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Martha Washington
Martha Washington
(née Dandridge; June 13 [O.S. June 2] 1731– May 22, 1802) was the wife of George Washington, the first president of the United States of America. Although the title was not coined until after her death, Martha Washington
Martha Washington
is considered to be the first First Lady
First Lady
of the United States. During her lifetime she was often referred to as "Lady Washington".[1] She had first married Daniel Parke Custis, with whom she had four children, and was widowed by the age of 25. Two of her children by Custis survived to young adulthood. She brought great wealth to her marriage to Washington, which enabled him to buy land to add to his personal estate. She also brought nearly 100 dower slaves for her use during her lifetime. They and their descendants reverted to her first husband's estate at her death and were inherited by his heirs.[2] She and Washington did not have children together but they did rear her two children by Daniel Parke Custis, including son John "Jacky" Parke Custis. They also helped both of their extended families.

Contents

1 Family and background 2 First marriage 3 Second marriage 4 At the 1777–1778 Valley Forge
Valley Forge
encampment 5 First Lady
First Lady
1789–1797 6 Dower
Dower
slaves, estate, death and interment 7 Honors

7.1 USS Lady Washington 7.2 USS Martha Washington 7.3 Martha Washington
Martha Washington
on U.S. postage 7.4 U.S. paper currency 7.5 U.S. coins 7.6 Educational institutions

8 In popular culture 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Family and background[edit] Martha Dandridge was born on June 13, 1731 (O.S. June 2)[3] on her parents' plantation Chestnut Grove in the British colony, Province of Virginia. She was the oldest daughter of John Dandridge
John Dandridge
(1700–1756), a Virginia planter and immigrant from England, by his wife Frances Jones (1710–1785), who was of American birth and English, Welsh, and French descent.[4] Martha had three brothers and four sisters: John (1733–1749), William (1734–1776), Bartholomew (1737–1785), Anna Maria "Fanny" Bassett (1739–1777), Frances Dandridge (1744–1757), Elizabeth Aylett Henley (1749–1800) and Mary Dandridge (1756–1763).[citation needed]

Martha Washington
Martha Washington
as a young woman

Martha may have had an illegitimate half-sister, Ann Dandridge Costin (years of birth and death unknown), who was born into slavery.[5] Costin's enslaved mother was of African and Cherokee descent, and her father was believed to be John Dandridge.[6] Martha's father may also have fathered an out-of-wedlock half-brother to Martha named Ralph Dandridge (years of birth and death unknown), who was probably white.[6] First marriage[edit] On May 15, 1750, at age 18, Martha married Daniel Parke Custis, a rich planter two decades her senior, and moved to his residence, White House Plantation, located on the south shore of the Pamunkey River, a few miles upriver from Chestnut Grove. They had four children together: Daniel, Frances, John, and Martha. Daniel (Nov. 19, 1751–Feb. 19, 1754) and Frances (Apr. 12, 1753–Apr. 1, 1757) died in childhood. The other two children, John (Jacky) Parke Custis (Nov. 27, 1754–Nov. 5, 1781) and Martha ("Patsy") Parke Custis (1756–June 19, 1773), survived to young adulthood. Her husband's death in 1757 left Martha a rich young widow at age 25, with independent control over a dower inheritance for her lifetime, and trustee control over the inheritance of her minor children. In all, she was left in custody of some 17,500 acres of land and 300 slaves, apart from other investments and cash.[7] According to her biographer, "she capably ran the five plantations left to her when her first husband died, bargaining with London merchants for the best tobacco prices."[8] Second marriage[edit]

Martha Dandridge Custis in 1757: mezzotint by John Folwell (1863) after a portrait by John Wollaston

