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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Motto(s) : Fatti maschii, parole femine (Literal: Manly Deeds, Womanly Words) The Latin text encircling the seal: _Scuto bonæ voluntatis tuæ coronasti nos_ (With favor Wilt Thou Compass Us as with a Shield) Psalm 5:12

State song(s) : " Maryland, My Maryland "

_

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE None (English, de facto_)

DEMONYM Marylander

CAPITAL Annapolis
Annapolis

LARGEST CITY Baltimore
Baltimore

LARGEST METRO Baltimore- Washington Metro Area

AREA Ranked 42nd

• TOTAL 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km2)

• WIDTH 101 miles (163 km)

• LENGTH 249 miles (400 km)

• % WATER 21

• LATITUDE 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N

• LONGITUDE 75° 03′ W to 79° 29′ W

POPULATION Ranked 19th

• TOTAL 6,016,447 (2016 est.)

• DENSITY 596/sq mi (230/km2) Ranked 5th

• MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME $73,594 (3rd)

ELEVATION

• HIGHEST POINT Hoye-Crest 3,360 ft (1024 m)

• MEAN 350 ft (110 m)

• LOWEST POINT Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
sea level

BEFORE STATEHOOD Province of Maryland

ADMISSION TO UNION April 28, 1788 (7th)

GOVERNOR Larry Hogan (R )

LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR Boyd Rutherford (R )

LEGISLATURE General Assembly

• UPPER HOUSE Senate

• LOWER HOUSE House of Delegates

U.S. SENATORS Ben Cardin (D ) Chris Van Hollen (D )

U.S. HOUSE DELEGATION 7 Democrats, 1 Republican (list )

TIME ZONE Eastern : UTC −5 /−4

ISO 3166 US-MD

ABBREVIATIONS MD , Md.

WEBSITE www.maryland.gov

MARYLAND STATE SYMBOLS

The Flag of Maryland
Flag of Maryland

The Seal of Maryland

LIVING INSIGNIA

BIRD Baltimore
Baltimore
oriole

BUTTERFLY Baltimore
Baltimore
checkerspot butterfly

CRUSTACEAN Blue crab

FISH Rock fish

FLOWER Black-eyed susan

INSECT see Butterfly

MAMMAL Calico cat Chesapeake Bay Retriever Thoroughbred horse

REPTILE Diamondback terrapin

TREE White oak

INANIMATE INSIGNIA

BEVERAGE Milk
Milk

DANCE Square dance
Square dance

DINOSAUR _ Astrodon johnstoni _

FOOD Blue crab Smith Island Cake

FOSSIL _ Ecphora gardnerae gardnerae _

GEMSTONE Patuxent River stone

MINERAL Agate
Agate

MOTTO _Fatti maschii, parole femine_ Literally: manly deeds, womanly words Officially: strong deeds, gentle words

POEM "Maryland, My Maryland" by James Ryder Randall

SLOGAN Maryland
Maryland
of Opportunity

SONG " Maryland, My Maryland "

SPORT Jousting
Jousting

STATE ROUTE MARKER

STATE QUARTER

Released in 2000

Lists of United States state symbols

MARYLAND (/ˈmɛrᵻlənd/ (_ listen )) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States
United States
, bordering Virginia
Virginia
, West Virginia
Virginia
, and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
to its south and west; Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
to its north; and Delaware
Delaware
to its east. The state's largest city is Baltimore
Baltimore
, and its capital is Annapolis
Annapolis
. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State _, the _Free State_, and the _ Chesapeake Bay State_. The state is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria of France .

One of the original Thirteen Colonies , Maryland
Maryland
is considered to be the birthplace of religious freedom in America, when it was formed by George Calvert in the early 17th century as an intended refuge for persecuted Catholics from England. George Calvert was the first Lord of Baltimore
Baltimore
and the first English proprietor of the then- Maryland
Maryland
colonial grant. Maryland
Maryland
was the seventh state to ratify the United States
United States
Constitution , and played a pivotal role in the founding of Washington, D.C., which was established on land donated by the state.

Maryland
Maryland
is one of the smallest U.S. states in terms of area, as well as one of the most densely populated , with around six million residents. As of 2009 , Maryland
Maryland
had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to the nation's capital and a highly diversified economy spanning manufacturing, services, and biotechnology.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 1.1 Description * 1.2 Geology * 1.3 Flora * 1.4 Fauna * 1.5 Environment

* 1.6 Climate

* 1.6.1 Precipitation * 1.6.2 Hurricanes and tornadoes

* 2 History

* 2.1 17th century

* 2.1.1 Maryland\'s first colonial settlement * 2.1.2 Persecution of Catholics

* 2.2 Border disputes (1681–1760) * 2.3 18th century

* 2.4 19th century

* 2.4.1 Civil War * 2.4.2 After the war

* 2.5 20th century

* 2.5.1 Early 20th century * 2.5.2 1950–present

* 3 Demographics

* 3.1 Birth data * 3.2 Language * 3.3 Settlements * 3.4 Ancestry * 3.5 Religion

* 4 Economy

* 4.1 Baltimore
Baltimore
port * 4.2 Agriculture and fishing * 4.3 Biotechnology * 4.4 Defense contractors * 4.5 Tourism

* 5 Transportation

* 5.1 Roads * 5.2 Airports * 5.3 Rail

* 6 Law and government

* 6.1 Taxation * 6.2 Elections

* 7 Media

* 8 Education

* 8.1 Primary and secondary education * 8.2 Colleges and universities * 8.3 Public libraries

* 9 Sports * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Bibliography * 13 External links

GEOGRAPHY

See also: List of islands of Maryland and List of rivers of Maryland
List of rivers of Maryland

Maryland
Maryland
has an area of 12,406.68 square miles (32,133.2 km2) and is comparable in overall area with Belgium
Belgium
(11,787 square miles (30,530 km2)). It is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii
Hawaii
(10,930.98 square miles (28,311.1 km2)), the next smallest state. The next largest state, its neighbor West Virginia
Virginia
, is almost twice the size of Maryland
Maryland
(24,229.76 square miles (62,754.8 km2)). Physical regions of Maryland
Maryland

DESCRIPTION

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Maryland
Maryland
possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname _America in Miniature_. It ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to gently rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region , and pine groves in the Maryland
Maryland
mountains to the west. Western Maryland: known for its heavily forested mountains. A panoramic view of Deep Creek Lake and the surrounding Appalachian Mountains in Garrett County . Great Falls on the Potomac River .

Maryland
Maryland
is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, on its west by West Virginia
Virginia
, on its east by Delaware
Delaware
and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, and on its south, across the Potomac River , by West Virginia
Virginia
and Virginia . The mid-portion of this border is interrupted by Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
, which sits on land that was originally part of Montgomery and Prince George\'s counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland
Maryland
. This land was ceded to the United States
United States
Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia . (The Commonwealth of Virginia
Virginia
gave land south of the Potomac, including the town of Alexandria, Virginia , however Virginia
Virginia
retroceded its portion in 1846). The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the _Eastern Shore _. Typical freshwater river above the tidal zone. The Patapsco River includes the famous Thomas Viaduct and is part of the Patapsco Valley State Park . Later, the river forms the Inner Harbor
Inner Harbor
as it empties into the Chesapeake Bay . Typical brackish tidal river. Sunset over a marsh at Cardinal Cove on the Patuxent River Tidal wetlands of the Chesapeake Bay , the largest estuary in the United States
United States
and the largest water feature in Maryland.

Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County (drained by the Youghiogheny River as part of the watershed of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
), the eastern half of Worcester County (which drains into Maryland's Atlantic coastal bays), and a small portion of the state's northeast corner (which drains into the Delaware
Delaware
River watershed). So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname that has been used by Massachusetts
Massachusetts
for decades.

The highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet (1,020 m), is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain , in the southwest corner of Garrett County , near the border with West Virginia, and near the headwaters of the North Branch of the Potomac River. Close to the small town of Hancock , in western Maryland, about two-thirds of the way across the state, there are 1.83 miles (2.95 km) between its borders. This geographical curiosity makes Maryland
Maryland
the narrowest state, bordered by the Mason–Dixon line to the north, and the northwards-arching Potomac River to the south.

Portions of Maryland
Maryland
are included in various official and unofficial geographic regions. For example, the Delmarva Peninsula is composed of the Eastern Shore counties of Maryland, the entire state of Delaware
Delaware
, and the two counties that make up the Eastern Shore of Virginia
Virginia
, whereas the westernmost counties of Maryland
Maryland
are considered part of Appalachia . Much of the Baltimore–Washington corridor lies just south of the Piedmont in the Coastal Plain, though it straddles the border between the two regions.

GEOLOGY

Earthquakes in Maryland
Maryland
are infrequent and small due to the state's distance from seismic/earthquake zones. The M 5.8 Virginia earthquake in 2011 was felt moderately throughout Maryland. Buildings in the state are not well-designed for earthquakes and can suffer damage easily.

The lack of any glacial history accounts for the scarcity of Maryland's natural lakes, yet the oft-repeated claim that Maryland
Maryland
is the only state without natural lakes is not true. Laurel Oxbow Lake is an over one-hundred-year-old 55-acre natural lake two miles north of Maryland
Maryland
City and adjacent to Russett . "Chews Lake" is a seven-acre natural lake two miles south-southeast of Upper Marlboro . There are numerous man-made lakes, the largest of them being the Deep Creek Lake , a reservoir in Garrett County in westernmost Maryland.

Maryland
Maryland
has shale formations containing natural gas, where fracking is theoretically possible.

FLORA

Black-eyed susans , the state flower, grow throughout much of the state.

As is typical of states on the East Coast , Maryland's plant life is abundant and healthy. A good dose of annual precipitation helps to support many types of plants, including seagrass and various reeds at the smaller end of the spectrum to the gigantic Wye Oak , a huge example of white oak , the state tree, which can grow in excess of 70 feet (21 m) tall.

Middle Atlantic coastal forests , typical of the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain , grow around Chesapeake Bay and on the Delmarva Peninsula . Moving west, a mixture of Northeastern coastal forests and Southeastern mixed forests cover the central part of the state. The Appalachian Mountains of western Maryland
Maryland
are home to Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests . These give way to Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests near the West Virginia
Virginia
border. _ Mature Trachycarpus fortunei_ in Solomons, Maryland

Many foreign species are cultivated in the state, some as ornamentals, others as novelty species. Included among these are the crape myrtle , Italian cypress , southern magnolia , live oak in the warmer parts of the state, and even hardy palm trees in the warmer central and eastern parts of the state. USDA plant hardiness zones in the state range from Zones 5 and 6 in the extreme western part of the state to Zone 7 in the central part, and Zone 8 around the southern part of the coast, the bay area, and parts of metropolitan Baltimore
Baltimore
. Invasive plant species, such as kudzu , tree of heaven , multiflora rose , and Japanese stiltgrass , stifle growth of endemic plant life. Maryland's state flower, the black-eyed susan , grows in abundance in wild flower groups throughout the state. The state insect, the Baltimore
Baltimore
checkerspot butterfly , is not common as it is near the southern edge of its range. 435 species of birds have been reported from Maryland.

