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Sir Martin John Evans FRS FMedSci (born 1 January 1941 in Stroud, Gloucestershire[1][7]) is a British biologist who, with Matthew Kaufman, was the first to culture mice embryonic stem cells and cultivate them in a laboratory in 1981. He is also known, along with Mario Capecchi
Mario Capecchi
and Oliver Smithies, for his work in the development of the knockout mouse and the related technology of gene targeting, a method of using embryonic stem cells to create specific gene modifications in mice.[7][8] In 2007, the three shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in recognition of their discovery and contribution to the efforts to develop new treatments for illnesses in humans.[9][10][11][12][13] He won a major scholarship to Christ's College, Cambridge
Christ's College, Cambridge
at a time when advances in genetics were occurring there and became interested in biology and biochemistry.[citation needed] He then went to University College London
University College London
where he learned laboratory skills supervised by Elizabeth Deuchar. In 1978, he moved to the Department of Genetics, at the University of Cambridge, and in 1980 began his collaboration with Matthew Kaufman. They explored the method of using blastocysts for the isolation of embryonic stem cells. After Kaufman left, Evans continued his work, upgrading his laboratory skills to the newest technologies, isolated the embryonic stem cell of the early mouse embryo and established it in a cell culture. He genetically modified and implanted it into adult female mice with the intent of creating genetically modified offspring, work for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in 2007. Today, genetically modified mice are considered vital for medical research.