Martha Custis, age 27, and George Washington, age nearly 27, married on January 6, 1759, at the White House
White House
plantation. As a man who lived and owned property in the area, Washington likely knew both Martha and Daniel Parke Custis
Daniel Parke Custis
for some time before Daniel's death. During March 1758 he visited her twice at White House; the second time he came away with either an engagement of marriage or at least her promise to think about his proposal. At the time, she was also being courted by the planter Charles Carter, who was even wealthier than Washington.[8] The wedding was grand. Washington's suit was of blue and silver cloth with red trimming and gold knee buckles.[9] The bride wore purple silk shoes with spangled buckles, which are occasionally displayed at Mount Vernon.[8] The couple honeymooned at White House
White House
for several weeks before setting up house at Washington's Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
estate. They appeared to have had a solid marriage.[8][9] Martha and George Washington had no children together, but they raised Martha's two surviving children. Her daughter, nicknamed Patsy, died as a teenager during an epileptic seizure. John Parke "Jacky" Custis returned from college[where?] to comfort his mother.[citation needed] Custis later married and had children; he served as an aide to Washington during the siege of Yorktown in 1781 during the American Revolutionary War. He died of "camp fever" (probably epidemic typhus). After his death, the Washingtons raised the youngest two of John's four children, Eleanor (Nelly) Parke Custis (March 31, 1779 – July 15, 1852), and George Washington
George Washington
Parke (Washy) Custis (April 30, 1781 – October 10, 1857). The two older girls remained with their mother. The Washingtons also provided personal and financial support to nieces, nephews and other family members in both the Dandridge and Washington families.[citation needed] Content to live a private life at Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
and her homes from the Custis estate, Martha Washington
Martha Washington
followed Washington to his winter encampments for each of eight years. She helped keep up morale among the officers.[citation needed] At the 1777–1778 Valley Forge
Valley Forge
encampment[edit] By tradition, Washington was described as spending her days at the Revolutionary War winter encampments visiting with the common soldiers in their huts. But Nancy Loane, author of Following the Drum: Women at the Valley Forge
Valley Forge
Encampment, says there is no evidence that Washington visited with the common soldiers,[10][page needed] noting that Martha Washington
Martha Washington
was fashionably dressed, assertive, and a woman of great wealth and independent means. Mrs. Washington joined her husband during the Revolution for all the Continental Army's winter encampments. Before the revolution began, she had kept close to home; during it, she traveled thousands of miles to be with her husband.[11] General Lafayette observed that she loved "her husband madly".[12] The Continental Army
Continental Army
settled in Valley Forge, the third of the eight winter encampments of the Revolution, on December 19, 1777. Martha Washington traveled ten days and hundreds of miles to join her husband in Pennsylvania.[13] Primary documents of the Revolutionary period refer to Lady Washington's activities at the site.

Martha Washington
Martha Washington
by Rembrandt Peale, circa 1856, based on a portrait by his father, Charles Willson Peale

Martha Washington
Martha Washington
took her familiar role as her husband's hostess at camp. On April 6, Elizabeth Drinker and three friends arrived at Valley Forge
Valley Forge
to plead with General Washington to release their husbands from jail; the men, all Quakers, had refused to swear a loyalty oath to the United States. Because the commander was not available at first, the women visited with Mrs. Washington. Martha Washington was regarded as a matriarch in the camps she visited.[14] Drinker described her later in her diary as “a sociable pretty kind of Woman.”[15] Although unable to satisfy the women's demands, General Washington invited them to dine at headquarters that day. Drinker said the dinner with General and Mrs. Washington and fifteen officers was “elegant” but “soon over.”[15] Martha Washington
Martha Washington
also socialized with the wives of the senior officers at Valley Forge. Years later, Pierre DuPonceau, an aide to Baron von Steuben, recalled that in the evenings the ladies and officers at camp would meet at each other’s quarters for conversation. During these social evenings, each lady and gentleman present was “called upon in turn for a song” as they sipped tea or coffee.[16] There was no card-playing during these Valley Forge
Valley Forge
social gatherings, games of chance having been forbidden by General Washington.[17] Charles Willson Peale
Charles Willson Peale
painted a miniature of Washington—for which he charged his usual “56 Dollars”—and presented it to Martha, along with painting other miniatures of Washington.[18] He also painted 50 other officers and their wives that winter.[19] Lady Washington took part in the camp’s May 6 celebration of the formal announcement of the French-American alliance.[20] Soon after the thunderous feu de joie, when thousands of soldiers fired off their muskets, General Washington and his wife received other officers under a large marquee fashioned from dozens of officers’ tents. General Washington was said to have worn “a countenance of uncommon delight and complacence.”[21] Five days later, on May 11, 1778, Martha Washington
Martha Washington
and the commander attended the camp production of Joseph Addison's play Cato, a favorite of the General’s. The play was performed by the staff officers for a “very numerous and splendid audience,” including many officers and several of their wives.[22] One officer wrote that he found the performance “admirable” and the scenery “in Taste.”[22] First Lady
First Lady
1789–1797[edit]