FAUNA

The state harbors a great number of white tailed deer , especially in the woody and mountainous west of the state, and overpopulation can become a problem from year-to-year. Mammals can be found ranging from the mountains in the west to the central areas and include black bears , bobcats , foxes, coyotes , raccoons, and otters. On Maryland's Atlantic coastal islands: A feral Chincoteague Pony on Assateague

There is a population of rare wild (feral) horses found on Assateague Island . They are believed to be descended from horses who escaped from shipwrecks. Every year during the last week of July, they are captured and waded across a shallow bay for sale at Chincoteague, Virginia
Virginia
, a conservation technique which ensures the tiny island is not overrun by the horses. The ponies and their sale were popularized by the children's book, _ Misty of Chincoteague ._

The purebred Chesapeake Bay Retriever dog was bred specifically for water sports, hunting and search and rescue in the Chesapeake area. In 1878 the Chesapeake Bay Retriever was the first individual retriever breed recognized by the American Kennel Club . and was later adopted by the University of Maryland, Baltimore
Baltimore
County as their mascot.

Maryland's reptile and amphibian population includes the diamondback terrapin turtle, which was adopted as the mascot of University of Maryland, College Park . The state is part of the territory of the Baltimore
Baltimore
oriole , which is the official state bird and mascot of the MLB team the Baltimore
Baltimore
Orioles .

ENVIRONMENT

Maryland
Maryland
joined with neighboring states during the end of the 20th century to improve the health of the Chesapeake Bay . The bay's aquatic life and seafood industry have been threatened by development and by fertilizer and livestock waste entering the bay.

In 2007, Forbes.com rated Maryland
Maryland
as the fifth "Greenest" state in the country behind three of the Pacific States and Vermont. Maryland ranks 40th in total energy consumption nationwide, and it managed less toxic waste per capita than all but six states in 2005. In April 2007 Maryland
Maryland
joined the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative
Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative
(RGGI)—a regional initiative formed by all of the Northeastern states, Washington D.C., and three Canadian provinces to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In March 2017, Maryland
Maryland
became the first state with proven gas reserves to ban fracking by passing a law against it. Vermont
Vermont
has such a law, but no shale gas, and New York has such a ban, though it was made by executive order.

CLIMATE

A map of Köppen climate types in Maryland
Maryland
Winter in Baltimore, Lancaster Street, Fells Point

Maryland
Maryland
has a wide array of climates, due to local variances in elevation, proximity to water, and protection from colder weather due to downslope winds .

The eastern half of Maryland—which includes the cities of Ocean City , Salisbury , Annapolis
Annapolis
, and the southern and eastern suburbs of Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
and Baltimore
Baltimore
—lies on the Atlantic Coastal Plain , with flat topography and sandy or muddy soil. This region has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen _Cfa_), with hot, humid summers and a short, mild to cool winter; it falls under USDA Hardiness zone 8a.

The Piedmont region—which includes northern and western greater Baltimore, Westminster , Gaithersburg , Frederick , and Hagerstown —has average seasonal snowfall totals generally exceeding 20 inches (51 cm) and, as part of USDA Hardiness zones 7b and 7a, temperatures below 10 °F (−12 °C) are less rare. From the Cumberland Valley on westward, the climate begins to transition to a humid continental climate (Köppen _Dfa_).

In western Maryland, the higher elevations of Allegany and Garrett counties—including the cities of Cumberland , Frostburg , and Oakland —display more characteristics of the humid continental zone, due in part to elevation. They fall under USDA Hardiness zones 6b and below.

Precipitation

Precipitation in the state is characteristic of the East Coast. Annual rainfall ranges from 35 to 45 inches (890 to 1,140 mm) with more in higher elevations. Nearly every part of Maryland
Maryland
receives 3.5–4.5 inches (89–114 mm) per month of rain. Average annual snowfall varies from 9 inches (23 cm) in the coastal areas to over 100 inches (250 cm) in the western mountains of the state.

Hurricanes And Tornadoes

Because of its location near the Atlantic Coast , Maryland
Maryland
is somewhat vulnerable to tropical cyclones , although the Delmarva Peninsula and the outer banks of North Carolina
North Carolina
provide a large buffer, such that strikes from major hurricanes (category 3 or above) occur infrequently. More often, Maryland
Maryland
gets the remnants of a tropical system which has already come ashore and released most of its energy. Maryland
Maryland
averages around 30–40 days of thunderstorms a year, and averages around six tornado strikes annually.

Monthly average high and low temperatures for various Maryland
Maryland
cities and landmarks (covering breadth and width of the state) CITY JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

HYATTSVILLE 47 °F (8 °C) 29 °F (−2 °C) 51 °F (11 °C) 31 °F (−1 °C) 60 °F (16 °C) 38 °F (3 °C) 70 °F (21 °C) 46 °F (8 °C) 78 °F (26 °C) 55 °F (13 °C) 86 °F (30 °C) 64 °F (18 °C) 89 °F (32 °C) 69 °F (21 °C) 87 °F (31 °C) 67 °F (19 °C) 81 °F (27 °C) 60 °F (16 °C) 71 °F (22 °C) 49 °F (9 °C) 61 °F (16 °C) 41 °F (5 °C) 50 °F (10 °C) 32 °F (0 °C)

OAKLAND 34 °F (1 °C) 16 °F (−9 °C) 38 °F (3 °C) 17 °F (−8 °C) 48 °F (9 °C) 25 °F (−4 °C) 59 °F (15 °C) 34 °F (1 °C) 68 °F (20 °C) 45 °F (7 °C) 75 °F (24 °C) 53 °F (12 °C) 79 °F (26 °C) 58 °F (14 °C) 78 °F (26 °C) 56 °F (13 °C) 71 °F (22 °C) 49 °F (9 °C) 62 °F (17 °C) 37 °F (3 °C) 50 °F (10 °C) 28 °F (−2 °C) 39 °F (4 °C) 21 °F (−6 °C)

CUMBERLAND 41 °F (5 °C) 22 °F (−6 °C) 46 °F (8 °C) 24 °F (−4 °C) 56 °F (13 °C) 32 °F (0 °C) 68 °F (20 °C) 41 °F (5 °C) 77 °F (25 °C) 51 °F (11 °C) 85 °F (29 °C) 60 °F (16 °C) 89 °F (32 °C) 65 °F (18 °C) 87 °F (31 °C) 63 °F (17 °C) 80 °F (27 °C) 55 °F (13 °C) 69 °F (21 °C) 43 °F (6 °C) 57 °F (14 °C) 34 °F (1 °C) 45 °F (7 °C) 26 °F (−3 °C)

HAGERSTOWN 39 °F (4 °C) 22 °F (−6 °C) 42 °F (6 °C) 23 °F (−5 °C) 52 °F (11 °C) 30 °F (−1 °C) 63 °F (17 °C) 39 °F (4 °C) 72 °F (22 °C) 50 °F (10 °C) 81 °F (27 °C) 59 °F (15 °C) 85 °F (29 °C) 64 °F (18 °C) 83 °F (28 °C) 62 °F (17 °C) 76 °F (24 °C) 54 °F (12 °C) 65 °F (18 °C) 43 °F (6 °C) 54 °F (12 °C) 34 °F (1 °C) 43 °F (6 °C) 26 °F (−3 °C)

FREDERICK 42 °F (6 °C) 26 °F (−3 °C) 47 °F (8 °C) 28 °F (−2 °C) 56 °F (13 °C) 35 °F (2 °C) 68 °F (20 °C) 45 °F (7 °C) 77 °F (25 °C) 54 °F (12 °C) 85 °F (29 °C) 63 °F (17 °C) 89 °F (32 °C) 68 °F (20 °C) 87 °F (31 °C) 66 °F (19 °C) 80 °F (27 °C) 59 °F (15 °C) 68 °F (20 °C) 47 °F (8 °C) 56 °F (13 °C) 38 °F (3 °C) 45 °F (7 °C) 30 °F (−1 °C)

BALTIMORE 42 °F (6 °C) 29 °F (−2 °C) 46 °F (8 °C) 31 °F (−1 °C) 54 °F (12 °C) 39 °F (4 °C) 65 °F (18 °C) 48 °F (9 °C) 75 °F (24 °C) 57 °F (14 °C) 85 °F (29 °C) 67 °F (19 °C) 90 °F (32 °C) 72 °F (22 °C) 87 °F (31 °C) 71 °F (22 °C) 80 °F (27 °C) 64 °F (18 °C) 68 °F (20 °C) 52 °F (11 °C) 58 °F (14 °C) 43 °F (6 °C) 46 °F (8 °C) 33 °F (1 °C)

ELKTON 42 °F (6 °C) 24 °F (−4 °C) 46 °F (8 °C) 26 °F (−3 °C) 55 °F (13 °C) 32 °F (0 °C) 67 °F (19 °C) 42 °F (6 °C) 76 °F (24 °C) 51 °F (11 °C) 85 °F (29 °C) 61 °F (16 °C) 88 °F (31 °C) 66 °F (19 °C) 87 °F (31 °C) 65 °F (18 °C) 80 °F (27 °C) 57 °F (14 °C) 69 °F (21 °C) 45 °F (7 °C) 58 °F (14 °C) 36 °F (2 °C) 46 °F (8 °C) 28 °F (−2 °C)

OCEAN CITY 45 °F (7 °C) 28 °F (−2 °C) 46 °F (8 °C) 29 °F (−2 °C) 53 °F (12 °C) 35 °F (2 °C) 61 °F (16 °C) 44 °F (7 °C) 70 °F (21 °C) 53 °F (12 °C) 79 °F (26 °C) 63 °F (17 °C) 84 °F (29 °C) 68 °F (20 °C) 82 °F (28 °C) 67 °F (19 °C) 77 °F (25 °C) 60 °F (16 °C) 68 °F (20 °C) 51 °F (11 °C) 58 °F (14 °C) 39 °F (4 °C) 49 °F (9 °C) 32 °F (0 °C)

WALDORF 44 °F (7 °C) 26 °F (−3 °C) 49 °F (9 °C) 28 °F (−2 °C) 58 °F (14 °C) 35 °F (2 °C) 68 °F (20 °C) 43 °F (6 °C) 75 °F (24 °C) 53 °F (12 °C) 81 °F (27 °C) 62 °F (17 °C) 85 °F (29 °C) 67 °F (19 °C) 83 °F (28 °C) 65 °F (18 °C) 78 °F (26 °C) 59 °F (15 °C) 68 °F (20 °C) 47 °F (8 °C) 59 °F (15 °C) 38 °F (3 °C) 48 °F (9 °C) 30 °F (−1 °C)

POINT LOOKOUT STATE PARK 47 °F (8 °C) 29 °F (−2 °C) 51 °F (11 °C) 31 °F (−1 °C) 60 °F (16 °C) 38 °F (3 °C) 70 °F (21 °C) 46 °F (8 °C) 78 °F (26 °C) 55 °F (13 °C) 86 °F (30 °C) 64 °F (18 °C) 89 °F (32 °C) 69 °F (21 °C) 87 °F (31 °C) 67 °F (19 °C) 81 °F (27 °C) 60 °F (16 °C) 71 °F (22 °C) 49 °F (9 °C) 61 °F (16 °C) 41 °F (5 °C) 50 °F (10 °C) 32 °F (0 °C)

_ _

HISTORY

Main article: History of Maryland

17TH CENTURY

Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore
Baltimore
, 1st Proprietor of the Maryland
Maryland
colony.

