Gladys Louise Smith (April 8, 1892 – May 29, 1979), known
professionally as Mary Pickford, was a Canadian-born film actress and
producer. She was a co-founder of both the
Pickford-Fairbanks Studio (along with Douglas Fairbanks) and,
United Artists film studio (with Fairbanks, Charlie Chaplin
and D.W. Griffith), and one of the original 36 founders of the Academy
of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences who present the yearly "Oscar"
Pickford was known in her prime as "America's Sweetheart" and
the "girl with the curls". She was one of the Canadian pioneers in
early Hollywood and a significant figure in the development of film
acting. Pickford was one of the earliest stars to be billed under her
own name, and was one of the most popular actresses of the 1910s and
1920s, earning the nickname "Queen of the Movies". She is credited as
having defined the ingénue archetype in cinema. 
She was awarded the second ever
Academy Award for Best Actress
Academy Award for Best Actress for her
first sound-film role in Coquette (1929) and also received an honorary
Academy Award in 1976. In consideration of her contributions to
American cinema, the
American Film Institute
American Film Institute ranked Pickford as 24th
in its 1999 list of greatest female stars of classic Hollywood Cinema.
1 Early life
2.1 Early years
2.3 The film industry
3 Personal life
4 Later years
8 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
Mary Pickford on University Avenue, near her Toronto
Pickford's birthplace is marked by an
Ontario historical marker
Mary Pickford was born Gladys Louise Smith in 1892 (although she would
later claim 1893 or 1894 as her year of birth) at 211 University
Avenue,A Toronto, Ontario. Her father, John Charles Smith, was the
son of English Methodist immigrants, and worked a variety of odd jobs.
Her mother, Charlotte Hennessey, was of
Irish Catholic descent and
worked for a time as a seamstress. She had two younger siblings,
Charlotte, called "Lottie" (born 1893), and John Charles, called
"Jack" (born 1896), who also became actors. To please her husband's
relatives, Pickford's mother baptized her children as Methodists, the
religion of their father. John Charles Smith was an alcoholic; he
abandoned the family and died on February 11, 1898, from a fatal blood
clot caused by a workplace accident when he was a purser with Niagara
When Gladys was age four, her household was under infectious
quarantine, a public health measure. Their devoutly Catholic maternal
grandmother (Catherine Faeley Hennessey) asked a visiting Roman
Catholic priest to baptize the children. Pickford was at this time
baptized as Gladys Marie Smith.
Charlotte Smith began taking in boarders after being widowed. One of
these was a theatrical stage manager. At his suggestion, Gladys (age
7) was given two small roles, one as a boy and the other as a girl,
in a stock company production of The Silver King at Toronto's Princess
Theatre. She subsequently acted in many melodramas with Toronto's
Valentine Company, finally playing the major child role in their
version of The Silver King. She capped her short career in Toronto
with the starring role of Little Eva in their production of Uncle
Tom's Cabin adapted from the 1852 novel.
Mary Pickford, 1916
By the early 1900s, theatre had become a family enterprise. Gladys,
her mother and two younger siblings toured the United States by rail,
performing in third-rate companies and plays. After six impoverished
years, Pickford allowed one more summer to land a leading role on
Broadway, planning to quit acting if she failed. In 1906 Gladys,
Lottie and Jack Smith supported singer
Chauncey Olcott on Broadway in
Edmund Burke. Gladys finally landed a supporting role in a 1907
Broadway play, The Warrens of Virginia. The play was written by
William C. deMille, whose brother, Cecil, appeared in the cast. David
Belasco, the producer of the play, insisted that Gladys Smith assume
the stage name Mary Pickford. After completing the Broadway run
and touring the play, however, Pickford was again out of work.
On April 19, 1909, the Biograph Company director D. W. Griffith
screen-tested her at the company's New York studio for a role in the
nickelodeon film, Pippa Passes. The role went to someone else but
Griffith was immediately taken with Pickford. She quickly grasped that
movie acting was simpler than the stylized stage acting of the day.
Most Biograph actors earned $5 a day but, after Pickford's single day
in the studio, Griffith agreed to pay her $10 a day against a
guarantee of $40 a week.
Pickford, like all actors at Biograph, played both bit parts and
leading roles, including mothers, ingenues, charwomen, spitfires,
slaves, Native Americans, spurned women, and a prostitute. As Pickford
said of her success at Biograph:
I played scrubwomen and secretaries and women of all nationalities ...