Washington at Verplanck's Point, by John Trumbull, 1790

After the war, Martha was against Washington's agreeing to be President of the newly formed United States of America,[citation needed] and she did not attend his inauguration on April 30, 1789. Once he assumed office, as the First Lady
First Lady
(a term that was later used) she hosted many affairs of state at New York City
New York City
and Philadelphia during their years as temporary capitals. The socializing became known as "the Republican Court".[23][24] In July 1790, the artist John Trumbull
John Trumbull
gave a full-length portrait painting of General George Washington
George Washington
to her as a gift. It was displayed in their home at Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
in the New Room.[25] Dower
Dower
slaves, estate, death and interment[edit] Although her father had owned fifteen to twenty slaves, her first husband, Daniel Parke Custis, owned nearly three hundred, making him one of the largest slaveowners and wealthiest men in the Virginia colony.[26] The full Custis estate contained plantations and farms totaling about 27 square miles (70 km2), and 285 enslaved men, women, and children attached to those holdings. Daniel Parke Custis' death in 1757 without a will meant that, according to law, his and Martha's eldest male child, John (Jacky) Parke Custis, who was at that time a minor, would inherit when he became an adult two-thirds of the Custis estate, its slaves and the children of those slaves.[26] Martha received a "dower share," the lifetime use of (and income from) the remaining one-third of the estate and its slaves.[26] After her death, the dower slaves and their progeny were to be distributed among the surviving Custis heirs.[26] Upon his 1759 marriage to Martha, George Washington
George Washington
became the legal manager of the Custis estate, under court oversight. At the time of her marriage, Martha's dower share included more than 80 slaves.[27] She also would control any children they had, as they would become part of the dower.[26] Estate records indicate that Martha Washington continued to purchase supplies, manage paid staff, and make many other decisions.[citation needed] Although the Washingtons wielded managerial control over the whole estate, they received income only from Martha's "dower" third. The remainder of the income went to a trust held for Jacky Custis until he reached maturity at age 21. Washington used his wife's great wealth to buy land and slaves; he more than tripled the size of Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
(2,650 acres (10.7 km2) in 1757; 8,251 acres (33.39 km2) in 1787). For more than 40 years, her "dower" slaves farmed the plantation alongside her husband's. By law, neither of the Washingtons could sell Custis lands or slaves, which Martha's dower and the trust owned.[26][27] After Jacky died during the Revolutionary War, his slaves passed to his son, George Washington
George Washington
Parke Custis, who at the time was a minor. If Jacky's trust or Martha's dower owned a slave's mother, her children were included in that holding. Some slaves owned by the Washingtons and the trust married each other, forming linked families.[28] This created complex inheritance issues. Seven of the nine slaves whom President Washington brought to Philadelphia
Philadelphia
(the national capital, 1790–1800) to work in the President's House were "dowers". Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
passed a gradual abolition law in 1780, under which non-residents were allowed to hold slaves in the state for up to six months; after that date, they could claim freedom. The Washingtons rotated their President's House slaves in and out of the state before the six-month deadline to prevent their establishing residency (and legally qualifying for manumission).[2] Washington reasoned that should the "dowers" attain their freedom due to his negligence, he might be liable to the Custis estate for their value.[citation needed] Martha Washington
Martha Washington
promised her lady's maid Oney Judge, a "dower" slave, to her granddaughter Elizabeth Parke Custis as a wedding gift. To prevent being sent back to Virginia, Judge escaped in 1796 from the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
household during Washington's second term.[26] According to interviews with Judge in the 1840s, the young woman had enjoyed being in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and feared she would never gain freedom if taken to Virginia.[29] She hid with free black friends in the city, who helped arrange her travel by ship to Portsmouth, New Hampshire. There she married and had three children. Patricia Brady, in her 2005 biography of Martha Washington, writes:

Martha felt a responsibility for the unsophisticated girl under her care, especially since her mother and sister were expecting to see her back at Mount Vernon. What she could never understand was that [Oney had...] a simple desire to be free. Ona, as she preferred to call herself, wanted to live where she pleased, do what work she pleased, and learn to read and write [...] Ona Judge professed a great regard for Martha and the way she had been treated, but she couldn't face a future as a slave for herself and her children.[30]

After Oney's escape, Martha gave her younger enslaved sister Delphy (also known as Philadelphia) to Elizabeth and her husband as a wedding gift. Washington's slave Hercules, who had worked as his chief cook at the President's House (Philadelphia)
President's House (Philadelphia)
before being returned to Mount Vernon in 1796, escaped from there on February 22, 1797.[31] He was known to have traveled to Philadelphia, and by December 1801 was living in New York City.[32][33] His six-year-old daughter, still enslaved at Mount Vernon, told a visitor that she was glad her father was free.[34] In his July 1790 will, written a year after he became President of the United States in April 1789 and nine years before his death in December 1799, George Washington
George Washington
left directions for the emancipation, after Martha Washington's death, of all the slaves that he owned.[28] Of the 318 slaves at Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
in 1799, a little less than half, 123 individuals, belonged to George Washington.[27] His will stipulated that his slaves were not to be freed until Martha's death because of his desire to preserve the families of those who had intermarried with Martha's dower slaves.[28] In accordance with state law, Washington stipulated in his will that elderly slaves or those who were too sick to work were to be supported throughout their lives by his estate. Children without parents, or those whose families were too poor or indifferent to see to their education, were to be bound out to masters and mistresses who would teach them reading, writing, and a useful trade, until they were ultimately freed at the age of twenty-five.[27] In December 1800, Martha Washington
Martha Washington
signed a deed of manumission for her deceased husband's slaves, a transaction that was entered into the records of Fairfax County, Virginia. The document was lost during the American Civil War.[35] The slaves received their freedom on January 1, 1801, a little over a year after George's death.[27][36] Just a few weeks earlier in December, Abigail Adams, wife of the second President, had visited Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
and wrote: "Many of those who are liberated have married with what are called the dower Negroes, so that they all quit their [family] connections, yet what could she do?" Mrs. Adams suggested a motive for Martha to have freed Washington's slaves early:

