Marwar (also called
Jodhpur region) is a region of southwestern
Rajasthan state in North Western India. It lies partly in the Thar
Desert. The word 'maru' is
Sanskrit for desert. In Rajasthani dialect,
"wad" means a particular area. English translation of the word
'marvar' is 'the region of desert.'
The region includes the present-day districts of Barmer, Jalore,
Jodhpur, Nagaur, Pali and parts of
Sikar . It is bounded on the north
Jangladesh region, on the northeast by Dhundhar, on the east by
Ajmer, on the southeast by Mewar, on the south by Godwar, on the
southwest by Sindh, and on the west by Jaisalmer region.
3 Marwari horses
4 See also
6 External links
In 1901 the region (
Jodhpur state) had an area of 93,424 km2.
Marwar is a sandy plain lying northwest of the Aravalli Range, which
runs southwest-northeast through
Rajasthan state. The Aravallis wring
much of the moisture from the southwest monsoon, which provides most
of India's rainfall. Annual rainfall is low, ranging from 10 cm
to 40 cm. Temperatures range from 48 to 50 degrees Celsius in the
summer, to below freezing point in winter. The northwestern thorn
scrub forests lie next to the Aravalli Range, while the rest of the
region lies in the Thar Desert.
Marwar region is the areas near Jodhpur.
Luni River is the principal feature of the
Marwar plains. It
originates in the sacred
Pushkar Lake of
Ajmer District, and the main
river flows through
Marwar in a south-westerly direction until it
finally disappears into the seasonal wetland of the
Rann of Kutch
Rann of Kutch in
Gujarat. It is fed by tributaries that flow from the Aravallis.
Irrigation from the river, and from wells near the river, support
crops of wheat and barley.
The sandy tracts of
Thar Desert in western
Marwar [Maru Pradesh] are
characterized by a harsh physical geography and a fragile ecology.
High wind velocity, shifting sand dunes and very deep and saline water
sources pose a challenge to sustained human habitation in the Thar.
The area is prone to devastating droughts. The
Thar Desert is one of
the most inhospitable landscapes on earth. Apart from the huge
distances between hamlets and settlements here, the landscape is
constantly shifting with the sand, as wind and sandstorms re-arrange
the landscape. This, added to the lack of water in such an arid
region, means that the villagers often find themselves migrating on
foot across hundreds of miles towards neighboring states in search of
Hieun Tsang described a kingdom in
Rajasthan which he calls Ku-cha-lo
(or Gurjara) largely because the whole of the marwar area of rajasthan
was more or less identified with the Gurjars, as early as the 6th or
7th century. The
Gurjara Pratihara, a
Rajput clan, established a
Marwar in the 6th century, with a capital at Mandore,
9 km from present-day Jodhpur. The ruined city of Osian or
Ossian, 65 km from Jodhpur, was an important religious centre of
the Pratihara period. The royal
Rathore family of
descent from the famous Rashtrakuta dynasty. On the fall of the
Rashtrakuta dynasty they migrated north to
Kannauj in Uttar
Jodhpur state was founded in the 13th century by the
Rathore clan of Rajputs, who claim descent from the
Gahadvala kings of Kannauj. After the sacking of
Kannauj by Muhammad
of Ghor in 1194, and its capture by the
Delhi Sultanate in the early
13th century, the Rathores fled west. The
Rathore family chronicles
relate that Siyaji, grandson of Jai Chandra, the last
of Kannauj, came to
Marwar on a pilgrimage to
Dwarka in Gujarat. On
halting at the town of Pali he and his followers settled there to
Brahmin community from the raids of marauding bands. Rao
(king) Chanda, tenth in succession from Siyaji, finally wrested
Marwar from the
Gurjara Pratiharas. The city of Jodhpur,
capital of the Rathor state and now a district administrative centre,
was founded in 1459 by Rao Chanda's successor Rao Jodha.
In 1561 the kingdom was invaded by the
Mughal emperor Akbar. Rao
Malladeva (ruled 1532–1562) was forced to submit and to send his son
Udai Singh as a mark of homage to take service under the Mughal
emperor. After the death of Rao Chandrasen
Rathore in 1581,
brought under direct Mughal administration and remained so till 1583,
when Udai Singh ascended to the throne.
In 1679 CE, when
Maharaja Jaswant Singh whom Emperor
Jamrud at the mouth of the Khyber Pass, died at that place,
leaving no son to succeed him; his widowed Ranis (Queens) at Lahore
gave birth to two sons. One died and the other survived to secure the
Marwar and to stir up the sentiments of his co-religionists
against the Muslim Monarch. The family of the late Raja had left
Jamrud without the permission of the emperor and killed an officer at
Attock when asked to produce a passport. This was a sufficient ground
Marwar in the Mughal Empire, or reducing it to a
state of dependency under a capable ruler. So the Mughal Emperor
Marwar in 1679.
