital of Annapolis
Annapolis
offers sites such as the state capitol building, the historic district, and the waterfront. Maryland
Maryland
also has several sites of interest to military history, given Maryland's role in the American Civil War
American Civil War
and in the War of 1812. Other attractions include the historic and picturesque towns along the Chesapeake Bay, such as Saint Mary's, Maryland's first colonial settlement and original capital.[140] Transportation[edit] The Maryland Department of Transportation
Maryland Department of Transportation
oversees most transportation in the state through its various administration-level agencies.[141] The independent Maryland Transportation Authority
Maryland Transportation Authority
maintains and operates the state's eight toll facilities. Roads[edit] See also: List of Interstate Highways in Maryland, List of Maryland state highways, List of minor Maryland
Maryland
state highways, and List of former Maryland
Maryland
state highways Maryland's Interstate highways include 110 miles (180 km) of Interstate 95 (I-95), which enters the northeast portion of the state, travels through Baltimore, and becomes part of the eastern section of the Capital Beltway to the Woodrow Wilson Bridge. I-68 travels 81 miles (130 km), connecting the western portions of the state to I-70 at the small town of Hancock. I-70 enters from Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
north of Hancock and continues east for 93 miles (150 km) to Baltimore, connecting Hagerstown and Frederick along the way. I-83 has 34 miles (55 km) in Maryland
Maryland
and connects Baltimore
Baltimore
to southern central Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
(Harrisburg and York, Pennsylvania). Maryland
Maryland
also has an 11-mile (18 km) portion of I-81 that travels through the state near Hagerstown. I-97, fully contained within Anne Arundel County and the second shortest (17.6 miles (28.3 km)) one- or two-digit Interstate highway which connects the Baltimore
Baltimore
area to the Annapolis
Annapolis
area. Hawaii
Hawaii
has one that is shorter.[clarification needed] There are also several auxiliary Interstate highways in Maryland. Among them are two beltways encircling the major cities of the region: I-695, the McKeldin (Baltimore) Beltway, which encircles Baltimore; and a portion of I-495, the Capital Beltway, which encircles Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
I-270, which connects the Frederick area with Northern Virginia
Virginia
and the District of Columbia through major suburbs to the northwest of Washington, is a major commuter route and is as wide as fourteen lanes at points. Both I-270 and the Capital Beltway were extremely congested; however, the Intercounty Connector
Intercounty Connector
(ICC; MD 200) alleviated some of the congestion over time. Construction of the ICC was a major part of the campaign platform of former Governor Robert Ehrlich, who was in office from 2003 until 2007, and of Governor Martin O'Malley, who succeeded him. I-595, which is an unsigned highway concurrent with US 50/US 301, is the longest unsigned interstate in the country and connects Prince George's County and Washington D.C.
Washington D.C.
with Annapolis
Annapolis
and the Eastern Shore via the Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
Bridge.

The Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
Bridge connects Maryland's Eastern and Western Shores.

Maryland
Maryland
also has a state highway system that contains routes numbered from 2 through 999, however most of the higher-numbered routes are either unsigned or are relatively short. Major state highways include Routes 2 (Governor Ritchie Highway/Solomons Island Road/Southern Maryland
Maryland
Blvd.), 4 ( Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Avenue/Southern Maryland Blvd./Patuxent Beach Road/St. Andrew's Church Road), 5 (Branch Avenue/Leonardtown Road/Point Lookout Road), 32, 45 (York Road), 97 (Georgia Avenue), 100 (Paul T. Pitcher Memorial Highway), 210 (Indian Head Highway), 235 (Three Notch Road), 295 (Baltimore-Washington Parkway), 355 ( Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Avenue/Rockville Pike/Frederick Road), 404 (Queen Anne Highway/ Shore Highway), and 650 ( New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Avenue). Airports[edit] See also: Aviation in Maryland
Aviation in Maryland
and List of airports in Maryland Maryland's largest airport is Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
Airport, more commonly referred to as BWI. The airport is named for the Baltimore-born Thurgood Marshall, the first African-American Supreme Court justice. The only other airports with commercial service are at Hagerstown and Salisbury. The Maryland
Maryland
suburbs of Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
are also served by the other two airports in the region, Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and Dulles International Airport, both in Northern Virginia. The College Park Airport
College Park Airport
is the nation's oldest, founded in 1909, and is still used. Wilbur Wright
Wilbur Wright
trained military aviators at this location.[142][143] Rail[edit] See also: List of Maryland
Maryland
railroads Amtrak
Amtrak
trains, including the high speed Acela Express
Acela Express
serve Baltimore's Penn Station, BWI Airport, New Carrollton, and Aberdeen along the Washington D.C.
Washington D.C.
to Boston
Boston
Northeast Corridor. In addition, train service is provided to Rockville and Cumberland by Amtrak's Washington, D.C., to Chicago
Chicago
Capitol Limited.

Ellicott City Station, on the original B&O Railroad
Railroad
line, is the oldest remaining passenger station in the United States. The rail line is still used by CSX Transportation
CSX Transportation
for freight trains, and the station is now a museum.

