The Info List - Marsupialia

Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia. All extant marsupials are endemic to Australasia
and the Americas. A distinctive characteristic common to these species is that most of the young are carried in a pouch. Well-known marsupials include kangaroos, wallabies, koalas, possums, opossums, wombats, and Tasmanian devils. Some lesser-known marsupials are the potoroo and the quokka. Marsupials represent the clade originating from the last common ancestor of extant metatherians. Like other mammals in the Metatheria, they give birth to relatively undeveloped young that often reside in a pouch located on their mothers’ abdomen for a certain amount of time. Close to 70% of the 334 extant species occur on the Australian continent (the mainland, Tasmania, New Guinea
New Guinea
and nearby islands). The remaining 100 are found in the Americas
— primarily in South America, but thirteen in Central America, and one in North America, north of Mexico. The word marsupial comes from marsupium, the technical term for the abdominal pouch. It, in turn, is borrowed from Latin and ultimately from the ancient Greek μάρσιππος, which means "pouch."


1 Taxonomy 2 Anatomy

2.1 Description

2.1.1 Skull and teeth 2.1.2 Torso 2.1.3 General and convergences

2.2 Reproductive system

2.2.1 Male reproductive system 2.2.2 Female reproductive system Early development

3 Evolution 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Taxonomy[edit] Taxonomically, the two primary divisions of Marsupialia are American marsupials (Ameridelphia) and Australian marsupials (Australidelphia).[1][2] The order Microbiotheria
(which has only one species, the monito del monte) is found in South America, but is believed to be more closely related to Australian marsupials. DNA evidence supports a South American origin for marsupials, with Australian marsupials arising from a single Gondwanan migration of marsupials from South America
South America
to Australia.[3][4] There are many small arboreal species in each group. The term "opossum" is used to refer to American species (though "possum" is a common diminutive), while similar Australian species are properly called "possums". †Extinct

Superorder Ameridelphia

Order Didelphimorphia
(93 species)

Family Didelphidae: opossums

Order Paucituberculata (seven species)

Family Caenolestidae: shrew opossums

Superorder Australidelphia

Order Microbiotheria
(one species)

Family Microbiotheriidae: monito del monte

Order † Yalkaparidontia (incertae sedis) Order Dasyuromorphia
(75 species)

Family †Thylacinidae: thylacine Family Dasyuridae: antechinuses, quolls, dunnarts, Tasmanian devil, and relatives Family Myrmecobiidae: numbat

Order Notoryctemorphia
(two species)

Family Notoryctidae: marsupial moles

Order Peramelemorphia
(24 species)

Family Thylacomyidae: bilbies Family †Chaeropodidae: pig-footed bandicoot Family Peramelidae: bandicoots and allies

Order Diprotodontia
(137 species)

Family Phascolarctidae: koalas Family Vombatidae: wombats Family †Diprotodontidae: diprotodon Family Phalangeridae: brushtail possums and cuscuses Family † Palorchestidae
tapirs Family Burramyidae: pygmy possums Family Tarsipedidae: honey possum Family Petauridae: striped possum, Leadbeater's possum, yellow-bellied glider, sugar glider, mahogany glider, squirrel glider Family Pseudocheiridae: ringtailed possums and relatives Family Potoroidae: potoroos, rat kangaroos, bettongs Family Acrobatidae: feathertail glider and feather-tailed possum Family Hypsiprymnodontidae: musky rat-kangaroo Family Macropodidae: kangaroos, wallabies, and relatives Family †Thylacoleonidae: marsupial lions










based on Gallus, S. et al. (2015)[5] Anatomy[edit]

Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)

