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Marxism
Marxism
is a method of socioeconomic analysis that frames capitalism through a paradigm of exploitation, analyzes class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation. It originates from the works of 19th century German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Marxism
Marxism
uses a methodology known as historical materialism to analyze and critique the development of capitalism and the role of class struggles in systemic economic change. According to Marxian theory, class conflict arises in capitalist societies due to contradictions between the material interests of the oppressed proletariat—a class of wage labourers employed by the bourgeoisie to produce goods and services—and the bourgeoisie—the ruling class that owns the means of production and extract their wealth through appropriation of the surplus product (profit) produced by the proletariat. This class struggle that is commonly expressed as the revolt of a society's productive forces against its relations of production, results in a period of short-term crises as the bourgeoisie struggle to manage the intensifying alienation of labor experienced by the proletariat, albeit with varying degrees of class consciousness. This crisis culminates in a proletarian revolution and eventually leads to the establishment of socialism—a socioeconomic system based on social ownership of the means of production, distribution based on one's contribution and production organized directly for use. As the productive forces continued to advance, Marx hypothesized that socialism would ultimately transform into a communist society; a classless, stateless, humane society based on common ownership and the underlying principle: "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs". Marxism
Marxism
has developed into many different branches and schools of thought, though now there is no single definitive Marxist theory.[1] Different Marxian schools place a greater emphasis on certain aspects of classical Marxism
Marxism
while rejecting or modifying other aspects. Many schools of thought have sought to combine Marxian concepts and non-Marxian concepts, which has often lead to contradictory conclusions.[2] However, lately there is movement toward the recognition that historical materialism and dialectical materialism remains the fundamental aspect of all Marxist schools of thought,[3] which should result in more agreement between different schools. Marxism
Marxism
has had a profound and influential impact on global academia and has enjoyed expansion into many fields such as archaeology, anthropology,[4] media studies,[5] political science, theater, history, sociology, art history and theory, cultural studies, education, economics, ethics, criminology, geography, literary criticism, aesthetics, film theory, critical psychology and philosophy.[6]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Overview 3 Historical materialism

3.1 Criticism of capitalism 3.2 Social classes

4 Revolution, socialism and communism 5 Classical Marxism 6 Academic Marxism 7 History

7.1 Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels 7.2 Late 20th century 7.3 21st century

8 Criticism

8.1 General criticisms 8.2 Epistemological and empirical critiques 8.3 Socialist
Socialist
critiques 8.4 Anarchist and libertarian critiques 8.5 Economic
Economic
critiques

9 See also 10 References

10.1 Footnotes 10.2 Bibliography

11 External links

Etymology[edit] The term "Marxism" was popularized by Karl Kautsky, who considered himself an "orthodox" Marxist during the dispute between the orthodox and revisionist followers of Marx.[7] Kautsky's revisionist rival Eduard Bernstein
Eduard Bernstein
also later adopted use of the term.[7] Engels did not support the use of the term "Marxism" to describe either Marx's or his views.[8] Engels claimed that the term was being abusively used as a rhetorical qualifier by those attempting to cast themselves as "real" followers of Marx while casting others in different terms, such as "Lassallians".[8] In 1882, Engels claimed that Marx had criticized self-proclaimed "Marxist" Paul Lafargue, by saying that if Lafargue's views were considered "Marxist", then "one thing is certain and that is that I am not a Marxist".[8] Overview[edit]

Karl Marx
Karl Marx
(1818–1883)

Marxism
Marxism
analyzes the material conditions and the economic activities required to fulfill human material needs to explain social phenomena within any given society. It assumes that the form of economic organization, or mode of production, influences all other social phenomena—including social relations, political institutions, legal systems, cultural systems, aesthetics, and ideologies. The economic system and these social relations form a base and superstructure. As forces of production, i.e. technology, improve, existing forms of social organization become obsolete and hinder further progress. As Karl Marx
Karl Marx
observed: "At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or—this merely expresses the same thing in legal terms—with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto. From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into their fetters. Then begins an era of social revolution".[9] These inefficiencies manifest themselves as social contradictions in society in the form of class struggle.[10] Under the capitalist mode of production, this struggle materializes between the minority the bourgeoisie who own the means of production and the vast majority of the population the proletariat who produce goods and services. Starting with the conjectural premise that social change occurs because of the struggle between different classes within society who are under contradiction against each other, a Marxist would conclude that capitalism exploits and oppresses the proletariat, therefore capitalism will inevitably lead to a proletarian revolution. Marxian economics
Marxian economics
and its proponents view capitalism as economically unsustainable and incapable of improving the living standards of the population due to its need to compensate for falling rates of profit by cutting employee's wages, social benefits and pursuing military aggression. The socialist system would succeed capitalism as humanity's mode of production through workers' revolution. According to Marxian crisis theory, socialism is not an inevitability, but an economic necessity.[11] In a socialist society, private property—in the form of the means of production—would be replaced by co-operative ownership. A socialist economy would not base production on the creation of private profits, but on the criteria of satisfying human needs—that is, production would be carried out directly for use. As Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
said: "Then the capitalist mode of appropriation in which the product enslaves first the producer, and then appropriator, is replaced by the mode of appropriation of the product that is based upon the nature of the modern means of production; upon the one hand, direct social appropriation, as means to the maintenance and extension of production on the other, direct individual appropriation, as means of subsistence and of enjoyment".[12] Historical materialism[edit] Main article: Historical materialism Further information: Marxist historiography
Marxist historiography
and Marx's theory of history See also: Historiography, Philosophy of history, People's history, Historical determinism, and Historicism

The discovery of the materialist conception of history, or rather, the consistent continuation and extension of materialism into the domain of social phenomenon, removed two chief defects of earlier historical theories. In the first place, they at best examined only the ideological motives of the historical activity of human beings, without grasping the objective laws governing the development of the system of social relations ... in the second place, the earlier theories did not cover the activities of the masses of the population, whereas historical materialism made it possible for the first time to study with the accuracy of the natural sciences the social conditions of the life of the masses and the changes in these conditions.

— Russian Marxist theoretician and revolutionary Vladimir Lenin, 1913[13]

Society
Society
does not consist of individuals, but expresses the sum of interrelations, the relations within which these individuals stand. — Karl Marx, Grundrisse, 1858[14]

The materialist theory of history[15] analyses the underlying causes of societal development and change from the perspective of the collective ways that humans make their living. All constituent features of a society (social classes, political pyramid, ideologies) are assumed to stem from economic activity, an idea often portrayed with the metaphor of the base and superstructure. The base and superstructure metaphor describes the totality of social relations by which humans produce and re-produce their social existence. According to Marx: "The sum total of the forces of production accessible to men determines the condition of society" and forms a society's economic base. The base includes the material forces of production, that is the labour and material means of production and relations of production, i.e., the social and political arrangements that regulate production and distribution. From this base rises a superstructure of legal and political "forms of social consciousness" of political and legal institutions that derive from the economic base that conditions the superstructure and a society's dominant ideology. Conflicts between the development of material productive forces and the relations of production provokes social revolutions and thus the resultant changes to the economic base will lead to the transformation of the superstructure.[16] This relationship is reflexive, as at first the base gives rise to the superstructure and remains the foundation of a form of social organization, hence that formed social organization can act again upon both parts of the base and superstructure so that the relationship is not static but a dialectic, expressed and driven by conflicts and contradictions. As Engels clarified: "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary reconstitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes".[17] Marx considered class conflicts as the driving force of human history since these recurring conflicts have manifested themselves as distinct transitional stages of development in Western Europe. Accordingly, Marx designated human history as encompassing four stages of development in relations of production:[18]

Primitive communism: as in co-operative tribal societies. Slave
Slave
society: a development of tribal to city-state; aristocracy is born. Feudalism: aristocrats are the ruling class; merchants evolve into capitalists. Capitalism: capitalists are the ruling class, who create and employ the proletariat.