I decided that if I could get into as many pictures as possible, I'd
become known, and there would be a demand for my work.
She appeared in 51 films in 1909 – almost one a week. While at
Biograph, she suggested to
Florence La Badie
Florence La Badie to "try pictures",
invited her to the studio and later introduced her to D. W. Griffith,
who launched La Badie's career.
In January 1910, Pickford traveled with a Biograph crew to Los
Angeles. Many other film companies wintered on the West Coast,
escaping the weak light and short days that hampered winter shooting
in the East. Pickford added to her 1909 Biographs (Sweet and Twenty,
They Would Elope, and To Save Her Soul, to name a few) with films made
Actors were not listed in the credits in Griffith's company. Audiences
noticed and identified Pickford within weeks of her first film
appearance. Exhibitors in turn capitalized on her popularity by
advertising on sandwich boards that a film featuring "The Girl with
the Golden Curls", "Blondilocks", or "The Biograph Girl" was
Pickford left Biograph in December 1910. The following year, she
starred in films at Carl Laemmle's
Independent Moving Pictures Company
(IMP). IMP was absorbed into Universal Pictures in 1912, along with
Majestic. Unhappy with their creative standards, Pickford returned to
work with Griffith in 1912. Some of her best performances were in his
films, such as Friends, The Mender of Nets, Just Like a Woman, and The
Female of the Species. That year Pickford also introduced Dorothy and
Lillian Gish (both friends from her days in touring melodrama) to
Griffith. Both became major silent stars, in comedy and tragedy,
respectively. Pickford made her last Biograph picture, The New York
Hat, in late 1912.
She returned to Broadway in the
David Belasco production of A Good
Little Devil (1912). This was a major turning point in her career.
Pickford, who had always hoped to conquer the Broadway stage,
discovered how deeply she missed film acting. In 1913, she decided to
work exclusively in film. The previous year,
Adolph Zukor had formed
Famous Players in Famous Plays. It was later known as Famous
Players-Lasky and then Paramount Pictures, one of the first American
feature film companies.
Mary Pickford, 1916
Pickford left the stage to join Zukor's roster of stars. Zukor
believed film's potential lay in recording theatrical players in
replicas of their most famous stage roles and productions. Zukor first
filmed Pickford in a silent version of A Good Little Devil. The film,
produced in 1913, showed the play's Broadway actors reciting every
line of dialogue, resulting in a stiff film that Pickford later called
"one of the worst [features] I ever made ... it was deadly". Zukor
agreed; he held the film back from distribution for a year.
Pickford's work in material written for the camera by that time had
attracted a strong following. Comedy-dramas, such as In the Bishop's
Carriage (1913), Caprice (1913), and especially
Hearts Adrift (1914),
made her irresistible to moviegoers.
Hearts Adrift was so popular that
Pickford asked for the first of her many publicized pay raises based
on the profits and reviews. The film marked the first time
Pickford’s name was featured above the title on movie marquees.
Tess of the Storm Country was released five weeks later. Biographer
Kevin Brownlow observed that the film "sent her career into orbit and
made her the most popular actress in America, if not the world".
Her appeal was summed up two years later by the February 1916 issue of
Photoplay as "luminous tenderness in a steel band of gutter
ferocity". Only Charlie Chaplin, who slightly surpassed Pickford's
popularity in 1916, had a similarly spellbinding pull with critics
and the audience. Each enjoyed a level of fame far exceeding that of
other actors. Throughout the 1910s and 1920s, Pickford was believed to
be the most famous woman in the world, or, as a silent-film journalist
described her, "the best known woman who has ever lived, the woman who
was known to more people and loved by more people than any other woman
that has been in all history".
Mary Pickford, 1920
Pickford starred in 52 features throughout her career. On June 24,
1916, Pickford signed a new contract with Zukor that granted her full
authority over production of the films in which she starred, and a
record-breaking salary of $10,000 a week. In addition, Pickford's
compensation was half of a film's profits, with a guarantee of
$1,040,000 (US$ 17,700,000 in 2018). Occasionally, she played a
child, in films such as
The Poor Little Rich Girl
The Poor Little Rich Girl (1917), Rebecca of
Sunnybrook Farm (1917), Daddy-Long-Legs (1919) and Pollyanna (1920).
Pickford's fans were devoted to these "little girl" roles, but they
were not typical of her career.