"In the state in which they were left by the General, to be free at her death, she did not feel as tho her Life was safe in their Hands, many of whom would be told that it was [in] their interest to get rid of her–She therefore was advised to set them all free at the close of the year.–" (A. A. to Mary Cranch, 21 December 1800)[37]

Martha’s health, always somewhat precarious, declined after her husband's death.[38] Two and a half years after the death of her husband, Martha died on May 22, 1802 at the age of 70.[38] Following her death, Martha was interred in George Washington's tomb vault at Mount Vernon.[39] In 1831, the surviving executors of Washington's estate removed the bodies of George and Martha Washington and those of other members of the family from the old vault to a similar structure within the present enclosure at Mount Vernon.[39] Martha did not emancipate any of her own slaves during her lifetime.[26] Her will bequeathed Elisha, a slave whom she owned outright at the time of her death, to her grandson, George Washington Parke Custis.[40] Upon her death, her dower slaves reverted to the Custis estate and were divided among her four grandchildren.[2][26][27] The division split up families, divided husbands from wives and sent children away from their parents.[26]

Martha Washington

An 1878 portrait by Eliphalet Frazer Andrews 

Martha's sarcophagus (left) in the tomb at Mount Vernon 

Washington's Family by Edward Savage, painted between 1789 and 1796, shows (from left to right): George Washington
George Washington
Parke Custis, George Washington, Eleanor Parke Custis, Martha, and an enslaved servant: probably William Lee or Christopher Sheels 

Daniel Huntington Lady Washington’s Reception Day, 1861 Brooklyn Museum 

Honors[edit] USS Lady Washington[edit] Mrs. Washington had a row galley named in her honor, the USS Lady Washington. It holds the distinction of being the first U.S. military ship to be named in honor of a woman and the first named for a person while the person was still alive (see also List of U.S. military vessels named after living Americans). It has a number of other distinctions as well, such as the first ship named after a (future) First Lady
First Lady
and one of the few active vessels in the U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy
named in honor of a woman (see also USS Hopper). USS Martha Washington[edit] The USS Martha Washington (ID-3019) was a transport for the United States Navy
United States Navy
during World War I. She was originally the ocean liner SS Martha Washington
Martha Washington
for the Austro-American Line before the war. Before and after her Navy service she was the United States Army transport USAT Martha Washington. The liner was sold to the Italian Cosulich Line in 1922. In 1932, when Cosulich was absorbed into Italia Flotte Riunite (English: United Fleets Italy), the ship was renamed SS Tel Aviv. The ship was scrapped in 1934. Martha Washington
Martha Washington
on U.S. postage[edit] The first US stamp honoring an American woman honored Martha Washington, and was issued in 1902.[41][42] This 8c issue was printed in black with Martha's portrait surrounded by an elaborate laurel wreath. In 1923, a second stamp was issued in her honor, a 4-cent definitive stamp. The third issue to honor Martha Washington
Martha Washington
was issued in 1938, a 1½¢ denomination stamp.

Martha Washington
Martha Washington
on U.S. postage

The first Martha Washington
Martha Washington
postage stamp, issue 1902 

Presidential Issue
Presidential Issue
of 1938 

U.S. paper currency[edit]

Martha Washington
Martha Washington
is the only woman (other than allegories of Justice, Liberty, etc.) depicted on the face of a United States Banknote. Her engraved portrait bust was used on the face of the $1 Silver Certificate of 1886 and 1891. Both Martha and George Washington
George Washington
are depicted together on the reverse of the $1 silver certificate of 1896.

Martha Washington
Martha Washington
on U.S. paper currency

$1 silver certificate, issue 1886

$1 Silver Certificate, issue 1896

U.S. coins[edit] The First Spouse Program
First Spouse Program
under the Presidential $1 Coin Act
Presidential $1 Coin Act
authorizes the United States Mint
United States Mint
to issue 1/2 ounce $10 gold coins and bronze medal duplicates[43] to honor the first spouses of the United States. The Martha Washington
Martha Washington
coin was released on June 19, 2007, and was sold out in hours.