The WMATA's Metrorail rapid transit and Metrobus local bus systems (the 2nd and 6th busiest in the nation of their respective modes) provide service in Montgomery and Prince George's counties and connect them to Washington D.C., with the express Metrobus Route B30 serving BWI Airport. The Maryland Transit Administration
Maryland Transit Administration
(often abbreviated as "MTA Maryland"), a state agency part of the Maryland
Maryland
Department of Transportation also provides transit services within the state. Headquartered in Baltimore, MTA's transit services are largely focused on central Maryland, as well as some portions of the Eastern Shore and Southern MD. Baltimore's Light Rail and Metro Subway systems serve its densely populated inner-city and the surrounding suburbs. The MTA also serves the city and its suburbs with its local bus service (the 9th largest system in the nation). The MTA's Commuter Bus system provides express coach service on longer routes connecting Washington D.C.
Washington D.C.
and Baltimore
Baltimore
to parts of Central and Southern MD as well as the Eastern Shore. The commuter rail service, known as MARC, operates three lines which all terminate at Washington Union Station
Washington Union Station
and provide service to Baltimore's Penn and Camden stations, Perryville, Frederick, and Martinsburg, WV. In addition, many suburban counties operate their own local bus systems which connect to and complement the larger MTA and WMATA/Metro services. Freight rail transport
Freight rail transport
is handled principally by two Class I railroads, as well as several smaller regional and local carriers. CSX Transportation has more extensive trackage throughout the state, with 560 miles (900 km),[144] followed by Norfolk Southern Railway. Major rail yards are located in Baltimore
Baltimore
and Cumberland,[144] with an intermodal terminal (rail, truck and marine) in Baltimore.[145] Law and government[edit]

The reverse side of the Maryland
Maryland
quarter shows the dome of the State House in Annapolis.

Main article: Government of Maryland See also: List of Governors of Maryland, Maryland
Maryland
Army National Guard, and Maryland
Maryland
Air National Guard The government of Maryland
Maryland
is conducted according to the state constitution. The government of Maryland, like the other 49 state governments, has exclusive authority over matters that lie entirely within the state's borders, except as limited by the Constitution of the United States. Power in Maryland
Maryland
is divided among three branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial. The Maryland General Assembly
Maryland General Assembly
is composed of the Maryland House of Delegates
Maryland House of Delegates
and the Maryland
Maryland
Senate. Maryland's governor is unique in the United States
United States
as the office is vested with significant authority in budgeting. The legislature may not increase the governor's proposed budget expenditures. Unlike many other states, significant autonomy is granted to many of Maryland's counties. Most of the business of government is conducted in Annapolis, the state capital. Elections for governor and most statewide offices, as well as most county elections, are held in midterm-election years (even-numbered years not divisible by four). The judicial branch of state government consists of one united District Court of Maryland
Maryland
that sits in every county and Baltimore City, as well as 24 Circuit Courts sitting in each County and Baltimore
Baltimore
City, the latter being courts of general jurisdiction for all civil disputes over $30,000.00, all equitable jurisdiction and major criminal proceedings. The intermediate appellate court is known as the Court of Special
Special
Appeals and the state supreme court is the Court of Appeals. The appearance of the judges of the Maryland
Maryland
Court of Appeals is unique; Maryland
Maryland
is the only state whose judges wear red robes.[146] Taxation[edit] Maryland
Maryland
imposes five income tax brackets, ranging from 2 to 6.25 percent of personal income.[147] The city of Baltimore
Baltimore
and Maryland's 23 counties levy local "piggyback" income taxes at rates between 1.25 and 3.2 percent of Maryland
Maryland
taxable income. Local officials set the rates and the revenue is returned to the local governments quarterly. The top income tax bracket of 9.45 percent is the fifth highest combined state and local income tax rates in the country, behind New York City's 11.35 percent, California's 10.3 percent, Rhode Island's 9.9 percent, and Vermont's 9.5 percent.[148] Maryland's state sales tax is 6 percent.[citation needed] All real property in Maryland
Maryland
is subject to the property tax.[citation needed] Generally, properties that are owned and used by religious, charitable, or educational organizations or property owned by the federal, state or local governments are exempt.[citation needed] Property tax
Property tax
rates vary widely.[citation needed] No restrictions or limitations on property taxes are imposed by the state, meaning cities and counties can set tax rates at the level they deem necessary to fund governmental services.[citation needed] Elections[edit] Further information: Politics of Maryland and Political party strength in Maryland

Spiro Agnew, former United States
United States
Vice President, is the highest-ranking political leader from Maryland
Maryland
since the founding of the United States

Gubernatorial election results[149]

Year Democratic Republican

1950 42.7% 275,824 57.3% 369,807

1954 45.5% 319,033 54.5% 381,451

1958 63.6% 485,061 36.5% 278,173

1962 55.6% 428,071 44.4% 341,271

1966 40.6% 373,543 49.5% 455,318

1970 65.7% 639,579 32.3% 314,336

1974 63.5% 602,648 36.5% 346,449

1978 71.0% 718,328 29.0% 293,635

1982 62.0% 705,910 38.0% 432,826

1986 82.4% 907,291 17.6% 194,185

1990 59.8% 664,015 40.2% 446,980

1994 50.2% 708,094 49.8% 702,101

1998 55.1% 846,972 44.8% 688,357

2002 47.7% 813,422 51.6% 879,592

2006 52.7% 942,279 46.2% 825,464

2010 56.2% 1,044,961 41.8% 776,319

2014 47.3% 818,890 51.0% 884,400

Presidential election results[149]