In August 1918, Pickford's contract expired and, when refusing Zukor's
terms for a renewal, she was offered $250,000 to leave the motion
picture business. She declined, and went to First National Pictures,
which agreed to her terms. In 1919, Pickford, along with D.W.
Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, and Douglas Fairbanks, formed the
independent film production company United Artists. Through United
Artists, Pickford continued to produce and perform in her own movies;
she could also distribute them as she chose. In 1920, Pickford's film
Pollyanna grossed around $1,100,000. The following year,
Pickford's film Little Lord Fauntleroy was also a success, and in
1923, Rosita grossed over $1,000,000 as well. During this period,
she also made Little Annie Rooney (1925), another film in which
Pickford played a child, Sparrows (1926), which blended the Dickensian
with newly minted German expressionist style, and My Best Girl (1927),
a romantic comedy featuring her future husband Buddy Rogers.
A lobby card for Little Lord Fauntleroy (1921)
The arrival of sound was her undoing. Pickford underestimated the
value of adding sound to movies, claiming that "adding sound to movies
would be like putting lipstick on the Venus de Milo".
She played a reckless socialite in Coquette (1929), a role for which
her famous ringlets were cut into a 1920s' bob. Pickford had already
cut her hair in the wake of her mother's death in 1928. Fans were
shocked at the transformation. Pickford's hair had become a symbol
of female virtue, and when she cut it, the act made front-page news in
The New York Times
The New York Times and other papers. Coquette was a success and won
her an Academy Award for Best Actress, although this was highly
controversial. The public failed to respond to her in the more
sophisticated roles. Like most movie stars of the silent era, Pickford
found her career fading as talkies became more popular among
Her next film, The Taming of The Shrew, made with husband Douglas
Fairbanks, was not well received at the box office. Established
Hollywood actors were panicked by the impending arrival of the
talkies. On March 29, 1928, The Dodge Brothers Hour was broadcast from
Pickford's bungalow, featuring Fairbanks, Chaplin, Norma Talmadge,
Gloria Swanson, John Barrymore, D.W. Griffith, and Dolores del Rio,
among others. They spoke on the radio show to prove that they could
meet the challenge of talking movies.
A transition in the roles Pickford selected came when she was in her
late 30s, no longer able to play the children, teenage spitfires, and
feisty young women so adored by her fans, and was not suited for the
glamorous and vampish heroines of early sound. In 1933, she underwent
Technicolor screen test for an animated/live action film version of
Alice in Wonderland, but
Walt Disney discarded the project when
Paramount released its own version of the book. Only one Technicolor
still of her screen test still exists. She retired from acting in
1933; her last acting film was released in 1934. She continued to
produce for others, however, including
Sleep, My Love (1948; with
Claudette Colbert) and
Love Happy (1949), with the Marx Brothers).
The film industry
Mary Pickford giving President
Herbert Hoover a ticket for a film
industry benefit for the unemployed, 1931
Pickford used her stature in the movie industry to promote a variety
of causes. Although her image depicted fragility and innocence,
Pickford proved to be a worthy businesswoman who took control of her
career in a cutthroat industry.
During World War I, she promoted the sale of Liberty Bonds, making an
intensive series of fund-raising speeches that kicked off in
Washington, D.C., where she sold bonds alongside Charlie Chaplin,
Douglas Fairbanks, Theda Bara, and Marie Dressler. Five days later she
Wall Street to an estimated 50,000 people. Though
Canadian-born, she was a powerful symbol of Americana, kissing the
American flag for cameras and auctioning one of her world-famous curls
for $15,000. In a single speech in Chicago she sold an estimated five
million dollars' worth of bonds. She was christened the U.S. Navy's
official "Little Sister"; the Army named two cannons after her and
made her an honorary colonel.
Portrait photograph of Mary Pickford, 1921
At the end of World War I, Pickford conceived of the Motion Picture
Relief Fund, an organization to help financially needy actors.