Criticism of capitalism[edit] Further information: Opposition to capitalism
Opposition to capitalism
and Criticism of capitalism According to the Marxist theoretician and revolutionary Vladimir Lenin, "the principal content of Marxism" was "Marx's economic doctrine".[19] Marx believed that the capitalist bourgeois and their economists were promoting what he saw as the lie that "the interests of the capitalist and of the worker are ... one and the same", therefore he believed that they did this by purporting the concept that "the fastest possible growth of productive capital" was best not only for the wealthy capitalists but also for the workers because it provided them with employment.[20] Exploitation is a matter of surplus labour—the amount of labour one performs beyond what one receives in goods. Exploitation has been a socioeconomic feature of every class society and is one of the principal features distinguishing the social classes. The power of one social class to control the means of production enables its exploitation of the other classes. In capitalism, the labour theory of value is the operative concern; the value of a commodity equals the socially necessary labour time required to produce it. Under that condition, surplus value (the difference between the value produced and the value received by a labourer) is synonymous with the term "surplus labour", thus capitalist exploitation is realised as deriving surplus value from the worker. In pre-capitalist economies, exploitation of the worker was achieved via physical coercion. In the capitalist mode of production, that result is more subtly achieved and because workers do not own the means of production, they must voluntarily enter into an exploitive work relationship with a capitalist in order to earn the necessities of life. The worker's entry into such employment is voluntary in that they choose which capitalist to work for. However, the worker must work or starve, thus exploitation is inevitable and the "voluntary" nature of a worker participating in a capitalist society is illusory. Alienation is the estrangement of people from their humanity (German: Gattungswesen, "species-essence", "species-being"), which is a systematic result of capitalism. Under capitalism, the fruits of production belong to the employers, who expropriate the surplus created by others and so generate alienated labourers.[21] In Marx's view, alienation is an objective characterization of the worker's situation in capitalism—his or her self-awareness of this condition is not prerequisite. Social classes[edit] Main article: Marxian class theory See also: Social class, Class conflict, Classless society, and Three-component theory of stratification Marx distinguishes social classes on the basis of two criteria: ownership of means of production and control over the labour power of others. Following this criterion of class based on property relations, Marx identified the social stratification of the capitalist mode of production with the following social groups:

Proletariat: "[...] the class of modern wage labourers who, having no means of production of their own, are reduced to selling their labour power in order to live."[22] The capitalist mode of production establishes the conditions enabling the bourgeoisie to exploit the proletariat because the workers' labour generates a surplus value greater than the workers' wages. Bourgeoisie: those who "own the means of production" and buy labour power from the proletariat, thus exploiting the proletariat. They subdivide as bourgeoisie and the petite bourgeoisie.

Petite bourgeoisie
Petite bourgeoisie
are those who work and can afford to buy little labour power i.e. small business owners, peasant landlords, trade workers and the like. Marxism
Marxism
predicts that the continual reinvention of the means of production eventually would destroy the petite bourgeoisie, degrading them from the middle class to the proletariat.

Lumpenproletariat: the outcasts of society such as the criminals, vagabonds, beggars, or prostitutes without any political or class consciousness. Having no interest in international or national economics affairs, Marx claimed that this specific sub-division of the proletariat would play no part in the eventual social revolution. Landlords: a historically important social class who retain some wealth and power. Peasantry
Peasantry
and farmers: a scattered class incapable of organizing and effecting socio-economic change, most of whom would enter the proletariat while some would become landlords.

Class consciousness
Class consciousness
denotes the awareness—of itself and the social world—that a social class possesses and its capacity to rationally act in their best interests, hence class consciousness is required before they can effect a successful revolution and thus the dictatorship of the proletariat. Without defining ideology,[23] Marx used the term to describe the production of images of social reality. According to Engels, "ideology is a process accomplished by the so-called thinker consciously, it is true, but with a false consciousness. The real motive forces impelling him remain unknown to him; otherwise it simply would not be an ideological process. Hence he imagines false or seeming motive forces".[24] Because the ruling class controls the society's means of production, the superstructure of society (the ruling social ideas), are determined by the best interests of the ruling class. In The German Ideology, he says "[t]he ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas, i.e., the class which is the ruling material force of society, is, at the same time, its ruling intellectual force."[25] The term "political economy" initially referred to the study of the material conditions of economic production in the capitalist system. In Marxism, political economy is the study of the means of production, specifically of capital and how that manifests as economic activity.

Marxism
Marxism
taught me what society was. I was like a blindfolded man in a forest, who doesn't even know where north or south is. If you don't eventually come to truly understand the history of the class struggle, or at least have a clear idea that society is divided between the rich and the poor, and that some people subjugate and exploit other people, you're lost in a forest, not knowing anything.

— Cuban revolutionary and Marxist– Leninist
Leninist
politician Fidel Castro on discovering Marxism, 2009[26]