Year Democratic Republican

1952 43.8% 395,337 55.4% 499,424

1956 40.0% 372,613 60.0% 559,738

1960 53.6% 565,808 46.4% 489,538

1964 65.5% 730,912 34.5% 385,495

1968 43.6% 538,310 41.9% 517,995

1972 37.4% 505,781 61.3% 829,305

1976 53.0% 759,612 47.0% 672,661

1980 47.1% 726,161 44.2% 680,606

1984 47.0% 787,935 52.5% 879,918

1988 48.2% 826,304 51.1% 876,167

1992 49.8% 988,571 35.6% 707,094

1996 54.3% 966,207 38.3% 681,530

2000 56.6% 1,145,782 40.2% 813,797

2004 55.9% 1,334,493 42.9% 1,024,703

2008 61.9% 1,629,467 36.5% 959,862

2012 62.0% 1,677,844 35.9% 971,869

2016 60.3% 1,677,928 33.9% 943,169

Treemap
Treemap
of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

Since before the Civil War, Maryland's elections have been largely controlled by the Democrats[citation needed] State elections are dominated[when?] by Baltimore
Baltimore
and the populous suburban counties bordering Washington, D.C.: Montgomery and Prince George's. Forty-three percent of the state's population resides[when?] in these three jurisdictions, each of which contain large, traditionally Democratic voting bloc(s): African Americans
African Americans
in Baltimore
Baltimore
and Prince George's, federal employees in Prince George's and Montgomery, and postgraduates in Montgomery. The remainder of the state, particularly Western Maryland
Western Maryland
and the Eastern Shore, is more supportive of Republicans.[citation needed] One of Maryland's best known political figures is a Republican – former Governor Spiro Agnew, who served as United States
United States
Vice President under Richard Nixon as Vice President from 1969 to 1973, when he resigned in the aftermath of revelations that he had taken bribes while he was Governor of Maryland. In late 1973 a court found Agnew guilty of violating tax laws.[citation needed] In 1980, Maryland
Maryland
was one of six states to vote for Jimmy Carter.[citation needed] In 1992, Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
fared better in Maryland
Maryland
than any other state except his home state of Arkansas.[citation needed] In 1996, Maryland
Maryland
was Clinton's sixth best, in 2000 Maryland
Maryland
ranked fourth for Gore and in 2004 John Kerry
John Kerry
showed his fifth-best performance in Maryland.[citation needed] In 2008 Barack Obama
Barack Obama
won the state's 10 electoral votes with 61.9 percent of the vote to John McCain's 36.5 percent.[citation needed] In 2002, former Governor Robert Ehrlich was the first Republican to be elected to that office in four decades, and after one term lost his seat to Baltimore
Baltimore
Mayor and Democrat Martin O'Malley. Ehrlich ran again for governor in 2010, losing again to O'Malley.[citation needed] The 2006 election brought no change in the pattern of Democratic dominance. After Democratic Senator Paul Sarbanes
Paul Sarbanes
announced that he was retiring, Democratic Congressman Benjamin Cardin
Benjamin Cardin
defeated Republican Lieutenant Governor Michael S. Steele, with 55 percent of the vote, against Steele's 44 percent. While Republicans usually win more counties, by piling up large margins in the west and east, they are also usually swamped by the more densely populated and heavily Democratic Baltimore-Washington axis. In 2008, for instance, McCain won 17 counties to Obama's six; Obama also carried Baltimore
Baltimore
City. While McCain won most of the western and eastern counties by margins of 2-to-1 or more, he was almost completely shut out in the larger counties surrounding Baltimore
Baltimore
and Washington; every large county except Anne Arundel went for Obama.[150] From 2007 to 2011 U.S. Congressman Steny Hoyer
Steny Hoyer
(MD-5), a Democrat, was elected as Majority Leader for the 110th Congress of the House of Representatives, and 111th Congress, serving in that post. His district covers parts of Anne Arundel and Prince George's counties, in addition to all of Charles, Calvert and St. Mary's counties in southern Maryland.[151] In 2010 Republicans won control of most counties. The Democratic Party remained in control of eight county governments including Baltimore City.[152] In 2014 Larry Hogan, a Republican, was elected Governor of Maryland.[153] Hogan is the second Republican to become the Governor of Maryland
Maryland
since Spiro Agnew's resigned in 1969 to become Vice President.

Voter Registration by Party (May 2017)[154]

Party Number of Voters Percentage

Democratic 2,059,544 54.9%

Republican 1,020,438 26.0%

Unaffiliated 691,583 17.6%

Libertarian 20,377 0.5%

Green 9,313 0.2%

Other 31,975 0.8%

Total 3,928,689 100%

Media[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2017)

Maryland
Maryland
has many popular sources of media. A well known newspaper is The Baltimore
Baltimore
Sun. See also: Category: Maryland
Maryland
media Education[edit] Primary and secondary education[edit] See also: List of school districts in Maryland, List of high schools in Maryland, and Arts and culture of Maryland

Memorial Chapel at the University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland's flagship university.

UMBC Commons and Quad

Education Week ranked Maryland
Maryland
#1 in its nationwide 2009–2013 Quality Counts reports.[citation needed] The College Board's 9th Annual AP Report to the Nation also ranked Maryland
Maryland
first.[citation needed] Primary and secondary education in Maryland
Maryland
is overseen by the Maryland
Maryland
State Department of Education, which is headquartered in Baltimore.[155] The highest educational official in the state is the State Superintendent of Schools, who is appointed by the State Board of Education to a four-year term of office. The Maryland
Maryland
General Assembly has given the Superintendent and State Board autonomy to make educationally related decisions, limiting its own influence on the day-to-day functions of public education. Each county and county-equivalent in Maryland
Maryland
has a local Board of Education charged with running the public schools in that particular jurisdiction. The budget for education was $5.5 billion in 2009, representing about 40 percent of the state's general fund.[156] Maryland
Maryland
has a broad range of private primary and secondary schools. Many of these are affiliated with various religious sects, including parochial schools of the Catholic Church, Quaker
Quaker
schools, Seventh-day Adventist schools, and Jewish schools. In 2003, Maryland
Maryland
law was changed to allow for the creation of publicly funded charter schools, although the charter schools must be approved by their local Board of Education and are not exempt from state laws on education, including collective bargaining laws. In 2008 the state led the entire country in the percentage of students passing Advanced Placement
Advanced Placement
examinations. 23.4 percent of students earned passing grades on the AP tests given in May 2008. This marks the first year that Maryland
Maryland
earned this honor.[157] Three Maryland high schools (in Montgomery County) were ranked among the top 100 in the country by US News in 2009, based in large part on AP test scores.[158] Colleges and universities[edit] See also: List of colleges and universities in Maryland Maryland
Maryland
has several historic and renowned private colleges and universities, the most prominent of which is Johns Hopkins
Johns Hopkins
University, founded in 1876 with a grant from Baltimore
Baltimore
entrepreneur Johns Hopkins. The first public university in the state is the University of Maryland, Baltimore, which was founded in 1807 and contains the University of Maryland's only public academic health, human services, and one of two law centers (the other being the University of Baltimore
Baltimore
School of Law). Seven professional and graduate schools train the majority of the state's physicians, nurses, dentists, lawyers, social workers, and pharmacists.[159] The flagship university and largest undergraduate institution in Maryland
Maryland
is the University of Maryland, College Park which was founded as the Maryland
Maryland
Agricultural College in 1856 and became a public land grant college in 1864. Towson University, founded in 1866, is the state's second largest university. Baltimore
Baltimore
is home to the University of Maryland, Baltimore
Baltimore
County and the Maryland
Maryland
Institute College of Art. The majority of public universities in the state are affiliated with the University System of Maryland. Two state-funded institutions, Morgan State University
Morgan State University
and St. Mary's College of Maryland, as well as two federally funded institutions, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences and the United States
United States
Naval Academy, are not affiliated with the University System of Maryland. St. John's College in Annapolis, Maryland
Annapolis, Maryland
and Washington College
Washington College
in Chestertown, Maryland, both private institutions, are the two oldest colleges in the state, and are among the oldest in the country. Other private institutions include Mount St. Mary's University, McDaniel College (formerly known as Western Maryland
Western Maryland
College), Hood College, Stevenson University
Stevenson University
(formerly known as Villa Julie College), Loyola University Maryland, and Goucher College, among others. Public libraries[edit] Maryland's 24 public library systems deliver public education for everyone in the state of Maryland
Maryland
through a curriculum that comprises three pillars: Self-Directed Education (books and materials in all formats, e-resources), Research Assistance & Instruction (individualized research assistance, classes for students of all ages), and Instructive & Enlightening Experiences (e.g., Summer Reading Clubs, author events). Maryland's library systems include, in part:

