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Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
(/ɡeɪ/;[1] born Marvin Pentz Gay Jr.; April 2, 1939 – April 1, 1984)[2] was an American singer, songwriter and record producer. Gaye helped to shape the sound of Motown
Motown
in the 1960s, first as an in-house session player and later as a solo artist with a string of hits, including "Ain't That Peculiar", "How Sweet It Is (To Be Loved By You)" and "I Heard It Through the Grapevine", and duet recordings with Mary Wells, Kim Weston, Diana Ross
Diana Ross
and Tammi Terrell, later earning the titles "Prince of Motown" and "Prince of Soul". During the 1970s, he recorded the albums What's Going On and Let's Get It On and became one of the first artists in Motown
Motown
(joint with Stevie Wonder) to break away from the reins of a production company. His later recordings influenced several contemporary R&B subgenres, such as quiet storm and neo soul.[3] Following a period in Europe as a tax exile in the early 1980s, be released the 1982 Grammy Award-winning hit "Sexual Healing" and its parent album Midnight Love. On April 1, 1984, Gaye's father, Marvin Gay Sr., fatally shot him at their house in the West Adams district of Los Angeles.[4][5] Since his death, many institutions have posthumously bestowed Gaye with awards and other honors—including the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, the Rhythm and Blues Music Hall of Fame, the Songwriters Hall of Fame and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.[6]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Career

2.1 Early career 2.2 Initial success 2.3 What's Going On and subsequent success 2.4 Last Motown
Motown
recordings and European exile 2.5 Midnight Love

3 Death 4 Personal life 5 Musicianship

5.1 Influences 5.2 Vocal style 5.3 Social commentary and concept albums

6 Legacy

6.1 Awards and honors 6.2 In popular culture 6.3 Earnings 6.4 Attempted biopics 6.5 Tributes

7 Acting 8 Discography 9 Filmography 10 Videography 11 See also 12 References

12.1 Citations 12.2 Sources

13 Further reading 14 External links

Early life[edit]

Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
attended Cardozo High School in Washington, D.C.'s Columbia Heights neighborhood.

Gaye was born Marvin Pentz Gay Jr. on April 2, 1939, at Freedman's Hospital[7] in Washington, D.C., to church minister Marvin Gay Sr., and domestic worker Alberta Gay
Alberta Gay
(née Cooper). His first home was in a public housing project,[8] the Fairfax Apartments[9] (now demolished) at 1617 1st Street SW in the Southwest Waterfront
Southwest Waterfront
neighborhood.[10] Although one of the city's oldest neighborhoods, with many elegant Federal-style homes, Southwest was primarily a vast slum. Most buildings were small, in extensive disrepair, and lacked both electricity and running water. The alleys were full of one- and two-story shacks, and nearly every dwelling was overcrowded.[11][12][13] Gaye and his friends nicknamed the area "Simple City", owing to its being "half-city, half country".[14][15][a] Gaye was the second eldest of the couple's four children. He had two sisters, Jeanne and Zeola, and one brother, Frankie Gaye. He also had two half-brothers: Michael Cooper, his mother's son from a previous relationship, and Antwaun Carey Gay,[17] born as a result of his father's extramarital affairs.[17] Gaye started singing in church when he was four years old; his father often accompanied him on piano.[18][19][20] Gaye and his family were part of a Pentecostal church known as the House of God. The House of God took its teachings from Hebrew
Hebrew
Pentecostalism, advocated strict conduct, and adhered to both the Old and New Testaments.[21][22] Gaye developed a love of singing at an early age and was encouraged to pursue a professional music career after a performance at a school play at 11 singing Mario Lanza's "Be My Love".[20] His home life consisted of "brutal whippings" by his father, who struck him for any shortcoming.[23] The young Gaye described living in his father's house as similar to "...living with a king, a very peculiar, changeable, cruel, and all powerful king."[14] He felt that had his mother not consoled him and encouraged his singing, he would have killed himself.[24] His sister later explained that Gaye was beaten often, from age seven well into his teenage years.[25] Gaye attended Syphax Elementary School[26] and then Randall Junior High School.[27] Gaye began to take singing much more seriously in junior high,[28] and he joined and became a singing star with the Randall Junior High Glee Club.[9] In 1953[8][29][30] or 1954,[7][31][b] the Gays moved into the East Capitol Dwellings public housing project in D.C.'s Capitol View neighborhood.[7][33][c] Their townhouse apartment (Unit 12, 60th Street NE; now demolished) was Marvin's home until 1962.[32][d] Gaye briefly attended Spingarn High School
Spingarn High School
before transferring to Cardozo High School.[34] At Cardozo, Gaye joined several doo-wop vocal groups, including the Dippers and the D.C. Tones.[36] Gaye's relationship with his father worsened during his teenage years, as his father would kick him out of the house often.[37] In 1956, 17-year-old Gaye dropped out of high school and enlisted in the United States Air Force as a basic airman.[38][39] Disappointed in having to perform menial tasks, he faked mental illness and was discharged shortly afterwards.[40] Gaye's sergeant stated that he refused to follow orders.[40][41] Gaye was issued a "General Discharge" from the service. [40][41] Career[edit] Early career[edit]

A 1959 promotional picture of Harvey and the New Moonglows. Gaye is fourth from the left behind a seated Fuqua.

Following his return, Gaye and his good friend Reese Palmer formed the vocal quartet The Marquees.[42][43] The group performed in the D.C. area and soon began working with Bo Diddley, who assigned the group to Columbia subsidiary OKeh Records
OKeh Records
after failing to get the group signed to his own label, Chess.[43] The group's sole single, "Wyatt Earp" (co-written by Bo Diddley), failed to chart and the group was soon dropped from the label.[44] Gaye began composing music during this period.[44] Moonglows co-founder Harvey Fuqua
Harvey Fuqua
later hired The Marquees
The Marquees
as employees.[45] Under Fuqua's direction, the group changed its name to Harvey and the New Moonglows, and relocated to Chicago.[46] The group recorded several sides for Chess in 1959, including the song "Mama Loocie", which was Gaye's first lead vocal recording. The group found work as session singers for established acts such as Chuck Berry, singing on the hits "Back in the U.S.A." and "Almost Grown". In 1960, the group disbanded. Gaye relocated to Detroit
Detroit
with Fuqua where he signed with Tri-Phi Records as a session musician, playing drums on several Tri-Phi releases. Gaye performed at Motown
Motown
president Berry Gordy's house during the holiday season in 1960. Impressed by the singer, Gordy sought Fuqua on his contract with Gaye. Fuqua agreed to sell part of his interest in his contract with Gaye.[47] Shortly afterwards, Gaye signed with Motown
Motown
subsidiary Tamla. When Gaye signed with Tamla, he pursued a career as a performer of jazz music and standards, having no desire to become an R&B performer.[37] Before the release of his first single, Gaye was teased about his surname, with some jokingly asking, "Is Marvin Gay?"[48] Gaye changed the spelling of his surname by adding an e, in the same way as did Sam Cooke. Author David Ritz
David Ritz
wrote that Gaye did this to silence rumors of his sexuality, and to put more distance between himself and his father.[48] Gaye released his first single, "Let Your Conscience Be Your Guide", in May 1961, with the album The Soulful Moods of Marvin Gaye, following a month later. Gaye's initial recordings failed commercially and he spent most of 1961 performing session work as a drummer for artists such as The Miracles, The Marvelettes
The Marvelettes
and blues artist Jimmy Reed for $5 (US$41 in 2017 dollars[49]) a week.[50][51] While Gaye took some advice on performing with his eyes open (having been accused of appearing as though he were sleeping), he refused to attend grooming school courses at the John Roberts Powers School for Social Grace in Detroit
Detroit
because of his unwillingness to comply with its orders, something he later regretted.[52][53] Initial success[edit] In 1962, Gaye found success as co-writer of the Marvelettes hit, "Beechwood 4-5789". His first solo hit, "Stubborn Kind of Fellow", was later released that September, reaching No. 8 on the R&B chart and No. 46 on the Billboard Hot 100. Gaye reached the top 40 with the dance song, "Hitch Hike",[54] peaking at No. 30 on the Hot 100. "Pride and Joy" became Gaye's first top ten single after its release in 1963. The three singles and songs from the 1962 sessions were included on Gaye's second album, That Stubborn Kinda Fellow. Starting in October of the year, Gaye performed as part of the Motortown Revue, a series of concert tours headlined at the north and south eastern coasts of the United States as part of the chitlin' circuit. A filmed performance of Gaye at the Apollo Theater
Apollo Theater
took place in June 1963. Later that October, Tamla issued the live album, Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
Recorded Live on Stage. "Can I Get a Witness" became one of Gaye's early international hits. In 1964, Gaye recorded a successful duet album with singer Mary Wells titled Together, which reached No. 42 on the pop album chart. The album's two-sided single, including "Once Upon a Time" and 'What's the Matter With You Baby", each reach the top 20. Gaye's next solo hit, "How Sweet It Is (To Be Loved By You)", which Holland-Dozier-Holland wrote for him, reached No. 6 on the Hot 100 and reached the top 50 in the UK. Gaye started getting television exposure around this time, on shows such as American Bandstand. Also in 1964, he appeared in the concert film, The T.A.M.I. Show. Gaye had two number-one R&B singles in 1965 with the Miracles–composed "I'll Be Doggone" and "Ain't That Peculiar". Both songs became million-sellers. After this, Gaye returned to jazz-derived ballads for a tribute album to the recently-deceased Nat "King" Cole. After scoring a hit duet, "It Takes Two" with Kim Weston, Gaye began working with Tammi Terrell
Tammi Terrell
on a series of duets, mostly composed by Ashford & Simpson, including "Ain't No Mountain High Enough", "Your Precious Love", "Ain't Nothing Like the Real Thing" and "You're All I Need to Get By".