Umaid Bhawan Palace.
It backfired as all the
Rajput clans united. A triple alliance was
formed by the states of Jodhpur, Udaipur (Mewar) and
Jaipur to throw
off the Mughal yoke. One of the conditions of this alliance was that
the rulers of
Jaipur should regain the privilege of
marriage with the ruling
Sesodia dynasty of Mewar, which they had
forfeited by contracting alliances with the Mughal emperors, on the
understanding that the offspring of
Sesodia princesses should succeed
to the state in preference to all other children. The quarrels arising
from this stipulation lasted through many generations. It led to the
Maratha help from the rival aspirants to power and,
finally, to the subjection of all the
Rajput states to the Marathas.
Jodhpur was conquered by Sindhia, who levied a tribute of 60,000
rupees, and took from it the fort and town of Ajmer.
Internecine disputes and succession wars disturbed the peace of the
early years of the century, until in January 1818
Jodhpur was brought
under British control.
Jodhpur became a princely state in the
Rajputana Agency of British India.
The state was bounded on the north by
Bikaner state, on the northeast
Jaipur state, on the west by the British province of Ajmer, on the
Mewar (Udaipur) state, on the south by
Sirohi state and
Banas Kantha Agency
Banas Kantha Agency of Bombay Presidency, on the southwest by Sind
Province, and on the west by Jaisalmer State. The
the head of state, with an aristocracy of Jagirdars, Jamidars and
Thakurs. There were 22 parganas and 4500 villages in the state.
In 1839 the British intervened to quell an insurrection. In 1843, when
Maharaja Man Singh (ruled 1803–1843) died without a son and without
having adopted an heir. The nobles and state officials were left to
select a successor from the nearest of kin. Their choice fell upon
Takht Singh of Ahmednagar.
Maharaja Takht Singh, who supported
the British during the Revolt of 1857, died in 1873. His successor,
Maharaja Jaswant Singh II, who died in 1896, was a very enlightened
ruler. His brother, Sir Pratap Singh, conducted the administration
until his nephew, Sardar Singh, came of age in 1898.
Singh ruled until 1911. The imperial service cavalry formed part of
the reserve brigade during the Tirah campaign.
Marwar suffered more severely than any other part of Rajputana from
the famine of 1899–1900. In February 1900 more than 110,000 people
were in receipt of famine relief. The kingdom had a population of
1,935,565 in 1901, a 23% decline from the 1891, largely due to the
results of the famine.
Its ruler, the
Maharaja of Jodhpur, expressed a wish to join the
Dominion of Pakistan
Dominion of Pakistan but Lord Mountbatten warned him that his subjects
were mostly Hindus and his accession to Pakistan would create
problems. As a result Jodhpur, too, acceded to India.
Hanwant Singh acceded to the Government of India; in
1950 Rajputana became the state of Rajasthan.
Marwar is known for its Marwari horse.
Dhani and villages
^ Dr D K Taknet: Marwari Samaj aur Brij Mohan Birla, Indian Institute
of Marwari Entrepreneurship, Jaipur, 1993, p. 20
^ Satya Prakash; Vijai Shankar Śrivastava (1981). Cultural contours
of India: Dr. Satya Prakash felicitation volume. Abhinav
^ Panchānana Rāya (1939). A historical review of
Hindu India: 300 B.
C. to 1200 A. D. I. M. H. Press. p. 125.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 September 2007.
^ a b India: The Peacock's Call by Aline Dobbie p.41
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 August 2013.
Marwar Paintings: A History of the
Jodhpur Style, India
Book House, Mumbai, 1999 ISBN 81-7508-139-2
Bakshi, S.R. & et al. (Eds.)
Marwar and its Political
Administration; Delhi, 2000 ISBN 81-7629-224-9
D.K.Taknet: "Heroes of a Desert Land" in B.M.Birla: A great visionary,
Indus, New Delhi, 1996
Mohanram Maruka: "
Marwar ka Itihas" in Jat Samaj, Agra
Illan Cooper: "What is in a name", Marwar: A chronicle of Marwari
History and Achievement, Arpan Publications, Mumbai, 1996
Illan Cooper: "A painted History", Marwar: A chronicle of Marwari
History and Achievement, Arpan Publications, Mumbai, 1996
Dr. Natthan Singh: Jat-Itihas, Jat-Samaj Kalyan-Parishad, Gwalior,
Peasant movements and political mobilization: The Jats of
Richard Sisson[permanent dead link]
Institutionalization and Style in
Rajasthan politics by J.Richard
Sisson[permanent dead link]
Justice Kan Singh Parihar: SOUVENIR-1998 of Parivar Parichay, page 47,
published by the souvenir sub committee of Parivar Parichay, 4/28,
Lodi Colony, New Delhi – 110003
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Marwar.
Gun salute Princely states during the British Raj
Jammu & Kashmir
List of princely states of British
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Jodhpur".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.