Baltimore
Baltimore
County Public Library System Cecil County Public Library Enoch Pratt
Enoch Pratt
Free Library Harford County Public Library Howard County Public Library Montgomery County Public Libraries Prince George's County Memorial Library System St. Mary's County
St. Mary's County
Public Library[160]

Many of the library systems have established formalized partnerships with other educational institutions in their counties and regions.[citation needed] Sports[edit]

Oriole Park at Camden Yards, home of the Baltimore
Baltimore
Orioles

M&T Bank Stadium, home of the Baltimore
Baltimore
Ravens.

See also: Sports in Maryland
Sports in Maryland
and List of people from Maryland § Athletes With two major metropolitan areas, Maryland
Maryland
has a number of major and minor professional sports franchises. Two National Football League teams play in Maryland, the Baltimore
Baltimore
Ravens in Baltimore
Baltimore
and the Washington Redskins
Washington Redskins
in Landover. The Baltimore
Baltimore
Colts represented the NFL in Baltimore
Baltimore
from 1953 to 1983 before moving to Indianapolis. The Baltimore
Baltimore
Orioles are the state's Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
franchise. The National Hockey League's Washington Capitals
Washington Capitals
and the National Basketball Association's Washington Wizards
Washington Wizards
formerly played in Maryland, until the construction of an arena in Downtown D.C. in 1997 (now known as Capital One Arena). Maryland
Maryland
enjoys considerable historical repute for the talented sports players of its past, including Cal Ripken Jr.
Cal Ripken Jr.
and Babe Ruth. In 2012, The Baltimore
Baltimore
Sun published a list of Maryland's top ten athletes in the state's history. The list includes Babe Ruth, Cal Ripken Jr, Johnny Unitas, Brooks Robinson, Frank Robinson, Ray Lewis, Michael Phelps, Jimmie Foxx, Jim Parker, and Wes Unseld.[161] Other professional sports franchises in the state include five affiliated minor league baseball teams, one independent league baseball team, the Baltimore
Baltimore
Blast indoor soccer team, two indoor football teams, three low-level outdoor soccer teams, and the Chesapeake Bayhawks
Chesapeake Bayhawks
of Major League Lacrosse. Maryland
Maryland
is also home to one of the three races in horse racing's annual Triple Crown, the Preakness Stakes, which is run every spring at Pimlico Race Course
Pimlico Race Course
in Baltimore. The Congressional Country Club
Congressional Country Club
has hosted three golf tournaments for the U.S. Open and a PGA Championship. The official state sport of Maryland, since 1962, is jousting; the official team sport since 2004 is lacrosse.[162] The National Lacrosse Hall of Fame is located on the Johns Hopkins
Johns Hopkins
University campus in Baltimore. In 2008, intending to promote physical fitness for all ages, walking became the official state exercise. Maryland
Maryland
is the first state with an official state exercise.[163]

See also[edit]

Maryland
Maryland
portal

Index of Maryland-related articles Outline of Maryland

References[edit]

