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Marwar
Marwar
(also called Jodhpur
Jodhpur
region) is a region of southwestern Rajasthan
Rajasthan
state in North Western India. It lies partly in the Thar Desert. The word 'maru' is Sanskrit
Sanskrit
for desert. In Rajasthani dialect, "wad" means a particular area. English translation of the word 'marvar' is 'the region of desert.'[1] The region includes the present-day districts of Barmer, Jalore, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Pali and parts of Sikar
Sikar
. It is bounded on the north by Jangladesh
Jangladesh
region, on the northeast by Dhundhar, on the east by Ajmer, on the southeast by Mewar, on the south by Godwar, on the southwest by Sindh, and on the west by Jaisalmer region.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History 3 Marwari horses 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Geography[edit] In 1901 the region ( Jodhpur
Jodhpur
state) had an area of 93,424 km2. Marwar
Marwar
is a sandy plain lying northwest of the Aravalli Range, which runs southwest-northeast through Rajasthan
Rajasthan
state. The Aravallis wring much of the moisture from the southwest monsoon, which provides most of India's rainfall. Annual rainfall is low, ranging from 10 cm to 40 cm. Temperatures range from 48 to 50 degrees Celsius in the summer, to below freezing point in winter. The northwestern thorn scrub forests lie next to the Aravalli Range, while the rest of the region lies in the Thar Desert.

Marwar
Marwar
region is the areas near Jodhpur.

The Luni River
Luni River
is the principal feature of the Marwar
Marwar
plains. It originates in the sacred Pushkar Lake
Pushkar Lake
of Ajmer
Ajmer
District, and the main river flows through Marwar
Marwar
in a south-westerly direction until it finally disappears into the seasonal wetland of the Rann of Kutch
Rann of Kutch
in Gujarat. It is fed by tributaries that flow from the Aravallis. Irrigation from the river, and from wells near the river, support crops of wheat and barley. The sandy tracts of Thar Desert
Thar Desert
in western Marwar
Marwar
[Maru Pradesh] are characterized by a harsh physical geography and a fragile ecology. High wind velocity, shifting sand dunes and very deep and saline water sources pose a challenge to sustained human habitation in the Thar. The area is prone to devastating droughts. The Thar Desert
Thar Desert
is one of the most inhospitable landscapes on earth. Apart from the huge distances between hamlets and settlements here, the landscape is constantly shifting with the sand, as wind and sandstorms re-arrange the landscape. This, added to the lack of water in such an arid region, means that the villagers often find themselves migrating on foot across hundreds of miles towards neighboring states in search of water. History[edit] See also: Jodhpur
Jodhpur
State

Mehrangarh Fort.

Hieun Tsang described a kingdom in Rajasthan
Rajasthan
which he calls Ku-cha-lo (or Gurjara) largely because the whole of the marwar area of rajasthan was more or less identified with the Gurjars, as early as the 6th or 7th century.[2] The Gurjara
Gurjara
Pratihara,[3] a Rajput
Rajput
clan, established a kingdom in Marwar
Marwar
in the 6th century, with a capital at Mandore,[4] 9 km from present-day Jodhpur. The ruined city of Osian or Ossian, 65 km from Jodhpur, was an important religious centre of the Pratihara period. The royal Rathore family of Jodhpur
Jodhpur
claim descent from the famous Rashtrakuta dynasty.[5] On the fall of the Rashtrakuta dynasty
Rashtrakuta dynasty
they migrated north to Kannauj
Kannauj
in Uttar Pradesh.[5] The Jodhpur
Jodhpur
state was founded in the 13th century by the Rathore[citation needed] clan of Rajputs, who claim descent from the Gahadvala
Gahadvala
kings of Kannauj. After the sacking of Kannauj
Kannauj
by Muhammad of Ghor in 1194, and its capture by the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
in the early 13th century, the Rathores fled west. The Rathore family chronicles relate that Siyaji, grandson of Jai Chandra, the last Gahadvala
Gahadvala
king of Kannauj, came to Marwar
Marwar
on a pilgrimage to Dwarka
Dwarka
in Gujarat. On halting at the town of Pali he and his followers settled there to protect the Brahmin
Brahmin
community from the raids of marauding bands. Rao (king) Chanda, tenth in succession from Siyaji, finally wrested control of Marwar
Marwar
from the Gurjara
Gurjara
Pratiharas. The city of Jodhpur, capital of the Rathor state and now a district administrative centre, was founded in 1459 by Rao Chanda's successor Rao Jodha. In 1561 the kingdom was invaded by the Mughal emperor
Mughal emperor
Akbar. Rao Malladeva (ruled 1532–1562) was forced to submit and to send his son Udai Singh as a mark of homage to take service under the Mughal emperor. After the death of Rao Chandrasen Rathore in 1581, Marwar
Marwar
was brought under direct Mughal administration and remained so till 1583, when Udai Singh ascended to the throne. In 1679 CE, when Maharaja Jaswant Singh whom Emperor Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
had posted at Jamrud
Jamrud
at the mouth of the Khyber Pass, died at that place, leaving no son to succeed him; his widowed Ranis (Queens) at Lahore gave birth to two sons. One died and the other survived to secure the throne of Marwar
Marwar
and to stir up the sentiments of his co-religionists against the Muslim Monarch. The family of the late Raja had left Jamrud
Jamrud
without the permission of the emperor and killed an officer at Attock
Attock
when asked to produce a passport. This was a sufficient ground for incorporating Marwar
Marwar
in the Mughal Empire, or reducing it to a state of dependency under a capable ruler. So the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
invaded Marwar
Marwar
in 1679.