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Career and research

2.1 Stem cell
Stem cell
research

3 Personal life 4 Awards and honours 5 References

Early life and education[edit] Evans was born in Stroud, Gloucestershire, England on 1 January 1941.[7] His mother was a teacher.[10] His father maintained a mechanical workshop and taught Evans to use tools and machines including a lathe.[10] Evans was close to his grandfather who was a choir master at a Baptist
Baptist
Church for over 40 years, and whose main interests were music, poetry, and the Baptist
Baptist
Church.[10] His mother's brother was a professor of astronomy at the University of Cambridge.[10] As a boy Evans was quiet, shy and inquisitive.[5] He liked science, and his parents encouraged his education.[10] He remembers loving old science books and receiving an electric experimental set which he wanted for Christmas.[5] He attributes to a chemistry set, from which he learned basic chemistry, for the development of one of his "greatest amateur passions".[5] He went to middle school at St Dunstan's College,[10] an independent school for boys in South East London, where he started chemistry and physics classes, and studied biology.[5] He worked hard studying for the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
entrance exams. At school he was one of the best pupils, although not at the top of the class.[10] Evans won a major scholarship to Christ's College, Cambridge, at a time when there were many advances in genetics being made. He studied zoology, botany and chemistry, but soon dropped zoology and added biochemistry, finding himself drawn to plant physiology and function.[5] He went to seminars by Sydney Brenner
Sydney Brenner
and attended lectures by Jacques Monod.[10] He graduated from Christ's College with a BA in 1963; although, he did not take his final examinations, because he was ill with glandular fever.[7][8] He decided on a career examining genetic control of vertebrate development.[14] He moved to University College London
University College London
where he had a fortunate position as a research assistant, learning laboratory skills under Dr Elizabeth Deuchar. His goal at the time was "to isolate developmentally controlled m-RNA".[5] He was awarded a PhD
PhD
in 1969.[15][1][7][16] Career and research[edit] He became a lecturer in the Anatomy
Anatomy
and Embryology
Embryology
department at University College London, where he did research and taught PhD students and undergraduates.[16] In 1978, he moved to the Department of Genetics, at the University of Cambridge, where his work in association with Matthew Kaufman began in 1980.[7] They developed the idea of using blastocysts for the isolation of embryonic stem cells.[17] After Kaufman left to take up a professorship in Anatomy
Anatomy
in Edinburgh, Evans continued his work, branching out eclectically, "drawn into a number of fascinating fields of biology and medicine."[5] In October 1985, he visited the Whitehead Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, for one month of practical work to learn the most recent laboratory techniques.[8][18] In the 1990s, he was a fellow at St Edmund's College, Cambridge. In 1999, he became Professor of Mammalian Genetics
Genetics
and Director of the School of Biosciences at Cardiff University,[7][19] where he worked until he retired at the end of 2007.[20] He became a Knight Bachelor in the 2004 New Year Honours in recognition of his work in stem cell research.[7][21] He received the accolade from Prince Charles at Buckingham Palace
Buckingham Palace
on 25 June 2004.[22] In 2007, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
along with Mario Capecchi
Mario Capecchi
and Oliver Smithies
Oliver Smithies
for their work in discovering a method for introducing homologous recombination in mice employing embryonic stem cells.[9] Evans was appointed president of Cardiff University
Cardiff University
and was inaugurated into that position on 23 November 2009.[23] Subsequently, Evans became Chancellor of Cardiff University
Cardiff University
in 2012.[24] Stem cell
Stem cell
research[edit] Evans and Kaufman isolated the embryonic stem cells from early embryos (embryoblasts) of mice and established them in cell cultures. These early embryonic cells have the potential to differentiate into any of the cells of the adult organism. They modified these stem cells genetically and placed them in the wombs of female mice so they would give birth to genetically modified offspring.[25] In 1981, Evans and Kaufman published results for experiments in which they described how they isolated embryonic stem cells from mouse blastocysts and grew them in cell cultures.[25][26] This was also achieved by Gail R. Martin, independently, in the same year.[27] Eventually, Evans was able to isolate the embryonic stem cell of the early mouse embryo and establish it in a cell culture. He then genetically modified it and implanted it into adult female mice with the intent of creating genetically modified offspring, the forbearers of the laboratory mice that are considered so vital to medical research today.[25] The availability of these cultured stem cells eventually made possible the introduction of specific gene alterations into the germ line of mice and the creation of transgenic mice to use as experimental models for human illnesses.[25] Evans and his collaborators showed that they could introduce a new gene into cultured embryonic stem cells and then use such genetically transformed cells to make chimeric embryos.[28] In some chimeric embryos, the genetically altered stem cells produced gametes, thus allowing transmission of the artificially induced mutation into future generations of mice.[29] In this way, transgenic mice with induced mutations in the enzyme Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) were created.[30] The HPRT mutations were produced by retroviral insertion; it was proposed that by taking advantage of genetic recombination between the normal HPRT gene and an artificial gene sequenced added to the cultured embryonic stem cells, "it may also eventually be possible to produce specific alterations in endogenous genes through homologous recombination with cloned copies modified in vitro".[25] The production of transgenic mice using this proposed approach was accomplished in the laboratories of Oliver Smithies,[31] and of Mario Capecchi.[32] Personal life[edit] When Evans was a student in Cambridge he met his wife, Judith Clare Williams,[1] at a lunch held by his aunt, wife of an astronomy professor.[10] After they were engaged, their relationship did not go well and Judith went to live in Canada; however, a year later she returned to England and they married.[10] In 1978, they moved from London to Cambridge with their young children, where they lived for more than 20 years before moving to Cardiff. They have one daughter and two sons.[1][33] Their older son was a student at the University of Cambridge and their younger son was a boarder at Christ Church Cathedral School in Oxford and sang in Christ Church Cathedral choir.[10] His wife Judith Clare Williams, granddaughter of Christopher Williams, was appointed MBE for her services to practice nursing in the 1993 New Year Honours.[34][35] She was diagnosed with breast cancer at about the time the family moved to Cardiff. She works for breast cancer charities, and Martin Evans
Martin Evans
has become a trustee of Breakthrough Breast Cancer.[10] Awards and honours[edit] Evans has won numerous awards including:

1990 - Elected an EMBO Member[2] 1993 - Elected a Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellow of the Royal Society
(FRS)[36] 1998 - Founder Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences.[19][37] 1999 - The USA charity March of Dimes
March of Dimes
awarded their annual prize in Developmental Biology
Biology
for research into embryonic growth jointly to Professor Richard Gardner at the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
and Evans.[38] 2001 - Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research, jointly with Mario Capecchi
Mario Capecchi
and Oliver Smithies.[33][39][40] 2002 - Honorary doctorate from Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, USA.[41] 2004 - Appointed Knight Bachelor
Knight Bachelor
in the 2004 New Year Honours "for services to medical science".[21] 2005 - Honorary doctorate from the University of Bath, England.[42] 2007 - Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology or Medicine, jointly with Mario Capecchi and Oliver Smithies.[9] 2008 - Honorary doctorate from University College London, England.[43] 2009 - Gold Medal of the Royal Society
Royal Society
of Medicine[44][45] 2009 - Copley Medal of the Royal Society[46] 2009 - Member of the Advisory Board of the Faraday Institute[47] 2009 - UCL Prize Lecture in Clinical Science