"I Heard It through the Grapevine"

"I Heard It through the Grapevine" was recorded by Gaye in April 1967, several months before Gladys Knight and the Pips
Gladys Knight and the Pips
recorded it. The song features a Wurlitzer piano, percussion, and horns. Gaye's recording of it paved the way for what later became "psychedelic soul".

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In October 1967, Terrell collapsed in Gaye's arms during a performance in Farmville, Virginia.[55] Terrell was subsequently rushed to Farmville's Southside Community Hospital, where doctors discovered she had a malignant tumor in her brain.[55] The diagnosis ended Terrell's career as a live performer, though she continued to record music under careful supervision. Despite the presence of hit singles such as "Ain't Nothing Like the Real Thing" and " You're All I Need
You're All I Need
to Get By", Terrell's illness caused problems with recording, and led to multiple operations to remove the tumor. Gaye was reportedly devastated by Terrell's sickness and became disillusioned with the record business. On October 6, 1968, Gaye sang the national anthem during Game 4 of the 1968 World Series, held at Tiger Stadium, in Detroit, Michigan, and played between the Detroit
Detroit
Tigers and the St. Louis Cardinals. In late 1968, Gaye's recording of I Heard It Through the Grapevine became Gaye's first to reach No. 1 on the Billboard Hot 100. It also reached the top of the charts in other countries, selling over four million copies.[56] However, Gaye felt the success was something he "didn't deserve" and that he "felt like a puppet – Berry's puppet, Anna's puppet...."[57][58][59] Gaye followed it up with "Too Busy Thinking About My Baby" and "That's the Way Love Is", which reached the top ten on the Billboard Hot 100
Billboard Hot 100
in 1969. That year, his album M.P.G. became his first No. 1 R&B album. Gaye produced and co-wrote two hits for The Originals during this period, including "Baby I'm For Real" and "The Bells". Tammi Terrell
Tammi Terrell
died from brain cancer on March 16, 1970; Gaye attended her funeral [60] and after a period of depression, Gaye sought out a position on a professional football team, the Detroit
Detroit
Lions, where he later befriended Mel Farr and Lem Barney.[61] It was eventually decided that Gaye would not be allowed to try out owing to fears of possible injuries that could have affected his music career.[62][63] What's Going On and subsequent success[edit] Main articles: What's Going On (Marvin Gaye album)
What's Going On (Marvin Gaye album)
and Let's Get It On On June 1, 1970, Gaye returned to Hitsville U.S.A., where he recorded his new composition "What's Going On", inspired by an idea from Renaldo "Obie" Benson
Renaldo "Obie" Benson
of the Four Tops
Four Tops
after he witnessed an act of police brutality at an anti-war rally in Berkeley.[64] Upon hearing the song, Berry Gordy
Berry Gordy
refused its release due to his feelings of the song being "too political" for radio.[65] Gaye responded by going on strike from recording until the label released the song.[65] Released in 1971, it reached No. 1 on the R&B charts within a month, staying there for five weeks. It also reached the top spot on Cashbox's pop chart for a week and reached No. 2 on the Hot 100 and the Record World chart, selling over two million copies.[66][67] After giving an ultimatum to record a full album to win creative control from Motown, Gaye spent ten days recording the What's Going On album that March.[68] Motown
Motown
issued the album that May after Gaye remixed portions of the album in Hollywood.[65] The album became Gaye's first million-selling album launching two more top ten singles, "Mercy Mercy Me (The Ecology)" and "Inner City Blues". One of Motown's first autonomous works, its theme and segue flow brought the concept album format to rhythm and blues. An AllMusic
AllMusic
writer later cited it as "...the most important and passionate record to come out of soul music, delivered by one of its finest voices."[69] For the album, Gaye received two Grammy Award
Grammy Award
nominations and several NAACP Image Awards.[70] The album also topped Rolling Stone's year-end list as its album of the year. Billboard magazine named Gaye Trendsetter of the Year following the album's success. In 1971, Gaye signed a new deal with Motown
Motown
worth $1 million (US$6,042,728 in 2017 dollars[49]), making it the most lucrative deal by a black recording artist at the time.[71] Gaye first responded to the new contract with the soundtrack and subsequent score, Trouble Man, released in late 1972. Around this period, he, Anna and Marvin III finally left Detroit
Detroit
and moved to Los Angeles permanently.

"Let's Get It On"

"Let's Get It On" was written by Gaye and producer Ed Townsend, originally as a gospel song, and later as a protest song before eventually turning into a funk-oriented love anthem. It became Gaye's second number-one hit in 1973.