Marsupials have the typical characteristics of mammals—e.g., mammary glands, three middle ear bones, and true hair. There are, however, striking differences as well as a number of anatomical features that separate them from Eutherians. In addition to the front pouch, which contains multiple nipples for the protection and sustenance of their young, marsupials have other common structural features. Ossified patellae are absent in most modern marsupials (though a small number of exceptions are reported)[6] and epipubic bones are present. Marsupials (and monotremes) also lack a gross communication (corpus callosum) between the right and left brain hemispheres.[7] Description[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Skull and teeth[edit] The skull has peculiarities in comparison to higher mammals. In general, the skull is relatively small and tight. Holes (foramen lacrimale) are located in the front of the orbit. The cheekbone is enlarged and extends further to the rear. The angular extension (processus angularis) of the lower jaw is bent toward the center. Another feature is the hard palate which, in contrast to the higher mammals' foramina, always have more openings. The teeth differ from that of placental mammals, so that all taxa except wombats have a different number of incisors in the upper and lower jaws. The early marsupials had a dental formula from 5 / 4-1 / 1-3 / 3-4 / 4, that is, per pine half; they have five maxilla or four mandibular incisors, one canine, three premolars and four molars, for a total of 50 teeth. Some taxa, such as the opossum, have the original number of teeth. In other groups the number of teeth is reduced. Marsupials in many cases have 40 to 50 teeth, significantly more than placental mammals. The upper jaw has a high number of incisors, up to ten, and they have more molars than premolars. The second set of teeth grows in only at the 3rd premolar: all remaining teeth are already created as permanent teeth. Torso[edit] Few general characteristics describe their skeleton. In addition to details in the construction of the ankle, bones (Ossa epubica) are characteristic, two from the pubic bone of the pelvis, which is a forwardly projecting bone. Since these are present in males and pouchless species, it is believed that they originally had nothing to do with reproduction, but served in the muscular approach to the movement of the hind limbs. The egg-laying platypus have marsupial bones. This could be explained by an original feature of mammals. Marsupial
reproductive organs differ from the higher mammals. For them, the reproductive tract is doubled. The females have two uteri and two vaginas, and before birth, a birth canal forms between them, the median vagina.[7] The males have a split or double penis lying in front of the scrotum.[8] A pouch is present in some but not all species. Some marsupials have a permanent bag, whereas in others the pouch develops during gestation, as with the shrew opossum, where the young are hidden only by skin folds or in the fur of the mother. The arrangement of the pouch is variable to allow the offspring to receive maximum protection. Locomotive kangaroos have a pouch opening at the front, while many others that walk or climb on all fours have the opening in the back. Usually, only females have a pouch, but the male water opossum has a pouch that is used to accommodate his genitalia while swimming or running. General and convergences[edit]

The sugar glider, a marsupial, (left) and flying squirrel, a rodent, (right) are examples of convergent evolution.

Marsupials have adapted to many habitats, reflected in the wide variety in their build. The largest living marsupial, the red kangaroo, grows up to 1.8 metres (5.9 ft) in height and 90 kilograms (200 lb) in weight, but extinct genera, such as Diprotodon, were significantly larger and heavier. The smallest members of this group are the marsupial mice, which often reach only 5 centimetres (2.0 in) in body length. Some species resemble higher mammals and are examples of convergent evolution. The extinct Thylacine
strongly resembled the placental wolf, hence its nickname "Tasmanian wolf". Flying and the associated ability to glide occurred both with marsupials (as with sugar gliders) and some higher mammals (as with flying squirrels), which developed independently. Other groups such as the kangaroo, however, do not have placental counterparts. Reproductive system[edit] See also: Kangaroo
§ Reproduction and life cycle

Female eastern grey kangaroo with a joey in her pouch

Marsupials' reproductive systems differ markedly from those of placental mammals.[9][10] During embryonic development, a choriovitelline placenta forms in all marsupials. In bandicoots, an additional chorioallantoic placenta forms, although it lacks the chorionic villi found in eutherian placentas. The evolution of reproduction in marsupials, and speculation about the ancestral state of mammalian reproduction, have engaged discussion since the end of the 19th century. Both sexes possess a cloaca,[10] which is connected to a urogenital sac used to store waste before expulsion. The bladder of marsupials functions as a site to concentrate urine and empties into the common urogenital sinus in both females and males.[10]