Leftover funds from her work selling Liberty Bonds were put toward its
creation, and in 1921, the Motion Picture Relief Fund (MPRF) was
officially incorporated, with
Joseph Schenck voted its first president
and Pickford its vice president. In 1932, Pickford spearheaded the
"Payroll Pledge Program", a payroll-deduction plan for studio workers
who gave one half of one percent of their earnings to the MPRF. As a
result, in 1940, the Fund was able to purchase land and build the
Motion Picture Country House and Hospital, in Woodland Hills,
An astute businesswoman, Pickford became her own producer within three
years of her start in features. According to her Foundation, "she
oversaw every aspect of the making of her films, from hiring talent
and crew to overseeing the script, the shooting, the editing, to the
final release and promotion of each project". She demanded (and
received) these powers in 1916, when she was under contract to Zukor's
Famous Players In Famous Plays (later Paramount). Zukor acquiesced to
her refusal to participate in block-booking, the widespread practice
of forcing an exhibitor to show a bad film of the studio's choosing to
also be able to show a Pickford film. In 1916, Pickford's films were
distributed, singly, through a special distribution unit called
Mary Pickford Corporation was briefly Pickford's
motion-picture production company.
Mary Pickford War Funds bungalow, 1943
In 1919, she increased her power by co-founding
United Artists (UA)
with Charlie Chaplin, D. W. Griffith, and her soon-to-be husband,
Douglas Fairbanks. Before UA's creation, Hollywood studios were
vertically integrated, not only producing films but forming chains of
theaters. Distributors (also part of the studios) arranged for company
productions to be shown in the company's movie venues. Filmmakers
relied on the studios for bookings; in return they put up with what
many considered creative interference.
United Artists broke from this tradition. It was solely a distribution
company, offering independent film producers access to its own screens
as well as the rental of temporarily unbooked cinemas owned by other
companies. Pickford and Fairbanks produced and shot their films after
1920 at the jointly owned Pickford-Fairbanks studio on Santa Monica
Boulevard. The producers who signed with UA were true independents,
producing, creating and controlling their work to an unprecedented
degree. As a co-founder, as well as the producer and star of her own
films, Pickford became the most powerful woman who has ever worked in
Hollywood. By 1930, Pickford's acting career had largely faded.
After retiring three years later, however, she continued to produce
films for United Artists. She and Chaplin remained partners in the
company for decades. Chaplin left the company in 1955, and Pickford
followed suit in 1956, selling her remaining shares for three million
Mary Pickford, 1921
Pickford was married three times. She married Owen Moore, an
Irish-born silent film actor, on January 7, 1911. It is rumored she
became pregnant by Moore in the early 1910s and had a miscarriage or
an abortion. Some accounts suggest this resulted in her later
inability to have children. The couple had numerous marital
problems, notably Moore's alcoholism, insecurity about living in the
shadow of Pickford's fame, and bouts of domestic violence. The couple
lived together on-and-off for several years.
Pickford became secretly involved in a relationship with Douglas
Fairbanks. They toured the U.S. together in 1918 to promote Liberty
Bond sales for the
World War I
World War I effort. Around this time, Pickford also
suffered from the flu during the 1918 flu pandemic. Pickford
divorced Moore on March 2, 1920, after she agreed to his $100,000
demand for a settlement. She married Fairbanks just days later on
March 28, 1920. They went to Europe for their honeymoon; fans in
London and in Paris caused riots trying to get to the famous couple.
The couple's triumphant return to Hollywood was witnessed by vast
crowds who turned out to hail them at railway stations across the
The Mark of Zorro (1920) and a series of other swashbucklers gave the
popular Fairbanks a more romantic, heroic image. Pickford continued to
epitomize the virtuous but fiery girl next door. Even at private
parties, people instinctively stood up when Pickford entered a room;
she and her husband were often referred to as "Hollywood royalty".
Their international reputations were broad. Foreign heads of state and
dignitaries who visited the
White House often asked if they could also
visit Pickfair, the couple's mansion in Beverly Hills.
Pickfair included a number of notable guests. Charlie
Chaplin, Fairbanks' best friend, was often present. Other guests
included George Bernard Shaw, Albert Einstein, Elinor Glyn, Helen
Keller, H. G. Wells, Lord Mountbatten, Fritz Kreisler, Amelia Earhart,
F. Scott Fitzgerald, Noël Coward, Max Reinhardt, Baron Nishi,
Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Austen
Chamberlain, Sir Harry Lauder, and Meher Baba, among others. The
public nature of Pickford's second marriage strained it to the
breaking point. Both she and Fairbanks had little time off from
producing and acting in their films. They were also constantly on
display as America's unofficial ambassadors to the world, leading
parades, cutting ribbons, and making speeches. When their film careers
both began to flounder at the end of the silent era, Fairbanks'
restless nature prompted him to overseas travel (something which
Pickford did not enjoy). When Fairbanks' romance with Sylvia, Lady
Ashley became public in the early 1930s, he and Pickford separated.