Martha Washington
Martha Washington
on U.S. coin currency

Obverse

Reverse

Obverse (bronze medal)

Reverse (bronze medal)

Educational institutions[edit]

External video

" First Lady
First Lady
Martha Washington", First Ladies: Influence & Image, C‑SPAN[44]

The Martha Washington College
Washington College
for Women was founded in Abingdon, Virginia in 1860.[45] In 1918, its administration was merged with Emory & Henry College[46] and in 1931, Martha Washington
Martha Washington
ceased to function as a separate entity, merging completely with Emory & Henry. The main original building of Martha Washington College
Washington College
is now known and operated as the Martha Washington
Martha Washington
Inn.[47] There was also Martha Washington
Martha Washington
Seminary, a finishing school for young women in Washington, DC,[48] that was founded in 1905[49] and ceased operations in 1949.[50] In popular culture[edit]

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In 1955, the actress Karen Sharpe
Karen Sharpe
played Custis in the NBC
NBC
television film, The Courtship of George Washington
George Washington
and Martha Custis, a production of the Hallmark Hall of Fame. Marshall Thompson, nine years older than Sharpe, portrayed Washington, who was a year younger than Custis. Annette Haven played Martha Washington
Martha Washington
in the 1976 pornographic film Spirit of Seventy Sex. Emmy-winning actress Patty Duke
Patty Duke
portrayed Martha Washington
Martha Washington
in the TV miniseries George Washington
George Washington
(1984) and its sequel George Washington II: The Forging of a Nation (1986). Martha Washington
Martha Washington
is the name of a fox in The Life and Times of Grizzly Adams, episode 2 ("Blood Brothers"). A member of the geranium (a flower) family, scientific name Pelargonium x domesticum, is named after Martha Washington
Martha Washington
as the Martha Washington
Martha Washington
geranium.[51] Martha Washington
Martha Washington
was portrayed by Lilli Birdsell in the third and fourth seasons of Turn: Washington's Spies from 2016–2017. Martha Washington
Martha Washington
was satirically portrayed as a ghost of the past by Aidy Bryant in the February 4, 2018 episode of Saturday Night Live on NBC
NBC
television.

See also[edit]

Alexander Macomb House
Alexander Macomb House
— Second Presidential Mansion. List of slave owners President's House (Philadelphia)
President's House (Philadelphia)
— Third Presidential Mansion. Samuel Osgood House
Samuel Osgood House
— First Presidential Mansion.

References[edit]