Umaid Bhawan Palace.

It backfired as all the Rajput
Rajput
clans united. A triple alliance was formed by the states of Jodhpur, Udaipur (Mewar) and Jaipur
Jaipur
to throw off the Mughal yoke. One of the conditions of this alliance was that the rulers of Jodhpur
Jodhpur
and Jaipur
Jaipur
should regain the privilege of marriage with the ruling Sesodia
Sesodia
dynasty of Mewar, which they had forfeited by contracting alliances with the Mughal emperors, on the understanding that the offspring of Sesodia
Sesodia
princesses should succeed to the state in preference to all other children. The quarrels arising from this stipulation lasted through many generations. It led to the invitation of Maratha
Maratha
help from the rival aspirants to power and, finally, to the subjection of all the Rajput
Rajput
states to the Marathas. Jodhpur
Jodhpur
was conquered by Sindhia, who levied a tribute of 60,000 rupees, and took from it the fort and town of Ajmer. Internecine disputes and succession wars disturbed the peace of the early years of the century, until in January 1818 Jodhpur
Jodhpur
was brought under British control. Jodhpur
Jodhpur
became a princely state in the Rajputana Agency
Rajputana Agency
of British India. The state was bounded on the north by Bikaner
Bikaner
state, on the northeast by Jaipur
Jaipur
state, on the west by the British province of Ajmer, on the southeast by Mewar
Mewar
(Udaipur) state, on the south by Sirohi
Sirohi
state and the Banas Kantha Agency
Banas Kantha Agency
of Bombay Presidency, on the southwest by Sind Province, and on the west by Jaisalmer State. The Rathore Maharaja
Maharaja
was the head of state, with an aristocracy of Jagirdars, Jamidars and Thakurs. There were 22 parganas and 4500 villages in the state. In 1839 the British intervened to quell an insurrection. In 1843, when Maharaja
Maharaja
Man Singh (ruled 1803–1843) died without a son and without having adopted an heir. The nobles and state officials were left to select a successor from the nearest of kin. Their choice fell upon Raja Takht Singh of Ahmednagar. Maharaja
Maharaja
Takht Singh, who supported the British during the Revolt of 1857, died in 1873. His successor, Maharaja Jaswant Singh II, who died in 1896, was a very enlightened ruler. His brother, Sir Pratap Singh, conducted the administration until his nephew, Sardar Singh, came of age in 1898. Maharaja
Maharaja
Sardar Singh ruled until 1911. The imperial service cavalry formed part of the reserve brigade during the Tirah campaign. Marwar
Marwar
suffered more severely than any other part of Rajputana from the famine of 1899–1900. In February 1900 more than 110,000 people were in receipt of famine relief. The kingdom had a population of 1,935,565 in 1901, a 23% decline from the 1891, largely due to the results of the famine. Its ruler, the Maharaja
Maharaja
of Jodhpur, expressed a wish to join the Dominion of Pakistan
Dominion of Pakistan
but Lord Mountbatten warned him that his subjects were mostly Hindus and his accession to Pakistan would create problems. As a result Jodhpur, too, acceded to India.[6] In 1949 Maharaja
Maharaja
Hanwant Singh acceded to the Government of India; in 1950 Rajputana became the state of Rajasthan. Marwari horses[edit] Marwar
Marwar
is known for its Marwari horse. See also[edit]

Shekhawati Marwaris Marwari language Jodhpur
Jodhpur
State Dhani and villages

References[edit]

^ Dr D K Taknet: Marwari Samaj aur Brij Mohan Birla, Indian Institute of Marwari Entrepreneurship, Jaipur, 1993, p. 20 ^ Satya Prakash; Vijai Shankar Śrivastava (1981). Cultural contours of India: Dr. Satya Prakash felicitation volume. Abhinav Publications.  ^ Panchānana Rāya (1939). A historical review of Hindu
Hindu
India: 300 B. C. to 1200 A. D. I. M. H. Press. p. 125.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-26.  ^ a b India: The Peacock's Call by Aline Dobbie p.41 ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 August 2013. Retrieved 2014-06-16. 

Rosemary Crill Marwar
Marwar
Paintings: A History of the Jodhpur
Jodhpur
Style, India Book House, Mumbai, 1999 ISBN 81-7508-139-2 Bakshi, S.R. & et al. (Eds.) Marwar
Marwar
and its Political Administration; Delhi, 2000 ISBN 81-7629-224-9 D.K.Taknet: "Heroes of a Desert Land" in B.M.Birla: A great visionary, Indus, New Delhi, 1996 Mohanram Maruka: " Marwar
Marwar
ka Itihas" in Jat Samaj, Agra (January–February, 1998) Illan Cooper: "What is in a name", Marwar: A chronicle of Marwari History and Achievement, Arpan Publications, Mumbai, 1996 Illan Cooper: "A painted History", Marwar: A chronicle of Marwari History and Achievement, Arpan Publications, Mumbai, 1996 Dr. Natthan Singh: Jat-Itihas, Jat-Samaj Kalyan-Parishad, Gwalior, 2004 Peasant movements and political mobilization: The Jats of Rajasthan
Rajasthan
by Richard Sisson[permanent dead link] Institutionalization and Style in Rajasthan
Rajasthan
politics by J.Richard Sisson[permanent dead link] Justice Kan Singh Parihar: SOUVENIR-1998 of Parivar Parichay, page 47, published by the souvenir sub committee of Parivar Parichay, 4/28, Lodi Colony, New Delhi – 110003

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Marwar.

http://www.marwaris.com http://www.marwad.com

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 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Jodhpur". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp.

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