They divorced January 10, 1936. Fairbanks' son by his first wife,
Douglas Fairbanks Jr., claimed his father and Pickford long regretted
their inability to reconcile.
On June 24, 1937, Pickford married her third and last husband, actor
and band leader Buddy Rogers. They adopted two children: Roxanne (born
1944, adopted 1944) and Ronald Charles (born 1937, adopted 1943,
a.k.a. Ronnie Pickford Rogers). As a PBS American Experience
documentary noted, Pickford's relationship with her children was
tense. She criticized their physical imperfections, including Ronnie's
small stature and Roxanne's crooked teeth. Both children later said
their mother was too self-absorbed to provide real maternal love. In
2003, Ronnie recalled that "Things didn't work out that much, you
know. But I'll never forget her. I think that she was a good
Mary Pickford in Star Night at the Cocoanut Grove (1934), her only
film appearance in Technicolor
After retiring from the screen, Pickford became an alcoholic, as her
father had been. Her mother Charlotte died of breast cancer in March
1928. Her siblings, Lottie and Jack, both died of alcohol-related
causes. These deaths, her divorce from Fairbanks, and the end of
silent films left Pickford deeply depressed. Her relationship with her
children, Roxanne and Ronald, was turbulent at best. Pickford withdrew
and gradually became a recluse, remaining almost entirely at Pickfair
and allowing visits only from Lillian Gish, her stepson Douglas
Fairbanks, Jr., and few other people. She appeared in court in 1959,
in a matter pertaining to her co-ownership of North Carolina TV
station WSJS-TV. The court date coincided with the date of her 67th
birthday; under oath, when asked to give her age, Pickford replied:
"I'm 21, going on 20."
In the mid-1960s, Pickford often received visitors only by telephone,
speaking to them from her bedroom. Buddy Rogers often gave guests
tours of Pickfair, including views of a genuine western bar Pickford
had bought for Douglas Fairbanks, and a portrait of Pickford in the
drawing room. A print of this image now hangs in the Library of
Congress. In addition to her Oscar as best actress for Coquette
Mary Pickford received an
Academy Honorary Award in 1976 for
lifetime achievement. The Academy sent a TV crew to her house to
record her short statement of thanks – offering the public a very
rare glimpse into
Pickford had become an American citizen upon her marriage to Fairbanks
in 1920. Toward the end of her life, Pickford made arrangements
with the Department of Citizenship to regain her Canadian citizenship
because she wished to "die as a Canadian". Her request was approved
and she became a dual Canadian-American citizen.
The tomb of actress
Mary Pickford in the Garden of Memory, Forest Lawn
On May 29, 1979, Pickford died at a Santa Monica, California, hospital
of complications from a cerebral hemorrhage she had suffered the week
before. She was interred in the Garden of Memory of the Forest
Lawn Memorial Park cemetery in Glendale, California.
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Pickford's handprints and footprints at
Grauman's Chinese Theatre
Grauman's Chinese Theatre in
Pickford's star on the Walk of Fame in Toronto
Pickford Center for Motion Picture Study
Pickford Center for Motion Picture Study in Hollywood, California
Pickford was awarded a star in the category of motion pictures on the
Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6280 Hollywood Blvd.
Her handprints and footprints are displayed at Grauman's Chinese
Theatre in Hollywood, California.
Pickford Center for Motion Picture Study
Pickford Center for Motion Picture Study at 1313 Vine Street in
Hollywood, constructed by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and
Sciences, opened in 1948 as a radio and television studio facility.
Mary Pickford Theater at the
James Madison Memorial Building
James Madison Memorial Building of
Library of Congress
Library of Congress is named in her honor.
Mary Pickford Auditorium at
Claremont McKenna College
Claremont McKenna College is named in
A first-run movie theatre in Cathedral City, California, is called The
Mary Pickford Theatre. The theater is a grand one with several screens
and is built in the shape of a Spanish Cathedral, complete with bell
tower and three-story lobby. The lobby contains a historic display
with original artifacts belonging to Pickford and Buddy Rogers, her
last husband. Among them are a rare and spectacular beaded gown she
wore in the film Dorothy Vernon of Haddon Hall (1924) designed by
Mitchell Leisen, her special Oscar, and a jewelry box.[citation
The 1980 stage musical The Biograph Girl, about the silent film era,
features the character of Pickford.