^ "Maryland's quality of life ranks high compared to other states". FindArticles.com. The Daily Record (Baltimore). December 11, 2004. Retrieved June 4, 2009. [permanent dead link] ^ " Maryland
Maryland
Facts". Maryland
Maryland
Office of Tourism. Retrieved June 2, 2009.  ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). web-beta.archive.org. Archived from the original on September 29, 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Great Seal of Maryland
Seal of Maryland
(reverse)". Maryland
Maryland
State Archives. Retrieved March 4, 2014.  ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. June 22, 2017. Retrieved June 22, 2017.  ^ "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved December 9, 2016.  ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 21, 2011.  ^ Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988. ^ For those who distinguish them, Maryland
Maryland
is pronounced as in merry /ˈmɛri/, not as in the name Mary /ˈmɛəri/. (Random House Dictionary) ^ "Maryland's Name". Catholic History of Maryland. Simon & Schuster. Retrieved July 20, 2012.  ^ "Why Is It Named Maryland? - Ghosts of Baltimore". ghostsofbaltimore.org. Retrieved 2018-02-19.  ^ a b c " George Calvert
George Calvert
and Cecilius Calvert, Barons Baltimore" William Hand Browne, Nabu Press (August 1, 2010), ISBN 117662539X ISBN 978-1176625396 ^ a b c "Reconstructing the Brick Chapel of 1667" Page 1, See section entitled "The Birthplace of Religious Freedom" "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 13, 2014. Retrieved May 3, 2014.  ^ Cecilius Calvert, "Instructions to the Colonists by Lord Baltimore, (1633)" in Clayton Coleman Hall, ed., Narratives of Early Maryland, 1633–1684 (NY: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1910), 11–23. ^ "State Median Household Income Patterns: 1990–2010". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved August 6, 2012.  ^ "Belgium". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. May 15, 2008. Archived from the original on July 10, 2016. Retrieved May 15, 2008. Area – comparative: about the size of Maryland  ^ Delgado, Patricia (December 2011). " Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
National Estuarine Research Reserve in Maryland
Maryland
Site Profile" (PDF). Maryland Department of Natural Resources. p. 54. Retrieved May 21, 2017. Map showing ... Maryland
Maryland
physiographic provinces  ^ "M2.0 – Maryland". Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved November 25, 2012.  ^ "M3.4 – Maryland
Maryland
Potomac-Shenandoah Region". Archived from the original on November 2, 2012. Retrieved November 25, 2012.  ^ "Maryland's Lakes and Reservoirs: FAQ". Maryland
Maryland
Geological Survey. January 24, 2007. Retrieved February 3, 2008.  ^ "Oxbow Nature Preserve; "Laurel Oxbow Lake is the largest naturally occurring body of freshwater in Maryland; other lakes (of significant size) are the result of damming creeks" by man" (PDF). The Nature Conservancy. 2016. Retrieved October 1, 2016.  ^ "Oxbow Natural Area". Anne Arundel County
Anne Arundel County
Recreation and Parks Department. 2016. Retrieved October 1, 2016.  ^ "Oxbow Observation Platform, may be the largest naturally occurring fresh water lake in Maryland". Russett Community Association. 2009. Retrieved October 1, 2016. [permanent dead link] ^ "The National Map (search on Chews Lake)". USGS. 2016. Retrieved October 1, 2016.  ^ a b Pamela Wood (March 27, 2017). " Maryland
Maryland
General Assembly approves fracking ban". The Baltimore
Baltimore
Sun.  ^ "MARYLAND AT A GLANCE: STATE SYMBOLS, Maryland
Maryland
State Flower – Black-Eyed Susan". Maryland
Maryland
Manual Online. Maryland
Maryland
State Archives. Retrieved May 20, 2014.  ^ Olson, D. M, E. Dinerstein; et al. (2001). "Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Life on Earth". BioScience. 51 (11): 933–938. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0933:TEOTWA]2.0.CO;2. Archived from the original on September 7, 2011. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "Zone Hardiness Map through Prairie Frontier". Prairiefrontier.com. Retrieved October 24, 2010.  ^ John Leeds Bozman (1837). The history of Maryland: from its first settlement, in 1633, to the restoration, in 1660 ; with a copious introduction, and notes and illustrations. J. Lucas & E.K. Deaver. p. 24.  ^ a b c d "Hardiness Zones". Arbor Day Foundation. Retrieved March 5, 2013.  ^ "Invasive Species of concern in Maryland". Mdinvasivesp.org. Retrieved October 24, 2010.  ^ Euphydryas phaeton (Drury, 1773) Archived September 6, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., Butterflies and Moths of North America ^ "Official list of the birds of Maryland" (PDF). Maryland/District of Columbia Records Committee. Retrieved May 4, 2009.  ^ a b " Maryland
Maryland
Animals". Archived from the original on August 30, 2007. Retrieved August 30, 2007. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Therres, Glenn (Fall 2007). "Lions in our mountains? The mystery of cougars in Maryland" (PDF). Wildlife and Heritage. Maryland
Maryland
Department of Natural Resources. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 19, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2009. Historically bobcats were distributed statewide but during the post colonization period densities began to plummet. By the mid-1900s, populations had probably reached all-time lows, with remnant populations existing only in western Maryland. This prompted the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) to classify them as a state-listed "Species of Special
Special
Concern." During the past quarter century, occupied range and densities have increased markedly. Results from the annual Bowhunter Survey and the Hunter Mail survey have identified bobcat sightings in 14 of Maryland's 23 counties. Currently, bobcats have dual legal classification in Maryland. In addition to the Species of Special
Special
Concern designation, they are also defined as a Game Animal / Furbearer with a closed harvest season.  ^ "Coyotes in Maryland". Maryland
Maryland