Male reproductive system[edit] Most male marsupials, except for macropods[11] and marsupial moles,[12] have a bifurcated penis, separated into two columns, so that the penis has two ends corresponding to the females' two vaginas.[7][10][13][14][8][15][16] The penis is used only during copulation, and is separate from the urinary tract.[8][10] It curves forward when erect,[17] and when not erect, it is retracted into the body in an S-shaped curve.[8] Neither marsupials nor monotremes possess a baculum.[7] The shape of the glans penis varies among marsupial species.[8][18][19][20] The male thylacine had a pouch that acted as a protective sheath, covering his external reproductive organs while he ran through thick brush.[21] The shape of the urethral grooves of the males' genitalia is used to distinguish between Monodelphis brevicaudata, Monodelphis domestica, and Monodelphis americana. The grooves form 2 separate channels that form the ventral and dorsal folds of the erectile tissue.[22] Several species of dasyurid marsupials can also be distinguished by their penis morphology.[23] The only accessory sex glands marsupials possess are the prostate and bulbourethral glands.[24] There are no ampullae, seminal vesicles or coagulating glands.[25][13] The prostate is proportionally larger in marsupials than in placental mammals.[8] During the breeding season, the male tammar wallaby's prostate and bulbourethral gland enlarge. However, there does not appear to be any seasonal difference in the weight of the testes.[26] Female reproductive system[edit] See also: Birth § Marsupials

Female reproductive anatomy of several marsupial species

Female marsupials have two lateral vaginas, which lead to separate uteri, but both open externally through the same orifice. A third canal, the median vagina, is used for birth. This canal can be transitory or permanent.[7] Marsupials give birth at a very early stage of development; after birth, newborn marsupials crawl up the bodies of their mothers and attach themselves to a nipple, which is located on the underside of the mother, either inside a pouch called the marsupium, or open to the environment. There they remain for a number of weeks, attached to the nipple. The offspring are eventually able to leave the marsupium for short periods, returning to it for warmth, protection, and nourishment. Early development[edit]

This section may contain content that is repetitive or redundant of text elsewhere in the article. Please help improve it by merging similar text or removing repeated statements. (November 2017)

An early birth removes a developing marsupial from its mother's body much sooner than in placental mammals, thus marsupials have not developed a complex placenta to protect the embryo from its mother's immune system. Though early birth puts the tiny newborn marsupial at a greater environmental risk, it significantly reduces the dangers associated with long pregnancies, as there is no need to carry a large fetus to full term in bad seasons. Marsupials are extremely altricial animals, needing to be intensely cared for immediately following birth (cf. precocial). Because newborn marsupials must climb up to their mother's nipples, their front limbs and facial structures are much more developed than the rest of their bodies at the time of birth.[27][28] This requirement has been argued to have resulted in the limited range of locomotor adaptations in marsupials compared to placentals. Marsupials must develop grasping forepaws during their early youth, making the evolutive transition from these limbs into hooves, wings, or flippers, as some groups of placental mammals have done, more difficult. However, several marsupials do possess atypical forelimb morphologies, such as the hooved forelimbs of the pig-footed bandicoot, suggesting that the range of forelimb specialization is not as limited as assumed.[29] An infant marsupial is known as a joey. Marsupials have a very short gestation period (about four to five weeks), and the joey is born in an essentially fetal state. The blind, furless, miniature newborn, the size of a jelly bean,[30] crawls across its mother's fur to make its way into the pouch, where it latches onto a teat for food. It will not re-emerge for several months, during which time it develops fully. After this period, the joey begins to spend increasing lengths of time out of the pouch, feeding and learning survival skills. However, it returns to the pouch to sleep, and if danger threatens, it will seek refuge in its mother's pouch for safety. Joeys stay in the pouch for up to a year in some species, or until the next joey is born. A marsupial joey is unable to regulate its own body temperature and relies upon an external heat source. Until the joey is well-furred and old enough to leave the pouch, a pouch temperature of 30–32 °C (86–90 °F) must be constantly maintained. Joeys are born with "oral shields". In species without pouches or with rudimentary pouches these are more developed than in forms with well-developed pouches, implying a role in maintaining the young attached to the mother's nipple.[31] Evolution[edit] See also: Evolution of mammals