Maryland\'s First Colonial Settlement

Main article: Province of Maryland

The Catholic George Calvert, 1st Lord Baltimore
Baltimore
sought a charter from Charles I for the territory between Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and Virginia. After George Calvert died in April 1632, the charter was granted to his son, Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore
Baltimore
, on June 20, 1632. The new " Maryland
Maryland
Colony" was named in honor of Henrietta Maria of France , wife of Charles I of England.

Lord Baltimore's first settlers arrived in the new colony in March 1634. They made their first permanent settlement at St. Mary\'s City in what is now St. Mary\'s County . They purchased the site from the paramount chief of the region, who was eager to establish trade. St. Mary's became the first capital of Maryland, and remained so for 60 years until 1695. More settlers soon followed. Their tobacco crops were successful and quickly made the new colony profitable. However, given the incidence of malaria and typhoid, life expectancy in Maryland
Maryland
was about 10 years less than in New England.

Persecution Of Catholics

See also: Plundering Time

Maryland
Maryland
was founded for the purpose of providing religious toleration of England's Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
minority. In 1642 a number of Puritans left Virginia
Virginia
for Maryland
Maryland
and founded Providence (now called Annapolis
Annapolis
). A dispute with traders from Virginia
Virginia
over Kent Island led to armed conflict. In 1644 William Claiborne , a Puritan, seized Kent Island while his associate, the pro-Parliament Puritan Richard Ingle, took over St. Mary's. Both used religion as a tool to gain popular support. The two years from 1644–1646 that Claiborne and his Puritan associates held sway were known as "The Plundering Time". They captured Jesuit priests, imprisoned them, then sent them back to England.

In 1646 Leonard Calvert returned with troops, recaptured St. Mary's City, and restored order. The House of Delegates passed the "Act concerning Religion" in 1649 granting religious liberty to all Trinitarian Christians.

In 1650 the Puritans revolted against the proprietary government. "Protestants swept the Catholics out of the legislature ...and religious strife returned". The Puritans set up a new government prohibiting both Catholicism and Anglicanism. The Puritan revolutionary government persecuted Maryland
Maryland
Catholics during its reign, known as the plundering time. Mobs burned down all the original Catholic churches of southern Maryland. The Puritan rule lasted until 1658 when the Calvert family regained control and re-enacted the Toleration Act.

After England's " Glorious Revolution " of 1688, Maryland
Maryland
outlawed Catholicism. This lasted until after the American Revolutionary War . Wealthy Catholic planters built chapels on their land to practice their religion in relative secrecy.

BORDER DISPUTES (1681–1760)

Main articles: Penn–Calvert Boundary Dispute and Cresap\'s War

The royal charter granted Maryland
Maryland
the land north of the Potomac River up to the 40th parallel . A problem arose when Charles II granted a charter for Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
. The grant defined Pennsylvania's southern border as identical to Maryland's northern border, the 40th parallel. But the grant indicated that Charles II and William Penn assumed the 40th parallel would pass close to New Castle, Delaware when it falls north of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
, the site of which Penn had already selected for his colony's capital city. Negotiations ensued after the problem was discovered in 1681.

A compromise proposed by Charles II in 1682 was undermined by Penn's receiving the additional grant of what is now Delaware. Penn successfully argued that the Maryland
Maryland
charter entitled Lord Baltimore only to unsettled lands, and Dutch settlement in Delaware
Delaware
predated his charter. The dispute remained unresolved for nearly a century, carried on by the descendants of William Penn
William Penn
and Lord Baltimore
Baltimore
— the Calvert family , which controlled Maryland, and the Penn family , which controlled Pennsylvania.

The border dispute with Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
led to Cresap's War in the 1730s. Hostilities erupted in 1730 and escalated through the first half of the decade, culminating in the deployment of military forces by Maryland
Maryland
in 1736 and by Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
in 1737. The armed phase of the conflict ended in May 1738 with the intervention of King George II, who compelled the negotiation of a cease-fire. A provisional agreement had been established in 1732.

Negotiations continued until a final agreement was signed in 1760. The agreement defined the border between Maryland
Maryland
and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
as the line of latitude now known as the Mason–Dixon line . Maryland's border with Delaware
Delaware
was based on a Transpeninsular Line and the Twelve-Mile Circle around New Castle.

18TH CENTURY

Main article: Maryland in the American Revolution

Most of the English colonists arrived in Maryland
Maryland
as indentured servants , and had to serve a several years' term as laborers to pay for their passage. In the early years, the line between indentured servants and African slaves or laborers was fluid, and white and black laborers commonly lived and worked together, and formed unions. Mixed-race children born to white mothers were considered free by the principle of _partus sequitur ventrem _, by which children took the social status of their mothers, a principle of slave law that was adopted throughout the colonies, following Virginia
Virginia
in 1662. During the colonial era, families of free people of color were formed most often by unions of white women and African men. Comte du Bourg (left) and Baron von Closen on their way to Yorktown, September 1781

Many of the free black families migrated to Delaware, where land was cheaper. As the flow of indentured laborers to the colony decreased with improving economic conditions in England, planters in Maryland imported thousands more slaves and racial caste lines hardened. The economy's growth and prosperity was based on slave labor, devoted first to the production of tobacco as the commodity crop.

Maryland
Maryland
was one of the thirteen colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution
American Revolution
. On February 2, 1781, Maryland
Maryland
became the 13th state to approve the ratification of the Articles of Confederation which brought into being the United States as a united, sovereign and national state . It also became the seventh state admitted to the U.S. after ratifying the new Constitution. In December 1790 Maryland
Maryland
donated land selected by President George Washington to the federal government for the creation of the new national capital of Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
The land was provided from Montgomery and Prince George\'s counties, as well as from Fairfax County and Alexandria in Virginia
Virginia
; however, the land donated by Virginia
Virginia
was later returned to that state by the District of Columbia retrocession .

19TH CENTURY

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The bombardment of Fort McHenry in Baltimore
Baltimore
inspired the song, " Star Spangled Banner
Star Spangled Banner
".

Influenced by a changing economy, revolutionary ideals, and preaching by ministers, numerous planters in Maryland
Maryland
freed their slaves in the 20 years after the Revolutionary War . Across the Upper South the free black population increased from less than 1% before the war to 14% by 1810.

During the War of 1812 , the British military attempted to capture Baltimore, which was protected by Fort McHenry . During this bombardment the song " Star Spangled Banner
Star Spangled Banner
" was written by Francis Scott Key ; it was later adopted as the national anthem.

The National Road (U.S. Hwy 40 today) was authorized in 1817 and ran from Baltimore
Baltimore
to St. Louis – the first federal highway. The Baltimore
Baltimore
and Ohio
Ohio
Railroad
Railroad
(B"> The Battle of Antietam
Battle of Antietam
was the single bloodiest day of the Civil War with nearly 23,000 casualties.

Governor Thomas Holliday Hicks suspended the state legislature, and to help ensure the election of a new pro-union governor and legislature, President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
had a number of its pro-slavery politicians arrested, including the Mayor of Baltimore, George William Brown ; suspended several civil liberties, including _habeas corpus_; and ordered artillery placed on Federal Hill overlooking Baltimore. Historians debate the constitutionality of these wartime actions, and the suspension of civil liberties was later deemed illegal by the U.S. Supreme Court .

In April 1861 Federal units and state regiments were attacked as they marched through Baltimore, sparking the Baltimore
Baltimore
riot of 1861 , the first bloodshed in the Civil War. Of the 115,000 men from Maryland who joined the military during the Civil War, 85,000, or 77%, joined the Union army , while the remainder joined the Confederate Army . The largest and most significant battle in the state was the Battle of Antietam on September 17, 1862, near Sharpsburg . Although a tactical draw, the battle was considered a strategic Union victory and a turning point of the war.

After The War

A new state constitution in 1864 abolished slavery, and following passage of constitutional amendments that granted voting rights to freedmen , in 1867 the state extended suffrage to non-white males.

The Democratic Party rapidly regained power in the state from Republicans . Democrats replaced the Constitution of 1864 with the Constitution of 1867 . Following the end of Reconstruction in 1877, Democrats devised means of disfranchising blacks, initially by physical intimidation and voter fraud, later by constitutional amendments and laws. Blacks and immigrants, however, resisted Democratic Party disfranchisement efforts in the state. Maryland blacks were part of a biracial Republican coalition elected to state government in 1896–1904 and comprised 20% of the electorate.

Compared to some other states, blacks were better established both before and after the civil war. Nearly half the population was free before the war, and some had accumulated property. Half the population lived in cities. Literacy was high among blacks and, as Democrats crafted means to exclude them, suffrage campaigns helped reach blacks and teach them how to resist. Whites did impose racial segregation in public facilities and Jim Crow laws, which effectively lasted until passage of federal civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s.

Baltimore
Baltimore
grew significantly during the Industrial Revolution , due in large part to its seaport and good railroad connections, attracting European immigrant labor. Many manufacturing businesses were established in the Baltimore
Baltimore
area after the Civil War. Baltimore businessmen, including Johns Hopkins , Enoch Pratt
Enoch Pratt
, George Peabody , and Henry Walters , founded notable city institutions that bear their names, including a university, library, music school and art museum.