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In 1973, Gaye released the Let's Get It On
Let's Get It On
album. Its title track became Gaye's second No. 1 single on the Hot 100. The album subsequently stayed on the charts for two years and sold over three million copies. The album was later hailed as "a record unparalleled in its sheer sensuality and carnal energy."[72] Other singles from the album included "Come Get to This", which recalled Gaye's early Motown soul sound of the previous decade, while the suggestive "You Sure Love to Ball" reached modest success but received tepid promotion due to the song's sexually explicit content.[73] Marvin's final duet project, Diana & Marvin, with Diana Ross, garnered international success despite contrasting artistic styles. Much of the material was crafted especially for the duo by Ashford and Simpson.[74] Responding to demand from fans and Motown, Gaye started his first tour in four years at the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum on January 4, 1974.[75] The performance received critical acclaim and resulted in the release of the live album, Marvin Gaye Live! and its single, a live version of Distant Lover, an album track from Let's Get It On. The tour helped to enhance Gaye's reputation as a live performer.[75] For a time, he was earning $100,000 a night (US$496,221 in 2017 dollars[49]) for performances.[76] Gaye toured throughout 1974 and 1975. A renewed contract with Motown
Motown
allowed Gaye to build his own custom-made recording studio. In October 1975, Gaye gave a performance at a UNESCO
UNESCO
benefit concert at New York's Radio City Music Hall
Radio City Music Hall
to support UNESCO's African literacy drive, resulting in him being commended at the United Nations by then-Ambassador to Ghana
Ghana
Shirley Temple Black
Shirley Temple Black
and Kurt Waldheim.[77][78] Gaye's next studio album, I Want You, followed in 1976 with the title track "I Want You" becoming a No. 1 R&B hit. That summer, Gaye embarked on his first European tour in a decade, starting off in England. In early 1977, Gaye released the live album, Live at the London Palladium, which sold over two million copies thanks to the success of its studio song, "Got to Give It Up", which became a No. 1 hit. Last Motown
Motown
recordings and European exile[edit] Main articles: Here, My Dear
Here, My Dear
and In Our Lifetime ( Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
album) In December 1978, Gaye released Here, My Dear, inspired by the fallout of his first marriage to Anna Gordy. Recorded as an intent for Gaye to remit a portion of its royalties to her to receive alimony payments, it performed poorly on the charts.[79] During that period, Gaye developed a serious dependence and addiction to cocaine and was dealing with several financial issues with the IRS. These issues led him to move to Maui, Hawaii, where he struggled to record a disco album.[80] In 1980, Gaye went on a European tour.[81] By the time the tour stopped, the singer relocated to London when he feared imprisonment for failure to pay back taxes, which had now reached upwards of $4.5 million (US$13,365,509 in 2017 dollars[49]).[81][82] Gaye then reworked Love Man from its original disco concept to another personal album invoking religion and the possible end time from a chapter in the Book
Book
of Revelation.[83] Titling the album In Our Lifetime?, Gaye worked on the album for much of 1980 in London studios such as Air and Odyssey Studios.[84] In the fall of that year, someone stole a master tape of a rough draft of the album from one of Gaye's traveling musicians, Frank Blair, taking the master tape to Motown's Hollywood headquarters.[85] Motown remixed the album and released it on January 15, 1981.[86] When Gaye learned of its release, he accused Motown
Motown
of editing and remixing the album without his consent, allowing the release of an unfinished production (Far Cry), altering the album art of his request and removing the album title's question mark, muting its irony.[87] He also accused the label of rush-releasing the album, comparing his unfinished album to an unfinished Picasso painting.[87] Gaye then vowed not to record any more music for Motown.[88] On February 14, 1981, under the advice of music promoter Freddy Cousaert, Gaye relocated to Cousaert's apartment in Ostend, Belgium.[89] While there, Gaye shied away from heavy drug use and began exercising and attending a local Ostend
Ostend
church, regaining personal confidence.[90][91] Following several months of recovery, Gaye sought a comeback onstage, starting the short-lived Heavy Love Affair tour in England and Ostend
Ostend
in June–July 1981.[92] Gaye's personal attorney Curtis Shaw would later describe Gaye's Ostend period as "the best thing that ever happened to Marvin". When word got around that Gaye was planning a musical comeback and an exit from Motown, CBS Urban president Larkin Arnold eventually was able to convince Gaye to sign with CBS. On March 23, 1982, Motown
Motown
and CBS Records negotiated Gaye's release from Motown. The details of the contract were not revealed due to a possible negative effect on the singer's settlement to creditors from the IRS.[93] Midnight Love[edit] Main articles: Midnight Love
Midnight Love
and Sexual Healing

"Sexual Healing"

"Sexual Healing" was written by Gaye alongside Odell Brown and David Ritz. Ritz said Gaye advised him to write a poem after telling the singer he needed "sexual healing" while living in Europe. The song became an international hit after its release in 1982.

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Assigned to CBS's Columbia subsidiary, Gaye worked on his first post- Motown
Motown
album titled Midnight Love. The first single, "Sexual Healing" which was written and recorded in Ostend
Ostend
in his apartment, was released on September 30, 1982, and became Gaye's biggest career hit, spending a record ten weeks at No. 1 on the Hot Black Singles chart, becoming the biggest R&B hit of the 1980s according to Billboard stats. The success later translated to the Billboard Hot 100 chart in January 1983 where it peaked at No. 3, while the record reached international success, reaching the top spot in New Zealand and Canada and reaching the top ten on the United Kingdom's OCC singles chart, later selling over two million copies in the U.S. alone, becoming Gaye's most successful single to date. The video for the song was shot at Ostend's Casino-Kursaal.[94] Sexual Healing
Sexual Healing
won Gaye his first two Grammy Awards including Best Male R&B Vocal Performance, in February 1983, and also won Gaye an American Music Award
American Music Award
in the R&B-soul category. People magazine called it "America's hottest musical turn-on since Olivia Newton-John demanded we get Physical." Midnight Love
Midnight Love
was released to stores a day after the single's release, and was equally successful, peaking at the top ten of the Billboard 200
Billboard 200
and becoming Gaye's eighth No. 1 album on the Top Black Albums chart, eventually selling over six million copies worldwide, three million alone in the U.S.

“ I don't make records for pleasure. I did when I was a younger artist, but I don't today. I record so that I can feed people what they need, what they feel. Hopefully, I record so that I can help someone overcome a bad time. ”

NME
NME
– December 1982[95] On February 13, 1983, Gaye sang "The Star-Spangled Banner" at the NBA All-Star Game at The Forum in Inglewood, California—accompanied by Gordon Banks, who played the studio tape from the stands.[96] The following month, Gaye performed at the Motown
Motown
25: Yesterday, Today, Forever special. This and a May appearance on Soul Train
Soul Train
(his third appearance on the show) became Gaye's final television performances. Gaye embarked on his final concert tour, titled the Sexual Healing Tour, on April 18, 1983, in San Diego.[97] The tour ended on August 14, 1983 at the Pacific Amphitheatre in Costa Mesa, California
Costa Mesa, California
but was plagued by cocaine-triggered paranoia and illness. Following the concert's end, he moved into his parents' house in Los Angeles. In early 1984, Midnight Love
Midnight Love
was nominated for a Grammy in the Best Male R&B Vocal Performance category, his 12th and final nomination. Death[edit] Main article: Death of Marvin Gaye At 12:38 p.m. (PST) on April 1, 1984, while Gaye was in his bedroom, his father Marvin Gay Sr.
Marvin Gay Sr.
shot Gaye in the heart and then in his left shoulder, the latter shot taken at point-blank range.[98][99] Minutes earlier, the two men had been involved in a physical altercation when Gaye intervened in a fight between his parents. The first shot proved to be fatal. Gaye was pronounced dead at 1:01 p.m. (PST) after his body arrived at California Hospital Medical Center, one day short of his 45th birthday.[100] [99] After Gaye's funeral, his body was cremated at Forest Lawn Memorial Park at the Hollywood Hills; his ashes were later scattered into the Pacific Ocean.[101] Initially charged with first-degree murder, Gay Sr.'s charges dropped to voluntary manslaughter following a diagnosis of a brain tumor. Gaye's autopsy revealed the singer had drugs in his system.[102] Marvin Gay Sr.
Marvin Gay Sr.
was later sentenced to a suspended six-year sentence and probation. He died at a nursing home in 1998.[103] Personal life[edit] Main article: Personal life of Marvin Gaye Gaye married Berry Gordy's sister, Anna Gordy, in June 1963. The couple separated in 1973, and Anna filed for divorce in November 1975. The couple was officially divorced in 1977. Gaye later married Janis Hunter in October 1977. The couple separated in 1979, and were officially divorced in February 1981. Gaye was the father of three children, Marvin III (adopted with Anna; Marvin III was the son of Denise Gordy, Anna's niece), and Nona and Frankie, whom he had with his second wife, Janis. At the time of his death, he was survived by his three children, parents, and five siblings. Musicianship[edit]

Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
in 1973

Influences[edit] As a child, Gaye's main influence was his minister father, something he later acknowledged to biographer David Ritz, and also in interviews, often mentioning that his father's sermons greatly impressed him. His first major musical influences were doo-wop groups such as The Moonglows
The Moonglows
and The Capris. Gaye's Rock & Roll Hall of Fame page lists the Capris' song, "God Only Knows" as "critical to his musical awakening."[104] Of the Capris' song, Gaye said, "It fell from the heavens and hit me between the eyes. So much soul, so much hurt. I related to the story, to the way that no one except the Lord really can read the heart of lonely kids in love."[105] Gaye's main musical influences were Rudy West of The Five Keys, Clyde McPhatter, Ray Charles and Little Willie John.[106][107] Gaye considered Frank Sinatra a major influence in what he wanted to be.[107] He also was influenced by the vocal styles of Billy Eckstine
Billy Eckstine
and Nat King Cole.[108] Later on as his Motown
Motown
career developed, Gaye would seek inspiration in fellow label mates such as David Ruffin
David Ruffin
of The Temptations
The Temptations
and Levi Stubbs of the Four Tops
Four Tops
as their grittier voices led to Gaye and his producer seeking a similar sound in recordings such as "I Heard It Through the Grapevine" and "That's the Way Love Is". Later in his life, Gaye reflected on the influence of Ruffin and Stubbs stating, "I had heard something in their voices something my own voice lacked".[109][110] He further explained, "the Tempts and Tops' music made me remember that when a lot of women listen to music, they want to feel the power of a real man."[109][110] Vocal style[edit] Gaye had a four-octave vocal range.[111] From his earlier recordings as member of the Marquees and Harvey and the New Moonglows, and in his first several recordings with Motown, Gaye recorded mainly in the baritone and tenor ranges. He changed his tone to a rasp for his gospel-inspired early hits such as "Stubborn Kind of Fellow" and "Hitch Hike". As writer Eddie Holland explained, "He was the only singer I have ever heard known to take a song of that nature, that was so far removed from his natural voice where he liked singing, and do whatever it took to sell that song."[112] In songs such as "Pride and Joy", Gaye used three different vocal ranges—singing in his baritone range at the beginning, bringing a lighter tenor in the verses before reaching a gospel mode in the chorus. Holland further stated of Gaye's voice that it was "...one of the sweetest and prettiest voices you ever wanted to hear."[113] And while he noted that ballads and jazz was "his basic soul", he stated Gaye "...had the ability to take a roughhouse, rock and roll, blues, R&B, any kind of song and make it his own", later saying that Gaye was the most versatile vocalist he had ever worked with.[113] Gaye changed his vocal style in the late 1960s, when he was advised to use a sharper, raspy voice—especially in Norman Whitfield's recordings. Gaye initially disliked the new style, considering it out of his range, but said he was "into being produce-able."[109] After listening to David Ruffin
David Ruffin
and Levi Stubbs, Gaye said he started to develop what he called his "tough man voice"—saying, "I developed a growl."[109][110] In the liner notes of his DVD set, Marvin Gaye: The Real Thing in Performance 1964–1981, Rob Bowman said that by the early 1970s, Gaye had developed "three distinct voices: his smooth, sweet tenor; a growling rasp; and an unreal falsetto."[114] Bowman further wrote that the recording of the What's Going On single was "...the first single to utilize all three as Marvin developed a radical approach to constructing his recordings by layering a series of contrapuntal background vocal lines on different tracks, each one conceived and sung in isolation by Marvin himself."[114] Bowman cites Gaye's multi-tracking of his tenor voice and other vocal styles "summon[ed] up what might be termed the ancient art of weaving".[114] Social commentary and concept albums[edit] Prior to recording the What's Going On album, Gaye recorded a cover of the song, "Abraham, Martin & John", which became a UK hit in 1970. Only a handful of artists of various genres had recorded albums that focused on social commentary, including Curtis Mayfield. Despite some politically conscious material recorded by The Temptations
The Temptations
in the late 1960s, Motown
Motown
artists were often told to not delve into political and social commentary, fearing alienation from pop audiences. Early in his career, Gaye was affected by social events such as the 1965 Watts riots and once asked himself, "with the world exploding around me, how am I supposed to keep singing love songs?"[115] When the singer called Gordy in the Bahamas about wanting to do protest music, Gordy cautioned him, "Marvin, don't be ridiculous. That's taking things too far."[68] Gaye was inspired by the Black Panther Party
Black Panther Party
and supported the efforts they put forth like giving free meals to poor families door to door, however, he did not support the violent tactics the Panthers used to fight oppression, as Gaye's messages in many of his political songs were nonviolent. The lyrics and music of What's Going On discuss and illustrate issues during the 1960s/1970s such as police brutality, drug abuse, environmental issues, anti-war, and black power issues.[116] Gaye was inspired to make this album because of events such as the Vietnam War, the 1967 race riots in Detroit, and the Kent State shootings.[117] Once Gaye presented Gordy with the What's Going On album, Gordy feared Gaye was risking the ruination of his image as a sex symbol.[65] Following the album's success, Gaye tried a follow-up album that he would label You're the Man. The title track only produced modest success, however, and Gaye and Motown
Motown
shelved the album. Later on, several of Gaye's unreleased songs of social commentary, including "The World Is Rated X", would be issued on posthumous compilation albums. What's Going On would later be described by an AllMusic
AllMusic
writer as an album that "not only redefined soul music as a creative force but also expanded its impact as an agent for social change".[118] The album also provided another first in both Motown
Motown
and R&B music: Gaye and his engineers had composed the album in a song cycle, segueing previous songs into other songs giving the album a more cohesive feel as opposed to R&B albums that traditionally included filler tracks to complete the album. This style of music would influence recordings by artists such as Stevie Wonder
Stevie Wonder
and Barry White making the concept album format a part of 1970s R&B music. Concept albums are usually based on either one theme or a series of themes in connection to the original thesis of the album's concept. Let's Get It On repeated the suite-form arrangement of What's Going On, as would Gaye's later albums such as I Want You, Here, My Dear
Here, My Dear
and In Our Lifetime. Although Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
was not actually doing social justice work outside of his music, he became a public figure for social change and inspired/educated many people through his work.[117] Legacy[edit] Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
has been called "The number-one purveyor of soul music".[18] In his book Mercy Mercy Me: The Art, Loves and Demons of Marvin Gaye, Michael Eric Dyson
Michael Eric Dyson
described Gaye as someone "...who transcended the boundaries of rhythm and blues as no other performer had done before."[119] Following his death, The New York Times described Gaye as someone who "blended the soul music of the urban scene with the beat of the old-time gospel singer and became an influential force in pop music".[120] Further in the article, Gaye was also credited with combining "the soulful directness of gospel music, the sweetness of soft-soul and pop, and the vocal musicianship of a jazz singer."[120] His recordings for Motown
Motown
in the 1960s and 1970s shaped that label's signature sound. His work with Motown
Motown
gave him the titles Prince of Soul and Prince of Motown.[121][122] Critics stated that Gaye's music "...signified the development of black music from raw rhythm and blues, through sophisticated soul to the political awareness of the 1970s and increased concentration on personal and sexual politics thereafter."[123] As a Motown
Motown
artist, Gaye was among the first to break from the reins of its production system, paving the way for Stevie Wonder.[18][124][125][126] Gaye's late 1970s and early 1980s recordings influenced contemporary forms of R&B predating the subgenres quiet storm and neo-soul.[3] Artists from many genres have covered Gaye's music, including James Taylor, Brian McKnight, Kate Bush, Cyndi Lauper, Chico DeBarge, Michael McDonald, Aretha Franklin, Diana Ross, Aaliyah, Christina Aguilera, A Perfect Circle, The Strokes
The Strokes
and Gil Scott-Heron. Other artists such as D'Angelo, Common, Nas, Erick Sermon,and Maxwell interpolated parts of Gaye's clothing from the singer's mid-1970s period. Gaye's clothing style was later appropriated by Eddie Murphy in his role as James "Thunder" Early in Dreamgirls. Gaye's military-styled clothing attire in his final tour influenced Michael Jackson.[127] According to David Ritz, "Since 1983, Marvin's name has been mentioned—in reverential tones—on no less than seven top-ten hit records."[122] Later performers such as Kanye West
Kanye West
and Mary J. Blige sampled Gaye's work for their recordings. Awards and honors[edit] The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
inducted him in 1987, declaring that Gaye "...made a huge contribution to soul music in general and the Motown
Motown
Sound in particular." The page stated that Gaye "...possessed a classic R&B voice that was edged with grit yet tempered with sweetness." The page further states that Gaye "...projected an air of soulful authority driven by fervid conviction and heartbroken vulnerability."[104] A year after his death, then-mayor of D.C., Marion Barry