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h EVANS, Sir Martin (John). ukwhoswho.com. Who's Who. 2015 (online Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc.  (subscription required) ^ a b " Martin Evans
Martin Evans
EMBO profile". people.embo.org. Heidelberg: European Molecular Biology
Biology
Organization.  ^ Bradley, Allan (1985). Isolation characterization and developmental potential of murine embryo-derived stem cells ( PhD
PhD
thesis). University of Cambridge.  ^ " Allan Bradley
Allan Bradley
- Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute". Sanger.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-11-13.  ^ a b c d e f g h Evans, Martin J. "Sir Martin J. Evans - Autobiography". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 27 June 2010.  ^ "Martin Evans". Desert Island Discs. 17 February 2008. BBC
BBC
Radio 4. Retrieved 2014-01-18.  ^ a b c d e f g h Stem cell
Stem cell
architect is knighted BBC
BBC
News : Wednesday, 31 December 2003 ^ a b c Evans, Martin J. (October 2001). "The cultural mouse". Nature Medicine. 7 (10): 1081–1083. doi:10.1038/nm1001-1081. PMID 11590418. Retrieved 1 October 2007.  (subscription required) ^ a b c "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
2007". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 8 October 2007.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m " Desert Island Discs
Desert Island Discs
with Martin Evans". Desert Island Discs. 2008-02-17. BBC. Radio 4.  ^ "Professor Sir Martin Evans
Martin Evans
Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for Medicine". Cardiff University. Archived from the original on 2013-01-26.  ^ Evans Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
lecture ^ "A celebration of science in the UK: 10 Britons who shaped our world". The Independent. 2006-07-05.  ^ Evans, Martin. " Martin Evans
Martin Evans
FRS, DSc". Cardiff School of Biosciences. Archived from the original on 10 February 2001. Retrieved 27 June 2010.  ^ Evans, Martin John (1969). Studies on the ribonucleic acid of early amphibian embryos ( PhD
PhD
thesis). University College London. EThOS uk.bl.ethos.659008.  ^ a b "20th Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for UCL community". University College London. 2007-10-08. Retrieved 9 October 2007.  ^ Evans M, Kaufman M (1981). "Establishment in culture of pluripotent cells from mouse embryos". Nature. 292 (5819): 154–6. doi:10.1038/292154a0. PMID 7242681.  ^ "Sir Martin J. Evans: Interview". The Nobel Foundation.  ^ a b "Staff list: Sir Martin Evans
Martin Evans
FRS, DSc". School of Biosciences, Cardiff University. Archived from the original on 2 August 2009. Retrieved 1 October 2007.  ^ Chan, Xuefei (2007-12-07). "Experiences of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Laureates in Physiology or Medicine". People's Daily. Retrieved 5 April 2008.  ^ a b "No. 57155". The London Gazette
The London Gazette
(Supplement). 31 December 2003. p. 1.  ^ "No. 57391". The London Gazette. 24 August 2004. p. 10694.  ^ "Nobel Laureate appointed as president at Cardiff University". Cardiff University. Archived from the original on 29 November 2010. Retrieved 25 November 2009.  ^ "Whos who at Cardiff". [permanent dead link] ^ a b c d e Hansson, Göran K. "The 2007 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology or Medicine - Advanced Information". Nobelprize.org. Archived from the original on 16 October 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2010.  ^ Evans M, Kaufman M (July 1981). "Establishment in culture of pluripotential cells from mouse embryos". Nature. 292 (5819): 154–6. doi:10.1038/292154a0. PMID 7242681.  ^ Martin G (December 1981). "Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by teratocarcinoma stem cells". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 78 (12): 7634–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.78.12.7634. PMC 349323 . PMID 6950406.  ^ Bradley A, Evans M, Kaufman MH, Robertson E (1984). "Formation of germ-line chimaeras from embryo-derived teratocarcinoma cell lines". Nature. 309 (5965): 255–256. doi:10.1038/309255a0. PMID 6717601.  ^ Robertson E; Bradley, A.; Kuehn, M.; Evans, M. (1986). "Germ-line transmission of genes introduced into cultured pluripotential cells by retroviral vector". Nature. 323 (6087): 445–448. doi:10.1038/323445a0. PMID 3762693.  ^ Kuehn MR, Bradley A, Robertson EJ, Evans MJ (1987). "A potential animal model for Lesch-Nyhan syndrome through introduction of HPRT mutations into mice". Nature. 326 (5819): 295–298. doi:10.1038/326295a0. PMID 3029599.  ^ Doetschman T; Gregg, R.G.; Maeda, N.; Hooper, M.L.; Melton, D.W.; Thompson, S.; Smithies, O. (1989). "Germ-line transmission of a planned alteration made in a hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 86 (22): 8927–8931. doi:10.1073/pnas.86.22.8927. PMC 298403 . PMID 2573070.  ^ Thomas KR, Deng C, Capecchi MR (1992). "High-fidelity gene targeting in embryonic stem cells by using sequence replacement vectors". Mol Cell Biol. 12 (7): 2919–2923. PMC 364504 . PMID 1620105.  ^ a b "2001 Albert Lasker Award - Acceptance remarks by Martin Evans". Lasker Foundation. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2008.  ^ "No. 53153". The London Gazette
The London Gazette
(Supplement). 30 December 1992. p. 14.  ^ "Leader of the Stem Cell Revolution Wins Noble Prize". Medscape Today. 2007-10-17. Retrieved 2 November 2007.  ^ "List of Fellows of the Royal Society: 1660–2007: A - J". The Royal Society. Archived from the original on 12 December 2007. Retrieved 9 October 2007.  ^ "Directory listing". Academy of Medical Sciences. Retrieved 9 October 2007.  ^ " March of Dimes
March of Dimes
Prize in Developmental Biology: Previous Recipients" (PDF). March of Dimes. Retrieved 1 October 2007.  ^ "2001 Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research". Lasker Foundation. Retrieved 10 May 2008.  ^ "Albert Lasker Award". Cardiff University. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2008.  ^ "Biography: Professor Sir Martin Evans
Martin Evans
FRS". Cardiff University. Retrieved 10 May 2008.  ^ "Summer graduation ceremonies begin today at Bath Abbey". University of Bath. 2005-07-19. Retrieved 8 October 2007.  ^ "Honorary Degrees". UCL. 16 September 2008.  ^ "Gold Medal for Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
winner". Cardiff University. 21 January 2009. [permanent dead link] ^ "Gold Medal of the RSM". Royal Society
Royal Society
of Medicine. 20 January 2009. Archived from the original on 19 December 2008.  ^ " Royal Society
Royal Society
recognises excellence in science". Royal Society. 14 July 2009.  ^ "Faraday Advisory Board". Faraday Institute. Archived from the original on 1 February 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2011. 