Department of Natural Resources. Archived from the original on August 15, 2011. Retrieved September 16, 2011. Coyotes were historically a western species with core populations found west of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River. Alterations and/or elimination of competing predators during the post-European colonization period facilitated rapid range expansion into eastern North America during the 20th Century. Established populations now occur in every state and province in North America. Coyotes are a relatively new addition to local ecosystems, and were first documented in Maryland
Maryland
during 1972. Initial substantiated sightings occurred in Cecil, Frederick and Washington counties. Since that time population densities and occupied range have expanded incrementally and coyotes now occur statewide.  ^ a b c " Assateague Island
Assateague Island
National Seashore wild Ponies". Assateagueisland.com. Retrieved October 24, 2010.  ^ a b " Chesapeake Bay Retriever
Chesapeake Bay Retriever
History". K9web.com. Archived from the original on October 24, 2010. Retrieved October 24, 2010.  ^ " Maryland
Maryland
Government Website – Maryland
Maryland
State Bird". Msa.md.gov. June 7, 2010. Retrieved October 24, 2010.  ^ Goodman, Peter S. (August 1, 1999). "An Unsavory Byproduct: Runoff and Pollution". Washington Post. p. A1.  ^ Horton, Tom (January 1, 1999). "Hog farms' waste poses a threat". Baltimore
Baltimore
Sun.  ^ Wingfield, Brian; Marcus, Miriam (October 16, 2007). "– America's Greenest States". Forbes.com. Retrieved October 24, 2010.  ^ "Snowfall Map". Retrieved October 24, 2010.  ^ [1] NOAA National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved on October 24, 2006. ^ "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 17, 2012.  ^ "Monthly Averages for Oakland, MD". weather.com. Retrieved September 28, 2013.  ^ "Station Name: MD CUMBERLAND 2". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 5, 2013.  ^ "Monthly Averages for Hagerstown, MD". weather.com. Retrieved September 28, 2013.  ^ "Station Name: MD FREDERICK POLICE BRKS". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 5, 2013.  ^ "Station Name: MD MD SCI CTR BALTIMORE". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved February 27, 2013.  ^ "Monthly Averages for Elkton, MD (21921)". The Weather Channel. Retrieved May 21, 2017.  ^ "Station Name: MD OCEAN CITY MUNI AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 5, 2013.  ^ "Monthly Averages for Waldorf, MD". The Weather Channel. Retrieved May 21, 2017.  ^ "Monthly Averages for Point Lookout State Park
Point Lookout State Park
[Scotland, MD]". The Weather Channel. Retrieved May 21, 2017.  ^ Stewart, George R. (1967) [1945]. Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States
United States
(Sentry edition (3rd) ed.). Houghton Mifflin. pp. 42–43.  ^ "Maryland's Name". Maryland
Maryland
at a Glance. Maryland
Maryland
State Archives. Retrieved January 21, 2008.  ^ Frances Copeland Stickles, A Crown for Henrietta Maria: Maryland's Namesake Queen (1988), p. 4 ^ Karen Britland, Drama at the Courts of Queen Henrietta Maria, p. 73 ^ Masser, Kristin P. " Maryland
Maryland
In Focus -- St. Mary's County". msa.maryland.gov.  ^ "Great Seal of Maryland
Seal of Maryland
(obverse)". msa.maryland.gov.  ^ Stewart, George R. (1967) [1945]. Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States
United States
(Sentry edition (3rd) ed.). Houghton Mifflin. pp. 42–43. ^ a b c "The Southern Colonies", U.S. History, The Independence Hall Association Archived March 22, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Greenwell, Megan. "Religious Freedom Byway Would Recognize Maryland's Historic Role", Washington Post, August 21, 2008 ^ a b c Wilder, Craig Steven (2016). "War and Priests: Catholic Colleges and Slavery in the Age of Revolution". In Beckert, Seth; Rockman, Seth. Slavery's Capitalism: A New History of American Economic Development. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-8122-4841-8.  ^ Taylor, Owen M.,History of Annapolis
Annapolis
(1872) p 5 online ^ Brenner, Robert. Merchants and Revolution London:Verso. 2003, ISBN 1-85984-333-6 ^ a b c d Hubbard, Bill, Jr. (2009). American Boundaries: the Nation, the States, the Rectangular Survey. University of Chicago
Chicago
Press. pp. 21–23. ISBN 978-0-226-35591-7.  ^ "Indentured Servants and the Pursuits of Happiness Archived January 4, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.". Crandall Shifflett, Virginia
Virginia
Tech. ^ a b Paul Heinegg. Free African Americans
African Americans
in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland
Maryland
and Delaware. Retrieved February 15, 2008. ^ a b Peter Kolchin, American Slavery: 1619–1877, New York: Hill and Wang, 1993, pp. 81–82 ^ Dilts, James D. (1993). The Great Road: The Building of the Baltimore
Baltimore
and Ohio, the Nation's First Railroad, 1828–1853. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. p. 80. ISBN 0-8047-2235-8.  ^ Stover, John F. (1987). History of the Baltimore
Baltimore
and Ohio
Ohio
Railroad. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-911198-81-4.  ^ Walter Coffey (April 29, 2016). " Maryland
Maryland
Remains in the Union". The Civil War Months. Walter Coffey. Retrieved July 7, 2016.  ^ Vogler, Mark E. (April 18, 2009). "Civil War Guard on duty in Baltimore
Baltimore
to save President Street Station". eagletribune.com. Eagle Tribune. Archived from the original on April 19, 2009. Retrieved April 28, 2015.  ^ a b " Maryland
Maryland
at a Glance: Nicknames". Maryland
Maryland
State Archives. September 29, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2018.  ^ a b c d STEPHEN TUCK, "Democratization and the Disfranchisement of African Americans
African Americans
in the US South during the Late 19th Century" (pdf), Spring 2013, reading for "Challenges of Democratization", by Brandon Kendhammer, Ohio
Ohio
University ^ "Bird's Eye View of Cumberland, Maryland
Cumberland, Maryland
1906". World Digital Library. 1906. Retrieved July 22, 2013.  ^ Dayhoff, Kevin (October 7, 2012). "Eagle Archive: Here's a toast to Maryland's origins as 'The Free State'". The Baltimore
Baltimore
Sun. Retrieved February 8, 2018.  ^ Cairns, Huntington (December 1937). "History and Constitutionality of the Maryland
Maryland
Income Tax Law". Maryland
Maryland
Law Review. Legal History, Theory and Process Commons. UM Carey Law. pp. 1, 6. Retrieved August 19, 2015. ...1937 Special
Special
Session of the Maryland
Maryland
Legislature
Legislature