Marion Barry
declared April 2 as " Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
Jr. Memorial Scholarship Fund Day" in the city.[128] Since then, a non-profit organization has helped to organize annual Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
Day Celebrations in the city of Washington.[129] A year later, Gaye's mother founded the Marvin P. Gaye Jr. Memorial Foundation in dedication to her son to help those suffering from drug abuse and alcoholism; however she died a day before the memorial was set to open in 1987.[130] Gaye's sister Jeanne once served as the foundation's chairperson.[131] In 1990, Gaye received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.[132][133] In 1996, Gaye posthumously received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame listed three Gaye recordings, "I Heard It Through the Grapevine", "What's Going On" and "Sexual Healing", among its list of the 500 Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll.[134] American music magazine Rolling Stone ranked Gaye No. 18 on their list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time"[135] and sixth on their list of "100 Greatest Singers of All Time".[136] Q magazine ranked Gaye sixth on their list of the "100 Greatest Singers".[137] Three of Gaye's albums – What's Going On (1971), Let's Get It On (1973), and Here, My Dear
Here, My Dear
(1978) – were ranked by Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
on their list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. What's Going On remains his largest-ranked album, reaching No. 6 on the Rolling Stone list and topped the NME
NME
list of the Top 100 Albums of All Time in 1985[138] and was later chosen in 2003 for inclusion by the Library of Congress to its National Recording Registry.[139] In addition, four of his songs – "I Heard It Through the Grapevine", "What's Going On", "Let's Get It On" and "Sexual Healing" – made it on the Rolling Stone list of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. In 2006, a park that Gaye frequented as a teenager called Watts Branch Park in Washington was renamed Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
Park.[140] Three years later, the 5200 block of Foote Street NE in Deanwood, Washington, D.C., was renamed Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
Way.[141] In August 2014, Gaye was inducted to the official Rhythm and Blues Music Hall of Fame
Rhythm and Blues Music Hall of Fame
in its second class.[142] In October 2015, the Songwriters Hall of Fame announced Gaye as a nominee for induction to the Hall's 2016 class after posthumous nominations were included.[143][144] Gaye was named as a posthumous inductee to that hall on March 2, 2016.[145][146] Gaye was subsequently inducted to the Songwriters Hall on June 9, 2016.[147] In popular culture[edit] His 1983 NBA All-Star performance[148] of the national anthem was used in a Nike commercial featuring the 2008 U.S. Olympic basketball team. Also, on CBS Sports' final NBA telecast to date (before the contract moved to NBC) at the conclusion of Game 5 of the 1990 Finals, they used Gaye's 1983 All-Star Game performance over the closing credits. When VH1
VH1
launched on January 1, 1985, Gaye's 1983 rendition of the national anthem was the very first video they aired. In 2010, it was used in the intro to Ken Burns' Tenth Inning documentary on the game of baseball. "I Heard It Through the Grapevine" was played in a Levi's
Levi's
ad in 1985.[149][150] The result of the commercial's success led to the original song finding renewed success in Europe after Tamla-Motown re-released it in the United Kingdom, Germany and the Netherlands.[150] In 1986, the song was covered by Buddy Miles
Buddy Miles
as part of a California Raisins ad campaign.[151] The song was later used for chewing gum commercials in Finland and to promote a brand of Lucky Strike cigarettes in Germany.[152][153] Gaye's music has also been used in numerous film soundtracks including Four Brothers and Captain America: The Winter Soldier, both of which featured Gaye's music from his Trouble Man soundtrack. "I Heard It Through the Grapevine" was used in the opening credits of the film, The Big Chill.[154][155][156] Gaye's music has also become a source for samples in hip-hop recordings.[157] In 2007, his song "A Funky Space Reincarnation" was used in the Charlize Theron–starred ad for Dior
Dior
J'Adore perfume. A documentary about Gaye—What's Going On: The Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
Story—was a UK/PBS co-production, directed by Jeremy Marre and was first broadcast in 2006. Two years later, the special re-aired with a different production and newer interviews after it was re-broadcast as an American Masters
American Masters
special. Another documentary, focusing on his 1981 documentary, Transit Ostend, titled Remember Marvin, aired in 2006. Earnings[edit] In 2008, Gaye's estate earned $3.5 million (US$3,978,207 in 2017 dollars[49]). As a result, Gaye took 13th place in "Top-Earning Dead Celebrities" in Forbes
Forbes
magazine.[158] On March 11, 2015, Gaye's family was awarded $7.4 million in damages following a decision by an eight-member jury in Los Angeles that Robin Thicke
Robin Thicke
and Pharrell Williams
Pharrell Williams
had breached copyright by incorporating part of Gaye's song "Got to Give It Up" into their hit "Blurred Lines".[159] In January 2016, the Gaye family requested a California judge give $2.66 million in attorneys' fees and $777,000 in legal expenses.[160] Gaye's estate is currently managed by Geffen Management Group and his legacy is protected through Creative Rights Group, both founded by talent manager Jeremy Geffen. Attempted biopics[edit] There have been several attempts to adapt Gaye's life story into a feature film. In February 2006, it was reported that Jesse L. Martin was to portray Gaye in a biopic titled Sexual Healing, named after Gaye's 1982 song of the same name. The film was to have been directed by Lauren Goodman and produced by James Gandolfini
James Gandolfini
and Alexandra Ryan. The film was to depict the final three years of Gaye's life.[161][162][163][164][165] Years later, other producers such as Jean-Luc Van Damme, Frederick Bestall and Jimmy De Brabant, came aboard and Goodman was replaced by Julien Temple. Lenny Kravitz
Lenny Kravitz
was almost slated to playing Gaye. The script was to be written by Matthew Broughton. The film was to have been distributed by Focus Features
Focus Features
and released on April 1, 2014, the thirtieth anniversary of Gaye's death.[166][167][168][169][170][171][172] This never came to fruition and it was announced that Focus Features
Focus Features
no longer has involvement with the Gaye biopic as of June 2013.[173][174] In June 2008, it was announced that F. Gary Gray
F. Gary Gray
was going to direct a biopic titled Marvin. The script was to be written by C. Gaby Mitchell and the film was to be produced by David Foster and Duncan McGillivray and co-produced by Ryan Heppe. According to Gray, the film would cover Gaye's entire life, from his emergence at Motown
Motown
through his defiance of Berry Gordy
Berry Gordy
to record What's Going On and on up to his death.[175][176] Cameron Crowe
Cameron Crowe
had also been working on a biopic titled My Name Is Marvin. The film was to have been a Sony presentation with Scott Rudin as producer. Both Will Smith
Will Smith
and Terrence Howard
Terrence Howard
were considered for the role of Gaye. Crowe later confirmed in August 2011 that he abandoned the project: "We were working on the Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
movie which is called My Name is Marvin, but the time just wasn't right for that movie."[177][178][179][180][181] Members of Gaye's family, such as his ex-wife Janis and his son Marvin III, have expressed opposition to a biopic.[182][183] On December 9, 2015, Roger Friedman spoke of a biopic to be directed by F. Gary Gray
F. Gary Gray
that was approved by Berry Gordy
Berry Gordy
and Suzanne de Passe as well as Gaye's family, following the success of Gray's Straight Outta Compton biopic based on the hip-hop act N.W.A.[184] In July 2016, it was announced that a feature film documentary on Gaye will be released next year delving into the life of the musician and the making of his 1971 album, What's Going On. The film will be developed by Noah Media Group and Greenlight and is quoted to be "the defining portrait of this visionary artist and his impeccable album" by the film's producers Gabriel Clarke and Torquil Jones.[185] The film will include "unseen footage" of the singer.[186] Gaye's family approved of the documentary.[185] In November 2016, it was announced that actor Jamie Foxx
Jamie Foxx
was billed to produce a limited biopic series on the singer's life.[187] The series was approved by Gaye's family, including son Marvin III, who will serve as executive producer, and Berry Gordy, Jr..[187] Tributes[edit] Main article: List of tributes to Marvin Gaye Acting[edit] Gaye acted in two movies, both having to do with Vietnam veterans. One was in 1969 in the George McCowan-directed film, The Ballad of Andy Crocker which starred Lee Majors. The film was about a war veteran returning to find that his expectations have not been met and he feels betrayed. Gaye had a prominent role in the film as David Owens.[188] The other was in 1971. He had a role in the Lee Frost-directed biker-exploitation film, Chrome and Hot Leather, a film about a group of Vietnam veterans taking on a bike gang. The film starred William Smith and Gaye played the part of Jim, one of the veterans.[189][190] Gaye did have acting aspirations and had signed with the William Morris Agency but that only lasted a year as Gaye wasn't satisfied with the support he was getting from the agency.[191] Discography[edit] Main article: Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
discography