Academic offices

Preceded by Neil Kinnock Chancellor of Cardiff University (previously known as President) 2009–2017 Succeeded by Incumbent

v t e

Copley Medallists (2001–present)

Jacques Miller (2001) John Pople (2002) John Gurdon
John Gurdon
(2003) Harry Kroto
Harry Kroto
(2004) Paul Nurse
Paul Nurse
(2005) Stephen Hawking
Stephen Hawking
(2006) Robert May (2007) Roger Penrose
Roger Penrose
(2008) Martin Evans
Martin Evans
(2009) David Cox / Tomas Lindahl
Tomas Lindahl
(2010) Dan McKenzie (2011) John E. Walker (2012) Andre Geim
Andre Geim
(2013) Alec Jeffreys
Alec Jeffreys
(2014) Peter Higgs
Peter Higgs
(2015) Richard Henderson (2016) Andrew Wiles
Andrew Wiles
(2017)

v t e

2007 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureates

Chemistry

Gerhard Ertl
Gerhard Ertl
(Germany)

Literature

Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
(Zimbabwe, United Kingdom)

Peace

Al Gore
Al Gore
(United States) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Physics

Albert Fert
Albert Fert
(France) Peter Grünberg
Peter Grünberg
(Germany)

Physiology or Medicine

Mario Capecchi
Mario Capecchi
(United States) Martin Evans
Martin Evans
(United Kingdom) Oliver Smithies
Oliver Smithies
(United States)

Economic Sciences

Leonid Hurwicz
Leonid Hurwicz
(United States) Eric Maskin
Eric Maskin
(United States) Roger Myerson (United States)

Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
recipients 1990 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2000 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

v t e

Fellows of the Royal Society
Royal Society
elected in 1993

Fellows

Alan Astbury Alan Baddeley Michael Burdekin David Crighton Lennart Carleson Tim Clutton-Brock Richard Crowther Howard Dalton Geoffrey Dearnaley Richard R. Ernst Martin Evans Ian Fleming Edward Fraenkel Richard Friend Christopher Garrett Keith Glover Michael George Hall Roger Heath-Brown John Hughes Robin Irvine Patricia Jacobs Franz Daniel Kahn Michael Joseph Kelly Kevin Kendall Trevor Lamb Sydney Leach Angus Macintyre Michael Neuberger Ian Newton Colin Patterson Colin Pillinger Ghillean Prance Edward Reynolds John Rhodes Jim Smith Brian Geoffrey Spratt David J. Stevenson Bruce William Stillman Andrew James Thomson Peter John Twin A.E. Walsby John White

Foreign

Bruce Alberts Jean-Marie Lehn Motoo Kimura Edwin Ernest Salpeter

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology or Medicine

1901–1925

1901 Emil Behring 1902 Ronald Ross 1903 Niels Finsen 1904 Ivan Pavlov 1905 Robert Koch 1906 Camillo Golgi
Camillo Golgi
/ Santiago Ramón y Cajal 1907 Alphonse Laveran 1908 Élie Metchnikoff
Élie Metchnikoff
/ Paul Ehrlich 1909 Emil Kocher 1910 Albrecht Kossel 1911 Allvar Gullstrand 1912 Alexis Carrel 1913 Charles Richet 1914 Róbert Bárány 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 Jules Bordet 1920 August Krogh 1921 1922 Archibald Hill
Archibald Hill
/ Otto Meyerhof 1923 Frederick Banting
Frederick Banting
/ John Macleod 1924 Willem Einthoven 1925

1926–1950

1926 Johannes Fibiger 1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg 1928 Charles Nicolle 1929 Christiaan Eijkman
Christiaan Eijkman
/ Frederick Gowland Hopkins 1930 Karl Landsteiner 1931 Otto Warburg 1932 Charles Scott Sherrington
Charles Scott Sherrington
/ Edgar Adrian 1933 Thomas Morgan 1934 George Whipple
George Whipple
/ George Minot
George Minot
/ William Murphy 1935 Hans Spemann 1936 Henry Dale / Otto Loewi 1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi 1938 Corneille Heymans 1939 Gerhard Domagk 1940 1941 1942 1943 Henrik Dam
Henrik Dam
/ Edward Doisy 1944 Joseph Erlanger
Joseph Erlanger
/ Herbert Gasser 1945 Alexander Fleming
Alexander Fleming
/ Ernst Chain
Ernst Chain
/ Howard Florey 1946 Hermann Muller 1947 Carl Cori / Gerty Cori
Gerty Cori
/ Bernardo Houssay 1948 Paul Müller 1949 Walter Hess / António Egas Moniz 1950 Edward Kendall / Tadeusz Reichstein
Tadeusz Reichstein
/ Philip Hench

1951–1975

1951 Max Theiler 1952 Selman Waksman 1953 Hans Krebs / Fritz Lipmann 1954 John Enders / Thomas Weller / Frederick Robbins 1955 Hugo Theorell 1956 André Cournand / Werner Forssmann
Werner Forssmann
/ Dickinson W. Richards 1957 Daniel Bovet 1958 George Beadle / Edward Tatum
Edward Tatum
/ Joshua Lederberg 1959 Severo Ochoa
Severo Ochoa
/ Arthur Kornberg 1960 Frank Burnet / Peter Medawar 1961 Georg von Békésy 1962 Francis Crick
Francis Crick
/ James Watson
James Watson
/ Maurice Wilkins 1963 John Eccles / Alan Hodgkin / Andrew Huxley 1964 Konrad Bloch / Feodor Lynen 1965 François Jacob
François Jacob
/ André Lwoff / Jacques Monod 1966 Francis Rous / Charles B. Huggins 1967 Ragnar Granit
Ragnar Granit
/ Haldan Hartline / George Wald 1968 Robert W. Holley
Robert W. Holley
/ Har Khorana / Marshall Nirenberg 1969 Max Delbrück
Max Delbrück
/ Alfred Hershey
Alfred Hershey
/ Salvador Luria 1970 Bernard Katz / Ulf von Euler
Ulf von Euler
/ Julius Axelrod 1971 Earl Sutherland Jr. 1972 Gerald Edelman
Gerald Edelman
/ Rodney Porter 1973 Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch
/ Konrad Lorenz
Konrad Lorenz
/ Nikolaas Tinbergen 1974 Albert Claude
Albert Claude
/ Christian de Duve
Christian de Duve
/ George Palade 1975 David Baltimore
David Baltimore
/ Renato Dulbecco
Renato Dulbecco
/ Howard Temin