This new way of thinking was invented because socialists believed that common ownership of the "means of production" (that is the industries, the land, the wealth of nature, the trade apparatus, the wealth of the society, etc.) will abolish the exploitative working conditions experienced under capitalism. Through working class revolution, the state (which Marxists see as a weapon for the subjugation of one class by another) is seized and used to suppress the hitherto ruling class of capitalists and by implementing a commonly-owned, democratically controlled workplace create the society of communism, which Marxists see as true democracy. An economy based on co-operation on human need and social betterment, rather than competition for profit of many independently acting profit seekers, would also be the end of class society, which Marx saw as the fundamental division of all hitherto existing history. Marx saw work, the effort by humans to transform the environment for their needs, as a fundamental feature of human kind. Capitalism, in which the product of the worker's labor is taken from them and sold at market rather than being part of the worker's life, is therefore alienating to the worker. Additionally, the worker is compelled by various means (some nicer than others) to work harder, faster and for longer hours. While this is happening, the employer is constantly trying to save on labor costs: pay the workers less, figure out how to use cheaper equipment, etc. This allows the employer to extract the largest mount of work (and therefore potential wealth) from their workers. The fundamental nature of capitalist society is no different from that of slave society: one small group of society exploiting the larger group. Through common ownership of the means of production, the profit motive is eliminated and the motive of furthering human flourishing is introduced. Because the surplus produced by the workers is property of the society as whole, there are no classes of producers and appropriators. Additionally, the state, which has its origins in the bands of retainers hired by the first ruling classes to protect their economic privilege, will disappear as its conditions of existence have disappeared.[27] [28][29] Revolution, socialism and communism[edit] According to orthodox Marxist theory, the overthrow of capitalism by a socialist revolution in contemporary society is inevitable. While the inevitability of an eventual socialist revolution is a controversial debate among many different Marxist schools of thought, all Marxists believe socialism is a necessity, if not inevitable. Marxists believe that a socialist society is far better for the majority of the populace than its capitalist counterpart. Prior to the Russian revolution of 1917, Lenin wrote: "The socialization of production is bound to lead to the conversion of the means of production into the property of society ... This conversion will directly result in an immense increase in productivity of labour, a reduction of working hours, and the replacement of the remnants, the ruins of small-scale, primitive, disunited production by collective and improved labour".[30] The failure of the 1905 revolution and the failure of socialist movements to resist the outbreak of World War One led to renewed theoretical effort and valuable contributions from Lenin and Rosa Luxemburg
Rosa Luxemburg
towards an appreciation of Marx's crisis theory and efforts to formulate a theory of imperialism.[31] Classical Marxism[edit] Main article: Classical Marxism The term "classical Marxism" denotes the collection of socio-eco-political theories expounded by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels. "Marxism", as Ernest Mandel
Ernest Mandel
remarked, "is always open, always critical, always self-critical". As such, classical Marxism distinguishes between "Marxism" as broadly perceived and "what Marx believed", thus in 1883 Marx wrote to the French labour leader Jules Guesde and to Marx's son-in-law Paul Lafargue—both of whom claimed to represent Marxist principles—accusing them of "revolutionary phrase-mongering" and of denying the value of reformist struggle. From Marx's letter derives the paraphrase: "If that is Marxism, then I am not a Marxist".[32][33] American Marxist scholar Hal Draper responded to this comment by saying: "There are few thinkers in modern history whose thought has been so badly misrepresented, by Marxists and anti-Marxists alike".[34] On the other hand, the book Communism: The Great Misunderstanding argues that the source of such misrepresentations lies in ignoring the philosophy of Marxism, which is dialectical materialism. In large, this was due to the fact that The German Ideology, in which Marx and Engels developed this philosophy, did not find a publisher for almost one hundred years. Academic Marxism[edit] See also: Marxist aesthetics, Marxist archaeology, Marxist criminology, Marxist ethics, Marxian economics, Marxist film theory, Marxist geography, Marxist historiography, Marxist literary criticism, Marxist philosophy, and Marxist sociology

One of the 20th century's most prominent Marxist academics, the Australian archaeologist V. Gordon Childe

Marxism
Marxism
has been adopted by a large number of academics and other scholars working in various disciplines. The theoretical development of Marxist archaeology
Marxist archaeology
was first developed in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1929, when a young archaeologist named Vladislav I. Ravdonikas (1894–1976) published a report entitled "For a Soviet history of material culture". Within this work, the very discipline of archaeology as it then stood was criticised as being inherently bourgeois, therefore anti-socialist and so, as a part of the academic reforms instituted in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
under the administration of Premier Joseph Stalin, a great emphasis was placed on the adoption of Marxist archaeology
Marxist archaeology
throughout the country.[35] These theoretical developments were subsequently adopted by archaeologists working in capitalist states outside of the Leninist bloc, most notably by the Australian academic V. Gordon Childe (1892–1957), who used Marxist theory in his understandings of the development of human society.[36] Marxist sociology
Marxist sociology
is the study of sociology from a Marxist perspective.[37] Marxist sociology
Marxist sociology
is "a form of conflict theory associated with ... Marxism's objective of developing a positive (empirical) science of capitalist society as part of the mobilization of a revolutionary working class".[38] The American Sociological Association has a section dedicated to the issues of Marxist sociology that is "interested in examining how insights from Marxist methodology and Marxist analysis can help explain the complex dynamics of modern society".[39] Influenced by the thought of Karl Marx, Marxist sociology emerged during the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. As well as Marx, Max Weber
Max Weber
and Émile Durkheim
Émile Durkheim
are considered seminal influences in early sociology. The first Marxist school of sociology was known as Austro-Marxism, of which Carl Grünberg
Carl Grünberg
and Antonio Labriola
Antonio Labriola
were among its most notable members. During the 1940s, the Western Marxist
Western Marxist
school became accepted within Western academia, subsequently fracturing into several different perspectives such as the Frankfurt School
Frankfurt School
or critical theory. Due to its former state-supported position, there has been a backlash against Marxist thought in post-communist states (see sociology in Poland) but it remains dominant in the sociological research sanctioned and supported by those communist states that remain (see sociology in China). Marxian economics
Marxian economics
refers to a school of economic thought tracing its foundations to the critique of classical political economy first expounded upon by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels.[40] Marxian economics concerns itself variously with the analysis of crisis in capitalism, the role and distribution of the surplus product and surplus value in various types of economic systems, the nature and origin of economic value, the impact of class and class struggle on economic and political processes, and the process of economic evolution. Although the Marxian school is considered heterodox, ideas that have come out of Marxian economics
Marxian economics
have contributed to mainstream understanding of the global economy; certain concepts of Marxian economics, especially those related to capital accumulation and the business cycle, such as creative destruction, have been fitted for use in capitalist systems. Marxist historiography
Marxist historiography
is a school of historiography influenced by marxism. The chief tenets of Marxist historiography
Marxist historiography
are the centrality of social class and economic constraints in determining historical outcomes. Marxist historiography
Marxist historiography
has made contributions to the history of the working class, oppressed nationalities, and the methodology of history from below. Friedrich Engels' most important historical contribution was Der deutsche Bauernkrieg (The German Peasants' War), which analysed social warfare in early Protestant Germany in terms of emerging capitalist classes. The German Peasants' War
German Peasants' War
indicate the Marxist interest in history from below and class analysis, and attempts a dialectical analysis. Engels' short treatise The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 (1870s) was salient in creating the socialist impetus in British politics. Marx's most important works on social and political history include The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon, The Communist Manifesto, The German Ideology, and those chapters of Das Kapital
Das Kapital
dealing with the historical emergence of capitalists and proletarians from pre-industrial English society. Marxist historiography
Marxist historiography
suffered in the Soviet Union, as the government requested overdetermined historical writing. Notable histories include the Short Course History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Bolshevik), published in the 1930s to justify the nature of Bolshevik
Bolshevik
party life under Joseph Stalin. A circle of historians inside the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) formed in 1946. While some members of the group (most notably Christopher Hill and E. P. Thompson) left the CPGB after the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, the common points of British Marxist historiography continued in their works. Thompson's The Making of the English Working Class is one of the works commonly associated with this group. Eric Hobsbawm's Bandits is another example of this group's work. C. L. R. James
C. L. R. James
was also a great pioneer of the 'history from below' approach. Living in Britain when he wrote his most notable work The Black Jacobins
The Black Jacobins
(1938), he was an anti-Stalinist Marxist and so outside of the CPGB. In India, B. N. Datta and D. D. Kosambi are considered the founding fathers of Marxist historiography. Today, the senior-most scholars of Marxist historiography
Marxist historiography
are R. S. Sharma, Irfan Habib, Romila Thapar, D. N. Jha
D. N. Jha
and K. N. Panikkar, most of whom are now over 75 years old.[41] Marxist literary criticism
Marxist literary criticism
is a loose term describing literary criticism based on socialist and dialectic theories. Marxist criticism views literary works as reflections of the social institutions from which they originate. According to Marxists, even literature itself is a social institution and has a specific ideological function, based on the background and ideology of the author. Notable marxist literary critics include Mikhail Bakhtin, Walter Benjamin, Terry Eagleton
Terry Eagleton
and Fredric Jameson. Marxist aesthetics
Marxist aesthetics
is a theory of aesthetics based on, or derived from, the theories of Karl Marx. It involves a dialectical and materialist, or dialectical materialist, approach to the application of Marxism
Marxism
to the cultural sphere, specifically areas related to taste such as art, beauty, etc. Marxists believe that economic and social conditions, and especially the class relations that derive from them, affect every aspect of an individual's life, from religious beliefs to legal systems to cultural frameworks. Some notable Marxist aestheticians include Anatoly Lunacharsky, Mikhail Lifshitz, William Morris, Theodor W. Adorno, Bertolt Brecht, Herbert Marcuse, Walter Benjamin, Antonio Gramsci, Georg Lukács, Louis Althusser, Jacques Rancière, Maurice Merleau-Ponty
Maurice Merleau-Ponty
and Raymond Williams. History[edit] Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels[edit] Main articles: Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels

Friedrich Engels

Karl Marx
Karl Marx
(5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, political economist and socialist revolutionary who addressed the matters of alienation and exploitation of the working class, the capitalist mode of production and historical materialism. He is famous for analysing history in terms of class struggle, summarised in the initial line introducing The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto
(1848): "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles".[42] Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
(28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German political philosopher who together with Marx co-developed communist theory. Marx and Engels first met in September 1844. Discovering that they had similar views of philosophy and socialism, they collaborated and wrote works such as Die heilige Familie (The Holy Family). After Marx was deported from France in January 1845, they moved to Belgium, which then permitted greater freedom of expression than other European countries. In January 1846, they returned to Brussels to establish the Communist Correspondence Committee. In 1847, they began writing The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto
(1848), based on Engels' The Principles of Communism. Six weeks later, they published the 12,000-word pamphlet in February 1848. In March, Belgium expelled them and they moved to Cologne, where they published the Neue Rheinische Zeitung, a politically radical newspaper. By 1849, they had to leave Cologne
Cologne
for London. The Prussian authorities pressured the British government to expel Marx and Engels, but Prime Minister Lord John Russell refused. After Marx's death in 1883, Engels became the editor and translator of Marx's writings. With his Origins of the Family, Private Property, and the State (1884) – analysing monogamous marriage as guaranteeing male social domination of women, a concept analogous, in communist theory, to the capitalist class's economic domination of the working class—Engels made intellectually significant contributions to feminist theory and Marxist feminism. Late 20th century[edit] In 1959, the Cuban Revolution
Revolution
led to the victory of Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
and his July 26 Movement. Although the revolution was not explicitly socialist, upon victory Castro ascended to the position of Prime Minister and adopted the Leninist
Leninist
model of socialist development, forging an alliance with the Soviet Union.[43] One of the leaders of the revolution, the Argentine Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara (1928–1967), subsequently went on to aid revolutionary socialist movements in Congo-Kinshasa and Bolivia, eventually being killed by the Bolivian government, possibly on the orders of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), though the CIA agent sent to search for Guevara, Felix Rodriguez, expressed a desire to keep him alive as a possible bargaining tool with the Cuban government. He would posthumously go on to become an internationally recognised icon. In the People's Republic of China, the Maoist
Maoist
government undertook the Cultural Revolution
Revolution
from 1966 through to 1976 to ameliorate capitalist elements of Chinese society and achieve socialism. However, upon Mao Zedong's death, his rivals seized political power and under the Premiership of Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978–1992), many of Mao's Cultural Revolution
Revolution
era policies were revised or abandoned and much of the state sector privatised. The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the collapse of most of those socialist states that had professed a Marxist– Leninist
Leninist
ideology. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the emergence of the New Right and neoliberal capitalism as the dominant ideological trends in western politics—championed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
and U.K. Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher—led the west to take a more aggressive stand against the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and its Leninist
Leninist
allies. Meanwhile, in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
the reformist Mikhael Gorbachev
Mikhael Gorbachev
became Premier in March 1985 and sought to abandon Leninist
Leninist
models of development towards social democracy. Ultimately, Gorbachev's reforms, coupled with rising levels of popular ethnic nationalism in the Soviet Union, led to the state's dissolution in late 1991 into a series of constituent nations, all of which abandoned Marxist– Leninist
Leninist
models for socialism, with most converting to capitalist economies. 21st century[edit] At the turn of the 21st century, China, Cuba, Laos, North Korea and Vietnam remained the only officially Marxist– Leninist
Leninist
states remaining, although a Maoist
Maoist
government led by Prachanda
Prachanda
was elected into power in Nepal in 2008 following a long guerrilla struggle. The early 21st century also saw the election of socialist governments in several Latin American nations, in what has come to be known as the "pink tide". Dominated by the Venezuelan government of Hugo Chávez, this trend also saw the election of Evo Morales
Evo Morales
in Bolivia, Rafael Correa in Ecuador and Daniel Ortega
Daniel Ortega
in Nicaragua. Forging political and economic alliances through international organisations like the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas, these socialist governments allied themselves with Marxist– Leninist
Leninist
Cuba and although none of them espoused a Leninist
Leninist
path directly, most admitted to being significantly influenced by Marxist theory. For Italian Marxist Gianni Vattimo in his 2011 book Hermeneutic Communism, "this new weak communism differs substantially from its previous Soviet (and current Chinese) realization, because the South American countries follow democratic electoral procedures and also manage to decentralize the state bureaucratic system through the Bolivarian missions. In sum, if weakened communism is felt as a specter in the West, it is not only because of media distortions but also for the alternative it represents through the same democratic procedures that the West constantly professes to cherish but is hesitant to apply".[44] Criticism[edit] Main article: Criticisms of Marxism See also: Criticisms of socialism
Criticisms of socialism
and Criticisms of communist party rule Criticisms of Marxism
Criticisms of Marxism
have come from various political ideologies and academic disciplines. These include general criticisms about lack of internal consistency, criticisms related to historical materialism, that it is a type of historical determinism, the necessity of suppression of individual rights, issues with the implementation of communism and economic issues such as the distortion or absence of price signals and reduced incentives. In addition, empirical and epistemological problems are frequently identified.[45][46][47] Some Marxists have criticised the academic institutionalisation of Marxism
Marxism
for being too shallow and detached from political action. For instance, Zimbabwean Trotskyist
Trotskyist
Alex Callinicos, himself a professional academic, stated: "Its practitioners remind one of Narcissus, who in the Greek legend fell in love with his own reflection ... Sometimes it is necessary to devote time to clarifying and developing the concepts that we use, but indeed for Western Marxists this has become an end in itself. The result is a body of writings incomprehensible to all but a tiny minority of highly qualified scholars".[48] Additionally, there are intellectual critiques of Marxism
Marxism
that contest certain assumptions prevalent in Marx's thought and Marxism
Marxism
after him, without exactly rejecting Marxist politics.[49] Other contemporary supporters of Marxism
Marxism
argue that many aspects of Marxist thought are viable, but that the corpus is incomplete or outdated in regards to certain aspects of economic, political or social theory. They may therefore combine some Marxist concepts with the ideas of other theorists such as Max Weber—the Frankfurt School
Frankfurt School