Cumberland was Maryland's second-largest city in the 19th century. Nearby supplies of natural resources along with railroads fostered its growth into a major manufacturing center.

20TH CENTURY

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Early 20th Century

The Progressive Era of the late 19th and early 20th centuries brought political reforms. In a series of laws passed between 1892 and 1908, reformers worked for standard state-issued ballots (rather than those distributed and marked by the parties); obtained closed voting booths to prevent party workers from "assisting" voters; initiated primary elections to keep party bosses from selecting candidates; and had candidates listed without party symbols, which discouraged the illiterate from participating. These measures worked against ill-educated whites and blacks. Blacks resisted such efforts, with suffrage groups conducting voter education. Blacks defeated three efforts to disfranchise them, making alliances with immigrants to resist various Democratic campaigns. Disfranchising bills in 1905, 1907, and 1911 were rebuffed, in large part because of black opposition. Blacks comprised 20% of the electorate and immigrants comprised 15%, and the legislature had difficulty devising requirements against blacks that did not also disadvantage immigrants.

The Progressive Era also brought reforms in working conditions for Maryland's labor force. In 1902 the state regulated conditions in mines ; outlawed child laborers under the age of 12; mandated compulsory school attendance; and enacted the nation's first workers\' compensation law. The workers' compensation law was overturned in the courts, but was redrafted and finally enacted in 1910.

The Great Baltimore
Baltimore
Fire of 1904 burned over 30 hours, destroying 1,526 buildings and spanning 70 city blocks. More than 1,231 firefighters worked to bring the blaze under control. With the nation's entry into World War I in 1917, new military bases such as Camp Meade , the Aberdeen Proving Ground , and the Edgewood Arsenal were established. Existing facilities, including Fort McHenry , were greatly expanded.

Maryland's urban and rural communities had different experiences during the Great Depression
Great Depression
. The " Bonus Army " marched through the state in 1932 on its way to Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Maryland
Maryland
instituted its first ever income tax in 1937 to generate revenue for schools and welfare. Baltimore
Baltimore
was a major war production center during World War II . The biggest operations were Bethlehem Steel
Bethlehem Steel
's Fairfield Yard, which built Liberty ships ; and Glenn Martin , an aircraft manufacturer.

1950–present

Maryland
Maryland
experienced population growth following World War II, particularly in the Baltimore
Baltimore
and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
suburbs. Agricultural tracts gave way to residential communities such as Columbia and Montgomery Village . Concurrently the Interstate Highway System was built throughout the state, most notably I-95 and the Capital Beltway , altering travel patterns. In 1952 the eastern and western halves of Maryland
Maryland
were linked for the first time by the Chesapeake Bay Bridge , which replaced a nearby ferry service.

Maryland's regions experienced economic changes following WWII. Heavy manufacturing declined in Baltimore. In Maryland's four westernmost counties, industrial, railroad, and coal mining jobs declined. On the lower Eastern Shore , family farms were bought up by major concerns and large-scale poultry farms and vegetable farming became prevalent. In Southern Maryland, tobacco farming nearly vanished due to suburban development and a state tobacco buy-out program.

In an effort to reverse depopulation due to the loss of working-class industries, Baltimore
Baltimore
initiated urban renewal projects in the 1960s with Charles Center and the Baltimore
Baltimore
World Trade Center . Some resulted in the break-up of intact residential neighborhoods, producing social volatility, and some older residential areas around the harbor have had units renovated and have become popular with new populations.

DEMOGRAPHICS

See also: List of counties in Maryland , List of incorporated places in Maryland
Maryland
, and List of census-designated places in Maryland Maryland\'s counties Geographic regions of Maryland
Maryland

The United States
United States
Census Bureau estimates that the population of Maryland
Maryland
was 6,006,401 on July 1, 2015, a 4.03% increase since the 2010 United States
United States
Census .

In 2015 Maryland
Maryland
had an estimated population of 6,006,401, which is an increase of 29,994, from the prior year and an increase of 232,849, or 4.03% percent, since 2010. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 189,158 people (that is 464,251 births minus 275,093 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 116,713 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States
United States
resulted in a net increase of 129,730 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 13,017 people.

The center of population of Maryland
Maryland
is located on the county line between Anne Arundel County and Howard County , in the unincorporated community of Jessup .

Maryland's history as a border state has led it to exhibit characteristics of both the Northern and Southern regions of the United States. Generally, rural Western Maryland between the West Virginian Panhandle and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
has an Appalachian culture; the Southern and Eastern Shore regions of Maryland
Maryland
embody a Southern culture , while densely populated Central Maryland—radiating outward from Baltimore
Baltimore
and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
—has more in common with that of the Northeast . The U.S. Census Bureau designates Maryland
Maryland
as one of the South Atlantic States , but it is commonly associated with the Mid-Atlantic States and/or Northeastern United States by other federal agencies, the media, and some residents.

BIRTH DATA

As of 2011, 58.0 percent of Maryland's population younger than age 1 were non-white.

_Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number._

Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother RACE 2013 2014 2015

White : 41,474 (57.6%) 42,525 (57.5%) 42,471 (57.7%)

Non-Hispanic White 32,568 (45.2%) 33,178 (44.9%) 32,412 (44.0%)

Black 24,764 (34.4%) 25,339 (34.3%) 25,017 (34.0%)

Asian 5,415 (7.5%) 5,797 (7.8%) 5,849 (7.9%)

Native 300 (0.4%) 260 (0.3%) 279 (0.4%)

_Hispanic _ (of any race) _10,515 (14.6%)_ _10,974 (14.8%)_ _11,750 (16.0%)_

TOTAL MARYLAND 71,953 (100%) 73,921 (100%) 73,616 (100%)

LANGUAGE

Spanish (including Spanish Creole } is the second-most-spoken language in Maryland, after English . The third- and fourth-most-spoken languages are French (including Patois and Cajun ) and Chinese . Other commonly spoken languages include various African languages , Korean , German , Tagalog , Russian , Vietnamese , Italian , various Asian languages , Persian , Hindi
Hindi
and other Indic languages , Greek and Arabic
Arabic
.

SETTLEMENTS

See also: Maryland statistical areas Maryland's population is concentrated mostly in the Baltimore
Baltimore
and Washington metropolitan areas.

Most of the population of Maryland
Maryland
lives in the central region of the state, in the Baltimore
Baltimore
Metropolitan Area and Washington Metropolitan Area , both of which are part of the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area . The majority of Maryland's population is concentrated in the cities and suburbs surrounding Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
, as well as in and around Maryland's most populous city, Baltimore
Baltimore
. Historically, these and many other Maryland
Maryland
cities developed along the Fall Line
Fall Line
, the line along which rivers, brooks, and streams are interrupted by rapids and/or waterfalls. Maryland's capital city, Annapolis
Annapolis
, is one exception to this pattern, since it lies along the banks of the Severn River , close to where it empties into the Chesapeake Bay .

The Eastern Shore is less populous and more rural, as are the counties of western Maryland. The two westernmost counties of Maryland, Allegany and Garrett , are mountainous and sparsely populated, resembling West Virginia
Virginia
and Appalachia more than they do the rest of Maryland. Both eastern and western Maryland
Maryland
are, however, dotted with cities of regional importance, such as Ocean City , Princess Anne , and Salisbury on the Eastern Shore and Cumberland , Frostburg , and Hancock in Western Maryland . Southern Maryland is still somewhat rural, but suburbanization from Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
has encroached significantly since the 1960s; important local population centers include Lexington Park , Prince Frederick , and Waldorf .

* v * t * e

Largest cities or towns in Maryland 2010 U.S. Census populations

RANK NAME COUNTY POP.

Baltimore
Baltimore

Columbia 1 Baltimore
Baltimore
Independent city 620,961

Germantown

Silver Spring

2 Columbia Howard 99,615

3 Germantown Montgomery 86,395

4 Silver Spring Montgomery 71,452

5 Waldorf Charles 67,752

6 Glen Burnie Anne Arundel 67,639

7 Ellicott City Howard 65,834

8 Frederick Frederick 65,239

9 Dundalk Baltimore
Baltimore
63,597

10 Rockville Montgomery 61,209

ANCESTRY

HISTORICAL POPULATION

CENSUS POP.

1790 319,728

1800 341,548

6.8%

1810 380,546

11.4%

1820 407,350

7.0%

1830 447,040

9.7%

1840 470,019

5.1%

1850 583,034

24.0%

1860 687,049

17.8%

1870 780,894

13.7%

1880 934,943

19.7%

1890 1,042,390

11.5%

1900 1,188,044

14.0%

1910 1,295,346

9.0%

1920 1,449,661

11.9%

1930 1,631,526

12.5%

1940 1,821,244

11.6%

1950 2,343,001

28.6%

1960 3,100,689

32.3%

1970 3,922,399

26.5%

1980 4,216,975

7.5%

1990 4,781,468

13.4%

2000 5,296,486

10.8%

2010 5,773,552

9.0%

EST. 2016 6,016,447

4.2%

Source: 1910–2010 2015 estimate

MARYLAND RACIAL BREAKDOWN OF POPULATION RACIAL COMPOSITION 1970 1990 2000 2010

White 81.5% 71.0% 64.0% 60.8%

Black 17.8% 24.9% 27.9% 29.8%

Asian 0.5% 2.9% 4.0% 5.5%

Native 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3%

Other race 0.1% 0.9% 1.8% 3.6%

Two or more races – – 2.0% 2.9%

Non-Hispanic whites 80.4% 69.6% 62.1% 54.7%

In 1970 the Census Bureau reported Maryland's population as 17.8 percent African-American and 80.4 percent non-Hispanic White.

African Americans form a sizable portion of the state's population – nearly 30 percent in 2010. Most are descendants of people transported to the area as slaves from West Africa, and many are of mixed race, including European and Native American ancestry. New residents of African descent include 20th-century and later immigrants from Nigeria , particularly of the Igbo and Yoruba tribes. Concentrations of African Americans live in Baltimore
Baltimore
City , Prince George\'s County , a suburb of Washington, D.C., where many work; Charles County , western parts of Baltimore
Baltimore
County , and the southern Eastern Shore.

The top reported ancestries by Maryland
Maryland
residents are: German (15%), Irish (11%), English (8%), American (7%), Italian (6%), and Polish (3%).