^ Figueroa, Acton (1 January 2003). Washington,. World Almanac Library. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-8368-5162-5.  ^ a b c Dunbar, Erica Armstrong (February 16, 2015). "George Washington, Slave Catcher". The New York Times. Retrieved February 16, 2015.  ^ " Martha Washington
Martha Washington
– Early Life: Birth and Family of Origin". MarthaWashington.US(Center for History and New Media/The Mount Vernon Ladies' Association). Retrieved June 2, 2012.  ^ " Martha Washington
Martha Washington
Biography :: National First Ladies' Library".  ^ Wiencek, Henry (2013). An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America. Macmillian. p. 286. Retrieved May 23, 2016.  ^ a b Bryan, Helen (2002). Martha Washington, First Lady
First Lady
of Liberty. Wiley. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-0-471-15892-9. Retrieved May 23, 2016.  ^ "Martha Dandridge Custis Washington." Gale Biography in Context. Detroit: Gale, 2002. Biography in Context. Web. 15 Oct. 2015. ^ a b c d Brigid Schulte, "Fresh Look at Martha Washington: Less First Frump, More Foxy Lady", The Washington Post, 1 February 2009, accessed 1 April 2012 ^ a b The Complete Book of U. S. Presidents ISBN 0-517-18353-6 ^ Loane, Nancy K. Following the Drum: Women at the Valley Forge Encampment. Potomac Books, Inc., Washington, D.C., 2009. ISBN 978-1-59797-385-4. ^ Thompson, Mary. "Martha Washington". www.mountvernon.org. Mount Vernon Ladies' Association. Retrieved February 17, 2015.  ^ "Lafayette to Adrienne de Noailles de Lafayette, January 6, 1778," in Lafayette in the Age of the American Revolution, ed. Stanley J. Idzerda (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1977), 1: 225. ^ "Nathanael Greene to Gen. Alexander McDougall, February 5, 1778", in The Papers of General Nathanael Greene, ed. Richard K. Showman (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1980), 2:276. ^ "Martha Washington." Encyclopedia of World Biography. Vol. 32. Detroit: Gale, 2012. Biography in Context. Web. 15 Oct. 2015. ^ a b Elizabeth Sandwith Drinker, The Diary of Elizabeth Drinker, ed. Elaine Foreman Crane (Boston: Northeastern University press, 1991), p. 297 ^ "Autobiographical Letters of Peter S. DuPonceau," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography XL (1916): 181. ^ Trevelyan, Sir George Otto (1922). The American Revolution, Volume 4. Longmans, Green. p. 337. Retrieved February 17, 2015.  ^ Charles Willson Peale, The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family, ed. Lillian B. Miller (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1983), 1: 266. ^ "John Laurens to Henry Laurens, March 9, 1778", in The Army Correspondence of Colonel John Laurens in the Years 1777–1778 (New York: The New York Times
The New York Times
and the Arno Press, 1969), 139. ^ Mark E. Lender and James Kirby Martin, Citizen Soldier: The Revolutionary War Journal of Joseph Bloomfield(Newark: New Jersey Historical Society, 1982), 134. ^ John F. Reed, Valley Forge: Crucible of Victory (Monmouth Beach: Peter Freneau Press, 1969), 56. ^ a b "William Bradford, Jr. to Rachel Bradford, May 14, 1778", in Joseph Lee Boyle, Writings from the Valley Forge
Valley Forge
Encampment (Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, 2001), 2:125. ^ Griswold, Rufus W. (1854). The Republican court : or, American society in the days of Washington. B. Appleton & Co. p. 163. and from this time the drawing-rooms of the presidential residence were opened from eight till ten o'clock every Friday evening for visits to Mrs. Washington  ^ David S. Shields and Fredrika J. Teute. "The Republican Court and the Historiography of a Women's Domain in the Public Sphere." Journal of the Early Republic 35#2 (2015): 169–183. online summary abstract(subscription required) ^ "Painting by Washington's Aide de Camp Now on View at Mount Vernon". Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
Ladies' Association. December 9, 2014.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j " Martha Washington
Martha Washington
& Slavery". George Washington's Mount Vernon: Digital Encyclopedia. Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
Ladies' Association. 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-09-05. Retrieved 2015-12-04.  ^ a b c d e f " George Washington
George Washington
and Slavery". George Washington's Mount Vernon: Digital Encyclopedia. Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
Ladies' Association. 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-09-05. Retrieved 2015-11-30.  ^ a b c (1) Washington, George (1790-07-09). "Last Will and Testament". Rediscovering George Washington. PBS. Archived from the original on 2005-02-06. Retrieved 2015-12-04. Upon the decease of my wife, it is my Will and desire, that all the slaves which I hold in my own right, shall receive their freedom. To emancipate them during her life, would, tho' earnestly wished by me, be attended with such insuperable difficulties on account of their intermixture by Marriages with the Dower
Dower
Negroes, as to excite the most painful sensations, if not disagreeable consequences from the latter, while both descriptions are in the occupancy or the same Proprietor; it not being in my power, under the tenure by which the Dower
Dower
Negroes are held, to manumit them.  (2) Pogue, Dennis J. (2006-06-12). "George Washington: His Troubles with Slavery". HistoryNet.comaccessdate=2015-12-04. Archived from the original on 2015-09-16.  ^ Two 1840s interviews with Oney Judge ^ Brady, Patricia (2005). Martha Washington: An American Life. New York: Viking/Penguin Group. p. 209. ISBN 0-670-03430-4.  ^ "A birthday shock from Washington's chef", The Philadelphia Inquirer, 22 February 2010 ^ "Frederick Kitt to George Washington, 15 January 1798", The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 2, p. 25. ^ " Martha Washington
Martha Washington
to Col. Richard Varick, 15 December 1801", "Worthy Partner:" The Papers of Martha Washington, Joseph E. Fields, ed., (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994), pp. 398–399. ^ Louis-Philippe, Diary of My Travels in America, translation by Stephen Becker (New York: Delacorte Press, 1977), p. 32. ^ Notes of the Publisher: Dower
Dower
Negroes. Authenticated Copy of the Last Will and Testament of George Washington
George Washington
of Mount Vernon, Embracing a Schedule of his Real Estate and Notes Thereto by the Testator. To Which is Added Historical Notes and Biographical Sketches, by the Publisher. Washington, D.C.: A.J. Jackson. 1868. p. 9.  At Google Books. ^ Chadwick, Bruce (2007). General and Mrs. Washington: The Untold Story of a Marriage and a Revolution. Sourcebooks, Inc. p. 331. Retrieved February 17, 2015.  ^ Hirschfeld, Fritz (1997). George Washington
George Washington
and Slavery: A Documentary Portrayal. University of Missouri Press. p. 214. Retrieved February 17, 2015.  ^ a b "The Twilight Years: The Deaths of George and Martha Washington". Martha's biography. Martha Washington
Martha Washington
– A Life. Archived from the original on 2015-09-08. Retrieved 2015-10-04.  ^ a b "The Tomb". George Washington's Mount Vernon: Digital Encyclopedia. Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
Ladies' Association. 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-11-17. Retrieved 2015-12-02.  ^ (1) Washington, Martha (1803-03-04). "The will of Martha Washington of Mount Vernon" (PDF). Fairfax County government. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2012-10-16. Retrieved 2015-12-04. I give to my grandson George Washington
George Washington
Parke Custis my mulato man Elish – that I bought of Mr Butler Washington to him and his heir for ever –  (2) "Transcript of Martha Washington's will" (PDF). Fairfax County government. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2012-10-16. Retrieved 2015-12-04. I give to my grandson George Washington
George Washington
Parke Custis my mulato man Elish – that I bought of Mr Butler Washington to him and his heir for ever –  ^ "Martha Washington".  ^ "Women Who Left Their Stamp On U.S. Philatelic History". Mode.  ^ U.S. Mint: First Spouse Program. Accessed 2008-06-27. "The United States Mint also produces and make available to the public bronze medal duplicates of the First Spouse Gold Coins." ^ " First Lady
First Lady
Martha Washington". C‑SPAN. February 25, 2013. Retrieved November 2, 2014.  ^ Tennis, Joe (2004). Southwest Virginia Crossroads: An Almanac of Place Names and Places to See. The Overmountain Press. p. 76. Retrieved July 31, 2012.  ^ "A Brief History of Emory & Henry College". Emory & Henry College. Retrieved July 31, 2012.  ^ " Martha Washington
Martha Washington
College". Waymarking.Com. Retrieved July 31, 2012.  ^ " Martha Washington
Martha Washington
Seminary". The Independent. Jul 6, 1914. Retrieved July 28, 2012.  ^ Washington, City and Capital. United States Government Printing Office. 1937. p. 673.  ^ Cherkasky, Mara (2007). Mount Pleasant. Arcadia Publishing. p. 62. Retrieved July 31, 2012.  ^ " Martha Washington
Martha Washington
Geranium". © 2015 Scripps Networks, LLC. All rights reserved. Retrieved August 29, 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