Studio albums

The Soulful Moods of Marvin Gaye
The Soulful Moods of Marvin Gaye
(1961) That Stubborn Kinda Fellow
That Stubborn Kinda Fellow
(1963) When I'm Alone I Cry (1964) Hello Broadway (1964) How Sweet It Is to Be Loved by You (1965) A Tribute to the Great Nat "King" Cole
Nat "King" Cole
(1965) Moods of Marvin Gaye
Moods of Marvin Gaye
(1966) I Heard It Through the Grapevine
I Heard It Through the Grapevine
(1968) M.P.G. (1969) That's the Way Love Is (1970) What's Going On (1971) Trouble Man (1972) Let's Get It On
Let's Get It On
(1973) I Want You (1976) Here, My Dear
Here, My Dear
(1978) In Our Lifetime (1981) Midnight Love
Midnight Love
(1982)

Posthumous albums

Dream of a Lifetime
Dream of a Lifetime
(1985) Romantically Yours
Romantically Yours
(1985) Vulnerable (1997)

Collaborative albums

Together (with Mary Wells) (1964) Take Two (with Kim Weston) (1966) United (with Tammi Terrell) (1967) You're All I Need
You're All I Need
(with Tammi Terrell) (1968) Easy (with Tammi Terrell) (1969) Diana & Marvin (with Diana Ross) (1973)

Filmography[edit]

1965: T.A.M.I. Show
T.A.M.I. Show
(documentary) 1969: The Ballad of Andy Crocker (television movie) 1971: Chrome and Hot Leather
Chrome and Hot Leather
(television movie) 1973: Save the Children (documentary)

Videography[edit]

Marvin Gaye: Live in Montreux 1980 (2003)[192] The Real Thing: In Performance (1964–1981) (2006)

See also[edit]

Book: Marvin Gaye

Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
portal 1960s portal 1970s portal 1980s portal

References[edit] Notes

^ This area should not be confused with the present-day Benning Terrace public housing complex in the Benning Ridge
Benning Ridge
neighborhood, which today is also nicknamed "Simple City".[16] ^ At least once source claims they did not move in until 1955.[32] ^ MacKenzie and a wide range of sources mischaracterize this neighborhood as Deanwood.[30] ^ Some sources suggest the family first moved to the Benning Ridge neighborhood after leaving Southwest. According to Zeola Gay[34] and The Washington Post
The Washington Post
reporter Roger Catlin,[7] the Gay family moved to the Benning Terrace public housing project in the early 1950s. This is not possible, as the Benning Terrace apartments did not begin construction until late 1956,[35] a full year after Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
had left home for the military.

Citations[edit]

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House". Retrieved June 18, 2012.  ^ Communications, Emmis (January 1998). Dial Them For Murder. Los Angeles Magazine. Retrieved September 13, 2012.  ^ " Marvin Gaye
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Timeline". The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. January 21, 1987. Retrieved December 23, 2010.  ^ a b c d Catlin, Roger (April 27, 2012). "Washington, D.C., sites with links to Marvin Gaye". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 29, 2017.  ^ a b Crockett, Stephen A., Jr. (July 24, 2002). "Song of the City: In the Name of Marvin Gaye, Neighbors Rescue a Park Near His Old Home". The Washington Post. p. C1.  ^ a b Milloy, Courtland (April 8, 1984). "The War for One Man's Soul: Marvin Gaye". The Washington Post. p. C1, C2.  ^ Ritz 1991, p. 6. ^ Banks & Banks 2004, p. 41. ^ Gutheim & Lee 2006, pp. 266-267. ^ Bahrampour, Tara (March 14, 2016). "'Old but not cold': Four very longtime friends anticipate turning 100 this year". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 29, 2017.  ^ a b Ritz 1991, p. 13. ^ Gaye 2003, p. 4. ^ Gillis, Justin; Miller, Bill (April 20, 1997). "In D.C.'s Simple City, Complex Rules of Life and Death". The Washington Post. p. A1. Retrieved January 29, 2017.  ^ a b "Gaye's second wife calls play 'completely and utterly exploitative'". February 16, 2013. Retrieved February 17, 2013. [permanent dead link] ^ a b c Browne 2001, p. 316. ^ Ritz 1991, p. 14. ^ a b Gaye 2003, p. 8. ^ Ritz 1991, p. 5. ^ Ritz 1991, p. 11. ^ Ritz 1991, p. 12. ^ Ritz 1991, p. 13: "If it wasn't for Mother, who was always there to console me and praise me for my singing, I think I would have been one of those child suicide cases you read about in the papers.". ^ Ritz 1991, p. 12: "From the time he was seven until he became a teenager, Marvin's life at home consisted of a series of brutal whippings.". ^ Fleishman, Sandra (May 13, 2000). "Reading, 'Riting And Redevelopment". The Washington Post. p. G1.  ^ Bonner, Alice (October 1, 1973). "The Golden Years: City's Randall Junior High School Celebrates 50th Anniversary". The Washington Post. p. C1 ; Harrington+first=Richard (April 2, 1984). "The Fallen Prince: Marvin Gaye
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James Gandolfini
joins Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
biopic". Entertainment Weekly. February 3, 2008. Retrieved August 16, 2015.  ^ Child, Ben (February 14, 2011). " Julien Temple
Julien Temple
to direct Marvin Gaye biopic". The Guardian. Retrieved August 16, 2015.  ^ Patten, Dominic (November 26, 2012). " Lenny Kravitz
Lenny Kravitz
To Play Marvin Gaye in Julien Temple
Julien Temple
Film". Deadline.com. Retrieved August 16, 2015.  ^ McNary, Dave (April 26, 2013). "Focus Adds Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
Project To Cannes Slate". Variety. Retrieved August 16, 2015.  ^ McClintock, Pamela; Siegel, Tatiana (April 26, 2013). "Cannes: Focus Picks Up Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
Biopic". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 16, 2015.  ^ " Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
Biopic, 'Sexual Healing' Teaser Clip Surfaces Online (VIDEO)". The Huffington Post. September 18, 2013. Retrieved August 16, 2015.  ^ Haglund, David (September 19, 2013). "Will the Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
Movie Be Any Good?". Slate. Retrieved August 16, 2015.  ^ Sacks, Ethan (September 19, 2013). "'Sexual Healing' teaser trailer released: Jesse L. Martin
Jesse L. Martin
channels legendary R&B singer Marvin Gaye for biopic". New York Daily News. Retrieved August 16, 2015.  ^ Mcnab, Geoffrey (June 13, 2013). "Temple's Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
film stalls". Retrieved August 27, 2015.  ^ Sacks, Ethan (September 19, 2013). "'Sexual Healing' teaser trailer released: Jesse L. Martin
Jesse L. Martin
channels legendary R&B singer Marvin Gaye for biopic". New York Daily News. Retrieved August 27, 2015.  ^ Fleming, Michael (June 5, 2008). " F. Gary Gray
F. Gary Gray
to direct 'Marvin' movie". Variety. Retrieved August 16, 2015.  ^ Campbell, Christopher (June 8, 2008). " F. Gary Gray
F. Gary Gray
Helming Other Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
Biopic". Moviefone. Retrieved August 16, 2015.  ^ Chagollan, Steve (April 1, 2010). "Music biopics struggle to make it to bigscreen". Variety. Retrieved August 16, 2015.  ^ Adler, Tim (May 16, 2010). "CANNES: Terrence Howard
Terrence Howard
In Talks To Play Cameron Crowe's Marvin Gaye". Deadline.com. Retrieved August 16, 2015.  ^ "Marvin Gaye: Mixed messages heard on the grapevine". April 5, 2011. Retrieved August 16, 2015.  ^ Singer, Matt (August 26, 2011). "FALL PREVIEW: CAMERON CROWE TALKS "WE BOUGHT A ZOO", BUYING INTO MATT DAMON AND WHY ANIMALS MAKE GREAT CHARACTERS". Ifc.com. Retrieved August 16, 2015.  ^ Suskind, Alex (November 22, 2011). " Cameron Crowe
Cameron Crowe
Once Fired Ashton Kutcher; Was Planning Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
Biopic With Will Smith". Moviefone. Retrieved August 16, 2015.  ^ " Lenny Kravitz
Lenny Kravitz
Drops Out of Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
Biopic". Rolling Stone. March 5, 2013. Retrieved August 27, 2015.  ^ " Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
Biopic 'Sexual Healing' Has Singer's Ex-Wife, Janis Gaye, 'Disappointed'". The Huffington Post. March 11, 2014. Retrieved August 27, 2015.  ^ "Exclusive: Official Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
Biopic from "Compton" Director". Showbiz411.com. December 9, 2015. Retrieved December 9, 2015.  ^ a b Adelle Platon (July 14, 2016). "Marvin Gaye's Family on Board for 'What's Going On?' Documentary". Billboard. Retrieved July 15, 2016.  ^ "New Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
Doc Features Unseen Footage". Rolling Stone. July 12, 2016. Retrieved July 15, 2016.  ^ a b Rebecca Sun (November 30, 2016). " Jamie Foxx
Jamie Foxx
Producing Limited Series About Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
(Exclusive) – Hollywood Reporter". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 1, 2016.  ^ Encyclopedia of the Veteran in America by William A. Pencak Page 167, Film and Veterans ^ TV Guide Chrome And Hot Leather ^ Cool Ass Cinema Tuesday, February 17, 2009 Chrome & Hot Leather (1971) review ^ Divided Soul: The Life Of Marvin Gaye: The Life of Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
by David Ritz
David Ritz
Chapter 17 Hollywood Hustles ^ " Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
– Live in Montreux 1980: Marvin Gaye: Movies & TV". Amazon.com. Retrieved July 8, 2011. 