imposed an income tax...expenditure of public funds for the benefit of able-bodied persons whose inability to support themselves arises from the prevalence of wide-spread unemployment.  ^ a b "William Preston Lane Jr. Memorial Bay Bridge – History". baybridge.com. Retrieved February 5, 2008.  ^ "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". U.S. Census Bureau. December 24, 2015. Archived from the original (CSV) on December 23, 2015. Retrieved December 24, 2015.  ^ "Population and Population Centers by State – 2000". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 12, 2001. Retrieved December 5, 2008.  ^ "The South As It's [sic] Own Nation". League of the South. 2004. Archived from the original on June 5, 2008. Retrieved May 23, 2008. On the other hand, areas beyond these thirteen States maintain their Southern culture to varying degrees. Much of Missouri
Missouri
remains basically Southern, as do parts of southern Maryland
Maryland
and Maryland's eastern shore.  ^ Beck, John; Randall, Aaron & Frandsen, Wendy (June 27, 2007). "Southern Culture: An Introduction" (PDF). Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press. pp. 14–15. Retrieved May 23, 2008. Kentucky, Missouri, West Virginia
Virginia
[...] and Maryland —slaveholding states and regions before the Civil War that did not secede from the Union – are also often included as part of the South. As border states, these states always were crossroads of values and customs, and today [...] parts of Maryland seem to have become part of the "Northeast."  ^ "Regions of the United States". American Memory. The Library of Congress. Retrieved August 11, 2009.  ^ "Region 3: The Mid-Atlantic States". www.epa.gov. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved August 11, 2009.  ^ "Your Local FBI Office". www.fbi.gov. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Archived from the original on August 15, 2009. Retrieved August 11, 2009.  ^ "Routes Serving the Northeast". National Railroad
Railroad
Passenger Corporation. Archived from the original on August 15, 2009. Retrieved August 11, 2009.  ^ "Best Regional Colleges". www.princetonreview.com. The Princeton Review. Retrieved August 11, 2009.  ^ " Americans
Americans
under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". The Plain Dealer. June 3, 2012. ^ https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_01.pdf ^ https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_12.pdf ^ https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr66/nvsr66_01.pdf ^ " Maryland
Maryland
Languages". City-Data. Retrieved September 14, 2016.  ^ "Calvert County, Maryland's Success in Controlling Sprawl". Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved September 3, 2016.  ^ Shields, Todd (February 16, 1997). "On Edge". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 3, 2016.  ^ Resident Population Data. "Resident Population Data – 2010 Census". 2010.census.gov. Archived from the original on November 18, 2011. Retrieved December 24, 2012.  ^ a b Population Division, Laura K. Yax. "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". Archived from the original on July 25, 2008.  ^ Population of Maryland: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts[permanent dead link] ^ " Maryland
Maryland
QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Archived from the original on February 7, 2015. Retrieved January 14, 2015.  ^ "Maryland – Race and Hispanic Origin: 1790 to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 25, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2012.  ^ " Maryland
Maryland
QuickFacts". U.S. Census Bureau. December 23, 2011. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved January 14, 2012.  ^ "Languages in Maryland" (PDF). U.S.ENGLISH Foundation, Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 17, 2013. Retrieved May 22, 2012. Prince George's County has the highest percentage of Kru/Ibo/Yoruba speakers of any county in the nation.  ^ Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder – Results". Retrieved January 14, 2015.  ^ a b "Irish Immigrants in Baltimore: Introduction, Teaching American History in Maryland". Maryland
Maryland
State Archives. Retrieved May 21, 2017.  ^ a b Dastagir, Alia E. (May 23, 2011). "Swampoodle: The neighborhood behind the play". ABC Channel 7: TBD online magazine. p. 2. Archived from the original on June 6, 2013. Retrieved June 11, 2014.  ^ "Washington, DC Genealogy Research, Resources, and Records: Irish Neighborhoods in Old Washington". genweb.org. Retrieved May 21, 2017.  ^ "Mulberry Tree: College News: EXPLORE MARYLAND'S HISTORY IN IRELAND". St. Mary's College of Maryland
St. Mary's College of Maryland
online magazine. Spring 2014. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2014.  ^ "About the Celtic Society of Southern Maryland". CSSM.org. Celtic Society of Southern Maryland. Retrieved May 21, 2017.  ^ "European Immigrants in the United States". migrationpolicy.org. Retrieved January 14, 2015.  ^ "Cities with the Highest Percentage of Russians in Maryland". Retrieved January 14, 2015.  ^ Department of Legislative Services (June 2008). "Overview of Hispanic Community in Maryland" (PDF). pp. 6–7. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 17, 2013. Retrieved July 5, 2012.  ^ " Maryland
Maryland
Amish". Amish
Amish
America. Retrieved October 6, 2017.  ^ "Minority population surging in Texas". msnbc.com. Associated Press. August 18, 2005. Retrieved December 7, 2009.  ^ Turner Brinton, "Immigration Bill Could Impact Maryland
Maryland
Archived December 21, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.," Capital News Service, April 5, 2006. Retrieved July 22, 2007. ^ Yau, Jennifer (2007). "The Foreign Born from Korea in the United States". Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved December 23, 2007.  ^ "About Us: Korean Americans
Americans
in Maryland". Johns Hopkins
Johns Hopkins
Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retrieved December 23, 2007.  ^ "Maryland". Freedom to Marry. Retrieved September 28, 2013.  ^ " Maryland
Maryland
Quick Facts". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved July 25, 2017.  ^ "Face it, we're on our way to being a majority minority country". Baltimore
Baltimore