is one example.[50][51] General criticisms[edit] Philosopher and historian of ideas Leszek Kołakowski
Leszek Kołakowski
criticizes the laws of dialectics as fundamentally erroneous, stating that some are "truisms with no specific Marxist content", others "philosophical dogmas that cannot be proved by scientific means" and some just "nonsense". He believes that some Marxist laws can be interpreted differently, but that these interpretations still in general fall into one of the two categories of error.[52] Okishio's theorem
Okishio's theorem
shows that if capitalists use cost-cutting techniques and real wages do not increase, the rate of profit must rise, which casts doubt on Marx's view that the rate of profit would tend to fall.[53] The allegations of inconsistency have been a large part of Marxian economics and the debates around it since the 1970s.[54] Andrew Kliman argues that this undermines Marx's critiques and the correction of the alleged inconsistencies, because internally inconsistent theories cannot be right by definition.[55] Epistemological and empirical critiques[edit] Marx's predictions have been criticized because they have allegedly failed, with some pointing towards the GDP per capita increasing generally in capitalist economies compared to less market oriented economics, the capitalist economies not suffering worsening economic crises leading to the overthrow of the capitalist system and communist revolutions not occurring in the most advanced capitalist nations, but instead in undeveloped regions.[56][57] In his books The Poverty of Historicism
Historicism
and Conjectures and Refutations, philosopher of science Karl Popper, criticized the explanatory power and validity of historical materialism.[58] Popper believed that Marxism
Marxism
had been initially scientific, in that Marx had postulated a genuinely predictive theory. When these predictions were not in fact borne out, Popper argues that the theory avoided falsification by the addition of ad hoc hypotheses that made it compatible with the facts. Because of this, Popper asserted, a theory that was initially genuinely scientific degenerated into pseudoscientific dogma.[59] Socialist
Socialist
critiques[edit] Democratic socialists and social democrats reject the idea that socialism can be accomplished only through extra-legal class conflict and a proletarian revolution. The relationship between Marx and other socialist thinkers and organizations—rooted in Marxism's "scientific" and anti-utopian socialism, among other factors—has divided Marxists from other socialists since Marx's life. After Marx's death and with the emergence of Marxism, there have also been dissensions within Marxism
Marxism
itself—a notable example is the splitting of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party
Russian Social Democratic Labour Party
into Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
and Mensheviks. Orthodox Marxists became opposed to a less dogmatic, more innovative, or even revisionist Marxism. Anarchist and libertarian critiques[edit] Main articles: Libertarian socialism
Libertarian socialism
and Libertarian Marxism Anarchism
Anarchism
has had a strained relationship with Marxism
Marxism
since Marx's life. Anarchists and many non-Marxist libertarian socialists reject the need for a transitory state phase, claiming that socialism can only be established through decentralized, non-coercive organization. Anarchist Mikhail Bakunin
Mikhail Bakunin
criticized Marx for his authoritarian bent.[60] The phrases "barracks socialism" or "barracks communism" became a shorthand for this critique, evoking the image of citizens' lives being as regimented as the lives of conscripts in a barracks.[61] Noam Chomsky
Noam Chomsky
is critical of Marxism's dogmatic strains and the idea of Marxism
Marxism
itself, but still appreciates Marx's contributions to political thought. Unlike some anarchists, Chomsky does not consider Bolshevism " Marxism
Marxism
in practice", but he does recognize that Marx was a complicated figure who had conflicting ideas, while he also acknowledges the latent authoritarianism in Marx he also points to the libertarian strains that developed into the council communism of Rosa Luxemburg
Rosa Luxemburg
and Anton Pannekoek. However, his commitment to libertarian socialism has led him to characterize himself as an anarchist with radical Marxist leanings (see political positions of Noam Chomsky). Libertarian Marxism
Libertarian Marxism
refers to a broad scope of economic and political philosophies that emphasize the anti-authoritarian aspects of Marxism. Early currents of libertarian Marxism, known as left communism, emerged in opposition to Marxism–Leninism[62] and its derivatives such as Stalinism, Ceaușism
Ceaușism
and Maoism. Libertarian Marxism
Libertarian Marxism
is also often critical of reformist positions, such as those held by social democrats. Libertarian Marxist currents often draw from Marx and Engels' later works, specifically the Grundrisse
Grundrisse
and The Civil War in France,[63] emphasizing the Marxist belief in the ability of the working class to forge its own destiny without the need for a revolutionary party or state to mediate or aid its liberation.[64] Along with anarchism, libertarian Marxism
Marxism
is one of the main currents of libertarian socialism.[65] Economic
Economic
critiques[edit] Other critiques come from an economic standpoint. Vladimir Karpovich Dmitriev writing in 1898,[66] Ladislaus von Bortkiewicz writing in 1906–1907[67] and subsequent critics have alleged that Marx's value theory and law of the tendency of the rate of profit to fall are internally inconsistent. In other words, the critics allege that Marx drew conclusions that actually do not follow from his theoretical premises. Once these alleged errors are corrected, his conclusion that aggregate price and profit are determined by and equal to aggregate value and surplus value no longer holds true. This result calls into question his theory that the exploitation of workers is the sole source of profit.[68] Both Marxism
Marxism
and socialism have received considerable critical analysis from multiple generations of Austrian economists in terms of scientific methodology, economic theory and political implications.[69][70] During the marginal revolution, subjective value theory was rediscovered by Carl Menger, a development that fundamentally undermined the British cost theories of value. The restoration of subjectivism and praxeological methodology previously used by classical economists including Richard Cantillon, Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot, Jean-Baptiste Say
Jean-Baptiste Say
and Frédéric Bastiat led Menger to criticise historicist methodology in general. Second-generation Austrian economist Eugen Böhm von Bawerk
Eugen Böhm von Bawerk
used praxeological and subjectivist methodology to attack the law of value fundamentally. Non-Marxist economists have regarded his criticism as definitive, with Gottfried Haberler arguing that Böhm-Bawerk's critique of Marx's economics was so thorough and devastating that as of the 1960s no Marxian scholar had conclusively refuted it.[71] Third-generation Austrian Ludwig von Mises
Ludwig von Mises
rekindled debate about the economic calculation problem by identifying that without price signals in capital goods, all other aspects of the market economy are irrational. This led him to declare that "rational economic activity is impossible in a socialist commonwealth".[72] See also[edit]

Analytical Marxism Austromarxism Democracy
Democracy
in Marxism Freudo-Marxism Hegelian Marxism Instrumental Marxism Karl Marx
Karl Marx
House Karl Marx
Karl Marx
in film Karl Marx's Theory of History Legal Marxism Libertarian Marxism Living Marxism Marxian Class Theory Marxism
Marxism
and religion Marxism
Marxism
and Freedom Marxism
Marxism
and the U.S.A. Marxism
Marxism
Today Marxist film theory Marxist hip hop Marxist international relations theory Marxism–Leninism The Marxism
Marxism
of Che Guevara Marxist Workers' League (US) Marxists Internet Archive Marx Memorial Library Marx's notebooks on technology Marx's theory of human nature Neo-Marxism Open Marxism Post-Marxism Pre-Marx socialists Reification (Marxism) Rethinking Marxism Revolutionary
Revolutionary
Marxist League Specters of Marx