Sources[edit]

Banks, James G.; Banks, Peter S. (2004). The Unintended Consequences: Family and Community, the Victims of Isolated Poverty. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America. ISBN 9780761828563.  Batchelor, Bob (2005). Basketball in America: From the Playgrounds to Jordan's Game and Beyond. Haworth Press. ISBN 0-7890-1613-3.  Berry, William Earl (February 1, 1973). "Marvin Gaye: Inner City Musical Poet". Jet.  Brooks-Bertram, Peggy (2009). Uncrowned Queens: African American Women Community Builders of Western New York, Volume 2 (Google eBook). SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-97229-771-4.  Browne, Ray B. (2001). The Guide to United States Popular Culture. Popular Press. ISBN 978-0-87972-821-2.  Collier, Aldore (April 16, 1984). "Marvin Gaye: His Tragic Death and Troubled Life". Jet.  Collier, Aldore (June 25, 1984). "Marvin Gaye's White Live-In Mate Suffers Miscarriage". Jet.  Collier, Aldore (April 8, 1985). "A Year Later: What Happened to Marvin Gaye's Family, Fortune?". Jet.  Collier, Aldore (May 6, 1985). " Book
Book
Reveals Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
Feared He Would Turn Gay". Jet.  Collier, Aldore (May 25, 1987). "Marvin Gaye's Mother Dies on Eve of Opening Drug Center She Founded As His Memorial". Jet.  Collier, Aldore (October 15, 1990). "Gala Celebration Marks Marvin Gaye's Star on Hollywood Walk of Fame". Jet.  Collier, Aldore (April 23, 1990). "Murphy Requests Walk of Fame Star For Marvin Gaye". Jet.  Des Barres, Pamela (1996). Rock Bottom: Dark Moments in Music Babylon. Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-14853-4.  Dyson, Eric Michael (2004). Mercy Mercy Me: The Art, Loves and Demons of Marvin Gaye. New York/Philadelphia: Basic Civitas. ISBN 0-465-01769-X.  Edmonds, Ben (2001a). What's Going On?: Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
and the Last Days of the Motown
Motown
Sound. Canongate U.S. ISBN 1-84195-314-8.  Edmonds, Ben (2001a). Let's Get It On
Let's Get It On
(Deluxe edition). Motown Records, a Division of UMG Recordings, Inc. MOTD 4757.  Evelyn, Douglas; Dickson, Paul; Ackerman, S.J. (2008). On This Spot: Pinpointing the Past in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Sterling, Va.: Capital Books. ISBN 9781933102702.  Gaye, Frankie (2003). Marvin Gaye, My Brother. Backbeat Books. ISBN 0-87930-742-0.  Gates, Henry Louis (2004). African American Lives. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19516-024-6.  Gilmore, Mikal (1998). Night beat: a shadow history of rock & roll. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-38548-435-0.  Gulla, Bob (2008). Icons of R&B and Soul: An Encyclopedia of the Artists Who Revolutionized Rhythm. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-34044-4.  Gutheim, Frederick A.; Lee, Antoinette J. (2006). Worthy of the Nation: Washington, D.C., From L'Enfant to the National Capital Planning Commission. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9780801883286.  Company, Johnson Publishing (April 9, 1970). "Thousands Attend Last Rites For Tammi Terrell". Jet.  Company, Johnson Publishing (November 13, 1975). "For Reading: Marvin Gaye receives special plaque from Ms. Shirley Temple Black". Jet.  Company, Johnson Publishing (March 29, 1982). "Landing Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
Was a Task For CBS Records". Jet.  Jones, Regina (March 2002). "Unbreakable: Michael Jackson". Vibe.  Kempton, Arthur (2005). Boogaloo: The Quintessence of American Popular Music. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-47203-087-3.  Lynskey, Dorian (April 5, 2011). 33 Revolutions per Minute: A History of Protest Songs, from Billie Holiday to Green Day (Google eBook). HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06167-015-2.  MacKenzie, Alex (2009). The Life and Times of the Motown
Motown
Stars. Right Recordings. ISBN 978-1-84226-014-2.  Marx, Eve (September 18, 2009). 101 Things You Didn't Know About Sex (Google eBook). Adams Media. ISBN 978-1-44050-428-0.  Otfinoski, Steven (2010). African Americans in the Performing Arts. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1-43812-855-9.  Posner, Gerald (2002). Motown : Music, Money, Sex, and Power. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-375-50062-6.  Redfern, Nick (February 20, 2007). Celebrity Secrets: Official Government Files on the Rich and Famous. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-41652-866-1.  Ritz, David (1991). Divided Soul: The Life of Marvin Gaye. Cambridge, Mass: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81191-X.  Ritz, David (July 1985). "The Last Days of Marvin Gaye". Ebony.  Simmonds, Jeremy (2008). The Encyclopedia of Dead Rock Stars: Heroin, Handguns, and Ham Sandwiches. Chicago Review Press. ISBN 1-55652-754-3.  Vincent, Rickey (1996). Funk: The Music, the People, and the Rhythm of the One. Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-13499-1.  Weinger, Harry (November 5, 1994). "Jobete: Publishing Is The Highly Polished Jewel In The Gordy Co.'s Crown". Billboard.  Whitburn, Joel (2004). The Billboard Book
Book
of Top 40 Hits: Complete Chart Information About America's Most Popular Songs and Artists, 1955–2003. Billboard Books. ISBN 0-8230-7499-4. 

Further reading[edit]

Davis, Sharon (1991). Marvin Gaye: I Heard It Through The Grapevine. Croydon, Surrey: Book
Book
marque Ltd. ISBN 1-84018-320-9. Gambaccini, Paul (1987). The Top 100 Rock 'n' Roll Albums of All Time. New York: Harmony Books. Garofalo, Reebee (1997). Rockin' Out: Popular Music in the USA. Allyn & Bacon. ISBN 0-205-13703-2.  Heron, W. Kim (April 8, 1984). Marvin Gaye: A Life Marked by Complexity. Detroit
Detroit
Free Press. Turner, Steve (1998). Trouble Man: The Life and Death of Marvin Gaye. London: Michael Joseph. ISBN 0-7181-4112-1. Ward, Ed, Geoffrey Stokes and Ken Tucker (1986). Rock of Ages: The Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
History of Rock and Roll. Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
Press. ISBN 0-671-54438-1. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) White, Adam (1985). The Motown
Motown
Story. London: Orbis. ISBN 0-85613-626-3.

