The MARX–ENGELS–LENIN INSTITUTE, established in
The Marx-Engels Institute gathered unpublished manuscripts by Karl Marx , Frederick Engels , V.I. Lenin , and other leading Marxist theoreticians as well as collecting books, pamphlets, and periodicals related to the socialist and organized labor movements. By 1930 the facility's holdings included more than 400,000 books and journals and more than 55,000 original and photocopy documents by Marx and Engels alone, making it one of the largest and richest holdings of socialist-related material in the world.
In February 1931 director of the Marx-Engels Institute David Riazanov and others on the staff were purged for ideological reasons. In November of that same year the Marx-Engels Institute was merged with the larger and less scholarly LENIN INSTITUTE (established in 1923) to form the Marx-Engels-Lenin Institute.
The institute was the coordinating authority for the systematic organization of documents released in the multi-volume works Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe (Marx-Engels Collected Works), the Lenin Polnoe sobranie sochineniia (Complete Collected Works), I.V. Stalin Sochineniia (Works), and numerous other official publications. The institute was officially terminated in November 1991, with the bulk of its archival holdings now residing with a successor organization, the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History (RGASPI).
* 1 History
* 1.1 Establishment * 1.2 Lenin Institute * 1.3 1931 restructuring * 1.4 Later name changes
* 2 See also * 3 Footnotes
David Riazanov (1870-1938), head of the Marx-Engels Institute from its formation in 1919 until his arrest in February 1931.
The Marx-Engels Institute was established in 1919 by the government
Soviet Russia as a branch of the
Communist Academy , intended as an
academic research facility to conduct historical studies and to
collect documents deemed relevant to the new socialist regime. First
director of the facility, located in
The institute assembled and maintained a research library devoted to
socialist -related theme, amassing in a little over 10 years a
collection of some 400,000 books, pamphlets, and journals, 15,000
manuscripts, and 175,000 photocopies of original documents held
elsewhere. Among these were 55,000 manuscripts by
The Institute included an academic staff which engaged in research on
historical and topical themes of interest to the regime. The institute
included sections devoted to the history of the First and Second
Internationals , the history of
The main research orientation of the facility was towards history rather than other social sciences. By 1930 of the 109 employed by the Marx-Engels Institute, fully 87 were historians. While working under the watchful eyes of the All-Union Communist Party, the Marx-Engels Institute was not a one-party affair in its formative decade, with just 39 of its staff members also members of the Communist Party in 1930.
During its first decade the institute published an array of books by
the likes of
The Lenin Institute began as an independent archival project, established by the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party in 1923 to gather manuscripts with a view to publication of a scholarly edition of Lenin's collected works. This work was accomplished through the publication of a thick periodical called Leninskii sbornik (Lenin Miscellany), some 25 numbers of which were published between 1924 and 1933.
The mission of the Lenin Institute was expanded in 1924 by the 13th
Congress of the Russian Communist Party to include the "study and
The Lenin Institute was a slightly larger entity than the Marx-Engels
Institute, with a staff of 158 in 1929, but did not share the
reputation for impartial scholarship enjoyed by the older research
library and scholarly think tank. The Lenin Institute was initially
In February 1931 as part of the Menshevik Trial , economist Isaak Rubin — a former employee of the Marx-Engels Institute — implicated the head of the institute David Riazanov as part of the conspiracy, with Riazanov accused of having hidden Menshevik documents in the facility. Although modern scholars consider the accusation in the February show trial to have been extremely dubious, Riazanov was nevertheless arrested and sent into exile outside of Moscow. A purge of Marx-Engels Institute staff deemed to be ideologically suspicious followed.
In November 1931 in the wake of the ideological purges of the Marx-Engels Institute that entity was merged with the larger Lenin Institute to form the Marx-Engels-Lenin Institute.
LATER NAME CHANGES
The Marx-Engels-Lenin Institute was subsequently renamed multiple
times. In 1952 the facility's formal attachment to the Central
Committee of the Communist Party of the
This remained in place until the onset of destalinization following
Secret Speech of
The Central Party Archive of the IML was placed under the control of the Russian Ministry of Culture and eventually emerged as the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History (RGASPI).