Irish American populations can be found throughout the Baltimore area, and the Northern and Eastern suburbs of Washington D.C. in Maryland
Maryland
(descendents of those who moved out to the suburbs of Washington's once predominantly Irish neighborhoods ), as well as Western Maryland, where Irish immigrant laborers helped to build the C ">

Attracting educated Asians and Africans to the professional jobs in the region, Maryland
Maryland
has the fifth-largest proportions of racial minorities in the country.

In 2006 645,744 were counted as foreign born, which represents mainly people from Latin America and Asia. About 4.0 percent are undocumented immigrants . Maryland
Maryland
also has a large Korean American population. In fact, 1.7 percent are Korean, while as a whole, almost 6.0 percent are Asian.

According to The Williams Institute's analysis of the 2010 U.S. Census, 12,538 same-sex couples are living in Maryland, representing 5.8 same-sex couples per 1,000 households.

As of 2016, non-Hispanic white Americans
Americans
were 51.5% of Maryland's population, making Maryland
Maryland
on the verge of becoming a majority minority state. 48.5% of Maryland's population is non-white and/or Hispanic/Latino, the highest percentage of any state on the East Coast and the highest percentage after the majority minority states of Hawaii, New Mexico, Texas, California
California
and Nevada. Non-Hispanic White Americans
Americans
in Maryland, the majority as of 2016, are expected to become the plurality ethnic group within 5 years of 2015. After Nevada
Nevada
in 2016, Maryland
Maryland
is projected to be the next state to become majority minority due to growing African-American, Asian and Latino populations. By 2031, minorities are projected to become the majority of voting eligible residents of Maryland.

RELIGION

RELIGION (2010)

Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
14%

Southern Baptist 3%

Methodist
Methodist
4%

Non-denominational Evangelical
Evangelical
5%

Judaism
Judaism
4%

Other 70%

The Baltimore
Baltimore
Basilica was the first Catholic cathedral built in the U.S. .

The largest religious groups in Maryland
Maryland
as of 2010 were: the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
with 837,338 adherents in Maryland, followed by non-denominational Evangelical
Evangelical
Protestants with 298,921 members, and the United Methodist
Methodist
Church with 238,774. The Southern Baptist Convention has 150,345 members. Judaism
Judaism
is the largest non-Christian religion in Maryland
Maryland
with 241,000 adherents, or 4 percent of the total population. The Seventh-day Adventist Church 's World Headquarters and Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslims national Headquarters is located in Silver Spring , just outside the District of Columbia.

Maryland
Maryland
has been prominent in U.S. Catholic tradition, partially because it was intended by George Calvert as a haven for English Catholics. Baltimore
Baltimore
was the seat of the first Catholic bishop in the U.S. (1789), and Emmitsburg was the home and burial place of the first American-born citizen to be canonized , St. Elizabeth Ann Seton . Georgetown University
Georgetown University
, the first Catholic University, was founded in 1789 in what was then part of Maryland. The Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary in Baltimore
Baltimore
was the first Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
cathedral built in the United States, and the Archbishop of Baltimore
Baltimore
is, albeit without formal primacy, the United States' quasi-primate , and often a cardinal. Among the immigrants of the 19th and 20th century from eastern and southern Europe were many Catholics.

ECONOMY

See also: Business in Maryland , List of federal installations in Maryland
Maryland
, List of shopping malls in Maryland , and Maryland
Maryland
locations by per capita income The Port of Baltimore
Baltimore

The Bureau of Economic Analysis
Bureau of Economic Analysis
estimates that Maryland's gross state product in 2012 was $317.7 billion. However, Maryland
Maryland
has been using Genuine Progress Indicator , an indicator of well-being, to guide the state's development, rather than relying only on growth indicators like GDP. According to the U.S. Census Bureau , Maryland
Maryland
households are currently the wealthiest in the country, with a 2013 median household income of $72,483 which puts it ahead of New Jersey
New Jersey
and Connecticut
Connecticut
, which are second and third respectively. Two of Maryland's counties, Howard and Montgomery, are the second and eleventh wealthiest counties in the nation respectively. Maryland ranked No. 1 with the most millionaires per capita in 2013, with a ratio of 7.7 percent. Also, the state's poverty rate of 7.8 percent is the lowest in the country. per capita personal income in 2006 was $43,500, fifth in the nation. As of May 2014, the state's unemployment rate was 5.5 percent. A map showing Maryland's median income by county. Data is sourced from the 2014 ACS 5-year Estimate report published by the US Census Bureau .

Maryland's economy benefits from the state's close proximity to the federal government in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
with an emphasis on technical and administrative tasks for the defense/aerospace industry and bio-research laboratories, as well as staffing of satellite government headquarters in the suburban or exurban Baltimore/Washington area. Ft. Meade serves as the headquarters of the Defense Information Systems Agency , United States
United States
Cyber Command , and the National Security Agency / Central Security Service . In addition, a number of educational and medical research institutions are located in the state. In fact, the various components of The Johns Hopkins University and its medical research facilities are now the largest single employer in the Baltimore
Baltimore
area. Altogether, white collar technical and administrative workers comprise 25 percent of Maryland's labor force , attributable in part to nearby Maryland
Maryland
being a part of the Washington Metro Area where the federal government office employment is relatively high.

Manufacturing, while large in dollar value, is highly diversified with no sub-sector contributing over 20 percent of the total. Typical forms of manufacturing include electronics, computer equipment, and chemicals. The once mighty primary metals sub-sector, which at one time included what was then the largest steel factory in the world at Sparrows Point
Sparrows Point
, still exists, but is pressed with foreign competition, bankruptcies , and mergers . During World War II
World War II
the Glenn Martin Company (now part of Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
) airplane factory employed some 40,000 people.

Mining
Mining
other than construction materials is virtually limited to coal, which is located in the mountainous western part of the state. The brownstone quarries in the east, which gave Baltimore
Baltimore
and Washington much of their characteristic architecture in the mid-19th century, were once a predominant natural resource. Historically, there used to be small gold-mining operations in Maryland, some near Washington, but these no longer exist.

BALTIMORE PORT

One major service activity is transportation, centered on the Port of Baltimore
Baltimore
and its related rail and trucking access. The port ranked 17th in the U.S. by tonnage in 2008. Although the port handles a wide variety of products, the most typical imports are raw materials and bulk commodities, such as iron ore , petroleum , sugar , and fertilizers , often distributed to the relatively close manufacturing centers of the inland Midwest
Midwest
via good overland transportation. The port also receives several different brands of imported motor vehicles and is the number one auto port in the U.S.

Baltimore
Baltimore
City is the eighth largest port in the nation, and was at the center of the February 2006 controversy over the Dubai Ports World deal because it was considered to be of such strategic importance. The state as a whole is heavily industrialized, with a booming economy and influential technology centers. Its computer industries are some of the most sophisticated in the United States, and the federal government has invested heavily in the area. Maryland
Maryland
is home to several large military bases and scores of high level government jobs.

The Chesapeake and Delaware
Delaware
Canal
Canal
is a 14 miles (23 km) canal on the Eastern Shore that connects the waters of the Delaware
Delaware
River with those of the Chesapeake Bay, and in particular with the Port of Baltimore, carrying 40 percent of the port's ship traffic.

AGRICULTURE AND FISHING

Maryland
Maryland
has a large food-production sector. A large component of this is commercial fishing , centered in the Chesapeake Bay, but also including activity off the short Atlantic seacoast. The largest catches by species are the blue crab , oysters , striped bass , and menhaden . The Bay also has overwintering waterfowl in its wildlife refuges. The waterfowl support a tourism sector of sportsmen . Agriculture is an important part of the state's economy

Maryland
Maryland
has large areas of fertile agricultural land in its coastal and Piedmont zones, though this land use is being encroached upon by urbanization. Agriculture is oriented to dairy farming (especially in foothill and piedmont areas) for nearby large city milksheads plus specialty perishable horticulture crops, such as cucumbers , watermelons , sweet corn , tomatoes , muskmelons , squash , and peas (Source:USDA Crop Profiles). In addition, the southern counties of the western shoreline of Chesapeake Bay are warm enough to support a tobacco cash crop zone, which has existed since early Colonial times but declined greatly after a state government buyout in the 1990s. There is also a large automated chicken -farming sector in the state's southeastern part; Salisbury is home to Perdue Farms . Maryland's food-processing plants are the most significant type of manufacturing by value in the state.

BIOTECHNOLOGY

Maryland
Maryland
is a major center for life sciences research and development. With more than 400 biotechnology companies located there, Maryland
Maryland
is the fourth-largest nexus in this field in the United States.

Institutions and government agencies with an interest in research and development located in Maryland
Maryland
include the Johns Hopkins University , the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory , more than one campus of the University System of Maryland , Goddard Space Flight Center , the United States
United States
Census Bureau , the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center , the federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Howard Hughes Medical Institute , the Celera Genomics company, the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI), and MedImmune – recently purchased by AstraZeneca
AstraZeneca
.

DEFENSE CONTRACTORS

Maryland
Maryland
is home to defense contractor Emergent BioSolutions , which manufactures and provides an anthrax vaccine to U.S. government military personnel. As of April 2014, Emergent had sold over 66 million doses of BioThrax to the U.S. government. _Forbes_ recognized Emergent as the top performing company in the state of Maryland
Maryland
for the 2015–2016 fiscal year.

TOURISM

The beach resort town of Ocean City along the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
is a popular tourist destination in Maryland
Maryland

Tourism is popular in Maryland, with tourists visiting the city attractions of Baltimore, the beach attractions of the Eastern Shore, and the nature attractions of western Maryland, as well as many passing through en route to Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Baltimore
Baltimore
attractions include the Harborplace and the Baltimore
Baltimore
Aquarium , as well as the popular Camden Yards baseball stadium. Ocean City on the Atlantic Coast has been a popular beach destination in summer, particularly since the Chesapeake Bay Bridge was built in 1952 connecting the Eastern Shore to the more populated Maryland
Maryland
cities.

TRANSPORTATION

The Maryland Department of Transportation , headquartered in the Hanover area of unincorporated Anne Arundel County , oversees most transportation in the state through its various administration-level agencies. The independent Maryland Transportation Authority , headquartered in Baltimore, maintains and operates the state's eight toll facilities.

ROADS

See also: List of Interstate Highways in Maryland , List of Maryland state highways , List of minor Maryland state highways , and List of former Maryland
Maryland
state highways

Maryland's Interstate highways include 110 miles (180 km) of Interstate 95 (I-95), which enters the northeast portion of the state, travels through Baltimore
Baltimore
, and becomes part of the eastern section of the Capital Beltway to the Woodrow Wilson Bridge . I-68 travels 81 miles (130 km), connecting the western portions of the state to I-70 at the small town of Hancock. I-70 enters from Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
north of Hancock and continues east for 93 miles (150 km) to Baltimore, connecting Hagerstown and Frederick along the way.