Sun. Retrieved July 25, 2017.  ^ "States of Change: The Demographic Evolution of the American Electorate, 1974–2060" (PDF). Center for American Progress. Retrieved July 25, 2016.  ^ a b "Religious composition of adults in Maryland". Religious Landscape Study. The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. 2017. Retrieved October 5, 2017.  ^ "The Association of Religion Data Archives State Membership Report". www.thearda.com. Retrieved November 15, 2013.  ^ "Table 77. Christian Church Adherents and Jewish Population – States: 2008". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Archived from the original (Excel) on March 27, 2010. Retrieved October 24, 2010.  ^ It became a part of the District of Columbia when that city was created in the 1790s. ^ [2] ^ Dolan, Karen (January 30, 2012). "A better way of measuring progress in Maryland". Baltimore
Baltimore
Sun.  ^ Measuring Prosperity: Maryland's Genuine Progress Indicator
Genuine Progress Indicator
Solutions. Thesolutionsjournal.com. Retrieved on July 12, 2013. ^ "American FactFinder – Results".  ^ Frank, Robert. "Top states for millionaires per capita". CNBC. Retrieved January 21, 2014.  ^ U.S. Poverty Rate Drops; Ranks of Uninsured Grow washingtonpost.com. ^ Maryland
Maryland
is ranked as richest state baltimoresun.com. ^ US Poverty Rate Declines Significantly wibw.com. ^ Bls.gov; Local Area Unemployment Statistics ^ U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Waterborne Commerce Statistics Center. New Orleans, LA. "Tonnage for Selected U.S. Ports in 2008." Archived July 31, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Revised February 17, 2010. ^ "Port of Baltimore". Automotive Logistics Buyers' Guide. Ultima Media. Retrieved May 22, 2017. The Port of Baltimore
Baltimore
handles more autos than any other US port.  ^ "Chesapeake and Delaware
Delaware
Canal". Philadelphia, PA: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved September 28, 2013.  ^ "Maryland's Bioscience Environment: 2009". The Maryland Biotechnology Center. Retrieved August 19, 2011.  ^ " Emergent BioSolutions
Emergent BioSolutions
Receives Orphan Drug Designation for BioThrax for Post-Exposure Prophylaxis of Anthrax Disease". Marketwatch.com. Dow Jones & Company. April 21, 2014. Retrieved August 29, 2016.  ^ Kenneth K. Lam, "Unearthing early American life in St. Mary’s City: St. Mary’s City is an archaeological jewel on Maryland’s Western Shore", Baltimore
Baltimore
Sun, Aug 30, 2013, http://darkroom.baltimoresun.com/2013/08/unearthing-early-american-life-in-st-marys-city/#1 ^ "MDOT Departments". Archived from the original on May 25, 2009. Retrieved June 5, 2016.  Maryland
Maryland
Department of Transportation. Retrieved on March 23, 2009. ^ "College Park Aviation Museum Home". Collegeparkaviationmuseum.com. September 12, 2013. Retrieved September 28, 2013. [permanent dead link] ^ "Frederick E. Humphreys: First Military Pilot". New York State Division of Military and Naval Affairs: Military History. December 9, 2008. Retrieved November 23, 2010.  ^ a b CSX Transportation. Jacksonville, FL (2010). "CSX and Maryland." Archived October 21, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Maryland
Maryland
Port Administration. Baltimore, MD. "Seagirt Marine Terminal." Retrieved October 31, 2011. ^ Lamy, Rudolf B. (2006). "A Study of Scarlet: Red Robes and the Maryland
Maryland
Court of Appeals." Monograph. (Annapolis, MD: Maryland
Maryland
State Law Library.) ^ " Maryland
Maryland
State taxes". BankRate.com. Retrieved April 9, 2008.  ^ " Maryland
Maryland
Income Tax Information – Local Tax Rates". Individuals.marylandtaxes.com. Archived from the original on September 20, 2008. Retrieved September 22, 2008.  ^ a b Leip, David. "General Election Results – Maryland". United States Election Atlas. Retrieved November 18, 2016.  ^ Local and National Election Results – Election Center 2008 – Elections & Politics from. CNN.com. Retrieved on July 12, 2013. ^ Steny Hoyer, Fifth Congressional District of Maryland. U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved December 8, 2006 from http://hoyer.house.gov ^ "Official Gubernatorial General Election results for Maryland". The State Board of Elections. State of Maryland. Retrieved September 29, 2016.  ^ "Republican Larry Hogan
Larry Hogan
wins Md. governor's race in stunning upset". Washington Post. Retrieved January 14, 2015.  ^ Maryland
Maryland
State Board of Elections. "Voter Registration Statistics".  ^ "About MSDE Archived January 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.." Maryland
Maryland
State Department of Education. Retrieved on March 22, 2009. ^ "Slicing education?". gazette.net. The Gazette. October 30, 2009. p. A-9. Retrieved November 12, 2009. As it stands, the $5.5 billion Maryland
Maryland
spends on education makes up about 40 percent of the general fund budget....  ^ de Vise, Daniel (February 5, 2009). "Md. Leads U.S. in Passing Rates on AP Exams". Washington Post. pp. B1. Retrieved February 18, 2009.  ^ "Best High Schools: Gold Medal List". usnews.com. U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved November 7, 2009.  ^ "UMB Fast Facts". University of Maryland, Baltimore. Retrieved May 21, 2017.  ^ "Home".  ^ "Top 10 Maryland
Maryland
athletes in The Sun's 175-year history". Baltimore Sun. May 16, 2012. Retrieved March 16, 2013.  ^ "State Symbols". Maryland
Maryland
State Archives. Retrieved December 6, 2007.  ^ "STATE SYMBOLS: Marylanders take a walk, and eat cake too". Journalism.umd.edu. September 30, 2008. Retrieved September 28, 2013. 

Bibliography[edit]

Brugger, Robert J. (1988). Maryland, A Middle Temperament: 1634–1980. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
Johns Hopkins
University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5465-2.  Chappelle, Susan Ellery Green; et al. (1986). Maryland: A History of its People. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
Johns Hopkins
University Press. ISBN 0-8018-3005-2.  Davis, William Wilkins. Religion and Politics in Maryland
Maryland
on the Eve of the Civil War: The Letters of W. Wilkins Davis. Foreword by Charles W. Mitchell. 1988; rev. ed., Eugene, Ore.: Wipf & Stock, 2009. Denton, Lawrence M. (1995). A Southern Star for Maryland. Baltimore: Publishing Concepts. ISBN 0-9635159-3-4. 

External links[edit]

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USGS
real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Maryland U.S. Census Bureau Catholic Encyclopedia article Maryland
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