References[edit] Footnotes[edit]

^ Wolff and Resnick, Richard and Stephen (August 1987). Economics: Marxian versus Neoclassical. The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 130. ISBN 0-8018-3480-5. The German Marxists extended the theory to groups and issues Marx had barely touched. Marxian analyses of the legal system, of the social role of women, of foreign trade, of international rivalries among capitalist nations, and the role of parliamentary democracy in the transition to socialism drew animated debates ... Marxian theory (singular) gave way to Marxian theories (plural).  ^ O'Hara, Phillip (September 2003). Encyclopedia of Political Economy, Volume 2. Routledge. p. 107. ISBN 0-415-24187-1. Marxist political economists differ over their definitions of capitalism, socialism and communism. These differences are so fundamental, the arguments among differently persuaded Marxist political economists have sometimes been as intense as their oppositions to political economies that celebrate capitalism.  ^ Ermak, Gennady (2016). Communism: The Great Misunderstanding. ISBN 1533082898.  ^ Bridget O'Laughlin (1975) Marxist Approaches in Anthropology
Anthropology
Annual Review of Anthropology
Anthropology
Vol. 4: pp. 341–70 (October 1975) doi:10.1146/annurev.an.04.100175.002013. William Roseberry (1997) Marx and Anthropology
Anthropology
Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 26: pp. 25–46 (October 1997) doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.26.1.25 ^ S. L. Becker (1984) "Marxist Approaches to Media Studies: The British Experience", Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 1(1): pp. 66–80. ^ See Manuel Alvarado, Robin Gutch, and Tana Wollen (1987) Learning the Media: Introduction to Media Teaching, Palgrave Macmillan. ^ a b Georges Haupt, Peter Fawcett, Eric Hobsbawm. Aspects of International Socialism, 1871–1914: Essays by Georges Haupt. Paperback Edition. Cambridge, England, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010. pp. 18–19. ^ a b c Georges Haupt, Peter Fawcett, Eric Hobsbawm. Aspects of International Socialism, 1871–1914: Essays by Georges Haupt. Paperback Edition. Cambridge, England, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010. pp. 12. ^ A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy
A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy
(1859). Introduction. ^ Comparing Economic
Economic
Systems in the Twenty-First Century (2003) by Gregory and Stuart. p. 62. Marx's Theory of Change. ISBN 0-618-26181-8. ^ Free will, non-predestination and non-determinism are emphasized in Marx's famous quote "Men make their own history". The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (1852). ^ Socialism, Utopian and Scientific (1882). Chapter three. ^ Lenin 1967 (1913). p. 15. ^ Grundrisse: Foundations of the Critique of Political Economy, by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
& Martin Nicolaus, Penguin Classics, 1993, ISBN 0-14-044575-7, p. 265 ^ Evans, p. 53; Marx's account of the theory is the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (1859). [1]. Another exposition of the theory is in The German Ideology. It, too, is available online from marxists.org. ^ See A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy
A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy
(1859), Preface, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1977, with some notes by R. Rojas and Engels: Anti-Dühring
Anti-Dühring
(1877), Introduction General ^ The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto
(1847). Chapter one. ^ Marx does not claim to have produced a master-key to history as historical materialism is not "an historico-philosophic theory of the marche generale, imposed by fate upon every people, whatever the historic circumstances in which it finds itself". Letter to editor of the Russian newspaper paper Otetchestvennye Zapiskym (1877). He explains that his ideas are based upon a concrete study of the actual conditions in Europe. ^ Lenin 1967 (1913). p. 7. ^ Marx 1849. ^ "Alienation" entry, A Dictionary of Sociology ^ Engels, Friedrich (1888). Manifesto of the Communist Party. London. pp. Footnote. Retrieved 15 March 2015.  ^ Joseph McCarney: Ideology and False Consciousness, April 2005 ^ Engels: Letter to Franz Mehring, (London 14 July 1893), Donna Torr, translator, in Marx and Engels Correspondence, International Publishers, 1968. ^ " Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels, The German Ideology".  ^ Castro and Ramonet 2009. p. 100. ^ Frederick Engels. "Origins of the Family- Chapter IX". Marxists.org. Retrieved 26 December 2012.  ^ Jianmin Zhao; Bruce J. Dickson (2001). Remaking the Chinese State: Strategies, Society, and Security. Taylor & Francis Group. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-415-25583-7. Retrieved 26 December 2012.  ^ "Withering Away of the State." In The Encyclopedia of Political Science, edited by George Thomas Kurian. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2011. http://library.cqpress.com/teps/encyps_1775.1. ^ Lenin 1967 (1913). p. 35–36. ^ Samezo Kuruma (September 1929). "An Introduction to the Theory of Crisis." At Marxists.org, trans. Michael Schauerte. Originally from the Journal of the Ohara Institute for Social Research, vol. 4, no. 1. ^ "Accusing Guesde and Lafargue of 'revolutionary phrase-mongering' and of denying the value of reformist struggles, Marx made his famous remark that, if their politics represented Marxism, 'ce qu'il y a de certain c'est que moi, je ne suis pas Marxiste' ('what is certain is that I myself am not a Marxist')". See "Programme of the French Worker's Party". ^ Hall, Stuart; Dave Morely; Kuan-Hsing Chen (1996). Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies. London: Routledge. p. 418. ISBN 978-0-415-08803-9. Retrieved 4 March 2013. I have no hesitation in saying that this represents a gigantic crudification and simplification of Marx's work – the kind of simplification and reductionism which once led him, in despair, to say "if that is marxism, then I am not a marxist"  ^ Not found in search function at Draper Arkiv. ^ Trigger 2007. pp. 326–40. ^ Green 1981. p. 79. ^ Allan G. Johnson, The Blackwell dictionary of sociology: a user's guide to sociological language, Wiley-Blackwell, 2000, ISBN 0-631-21681-2, p. 183-84 (Google Books). ^ "Marxist Sociology", Encyclopedia of Sociology, Macmillan Reference, 2006. ^ About the Section on Marxist Sociology
Sociology
Archived 2009-01-09 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Wolff and Resnick, Richard and Stephen (August 1987). Economics: Marxian versus Neoclassical. The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 130. ISBN 0801834805. Marxian theory (singular) gave way to Marxian theories (plural).  ^ Bottomore, T. B. 1983. A Dictionary of Marxist thought. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. ^ The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto
(1847). Chapter one. ^ See Coltman 2003 and Bourne 1986. ^ Gianni Vattimo and Santiago Zabala. Hermeneutic Communism: From Heidegger to Marx Columbia University Press. 2011. p. 122 ^ M. C. Howard and J. E. King, 1992, A History of Marxian Economics: Volume II, 1929–1990. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press. ^ Popper, Karl (2002). Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge. Routledge. p. 49. ISBN 0-415-28594-1.  ^ John Maynard Keynes. Essays in Persuasion. W. W. Norton & Company. 1991. p. 300 ISBN 978-0-393-00190-7 ^ Callinicos 2010. p. 12. ^ For example, Baudrillard, Jean (1973). The Mirror of Production.  ^ Held, David (1980), p. 16. ^ Jameson, Fredric (2002). "The Theoretical Hesitation: Benjamin's Sociological Predecessor". In Nealon, Jeffrey; Irr, Caren. Rethinking the Frankfurt School: Alternative Legacies of Cultural Critique. Albany: SUNY Press. pp. 11–30.  ^ Kołakowski, Leszek (2005). Main Currents of Marxism. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. p. 909. ISBN 9780393329438.  ^ M. C. Howard and J. E. King. (1992) A History of Marxian Economics: Volume II, 1929–1990, chapter 7, sects. II–IV. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press. ^ See M. C. Howard and J. E. King, 1992, A History of Marxian Economics: Volume II, 1929–1990. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press. ^ Kliman states that "Marx’s value theory would be necessarily wrong if it were internally inconsistent. Internally inconsistent theories may be appealing, intuitively plausible and even obvious, and consistent with all available empirical evidence––but they cannot be right. It is necessary to reject them or correct them. Thus the alleged proofs of inconsistency trump all other considerations, disqualifying Marx’s theory at the starting gate. By doing so, they provide the principal justification for the suppression of this theory as well as the suppression of, and the denial of resources needed to carry out, present-day research based upon it. This greatly inhibits its further development. So does the very charge of inconsistency. What person of intellectual integrity would want to join a research program founded on (what he believes to be) a theory that is internally inconsistent and therefore false?" (Andrew Kliman, Reclaiming Marx's "Capital": A Refutation of the Myth of Inconsistency, Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007, p. 3, emphasis in original). However, in his book, Kliman presents an interpretation where these inconsistencies can be eliminated. The connection between the inconsistency allegations and the lack of study of Marx’s theories was argued further by John Cassidy ("The Return of Karl Marx," The New Yorker, Oct. 20 & 27, 1997, p. 252): "His mathematical model of the economy, which depended on the idea that labor is the source of all value, was riven with internal inconsistencies and is rarely studied these days." ^ Andrew Kliman, Reclaiming Marx's "Capital", Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, p. 208, emphases in original. ^ "GDP per capita growth (annual %)". World Bank. 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2016.  ^ Popper, Sir Karl (1963). "Science as Falsification". stephenjaygould.org. Retrieved 22 November 2015.  ^ Popper, Sir Karl (2002). Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge. Routledge. p. 449. ISBN 0-415-28594-1.  ^ Bakunin, Mikhail (5 October 1872), Letter to La Liberté, quoted in Bakunin on Anarchy, translated and edited by Sam Dolgoff, 1971  ^ Sperber, Jonathan (2013), Karl Marx: A Nineteenth-Century Life, W.W. Norton & Co.  ^ Herman Gorter, Anton Pannekoek, Sylvia Pankhurst, Otto Ruhl Non- Leninist
Leninist
Marxism: Writings on the Workers Councils. Red and Black, 2007. ^ Ernesto Screpanti, Libertarian communism: Marx Engels and the Political Economy of Freedom, Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2007. ^ Draper, Hal. "The Principle of Self-Emancipation in Marx and Engels" Archived 23 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Socialist
Socialist
Register. Vol 4. ^ Chomsky, Noam. "Government In The Future" Archived 21 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Poetry Center of the New York YM-YWHA. Lecture. ^ V. K. Dmitriev, 1974 (1898), Economic
Economic
Essays on Value, Competition and Utility. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press ^ Ladislaus von Bortkiewicz, 1952 (1906–1907), "Value and Price in the Marxian System", International Economic
Economic
Papers 2, 5–60; Ladislaus von Bortkiewicz, 1984 (1907), "On the Correction of Marx's Fundamental Theoretical Construction in the Third Volume of Capital". In Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk 1984 (1896), Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and the Close of his System, Philadelphia: Orion Editions. ^ M. C. Howard and J. E. King. (1992) A History of Marxian Economics: Volume II, 1929–1990, chapter 12, sect. III. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press. ^ Sennholz, Hans F. "What We Can Know About The World". ^ Von Mises, Ludwig. "Omnipotent Government". ^ Gottfried Haberler in Milorad M. Drachkovitch (ed.), Marxist Ideology in the Contemporary World – Its Appeals and Paradoxes (New York: Praeger, 1966), p. 124. ^ Von Mises, Ludwig (1990). Economic
Economic
calculation in the Socialist Commonwealth
Commonwealth
(PDF). Ludwig von Mises
Ludwig von Mises
Institute. Retrieved 9 August 2008. 