I-83 has 34 miles (55 km) in Maryland
Maryland
and connects Baltimore
Baltimore
to southern central Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
(Harrisburg and York, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
). Maryland
Maryland
also has an 11-mile (18 km) portion of I-81 that travels through the state near Hagerstown. I-97 , fully contained within Anne Arundel County and the second shortest (17.6 miles (28.3 km)) one- or two-digit Interstate highway which connects the Baltimore
Baltimore
area to the Annapolis
Annapolis
area. Hawaii
Hawaii
has one that is shorter.

There are also several auxiliary Interstate highways in Maryland. Among them are two beltways encircling the major cities of the region: I-695 , the McKeldin (Baltimore) Beltway, which encircles Baltimore; and a portion of I-495 , the Capital Beltway, which encircles Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
I-270 , which connects the Frederick area with Northern Virginia
Virginia
and the District of Columbia through major suburbs to the northwest of Washington, is a major commuter route and is as wide as fourteen lanes at points.

Both I-270 and the Capital Beltway were extremely congested ; however, the Intercounty Connector (ICC; MD 200 ) alleviated some of the congestion over time. Construction of the ICC was a major part of the campaign platform of former Governor Robert Ehrlich , who was in office from 2003 until 2007, and of Governor Martin O\'Malley , who succeeded him. I-595 , which is an unsigned highway concurrent with US 50 /US 301 , is the longest unsigned interstate in the country and connects Prince George\'s County and Washington D.C. with Annapolis and the Eastern Shore via the Chesapeake Bay Bridge . The Chesapeake Bay Bridge connects Maryland's Eastern and Western Shores.

Maryland
Maryland
also has a state highway system that contains routes numbered from 2 through 999, however most of the higher-numbered routes are either unsigned or are relatively short. Major state highways include Routes 2 (Governor Ritchie Highway/Solomons Island Road/ Southern Maryland Blvd.), 4 ( Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Avenue /Southern Maryland
Maryland
Blvd./Patuxent Beach Road/St. Andrew's Church Road), 5 (Branch Avenue/Leonardtown Road/Point Lookout Road), 32 , 45 (York Road), 97 (Georgia Avenue), 100 (Paul T. Pitcher Memorial Highway), 210 (Indian Head Highway), 235 (Three Notch Road), 295 (Baltimore-Washington Parkway), 355 ( Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Avenue/Rockville Pike/Frederick Road), 404 (Queen Anne Highway/ Shore Highway), and 650 ( New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Avenue).

AIRPORTS

See also: Aviation in Maryland and List of airports in Maryland

Maryland's largest airport is Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport , more commonly referred to as BWI. The airport is named for the Baltimore-born Thurgood Marshall , the first African-American Supreme Court justice . The only other airports with commercial service are at Hagerstown and Salisbury .

The Maryland
Maryland
suburbs of Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
are also served by the other two airports in the region, Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and Dulles International Airport
Dulles International Airport
, both in Northern Virginia
Virginia
. The College Park Airport is the nation's oldest, founded in 1909, and is still used. Wilbur Wright trained military aviators at this location.

RAIL

See also: List of Maryland railroads

Amtrak
Amtrak
trains, including the high speed Acela Express serve Baltimore's Penn Station , BWI Airport , New Carrollton , and Aberdeen along the Washington D.C. to Boston
Boston
Northeast Corridor . In addition, train service is provided to Rockville and Cumberland by Amtrak's Washington, D.C., to Chicago
Chicago
Capitol Limited . Ellicott City Station , on the original B"> The reverse side of the Maryland quarter shows the dome of the State House in Annapolis. Main article: Government of Maryland See also: List of Governors of Maryland
Maryland
, Maryland Army National Guard , and Maryland
Maryland
Air National Guard

The government of Maryland
Maryland
is conducted according to the state constitution . The government of Maryland, like the other 49 state governments , has exclusive authority over matters that lie entirely within the state's borders, except as limited by the Constitution of the United States
United States
.

Power in Maryland
Maryland
is divided among three branches of government: executive , legislative , and judicial . The Maryland
Maryland
General Assembly is composed of the Maryland House of Delegates and the Maryland
Maryland
Senate . Maryland\'s governor is unique in the United States
United States
as the office is vested with significant authority in budgeting. The legislature may not increase the governor's proposed budget expenditures. Unlike many other states, significant autonomy is granted to many of Maryland's counties .

Most of the business of government is conducted in Annapolis
Annapolis
, the state capital . Elections for governor and most statewide offices, as well as most county elections, are held in midterm-election years (even-numbered years not divisible by four).

The judicial branch of state government consists of one united District Court of Maryland
Maryland
that sits in every county and Baltimore City, as well as 24 Circuit Courts sitting in each County and Baltimore
Baltimore
City, the latter being courts of general jurisdiction for all civil disputes over $30,000.00, all equitable jurisdiction and major criminal proceedings. The intermediate appellate court is known as the Court of Special
Special
Appeals and the state supreme court is the Court of Appeals . The appearance of the judges of the Maryland
Maryland
Court of Appeals is unique; Maryland
Maryland
is the only state whose judges wear red robes.

TAXATION

Maryland
Maryland
imposes five income tax brackets, ranging from 2 to 6.25 percent of personal income. The city of Baltimore
Baltimore
and Maryland's 23 counties levy local "piggyback" income taxes at rates between 1.25 and 3.2 percent of Maryland
Maryland
taxable income. Local officials set the rates and the revenue is returned to the local governments quarterly. The top income tax bracket of 9.45 percent is the fifth highest combined state and local income tax rates in the country, behind New York City's 11.35 percent, California's 10.3 percent, Rhode Island's 9.9 percent, and Vermont's 9.5 percent.

Maryland's state sales tax is 6 percent. All real property in Maryland
Maryland
is subject to the property tax . Generally, properties that are owned and used by religious, charitable, or educational organizations or property owned by the federal, state or local governments are exempt. Property tax rates vary widely. No restrictions or limitations on property taxes are imposed by the state, meaning cities and counties can set tax rates at the level they deem necessary to fund governmental services. If a proposed tax rate increases the total property tax revenues, the governing body must advertise that fact and hold a public hearing on the new tax rate, which is called the Constant Yield Tax Rate process.

ELECTIONS

Further information: Politics of Maryland and Political party strength in Maryland
Maryland
_ Spiro Agnew
Spiro Agnew
, former United States
United States
Vice President , is the highest-ranking political leader from Maryland since the founding of the United States
United States

Gubernatorial election results YEAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICAN

1950 42.7% 275,824_ 57.3% _369,807_

1954 45.5% _319,033_ 54.5% _381,451_

1958 63.6% _485,061_ 36.5% _278,173_

1962 55.6% _428,071_ 44.4% _341,271_

1966 40.6% _373,543_ 49.5% _455,318_

1970 65.7% _639,579_ 32.3% _314,336_

1974 63.5% _602,648_ 36.5% _346,449_

1978 71.0% _718,328_ 29.0% _293,635_

1982 62.0% _705,910_ 38.0% _432,826_

1986 82.4% _907,291_ 17.6% _194,185_

1990 59.8% _664,015_ 40.2% _446,980_

1994 50.2% _708,094_ 49.8% _702,101_

1998 55.1% _846,972_ 44.8% _688,357_

2002 47.7% _813,422_ 51.6% _879,592_

2006 52.7% _942,279_ 46.2% _825,464_

2010 56.2% _1,044,961_ 41.8% _776,319_

2014 47.3% _818,890_ 51.0% _884,400_

Presidential election results YEAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICAN

1952 43.8% _395,337_ 55.4% _499,424_

1956 40.0% _372,613_ 60.0% _559,738_

1960 53.6% _565,808_ 46.4% _489,538_

1964 65.5% _730,912_ 34.5% _385,495_

1968 43.6% _538,310_ 41.9% _517,995_

1972 37.4% _505,781_ 61.3% _829,305_

1976 53.0% _759,612_ 47.0% _672,661_

1980 47.1% _726,161_ 44.2% _680,606_

1984 47.0% _787,935_ 52.5% _879,918_

1988 48.2% _826,304_ 51.1% _876,167_

1992 49.8% _988,571_ 35.6% _707,094_

1996 54.3% _966,207_ 38.3% _681,530_

2000 56.6% _1,145,782_ 40.2% _813,797_

2004 55.9% _1,334,493_ 42.9% _1,024,703_

2008 61.9% _1,629,467_ 36.5% _959,862_

2012 62.0% _1,677,844_ 35.9% _971,869_

2016 60.3% _1,677,928_ 33.9% _943,169_

Treemap
Treemap
of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

Since before the Civil War, Maryland's elections have been largely controlled by the Democrats

State elections are dominated by Baltimore
Baltimore
and the populous suburban counties bordering Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
: Montgomery and Prince George\'s . Forty-three percent of the state's population resides in these three jurisdictions, each of which contain large, traditionally Democratic voting bloc(s) : African Americans in Baltimore
Baltimore
and Prince George's, federal employees in Prince George's and Montgomery, and postgraduates in Montgomery. The remainder of the state, particularly Western Maryland
Maryland
and the Eastern Shore , is more supportive of Republicans . Maryland´s best known political figure is a Republican – former Governor Spiro Agnew
Spiro Agnew
, who served as United States
United States
Vice President under Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
as Vice President from 1969 to 1973, when he resigned in the aftermath of revelations that he had taken bribes while he was Governor of Maryland. In late 1973 a court found Agnew guilty of violating tax laws.

In 1980, Maryland
Maryland
was one of six states to vote for Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
. In recent years, Maryland
Maryland
has been among the most reliable states for Democratic nominees. In 1992, Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
fared better in Maryland than any other state except his home state of Arkansas
Arkansas
. In 1996, Maryland
Maryland
was Clinton's sixth best, in 2000 Maryland
Maryland
ranked fourth for Gore and in 2004 John Kerry
John Kerry
showed his fifth-best performance in Maryland. In 2008 Barack Obama
Barack Obama
won the state's 10 electoral votes with 61.9 percent of the vote to John McCain
John McCain
's 36.5 percent. As of September 2016 , Maryland
Maryland
supported the Democratic nominee in each of the last six presidential elections, by an average margin of 15.4 percent.

Both of Maryland's U.S. Senators and seven of its eight Representatives in Congress are Democrats, and Democrats hold a supermajority in the state Senate.