External links[edit]

Find more aboutMarvin Gayeat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Data from Wikidata

Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
at Encyclopædia Britannica Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
at AllMovie Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
at AllMusic Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
at the Internet Broadway Database
Internet Broadway Database
Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
on IMDb Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
at Find a Grave Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
interviewed on the Pop Chronicles
Pop Chronicles
(1969) Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
Biography FBI Records: The Vault - Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
at vault.fbi.gov Additional archives

v t e

Marvin Gaye

Studio albums

The Soulful Moods of Marvin Gaye
The Soulful Moods of Marvin Gaye
(1961) That Stubborn Kinda Fellow
That Stubborn Kinda Fellow
(1962) When I'm Alone I Cry (1964) Hello Broadway (1964) How Sweet It Is to Be Loved by You (1965) A Tribute to the Great Nat "King" Cole
Nat "King" Cole
(1965) Moods of Marvin Gaye
Moods of Marvin Gaye
(1966) In the Groove/I Heard It Through the Grapevine! (1968) M.P.G. (1969) That's the Way Love Is (1970) What's Going On (1971) Trouble Man (1972) Let's Get It On
Let's Get It On
(1973) I Want You (1976) Here, My Dear
Here, My Dear
(1978) In Our Lifetime (1981) Midnight Love
Midnight Love
(1982)

Posthumous albums

Dream of a Lifetime
Dream of a Lifetime
(1985) Romantically Yours
Romantically Yours
(1986) Vulnerable (1997)

Duet albums

Together (with Mary Wells, 1964) Take Two (with Kim Weston, 1966) United (with Tammi Terrell, 1967) You're All I Need
You're All I Need
(with Tammi Terrell, 1968) Easy (with Tammi Terrell, 1969) Diana & Marvin (with Diana Ross, 1973)

Compilations

Greatest Hits (1964) Greatest Hits, Vol. 2 (1967) Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
and His Girls (1969) Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
and Tammi Terrell's Greatest Hits (1970) Super Hits (1970) Anthology (1974) Marvin Gaye's Greatest Hits
Marvin Gaye's Greatest Hits
(1976) Motown
Motown
Remembers Marvin Gaye: Never Before Released Masters (1986) The Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
Collection (1990) The Norman Whitfield Sessions
The Norman Whitfield Sessions
(1994) Love Starved Heart: Rare and Unreleased (1994) The Very Best of Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
(1994) The Master (1961–1984)
The Master (1961–1984)
(1995) Marvin Gaye: The Love Songs (2000) The Complete Duets
The Complete Duets
(2001) The Very Best of Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
(2001)

Live albums

Marvin Gaye Recorded Live on Stage
Marvin Gaye Recorded Live on Stage
(1963) Marvin Gaye Live! (1974) Live at the London Palladium
Live at the London Palladium
(1977) Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
at the Copa (2005)

Video albums

Greatest Hits Live (Live in Holland 1976) (2000) Live In Montreux 1980 (2003) The Real Thing: In Performance (1964–1981) (2006) Live In Belgium 1981 (2006)

US/UK Top Ten singles

"Pride and Joy" "How Sweet It Is (To Be Loved by You)" "I'll Be Doggone" "Ain't That Peculiar" "Your Precious Love" "If I Could Build My Whole World Around You" "Ain't Nothing Like the Real Thing" " You're All I Need
You're All I Need
to Get By" "I Heard It Through the Grapevine" "Too Busy Thinking About My Baby" "That's the Way Love Is" "Abraham, Martin and John" "The Onion Song" "What's Going On" "Mercy Mercy Me (The Ecology)" "Inner City Blues (Make Me Wanna Holler)" "Trouble Man" "Let's Get It On" "You Are Everything" "Got to Give It Up" "Sexual Healing"

Family

Marvin Gay Sr.
Marvin Gay Sr.
(father) Alberta Gay
Alberta Gay
(mother) Anna Gordy Gaye (first wife) Denise Gordy (son's birth mother) Nona Gaye (daughter) Frankie Gaye
Frankie Gaye
(brother) Gordon Banks (brother-in-law)

Related topics

Discography Songs Albums Songs by Marvin Gaye Albums produced by Marvin Gaye Songs in memory Songs produced by Marvin Gaye Personal life Death Tributes The Marquees Harvey Fuqua Tammi Terrell Leon Ware Marvin's Room Marvin Is 60: A Tribute Album

Book Category Portal

v t e

Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
singles discography

1960s: (Tamla)

1961 "Let Your Conscience Be Your Guide"

1962 "Sandman" "Soldier's Plea" "Stubborn Kind of Fellow" "Hitch Hike"

1963 "Pride and Joy" "Can I Get a Witness"

1964 "You're a Wonderful One" "Once Upon a Time" "What's the Matter with You Baby" "Try It Baby" "Baby Don't You Do It" "What Good Am I Without You" "How Sweet It Is (To Be Loved by You)"

1965 "I'll Be Doggone" "Pretty Little Baby" "Ain't That Peculiar"

1966 "One More Heartache" "Take This Heart of Mine" "Little Darling (I Need You)" "It Takes Two"

1967 "Ain't No Mountain High Enough" "Your Unchanging Love" "Your Precious Love" "You" "If I Could Build My Whole World Around You"/"If This World Were Mine"

1968 "Ain't Nothing Like the Real Thing" " You're All I Need
You're All I Need
to Get By" "Chained" "Keep On Lovin' Me Honey" "You Ain't Livin' till You're Lovin'" "His Eye Is on the Sparrow" "I Heard It Through the Grapevine"

1969 "Good Lovin' Ain't Easy to Come By" "Too Busy Thinking About My Baby" "That's the Way Love Is" "Abraham, Martin and John" "What You Gave Me" "How Can I Forget"

1970s: (Tamla)

1970 "Gonna Give Her All the Love I've Got" "The Onion Song" "California Soul" "The End of Our Road"

1971 "What's Going On" "Mercy Mercy Me (The Ecology)" "Inner City Blues (Make Me Wanna Holler)" "Save the Children"

1972 "You're the Man" "Trouble Man" "I Want to Come Home for Christmas"

1973 "Let's Get It On" "You're a Special
Special
Part of Me" "Stop, Look, Listen (To Your Heart)" "Come Get to This"

1974 "You Sure Love to Ball" "My Mistake (Was to Love You)" "Don't Knock My Love" "You Are Everything" "Distant Lover"

1976 "I Want You" "After the Dance" "Since I Had You"

1977 "Got to Give It Up"

1978 "Pops, We Love You (A Tribute to Father)"

1979 "A Funky Space Reincarnation" "Anger" "Ego Tripping Out"

1980s: (Tamla/ Columbia)

1981 "Praise" "Heavy Love Affair"

1982 "Sexual Healing"

1983 "My Love Is Waiting" "'Til Tomorrow" "Joy"

Posthumous

1985 "Sanctified Lady" "It's Madness" "Just Like"

1986 "The World Is Rated X"

1991 "My Last Chance"

1994 "Lucky, Lucky Me"

1995 "This Love Starved Heart Of Mine(It's Killing Me)"

2001 "Music"

2005 " Let's Get It On
Let's Get It On
(The M.P.G. Groove Remix)"

2015 "Where Are We Going"

Book Category Portal

v t e

Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Class of 1987

Performers

The Coasters
The Coasters
(Carl Gardner, Cornell Gunter, Billy Guy, Dub Jones) Eddie Cochran Bo Diddley Aretha Franklin Marvin Gaye Bill Haley B.B. King Clyde McPhatter Ricky Nelson Roy Orbison Carl Perkins Smokey Robinson Big Joe Turner Muddy Waters Jackie Wilson

Early influences

Louis Jordan T-Bone Walker Hank Williams

Non-performers (Ahmet Ertegun Award)

Leonard Chess Ahmet Ertegün Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller Jerry Wexler

v t e

Gordy family

First generation

Berry Gordy Lucy Hellum

Second generation

Berry Gordy
Berry Gordy
II Bertha Fuller

Third generation

Esther Gordy Anna Gordy Gwen Gordy Harvey Fuqua Berry Gordy
Berry Gordy
Jr. (III) Raynoma Mayberry Diana Ross Robert Gordy

Fourth generation

Iris Gordy Johnny Bristol Marvin Gaye Denise Gordy Richard Lawson Jermaine Jackson Kerry Gordy Kennedy Gordy Rhonda Gordy Rodney Kendrick Stefan Gordy

Fifth generation

Bianca Lawson Skyler Gordy

Book Category

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 46946447 LCCN: n84164416 ISNI: 0000 0000 8379 7238 GND: 11929821X SUDOC: 078057736 BNF: cb13894357k (data) MusicBrainz: afdb7919-059d-43c1-b668-ba1d265e7e42 NDL: 00620716 BNE: XX875558 SN

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