Fraser, Flora (2015). The Washingtons: George and Martha. "Join’d by Friendship, Crown’d by Love". New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-307-27278-2. 

External links[edit]

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Category

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Virginia Women in History

2000–2009

2000

Agnew, Ella GrahamElla Graham Agnew Baldwin, Mary JuliaMary Julia Baldwin Brent, MargaretMargaret Brent Cather, WillaWilla Cather Dean, JennieJennie Dean Fain, Sarah LeeSarah Lee Fain Glasgow, EllenEllen Glasgow Madison, DolleyDolley Madison , PocahontasPocahontas Rind, ClementinaClementina Rind Valentine, Lila MeadeLila Meade Valentine Walker, Maggie L.Maggie L. Walker

2001

Bowser, Rosa DixonRosa Dixon Bowser Campbell, ElizabethElizabeth Campbell Jordan, ThomasinaThomasina Jordan Keckley, ElizabethElizabeth Keckley Pollak, TheresaTheresa Pollak Tompkins, Sally LouisaSally Louisa Tompkins Van Lew, ElizabethElizabeth Van Lew Wilson, EdithEdith Wilson

2002

Adamson, RebeccaRebecca Adamson Barrett, Janie PorterJanie Porter Barrett Cline, PatsyPatsy Cline Corbin, Hannah LeeHannah Lee Corbin Darden, ChristineChristine Darden McDaniel, Lillian WardLillian Ward McDaniel Munford, Mary-Cooke BranchMary-Cooke Branch Munford Rattley, Jessie M.Jessie M. Rattley

2003

Astor, NancyNancy Astor Bailey, PearlPearl Bailey Bodeker, Anna WhiteheadAnna Whitehead Bodeker Mary Ann ElliottMary Ann Elliott Jenkins, Annabelle Ravenscroft GibsonAnnabelle Ravenscroft Gibson Jenkins Johnston, Frances BenjaminFrances Benjamin Johnston Peebles, Anne DobieAnne Dobie Peebles Spencer, Annie BannisterAnnie Bannister Spencer

2004

Arents, GraceGrace Arents , CockacoeskeCockacoeske Couric, KatieKatie Couric Holden, Anne MakemieAnne Makemie Holden Ingles, Mary DraperMary Draper Ingles Jones, Sarah Garland BoydSarah Garland Boyd Jones Snyder, AnnieAnnie Snyder Washington, MarthaMartha Washington

2005

Adams-Ender, Clara LeachClara Leach Adams-Ender Day, CaitlynCaitlyn Day Griffin, Bessie BlountBessie Blount Griffin Johnston, MaryMary Johnston Powell, Barbara JohnsBarbara Johns Powell Smith, LeeLee Smith Wade, Mary BelvinMary Belvin Wade

2006

Barrett, Kate WallerKate Waller Barrett Berg, Marie MajellaMarie Majella Berg Bowman, John-Geline MacDonaldJohn-Geline MacDonald Bowman Fitzgerald-Brown, BenitaBenita Fitzgerald-Brown Hopper, GraceGrace Hopper McClenahan, Mary Tyler Freeman CheekMary Tyler Freeman Cheek McClenahan Richardson, G. AnneG. Anne Richardson Terhune, Mary VirginiaMary Virginia Terhune

2007

Byrd, Mary WillingMary Willing Byrd Carter, MaybelleMaybelle Carter Copenhaver, Laura Lu SchererLaura Lu Scherer Copenhaver Futrell, Mary Alice Franklin HatwoodMary Alice Franklin Hatwood Futrell Galt, Mary JefferyMary Jeffery Galt Johnson, Sheila CrumpSheila Crump Johnson , OpossunoquonuskeOpossunoquonuske Williams, CamillaCamilla Williams