In 2007, the
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences sued the
estate of the deceased Buddy Rogers' second wife, Beverly Rogers, in
order to stop the public sale of one of Pickford's Oscars.
A bust and historical plaque marks her birthplace in Toronto, now the
site of the Hospital for Sick Children. The plaque was unveiled by
her husband Buddy Rogers in 1973. The bust by artist Eino Gira was
added ten years later. Her date of birth on the plaque is April 8,
1893. This can only be assumed to be because her date of birth was
never registered – and throughout her life, beginning as a child,
she led many people to believe that she was a year younger so she
would appear to be more of an acting prodigy and continue to be cast
in younger roles, which were more plentiful in the theatre.
The family home had been demolished in 1943, and many of the bricks
delivered to Pickford in California. Proceeds from the sale of the
property were donated by Pickford to build a bungalow in East York,
Ontario, then a
Toronto suburb. The bungalow was the first prize in a
Toronto to benefit war charities, and Pickford unveiled the
home on May 26, 1943.
In 1993, a Golden Palm Star on the
Palm Springs Walk of Stars
Palm Springs Walk of Stars was
dedicated to her.
Pickford received a posthumous star on
Canada's Walk of Fame
Canada's Walk of Fame in
Toronto in 1999.
Pickford was featured on a Canadian postage stamp in 2006.
From January 2011 until July 2011, the
Toronto International Film
Festival exhibited a collection of
Mary Pickford memorabilia in the
Canadian Film Gallery of the TIFF Bell LightBox building.
In February 2011, the Spadina Museum, dedicated to the 1920s and 1930s
era in Toronto, staged performances of Sweetheart: The Mary Pickford
Story, a one-woman musical based on the life and career of
In 2013, a copy of an early Pickford film that was thought to be lost
(Their First Misunderstanding) was found by Peter Massie, a carpenter
tearing down an abandoned barn in New Hampshire. It was donated to
Keene State College
Keene State College and is currently undergoing restoration by the
Library of Congress
Library of Congress for exhibition. The film is notable as being the
first in which Pickford was credited by name.
On August 29, 2014, while presenting Behind The Scenes (1914) at
Cinecon, film historian
Jeffrey Vance announced he is working with the
Mary Pickford Foundation on what will be her official biography.
Google Doodle of April 8, 2017 commemorates Mary Pickford's 125th
Mary Pickford filmography
List of actors with Academy Award nominations
A. ^ 211 University Avenue at the time of Mary Pickford's birth was at
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^ Photoplay, Volume 18, Issues 2–6. Macfadden Publications. 1920.
^ Obituary Variety, May 30, 1979.
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^ a b "
Mary Pickford at Filmbug". Filmbug. Retrieved January 24,
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^ People & Events: Mary Pickford, Fan Culture, PBS.org; accessed
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^ a b c The Long Decline, PBS.org; accessed December 4, 2015.
^ Andre Soares. "
Mary Pickford Oscar Controversy". Alt Film
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^ Ramon, David (1997). The Dodge Brothers Hour. Clío.
^ McDonald, Paul (2000). The Star System: Hollywood's Production of
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^ a b c d "
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^ Peggy Dymond Leavey, Mary Pickford: Canada's Silent Siren, America's
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^ Kirsty Duncan (19 August 2006). Hunting the 1918 Flu: One
Scientist's Search for a Killer Virus. University of
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^ Sergei Bertensson; Paul Fryer; Anna Shoulgat (2004). In Hollywood
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mary Pickford.