Bibliography[edit]

Bourne, Peter (1986). Fidel: A Biography of Fidel Castro. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company.  Callinicos, Alex (2010) [1983]. The Revolutionary
Revolutionary
Ideas of Karl Marx. Bloomsbury, London: Bookmarks. ISBN 978-1-905192-68-7.  Castro, Fidel; Ramonet, Ignacio (interviewer) (2009). My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. New York: Scribner. ISBN 978-1-4165-6233-7.  Coltman, Leycester (2003). The Real Fidel Castro. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10760-9.  Green, Sally (1981). Prehistorian: A Biography of V. Gordon Childe. Bradford-on-Avon, Wiltshire: Moonraker Press. ISBN 0-239-00206-7.  Lenin, Vladimir (1967) [1913]. Karl Marx: A Brief Biographical Sketch with an Exposition of Marxism. Peking: Foreign Languages Press. Retrieved 17 June 2014.  Marx, Karl (1849). Wage Labour and Capital. Germany: Neue Rheinische Zeitung. Retrieved 2014-06-17.  Trigger, Bruce G. (2007). A History of Archaeological Thought (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-60049-1. 

Agar, Jolyon (2006), Rethinking Marxism: From Kant and Hegel to Marx and Engels (London and New York: Routledge) ISBN 041541119X Avineri, Shlomo (1968). The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx. Cambridge University Press.  Dahrendorf, Ralf (1959). Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.  Jon Elster, An Introduction to Karl Marx. Cambridge, England, 1986. Michael Evans, Karl Marx. London, 1975. Kołakowski, Leszek (1976). Main Currents of Marxism. Oxford University Press.  Parkes, Henry Bamford (1939). Marxism: An Autopsy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.  Robinson, Cedric J.: Black Marxism: The Making of the Black Radical Tradition, 1983, Reissue: Univ North Carolina Press, 2000 Rummel, R.J. (1977) Conflict In Perspective Chap. 5 Marxism, Class Conflict, and the Conflict Helix Screpanti, E; S. Zamagna (1993). An Outline of the History of Economic Thought.  McLellan, David (2007). Marxism
Marxism
After Marx. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 

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Communism

Theory and practice

Commune Commune
Commune
(model of government) Communist society Anti-capitalism Class struggle Class consciousness Classless society Collective leadership Collectivism Common ownership Free association From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs Gift economy Planned economy Proletarian internationalism Labour movement Social revolution Stateless society Wage slavery Workers' self-management World revolution

Aspects

History of communism Communist revolution Communist party Communist state Communist symbolism

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Internationals

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People

Thomas More Tommaso Campanella Gracchus Babeuf Robert Owen Wilhelm Weitling Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Élisée Reclus Peter Kropotkin Errico Malatesta Rosa Luxemburg Clara Zetkin Vladimir Lenin Alexander Berkman Emma Goldman Sacco and Vanzetti Leon Trotsky Nestor Makhno Alexandra Kollontai Antonio Gramsci Joseph Stalin Buenaventura Durruti Antonie Pannekoek Ho Chi Minh Mao Zedong Josip Broz Tito Albert Camus Herbert Marcuse Jean-Paul Sartre Enver Hoxha Simone de Beauvoir Che Guevara Pier Paolo Pasolini Kim Il-sung Cornelius Castoriadis Guy Debord Murray Bookchin Nelson Mandela Fidel Castro Subcomandante Marcos