2008

Berkeley, Frances CulpeperFrances Culpeper Berkeley Brooks, Lucy GoodeLucy Goode Brooks Gonzalez, Providencia VelazquezProvidencia Velazquez Gonzalez Lacy, Elizabeth B.Elizabeth B. Lacy McCrumb, SharynSharyn McCrumb Moss, P. BuckleyP. Buckley Moss Rogers, Isabel WoodIsabel Wood Rogers Turner, EdithEdith Turner

2009

Adams, PaulinePauline Adams Cook, Caroline BradbyCaroline Bradby Cook Emerson, ClaudiaClaudia Emerson Faust, Drew GilpinDrew Gilpin Faust Grayson, Joann HessJoann Hess Grayson Randolph, MaryMary Randolph Randolph, VirginiaVirginia Randolph Terry, Mary SueMary Sue Terry

2010–2019

2010

Adams, Mollie HolmesMollie Holmes Adams Furman, EthelEthel Furman Harrison, Edythe C.Edythe C. Harrison Martin, JanisJanis Martin Rowland, Kate MasonKate Mason Rowland Skipwith, Jean MillerJean Miller Skipwith Stovall, QueenaQueena Stovall Van Landingham, MarianMarian Van Landingham

2011

Addison, LucyLucy Addison Bontecou, EleanorEleanor Bontecou Fleming, Emily WhiteEmily White Fleming Fu, PearlPearl Fu Lincoln, LillianLillian Lincoln Marshall, Bessie NiemeyerBessie Niemeyer Marshall Rogan, Felicia WarburgFelicia Warburg Rogan Russell, Elizabeth Henry CampbellElizabeth Henry Campbell Russell

2012

Ames, Susie MaySusie May Ames Beltran, MonicaMonica Beltran Campbell, Christiana BurdettChristiana Burdett Campbell Christian, Betty SamsBetty Sams Christian McIntosh, Elizabeth PeetElizabeth Peet McIntosh Puckett, Orelena HawksOrelena Hawks Puckett Shatin, JudithJudith Shatin Stuart, Alice JacksonAlice Jackson Stuart

2013

Alexander, Mary C.Mary C. Alexander Archer, LouiseLouise Archer Carrington, Elizabeth Ambler BrentElizabeth Ambler Brent Carrington Compton, AnnAnn Compton Falletta, JoAnnJoAnn Falletta Powell, CleoCleo Powell Pruitt, InezInez Pruitt Scott, Eva Mae FlemingEva Mae Fleming Scott

2014

Blackford, Mary Berkeley MinorMary Berkeley Minor Blackford Cohn, Naomi SilvermanNaomi Silverman Cohn Duke, Elizabeth AshburnElizabeth Ashburn Duke Findlay, RachelRachel Findlay Kendall, Christine HerterChristine Herter Kendall Loving, MildredMildred Loving Ryan, DebbieDebbie Ryan Winslett, StonerStoner Winslett

2015

Caldwell, Nancy MelvinaNancy Melvina Caldwell Giovanni, NikkiNikki Giovanni Harris, Ruth ColesRuth Coles Harris McDiarmid, Dorothy ShoemakerDorothy Shoemaker McDiarmid Peterkin, Rebekah DulaneyRebekah Dulaney Peterkin Pinn, VivianVivian Pinn Stith, Elizabeth Bray Allen SmithElizabeth Bray Allen Smith Stith Wood, KarenneKarenne Wood

2016

Crittenden, Flora D.Flora D. Crittenden Day, Elizabeth NottinghamElizabeth Nottingham Day Gray, Sarah A.Sarah A. Gray Isaac, Edwilda AllenEdwilda Allen Isaac Johnson, KatherineKatherine Johnson King, Ana Ines BarraganAna Ines Barragan King Masters, BettyBetty Masters Oberndorf, MeyeraMeyera Oberndorf

2017

Crouse-Mays, DorisDoris Crouse-Mays Foley, Corazon SandovalCorazon Sandoval Foley Houston, NoraNora Houston Hudson, Cynthia EppesCynthia Eppes Hudson Jones, Mary VirginiaMary Virginia Jones McCraw, Louise HarrisonLouise Harrison McCraw Moore, Undine SmithUndine Smith Moore Rollins, MarthaMartha Rollins

2018

Adegbalola, Gaye ToddGaye Todd Adegbalola Dove, RitaRita Dove Gibbons, IsabellaIsabella Gibbons Hasegawa, Marii KyogokuMarii Kyogoku Hasegawa James, Kay ColesKay Coles James Kingsolver, BarbaraBarbara Kingsolver Marshall, Mary Aydelotte RiceMary Aydelotte Rice Marshall , Temperance Flowerdew Yeardley Temperance Flowerdew Yeardley

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 3275294 LCCN: n80072514 ISNI: 0000 0000 6674 6113 GND: 119191466 SUDOC: 186287402 BNF: cb14571379c (data) ULAN: 500015029 SN

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