1976–2000

1976 Baruch Blumberg / Daniel Gajdusek 1977 Roger Guillemin / Andrew Schally
Andrew Schally
/ Rosalyn Yalow 1978 Werner Arber
Werner Arber
/ Daniel Nathans
Daniel Nathans
/ Hamilton O. Smith 1979 Allan Cormack / Godfrey Hounsfield 1980 Baruj Benacerraf / Jean Dausset
Jean Dausset
/ George Snell 1981 Roger Sperry / David H. Hubel
David H. Hubel
/ Torsten Wiesel 1982 Sune Bergström
Sune Bergström
/ Bengt I. Samuelsson / John Vane 1983 Barbara McClintock 1984 Niels Jerne / Georges Köhler / César Milstein 1985 Michael Brown / Joseph L. Goldstein 1986 Stanley Cohen / Rita Levi-Montalcini 1987 Susumu Tonegawa 1988 James W. Black / Gertrude B. Elion
Gertrude B. Elion
/ George H. Hitchings 1989 J. Michael Bishop
J. Michael Bishop
/ Harold E. Varmus 1990 Joseph Murray
Joseph Murray
/ E. Donnall Thomas 1991 Erwin Neher
Erwin Neher
/ Bert Sakmann 1992 Edmond Fischer / Edwin G. Krebs 1993 Richard J. Roberts
Richard J. Roberts
/ Phillip Sharp 1994 Alfred G. Gilman
Alfred G. Gilman
/ Martin Rodbell 1995 Edward B. Lewis
Edward B. Lewis
/ Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
/ Eric F. Wieschaus 1996 Peter C. Doherty
Peter C. Doherty
/ Rolf M. Zinkernagel 1997 Stanley B. Prusiner 1998 Robert F. Furchgott
Robert F. Furchgott
/ Louis Ignarro
Louis Ignarro
/ Ferid Murad 1999 Günter Blobel 2000 Arvid Carlsson
Arvid Carlsson
/ Paul Greengard
Paul Greengard
/ Eric Kandel

2001–present

2001 Leland H. Hartwell / Tim Hunt
Tim Hunt
/ Paul Nurse 2002 Sydney Brenner
Sydney Brenner
/ H. Robert Horvitz / John E. Sulston 2003 Paul Lauterbur
Paul Lauterbur
/ Peter Mansfield 2004 Richard Axel
Richard Axel
/ Linda B. Buck 2005 Barry Marshall
Barry Marshall
/ Robin Warren 2006 Andrew Fire / Craig Mello 2007 Mario Capecchi
Mario Capecchi
/ Martin Evans
Martin Evans
/ Oliver Smithies 2008 Harald zur Hausen
Harald zur Hausen
/ Luc Montagnier
Luc Montagnier
/ Françoise Barré-Sinoussi 2009 Elizabeth Blackburn
Elizabeth Blackburn
/ Carol W. Greider
Carol W. Greider
/ Jack W. Szostak 2010 Robert G. Edwards 2011 Bruce Beutler
Bruce Beutler
/ Jules A. Hoffmann / Ralph M. Steinman (posthumously) 2012 John B. Gurdon
John B. Gurdon
/ Shinya Yamanaka 2013 James Rothman
James Rothman
/ Randy Schekman
Randy Schekman
/ Thomas C. Südhof 2014 John O'Keefe / May-Britt Moser
May-Britt Moser
/ Edvard Moser 2015 William C. Campbell / Satoshi Ōmura
Satoshi Ōmura
/ Tu Youyou 2016 Yoshinori Ohsumi 2017 Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, Michael W. Young

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 39694667 LCCN: n2006180056 ISNI: 0000 0000 8374 6588 GND: 133485404 SUDOC: 103271112 BNF:

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