Mary Pickford at the
Internet Broadway Database
Internet Broadway Database
Mary Pickford on IMDb
Mary Pickford at the TCM Movie Database
Mary Pickford at the Women Film Pioneers Project
About Mary Pickford, from the
Mary Pickford Foundation website
Mary Pickford CBC Radio interview May 25, 1959
Mary Pickford at Encyclopædia Britannica
Mary Pickford with
Charlie Chaplin and
Douglas Fairbanks in
Mary Pickford at Virtual History
Mary Pickford-Buddy Rogers correspondence, 1943-1976, held by the
Billy Rose Theatre Division, New York Public Library for the
Mary Pickford scrapbook, 1915-1917, held by the Billy Rose Theatre
Division, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts
Mary Pickford papers, Margaret Herrick Library, Academy of Motion
Picture Arts and Sciences
Academy Award for Best Actress
Janet Gaynor (1928)
Mary Pickford (1929)
Norma Shearer (1930)
Marie Dressler (1931)
Helen Hayes (1932)
Katharine Hepburn (1933)
Claudette Colbert (1934)
Bette Davis (1935)
Luise Rainer (1936)
Luise Rainer (1937)
Bette Davis (1938)
Vivien Leigh (1939)
Ginger Rogers (1940)
Joan Fontaine (1941)
Greer Garson (1942)
Jennifer Jones (1943)
Ingrid Bergman (1944)
Joan Crawford (1945)
Olivia de Havilland
Olivia de Havilland (1946)
Loretta Young (1947)
Jane Wyman (1948)
Olivia de Havilland
Olivia de Havilland (1949)
Judy Holliday (1950)
Vivien Leigh (1951)
Shirley Booth (1952)
Audrey Hepburn (1953)
Grace Kelly (1954)
Anna Magnani (1955)
Ingrid Bergman (1956)
Joanne Woodward (1957)
Susan Hayward (1958)
Simone Signoret (1959)
Elizabeth Taylor (1960)
Sophia Loren (1961)
Anne Bancroft (1962)
Patricia Neal (1963)
Julie Andrews (1964)
Julie Christie (1965)
Elizabeth Taylor (1966)
Katharine Hepburn (1967)
Katharine Hepburn /
Barbra Streisand (1968)
Maggie Smith (1969)
Glenda Jackson (1970)
Jane Fonda (1971)
Liza Minnelli (1972)
Glenda Jackson (1973)
Ellen Burstyn (1974)
Louise Fletcher (1975)
Faye Dunaway (1976)
Diane Keaton (1977)
Jane Fonda (1978)
Sally Field (1979)
Sissy Spacek (1980)
Katharine Hepburn (1981)
Meryl Streep (1982)
Shirley MacLaine (1983)
Sally Field (1984)
Geraldine Page (1985)
Marlee Matlin (1986)
Jodie Foster (1988)
Jessica Tandy (1989)
Kathy Bates (1990)
Jodie Foster (1991)
Emma Thompson (1992)
Holly Hunter (1993)
Jessica Lange (1994)
Susan Sarandon (1995)
Frances McDormand (1996)
Helen Hunt (1997)
Gwyneth Paltrow (1998)
Hilary Swank (1999)
Julia Roberts (2000)
Halle Berry (2001)
Nicole Kidman (2002)
Charlize Theron (2003)
Hilary Swank (2004)
Reese Witherspoon (2005)
Helen Mirren (2006)
Marion Cotillard (2007)
Kate Winslet (2008)
Sandra Bullock (2009)
Natalie Portman (2010)
Meryl Streep (2011)
Jennifer Lawrence (2012)
Cate Blanchett (2013)
Julianne Moore (2014)
Brie Larson (2015)
Emma Stone (2016)
Frances McDormand (2017)
Academy Honorary Award
Warner Bros. /
Charlie Chaplin (1928)
Walt Disney (1932)
Shirley Temple (1934)
D. W. Griffith
D. W. Griffith (1935)
The March of Time
The March of Time /
W. Howard Greene and
Harold Rosson (1936)
Edgar Bergen /
W. Howard Greene /
Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art Film Library /
Mack Sennett (1937)
J. Arthur Ball /
Walt Disney /
Deanna Durbin and
Mickey Rooney /
Gordon Jennings, Jan Domela, Devereaux Jennings, Irmin Roberts, Art
Smith, Farciot Edouart, Loyal Griggs, Loren L. Ryder, Harry D. Mills,
Louis Mesenkop, Walter Oberst /
Oliver T. Marsh and Allen Davey /
Harry Warner (1938)
Douglas Fairbanks /
Judy Garland /
William Cameron Menzies / Motion
Picture Relief Fund (Jean Hersholt, Ralph Morgan, Ralph Block, Conrad
Technicolor Company (1939)
Bob Hope /
Nathan Levinson (1940)
Walt Disney, William Garity, John N. A. Hawkins, and the RCA
Manufacturing Company /
Leopold Stokowski and his associates / Rey
Scott / British Ministry of Information (1941)
Charles Boyer /
Noël Coward /
George Pal (1943)
Bob Hope /
Margaret O'Brien (1944)
Republic Studio, Daniel J. Bloomberg, and the Republic Studio Sound
Walter Wanger / The House I Live In / Peggy Ann Garner
Harold Russell /
Laurence Olivier /
Ernst Lubitsch / Claude Jarman Jr.