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Anthem

"The Internationale"

Communism
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portal

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Socialism

Variants

Agrarian Communism Democratic Ecological Ethical Guild Liberal Libertarian Market Marxism Religious Revolutionary Scientific Social democracy Socialist
Socialist
feminism Social anarchism State Syndicalism Utopian

Key topics and issues

History of socialism Economics State Criticism

Concepts

Socialist
Socialist
mode of production Commune
Commune
(model of government) Economic
Economic
planning Free association Equal opportunity Direct democracy Adhocracy Technocracy Self-management Industrial democracy Economic
Economic
democracy Public ownership Common ownership Cooperative
Cooperative
ownership Social dividend Basic income Production for use Calculation in kind Labour voucher Workplace democracy

People

Thomas More Tommaso Campanella Gracchus Babeuf Henri Saint-Simon Charles Fourier Robert Owen William Thompson Étienne Cabet Thomas Hodgskin Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Louis Blanc Mikhail Bakunin Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Ferdinand Lassalle William Morris Mary Harris Jones Peter Kropotkin Eduard Bernstein Errico Malatesta Fred M. Taylor Eugene Debs Georgi Plekhanov John Dewey Enrico Barone W. E. B. Du Bois Emma Goldman Rosa Luxemburg Vladimir Lenin Léon Blum Antonie Pannekoek Bertrand Russell Luis Emilio Recabarren Albert Einstein Clement Attlee Karl Polanyi Nestor Makhno G. D. H. Cole Imre Nagy Einar Gerhardsen George Orwell Léopold Sédar Senghor Salvador Allende François Mitterrand Nelson Mandela Gamal Abdel Nasser Murray Bookchin Alexander Dubček Howard Zinn Noam Chomsky Martin Luther King Jr. Mikhail Gorbachev Bernie Sanders Tariq Ali Abdullah Öcalan Slavoj Žižek Jeremy Corbyn Cornel West Jack Layton Hugo Chávez Chris Hedges Yanis Varoufakis Pablo Iglesias

Organizations

First International (International Workingmen's Association) Second International Third International (Comintern) Fourth International Fifth International Socialist
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International Foro de São Paulo World Federation of Democratic Youth
World Federation of Democratic Youth
(WFDI) International Union of Socialist
Socialist
Youth (IUSY) World Socialist
Socialist
Movement International League of Religious Socialists International Marxist Tendency

Religious socialism

Buddhist socialism Christian socialism Islamic socialism Jewish left

Regional variants

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nationalism Third World Socialism

Related topics

Criticism of capitalism Class struggle Democracy Dictatorship of the proletariat Egalitarianism Equality of outcome Impossibilism Internationalism State-owned enterprise Left-wing politics Marxism Mixed economy Nanosocialism Nationalization Socialisation of production Planned economy Proletarian revolution Reformism Socialism
Socialism
in One Country Socialist
Socialist
market economy Post-capitalism Trade union Mode of production

Anthem

"The Internationale"

Politics portal Socialism
Socialism
portal

v t e

Works by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels

Marx

Capital

Capital, Volume I
Capital, Volume I
(1867) Capital, Volume II
Capital, Volume II
(1885, posthumous) Capital, Volume III
Capital, Volume III
(1894, posthumous)

Other works

Scorpion and Felix
Scorpion and Felix
(1837) Oulanem (1839) The Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature (1841) "The Philosophical Manifesto of the Historical School of Law" (1842) Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right
Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right
(1843) "On the Jewish Question" (1843) "Notes on James Mill" (1844) Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844
Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844
(1844, published 1927) "Theses on Feuerbach" (1845, published 1888) The Poverty of Philosophy
The Poverty of Philosophy
(1847) "Wage Labour and Capital" (1847) The Class Struggles in France, 1848–1850 (1850) The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon
The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon
(1852) Grundrisse
Grundrisse
(1857, published 1939) A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy
A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy
(1859) Theories of Surplus Value
Theories of Surplus Value
(three volumes, 1862) "Value, Price and Profit" (1865) "The Belgian Massacres" (1869) "The Civil War in France" (1871) Critique of the Gotha Program (1875) Mathematical manuscripts of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
(1968)

Marx and Engels

The German Ideology
The German Ideology
(1845, published 1932) The Holy Family (1845) The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto
(1848) The Civil War in the United States (1861) Marx/Engels Collected Works
Marx/Engels Collected Works
(1975 - 2004) Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe
Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe
(1975 - today)

Engels

The Condition of the Working Class in England
The Condition of the Working Class in England
(1845) Principles of Communism
Communism
(1847) The Peasant War in Germany (1850) "The Part Played by Labour in the Transition from Ape to Man" (1876) Anti-Dühring
Anti-Dühring
(1878) Socialism: Utopian and Scientific (1880) Dialectics of Nature
Dialectics of Nature
(1883) The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State (1884) Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy
Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy
(1886) Revolution
Revolution
and Counter- Revolution
Revolution
in Germany (1896, posthumous)

See also

Marx's notebooks on the history of technology Tendency of the rate of profit to fall

v t e

Marxist phraseology and terminology

Philosophy and politics (Marxist)

Barracks
Barracks
communism Base and superstructure Bourgeoisie Bourgeois democracy Bourgeois nationalism Bourgeois socialism Capitalist
Capitalist
mode of production Class struggle Commodification Dialectics Dictatorship of the proletariat Historical materialism Imperialism Liquidationism Lumpenproletariat Means of labor Metabolic rift Petite bourgeoisie Primitive accumulation of capital Proletarian internationalism Proletarian revolution Pure communism Revolutionary
Revolutionary
spontaneity Revolutionary
Revolutionary
wave Scientific socialism Socialist
Socialist
mode of production Super-imperialism Theoretician Two stage theory Wage slavery Workers' council Workers' control World revolution

Economics and sociology (Marxian)

Accumulation of capital Capital Capitalist
Capitalist
mode of production Crisis of capitalism Commanding heights of the economy Commodity Commodity production Dominant ideology Exchange value Free association Law of value Materialism Means of production Mode of production Productive forces Production for use Relations of production Ruling class Simple commodity production Socialist
Socialist
mode of production Socially necessary labour time Socialization Social murder Subject of labor Surplus value Use value Value Worker cooperative

Marxist–Leninist

Cadre Central Committee Democratic centralism Dual power Enemy of the people Foco General line of the party National liberation New class People's democracy Politburo Political rehabilitation Popular front Real socialism Revisionism Revolutionary
Revolutionary
terror Socialist
Socialist
accumulation Socialism
Socialism
in one country Social fascism Social imperialism Soviet democracy United front Vanguardism

Trotskyist

Bureaucratic collectivism Deformed workers' state Degenerated workers' state New class Permanent revolution Social revolution

Maoist

Antagonistic contradiction Capitalist
Capitalist
roader Four Olds Marxism–Leninism–Maoism Mass line New Democracy One Divides Into Two People's war Revolutionary
Revolutionary
base area Struggle session

Authority control

GND: 40

.