In 2002, former Governor Robert Ehrlich was the first Republican to be elected to that office in four decades, and after one term lost his seat to Baltimore
Baltimore
Mayor and Democrat Martin O\'Malley . Ehrlich ran again for governor in 2010, losing again to O'Malley.

The 2006 election brought no change in the pattern of Democratic dominance. After Democratic Senator Paul Sarbanes announced that he was retiring, Democratic Congressman Benjamin Cardin defeated Republican Lieutenant Governor Michael S. Steele , with 55 percent of the vote, against Steele's 44 percent.

While Republicans usually win more counties, by piling up large margins in the west and east, they are also usually swamped by the more densely populated and heavily Democratic Baltimore-Washington axis. In 2008, for instance, McCain won 17 counties to Obama's six; Obama also carried Baltimore
Baltimore
City. While McCain won most of the western and eastern counties by margins of 2-to-1 or more, he was almost completely shut out in the larger counties surrounding Baltimore
Baltimore
and Washington; every large county except Anne Arundel went for Obama.

From 2007 to 2011 U.S. Congressman Steny Hoyer
Steny Hoyer
(MD-5 ), a Democrat , was elected as Majority Leader for the 110th Congress of the House of Representatives , and 111th Congress , serving in that post. His district covers parts of Anne Arundel and Prince George\'s counties, in addition to all of Charles , Calvert and St. Mary\'s counties in southern Maryland
Maryland
.

In 2010 Republicans won control of most counties. The Democratic Party remained in control of eight county governments including Baltimore
Baltimore
City .

In 2014 Larry Hogan , a Republican, was elected Governor of Maryland. Hogan is the second Republican to become the Governor of Maryland since Spiro Agnew's resigned in 1969 to become Vice President.

VOTER REGISTRATION BY PARTY (MAY 2017)

PARTY NUMBER OF VOTERS PERCENTAGE

Democratic 2,059,544 54.9%

Republican 1,020,438 26.0%

Unaffiliated 691,583 17.6%

Libertarian 20,377 0.5%

Green 9,313 0.2%

Other 31,975 0.8%

TOTAL 3,928,689 100%

MEDIA

_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (March 2017)_

See also: Category: Maryland
Maryland
media

EDUCATION

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION

See also: List of school districts in Maryland , List of high schools in Maryland
Maryland
, and Arts and culture of Maryland Memorial Chapel at the University of Maryland, College Park
University of Maryland, College Park
, Maryland's largest university.

Education Week ranked Maryland
Maryland
#1 in its nationwide 2009–2013 Quality Counts reports. The College Board's 9th Annual AP Report to the Nation also ranked Maryland
Maryland
first. Primary and secondary education in Maryland
Maryland
is overseen by the Maryland
Maryland
State Department of Education , which is headquartered in Baltimore
Baltimore
. The highest educational official in the state is the State Superintendent of Schools , who is appointed by the State Board of Education to a four-year term of office. The Maryland General Assembly has given the Superintendent and State Board autonomy to make educationally related decisions, limiting its own influence on the day-to-day functions of public education. Each county and county-equivalent in Maryland
Maryland
has a local Board of Education charged with running the public schools in that particular jurisdiction.

The budget for education was $5.5 billion in 2009, representing about 40 percent of the state's general fund.

Maryland
Maryland
has a broad range of private primary and secondary schools. Many of these are affiliated with various religious sects, including parochial schools of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, Quaker schools, Seventh-day Adventist schools, and Jewish schools. In 2003, Maryland
Maryland
law was changed to allow for the creation of publicly funded charter schools, although the charter schools must be approved by their local Board of Education and are not exempt from state laws on education, including collective bargaining laws.

In 2008 the state led the entire country in the percentage of students passing Advanced Placement examinations. 23.4 percent of students earned passing grades on the AP tests given in May 2008. This marks the first year that Maryland
Maryland
earned this honor. Three Maryland high schools (in Montgomery County) were ranked among the top 100 in the country by US News in 2009, based in large part on AP test scores.

COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

See also: List of colleges and universities in Maryland

Maryland
Maryland
has several historic and renowned private colleges and universities, the most prominent of which is Johns Hopkins University , founded in 1876 with a grant from Baltimore
Baltimore
entrepreneur Johns Hopkins .

The first public university in the state is the University of Maryland, Baltimore
Baltimore
, which was founded in 1807 and contains the University of Maryland's only public academic health , human services, and one of two law centers (the other being the University of Baltimore
Baltimore
School of Law ). Seven professional and graduate schools train the majority of the state's physicians, nurses, dentists, lawyers, social workers, and pharmacists. The largest undergraduate institution in Maryland
Maryland
is the University of Maryland, College Park which was founded as the Maryland
Maryland
Agricultural College in 1856 and became a public land grant college in 1864. Towson University , founded in 1866, is the state's second largest university. Baltimore is home to the University of Maryland, Baltimore
Baltimore
County and the Maryland Institute College of Art . The majority of public universities in the state are affiliated with the University System of Maryland
Maryland
. Two state-funded institutions, Morgan State University
Morgan State University
and St. Mary\'s College of Maryland
Maryland
, as well as two federally funded institutions, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences and the United States
United States
Naval Academy , are not affiliated with the University System of Maryland.

St. John\'s College in Annapolis, Maryland and Washington College in Chestertown, Maryland , both private institutions, are the two oldest colleges in the state, and are among the oldest in the country. Other private institutions include Mount St. Mary\'s University , McDaniel College (formerly known as Western Maryland College), Hood College , Stevenson University (formerly known as Villa Julie College), Loyola University Maryland
Maryland
, and Goucher College , among others.

PUBLIC LIBRARIES

Maryland's 24 public library systems deliver public education for everyone in the state of Maryland
Maryland
through a curriculum that comprises three pillars: Self-Directed Education (books and materials in all formats, e-resources), Research Assistance & Instruction (individualized research assistance, classes for students of all ages), and Instructive ">

SPORTS

Oriole Park at Camden Yards , home of the Baltimore
Baltimore
Orioles M the official team sport since 2004 is lacrosse . The National Lacrosse
Lacrosse
Hall of Fame is located on the Johns Hopkins University campus in Baltimore. In 2008, intending to promote physical fitness for all ages, walking became the official state exercise. Maryland
Maryland
is the first state with an official state exercise.

SEE ALSO

* Maryland
Maryland
portal

* Arts and culture of Maryland * List of butterflies of Maryland * Province of Maryland * Protestant Revolution (Maryland)

REFERENCES

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Special
Concern." During the past quarter century, occupied range and densities have increased markedly. Results from the annual Bowhunter Survey and the Hunter Mail survey have identified bobcat sightings in 14 of Maryland's 23 counties. Currently, bobcats have dual legal classification in Maryland. In addition to the Species of Special Concern designation, they are also defined as a Game Animal / Furbearer with a closed harvest season. * ^ "Coyotes in Maryland". Maryland
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Department of Natural Resources. Archived from the original on August 15, 2011. Retrieved September 16, 2011. Coyotes were historically a western species with core populations found west of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River. Alterations and/or elimination of competing predators during the post-European colonization period facilitated rapid range expansion into eastern North America during the 20th Century. Established populations now occur in every state and province in North America. Coyotes are a relatively new addition to local ecosystems, and were first documented in Maryland
Maryland
during 1972. Initial substantiated sightings occurred in Cecil, Frederick and Washington counties. Since that time population densities and occupied range have expanded incrementally and coyotes now occur statewide. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ " Assateague Island National Seashore wild Ponies". Assateagueisland.com. Retrieved October 24, 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ " Chesapeake Bay Retriever History". K9web.com. Retrieved October 24, 2010. * ^ " Maryland
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at a Glance_. Maryland
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State Archives. Retrieved January 21, 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "The Southern Colonies", U.S. History, The Independence Hall Association Archived March 22, 2016, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Greenwell, Megan. "Religious Freedom Byway Would Recognize Maryland\'s Historic Role", _Washington Post_, August 21, 2008 * ^ Taylor, Owen M.,_History of Annapolis_ (1872) p 5 online * ^ Brenner, Robert. _Merchants and Revolution_ London:Verso. 2003, ISBN 1-85984-333-6 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Hubbard, Bill, Jr. (2009). _American Boundaries: the Nation, the States, the Rectangular Survey_. University of Chicago
Chicago
Press. pp. 21–23. ISBN 978-0-226-35591-7 . * ^ "Indentured Servants and the Pursuits of Happiness Archived January 4, 2010, at the Wayback Machine .". Crandall Shifflett, _ Virginia
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Tech_. * ^ _A_ _B_ Paul Heinegg. _Free African Americans in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland
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and Delaware_. Retrieved February 15, 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ Peter Kolchin, _American Slavery: 1619–1877_, New York: Hill and Wang, 1993, pp. 81–82 * ^ Dilts, James D. (1993). _The Great Road: The Building of the Baltimore
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and Ohio Railroad_. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-911198-81-4 . * ^ Walter Coffey (April 29, 2016). " Maryland
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Remains in the Union". _The Civil War Months_. Walter Coffey. Retrieved July 7, 2016.