James Baskett / Thomas Armat, William Nicholas Selig, Albert E. Smith,
George Kirke Spoor
George Kirke Spoor /
Bill and Coo / Shoeshine (1947)
Walter Wanger /
Monsieur Vincent /
Sid Grauman /
Adolph Zukor (1948)
Jean Hersholt /
Fred Astaire /
Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille / The Bicycle Thief
Louis B. Mayer
Louis B. Mayer /
George Murphy /
The Walls of Malapaga (1950)
Gene Kelly /
Merian C. Cooper
Merian C. Cooper /
Bob Hope /
Harold Lloyd / George Mitchell / Joseph
M. Schenck /
Forbidden Games (1952)
20th Century-Fox Film Corporation / Bell & Howell Company / Joseph
Breen / Pete Smith (1953)
Bausch & Lomb Optical Company /
Danny Kaye / Kemp Niver / Greta
Jon Whiteley /
Vincent Winter / Gate of Hell (1954)
Samurai I: Musashi Miyamoto (1955)
Eddie Cantor (1956)
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers / Gilbert M.
"Broncho Billy" Anderson /
Charles Brackett /
B. B. Kahane (1957)
Maurice Chevalier (1958)
Buster Keaton /
Lee de Forest
Lee de Forest (1959)
Gary Cooper /
Stan Laurel /
Hayley Mills (1960)
William L. Hendricks / Fred L. Metzler /
Jerome Robbins (1961)
William J. Tuttle
William J. Tuttle (1964)
Bob Hope (1965)
Yakima Canutt /
Y. Frank Freeman
Y. Frank Freeman (1966)
Arthur Freed (1967)
John Chambers /
Onna White (1968)
Cary Grant (1969)
Lillian Gish /
Orson Welles (1970)
Charlie Chaplin (1971)
Charles S. Boren /
Edward G. Robinson
Edward G. Robinson (1972)
Henri Langlois /
Groucho Marx (1973)
Howard Hawks /
Jean Renoir (1974)
Mary Pickford (1975)
Margaret Booth (1977)
Walter Lantz /
Laurence Olivier /
King Vidor / Museum of Modern Art
Department of Film (1978)
Hal Elias /
Alec Guinness (1979)
Henry Fonda (1980)
Barbara Stanwyck (1981)
Mickey Rooney (1982)
Hal Roach (1983)
James Stewart /
National Endowment for the Arts
National Endowment for the Arts (1984)
Paul Newman /
Alex North (1985)
Ralph Bellamy (1986)
Kodak Company /
National Film Board of Canada
National Film Board of Canada (1988)
Akira Kurosawa (1989)
Sophia Loren /
Myrna Loy (1990)
Satyajit Ray (1991)
Federico Fellini (1992)
Deborah Kerr (1993)
Michelangelo Antonioni (1994)
Kirk Douglas /
Chuck Jones (1995)
Michael Kidd (1996)
Stanley Donen (1997)
Elia Kazan (1998)
Andrzej Wajda (1999)
Jack Cardiff /
Ernest Lehman (2000)
Sidney Poitier /
Robert Redford (2001)
Peter O'Toole (2002)
Blake Edwards (2003)
Sidney Lumet (2004)
Robert Altman (2005)
Ennio Morricone (2006)
Robert F. Boyle (2007)
Lauren Bacall /
Roger Corman /
Gordon Willis (2009)
Kevin Brownlow /
Jean-Luc Godard /
Eli Wallach (2010)
James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones / Dick Smith (2011)
D. A. Pennebaker
D. A. Pennebaker /
Hal Needham /
George Stevens Jr.
George Stevens Jr. (2012)
Angela Lansbury /
Steve Martin /
Piero Tosi (2013)
Jean-Claude Carrière /
Hayao Miyazaki /
Maureen O'Hara (2014)
Spike Lee /
Gena Rowlands (2015)
Jackie Chan /
Lynn Stalmaster /
Anne V. Coates / Frederick Wiseman
Charles Burnett /
Owen Roizman /
Donald Sutherland / Agnès Varda
ISNI: 0000 0001 1881 6890
BNF: cb135375840 (data)
^ Petersen, Anne (2014). Scandals of Classic Hollywood. Pe