* ^ Vogler, Mark E. (April 18, 2009). "Civil War Guard on duty in Baltimore
Baltimore
to save President Street Station". _eagletribune.com_. Eagle Tribune. Archived from the original on April 19, 2009. Retrieved April 28, 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ STEPHEN TUCK, "Democratization and the Disfranchisement of African Americans in the US South during the Late 19th Century" (pdf), Spring 2013, reading for "Challenges of Democratization", by Brandon Kendhammer, Ohio
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University * ^ "Bird\'s Eye View of Cumberland, Maryland 1906". _World Digital Library _. 1906. Retrieved July 22, 2013. * ^ Cairns, Huntington (December 1937). "History and Constitutionality of the Maryland
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Income Tax Law". _ Maryland
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Law Review_. Legal History, Theory and Process Commons. UM Carey Law. pp. 1, 6. Retrieved August 19, 2015. ...1937 Special
Special
Session of the Maryland
Maryland
Legislature
Legislature
imposed an income tax...expenditure of public funds for the benefit of able-bodied persons whose inability to support themselves arises from the prevalence of wide-spread unemployment. * ^ _A_ _B_ "William Preston Lane Jr. Memorial Bay Bridge – History". baybridge.com. Retrieved February 5, 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". U.S. Census Bureau . December 24, 2015. Archived from the original (CSV) on December 23, 2015. Retrieved December 24, 2015. * ^ "Population and Population Centers by State – 2000". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 12, 2001. Retrieved December 5, 2008. * ^ "The South As It\'s Own Nation". League of the South. 2004. Retrieved May 23, 2008. On the other hand, areas beyond these thirteen States maintain their Southern culture to varying degrees. Much of Missouri
Missouri
remains basically Southern, as do parts of southern Maryland and Maryland's eastern shore. * ^ Beck, John; Randall, Aaron ">(PDF). Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press. pp. 14–15. Retrieved May 23, 2008. Kentucky, Missouri, West Virginia
Virginia
and Maryland
Maryland
—slaveholding states and regions before the Civil War that did not secede from the Union – are also often included as part of the South. As border states, these states always were crossroads of values and customs, and today parts of Maryland
Maryland
seem to have become part of the "Northeast." * ^ "Regions of the United States". _American Memory_. The Library of Congress. Retrieved August 11, 2009. * ^ "Region 3: The Mid-Atlantic States". _www.epa.gov_. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved August 11, 2009. * ^ "Your Local FBI Office". _www.fbi.gov_. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Archived from the original on August 15, 2009. Retrieved August 11, 2009. * ^ "Routes Serving the Northeast". National Railroad
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Americans
under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". _ The Plain Dealer _. June 3, 2012. * ^ https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_01.pdf * ^ https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_12.pdf * ^ https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr66/nvsr66_01.pdf * ^ " Maryland
Maryland
Languages". City-Data. Retrieved September 14, 2016. * ^ "Calvert County, Maryland\'s Success in Controlling Sprawl". Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 3 September 2016. * ^ Shields, Todd (16 February 1997). "On Edge". _The Washington Post_. Retrieved 3 September 2016. * ^ Resident Population Data. "Resident Population Data – 2010 Census". 2010.census.gov. Archived from the original on November 18, 2011. Retrieved December 24, 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ Population Division, Laura K. Yax. "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". Archived from the original on 2008-07-25. * ^ Population of Maryland: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts * ^ " Maryland
Maryland
QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Archived from the original on February 7, 2015. Retrieved January 14, 2015. * ^ " Maryland
Maryland
– Race and Hispanic Origin: 1790 to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 25, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2012. * ^ " Maryland
Maryland
QuickFacts". U.S. Census Bureau. December 23, 2011. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved January 14, 2012. * ^ "Languages in Maryland" (PDF). U.S.ENGLISH Foundation, Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 17, 2013. Retrieved May 22, 2012. Prince George's County has the highest percentage of Kru/Ibo/Yoruba speakers of any county in the nation. * ^ Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder – Results". Retrieved January 14, 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Irish Immigrants in Baltimore: Introduction, Teaching American History in Maryland". Maryland
Maryland
State Archives. Retrieved May 21, 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ Dastagir, Alia E. (May 23, 2011). "Swampoodle: The neighborhood behind the play". ABC Channel 7: TBD online magazine. p. 2. Archived from the original on June 6, 2013. Retrieved June 11, 2014. * ^ "Washington, DC Genealogy Research, Resources, and Records: Irish Neighborhoods in Old Washington". _genweb.org_. Retrieved May 21, 2017. * ^ "Mulberry Tree: College News: EXPLORE MARYLAND\'S HISTORY IN IRELAND". St. Mary's College of Maryland online magazine. Spring 2014. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2014. * ^ "About the Celtic Society of Southern Maryland". _CSSM.org_. Celtic Society of Southern Maryland. Retrieved May 21, 2017. * ^ "European Immigrants in the United States". _migrationpolicy.org_. Retrieved January 14, 2015. * ^ "Cities with the Highest Percentage of Russians in Maryland". Retrieved January 14, 2015. * ^ Department of Legislative Services (June 2008). "Overview of Hispanic Community in Maryland" (PDF). pp. 6–7. Retrieved July 5, 2012. * ^ "Minority population surging in Texas". _msnbc.com_. Associated Press. August 18, 2005. Retrieved December 7, 2009. * ^ Turner Brinton, "Immigration Bill Could Impact Maryland Archived December 21, 2013, at the Wayback Machine .," Capital News Service, April 5, 2006. Retrieved July 22, 2007. * ^ Yau, Jennifer (2007). "The Foreign Born from Korea in the United States". Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved December 23, 2007. * ^ "About Us: Korean Americans
Americans
in Maryland". Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retrieved December 23, 2007. * ^ "Maryland". Freedom to Marry. Retrieved September 28, 2013. * ^ " Maryland
Maryland
Quick Facts". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved 2017-07-25. * ^ "Face it, we\'re on our way to being a majority minority country". Baltimore
Baltimore
Sun . Retrieved 2017-07-25. * ^ "States of Change: The Demographic Evolution of the American Electorate, 1974–2060" (PDF). Center for American Progress . Retrieved 2016-07-25. * ^ "The Association of Religion Data Archives State Membership Report". www.thearda.com. Retrieved November 15, 2013. * ^ "Table 77. Christian Church Adherents and Jewish Population – States: 2008". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Archived from the original (Excel) on March 27, 2010. Retrieved October 24, 2010. * ^ It became a part of the District of Columbia when that city was created in the 1790s. * ^ "Bureau of Economic Analysis, Jun 6, 2013". * ^ Dolan, Karen (January 30, 2012). "A better way of measuring progress in Maryland". _ Baltimore
Baltimore
Sun_. * ^ Measuring Prosperity: Maryland\'s Genuine Progress Indicator Solutions. Thesolutionsjournal.com. Retrieved on July 12, 2013. * ^ "American FactFinder – Results". * ^ Frank, Robert. "Top states for millionaires per capita". CNBC. Retrieved January 21, 2014. * ^ U.S. Poverty Rate Drops; Ranks of Uninsured Grow washingtonpost.com. * ^ Maryland
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is ranked as richest state baltimoresun.com. * ^ US Poverty Rate Declines Significantly wibw.com. * ^ Bls.gov; Local Area Unemployment Statistics * ^ U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Waterborne Commerce Statistics Center. New Orleans, LA. "Tonnage for Selected U.S. Ports in 2008." Archived July 31, 2010, at the Wayback Machine . Revised February 17, 2010. * ^ "Port of Baltimore". _Automotive Logistics Buyers' Guide_. Ultima Media. Retrieved May 22, 2017. The Port of Baltimore
Baltimore
handles more autos than any other US port. * ^ "Chesapeake and Delaware
Delaware
Canal". Philadelphia, PA: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved September 28, 2013. * ^ "Maryland\'s Bioscience Environment: 2009". The Maryland Biotechnology Center. Retrieved August 19, 2011. * ^ " Emergent BioSolutions Receives Orphan Drug Designation for BioThrax for Post-Exposure Prophylaxis of Anthrax Disease". _Marketwatch.com_. Dow Jones & Company. April 21, 2014. Retrieved August 29, 2016. * ^ Borowski, Jaclyn (July 11, 2016). "Forbes says this is the \'best-performing company\' in Maryland". _ Baltimore
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Business Journal_. Retrieved August 29, 2016. * ^ "MDOT Departments". Archived from the original on May 25, 2009. Retrieved June 5, 2016. _ Maryland Department of Transportation _. Retrieved on March 23, 2009. * ^ "College Park Aviation Museum Home". Collegeparkaviationmuseum.com. September 12, 2013. Retrieved September 28, 2013. * ^ "Frederick E. Humphreys: First Military Pilot". New York State Division of Military and Naval Affairs: Military History. December 9, 2008. Retrieved November 23, 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ CSX Transportation. Jacksonville, FL (2010). "CSX and Maryland." Archived October 21, 2011, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Maryland
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Port Administration. Baltimore, MD. "Seagirt Marine Terminal." Retrieved October 31, 2011. * ^ Lamy, Rudolf B. (2006). "A Study of Scarlet: Red Robes and the Maryland
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Court of Appeals." Monograph. (Annapolis, MD: Maryland
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State Law Library.) * ^ " Maryland
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State taxes". BankRate.com. Retrieved April 9, 2008. * ^ " Maryland
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Income Tax Information – Local Tax Rates". Individuals.marylandtaxes.com. Retrieved September 22, 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ Leip, David. "General Election Results – Maryland". United States
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Election Atlas. Retrieved November 18, 2016. * ^ Local and National Election Results – Election Center 2008 – Elections & Politics from. CNN.com. Retrieved on July 12, 2013. * ^ Steny Hoyer
Steny Hoyer
, Fifth Congressional District of Maryland
Maryland
. U.S. House of Representatives . Retrieved December 8, 2006 from http://hoyer.house.gov * ^ "Official Gubernatorial General Election results for Maryland". _The State Board of Elections_. State of Maryland. Retrieved 29 September 2016. * ^ "Republican Larry Hogan wins Md. governor\'s race in stunning upset". _Washington Post_. Retrieved January 14, 2015. * ^ Maryland
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State Board of Elections. "Voter Registration Statistics". * ^ "About MSDE Archived January 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine .." _ Maryland State Department of Education _. Retrieved on March 22, 2009. * ^ "Slicing education?". _gazette.net_. The Gazette. October 30, 2009. p. A-9. Retrieved November 12, 2009. As it stands, the $5.5 billion Maryland
Maryland
spends on education makes up about 40 percent of the general fund budget.... * ^ de Vise, Daniel (February 5, 2009). "Md. Leads U.S. in Passing Rates on AP Exams". _Washington Post_. pp. B1. Retrieved February 18, 2009. * ^ "Best High Schools: Gold Medal List". _usnews.com_. U.S. News & World Report . Retrieved November 7, 2009. * ^ "UMB Fast Facts". University of Maryland, Baltimore. Retrieved May 21, 2017. * ^ COSMOS – A Southern Maryland Library Online Catalog * ^ "Top 10 Maryland
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athletes in The Sun\'s 175-year history". _ Baltimore
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Sun_. May 16, 2012. Retrieved March 16, 2013. * ^ "State Symbols". Maryland
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Brugger, Robert J. (1988). _Maryland, A Middle Temperament: 1634–1980_. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5465-2 . * Chappelle, Susan Ellery Green; et al. (1986). _Maryland: A History of its People_. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-3005-2 . * Davis, William Wilkins. _Religion and Politics in Maryland
Maryland
on the Eve of the Civil War: The Letters of W. Wilkins Davis_. Foreword by Charles W. Mitchell. 1988; rev. ed., Eugene, Ore.: Wipf & Stock, 2009. * Denton, Lawrence M. (1995). _A Southern Star for Maryland_. Baltimore: Publishing Concepts. ISBN 0-9635159-3-4 .

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