Isolated petrosals of Djarthia murgonensis, Australia's oldest marsupial fossils[32]

of the herbivorous eastern grey kangaroo, as illustrated in Knight's Sketches in Natural History

The relationships among the three extant divisions of mammals (monotremes, marsupials, and placentals) were long a matter of debate among taxonomists.[33] Most morphological evidence comparing traits such as number and arrangement of teeth and structure of the reproductive and waste elimination systems as well as most genetic and molecular evidence favors a closer evolutionary relationship between the marsupials and placental mammals than either has with the monotremes.[34]

Phylogenetic tree
Phylogenetic tree
of marsupials derived from retroposon data[4]

The ancestors of marsupials, part of a larger group called metatherians, probably split from those of placental mammals (eutherians) during the mid- Jurassic
period, though no fossil evidence of metatherians themselves are known from this time.[35] Fossil metatherians are distinguished from eutherians by the form of their teeth; metatherians possess four pairs of molar teeth in each jaw, whereas eutherian mammals (including true placentals) never have more than three pairs.[36] Using this criterion, the earliest known metatherian is Sinodelphys
szalayi, which lived in China around 125 million years ago (mya).[37] This makes it a contemporary to some early eutherian species which have been found in the same area.[38] The oldest metatherian fossils are found in present-day China.[39] About 100 mya, the supercontinent Pangaea
was in the process of splitting into the northern continent Laurasia
and the southern continent Gondwana, with what would become China and Australia already separated by the Tethys Ocean. From there, metatherians spread westward into modern North America
North America
(still attached to Eurasia), where the earliest true marsupials are found. Marsupials are difficult to distinguish from other fossils, as they are characterized by aspects of the reproductive system which do not normally fossilize (including pouches) and by subtle changes in the bone and tooth structure that show a metatherian is part of the marsupial crown group (the most exclusive group that contains all living marsupials). The earliest definite marsupial fossil belongs to the species Peradectes minor, from the Paleocene
of Montana, dated to about 65 million years ago.[40] From their point of origin in Laurasia, marsupials spread to South America, which was possibly connected to North America
North America
at around 65 mya through a ridge that has since moved on to become the Caribbean Archipelago.[41][42] Laurasian marsupials eventually died off, for not entirely clear reasons; convention has it that they disappeared due to competition with placentals, but this is no longer accepted to be the primary reason.[43] Marsurpials, Peradectes and the related Herpetotheriidae
are nested within a clade of metatherians that also included a variety of Cretaceous
North American taxa.[44]













Gurlin Tsav skull
























In South America, the opossums evolved and developed a strong presence, and the Paleogene also saw the evolution of shrew opossums (Paucituberculata) alongside non-marsupial metatherian predators such as the borhyaenids and the saber-toothed Thylacosmilus. South American niches for mammalian carnivores were dominated by these marsupial and sparassodont metatherians. While placental predators were absent, the metatherians did have to contend with avian (terror bird) and terrestrial crocodylomorph competition. South America
South America
and Antarctica remained connected until 35 mya, as shown by the unique fossils found there. North and South America
South America
were disconnected until about three million years ago, when the Isthmus of Panama
Isthmus of Panama
formed. This led to the Great American Interchange. Sparassodonts disappeared for unclear reasons – again, this has classically assumed as competition from carnivoran placentals, but the last sparassodonts co-existed with a few small carnivorans like procyonids and canines, and disappeared long before the arrival of macropredatory forms like felines,[45] while didelphimorphs (opossums) invaded Central America, with the Virginia opossum
Virginia opossum
reaching as far north as Canada. Marsupials reached Australia via Antarctica
about 50 mya, shortly after Australia had split off. This suggests a single dispersion event of just one species, most likely a relative to South America's monito del monte (a microbiothere, the only New World australidelphian). This progenitor may have rafted across the widening, but still narrow, gap between Australia and Antarctica. In Australia, they radiated into the wide variety seen today. Modern marsupials appear to have reached the islands of New Guinea
New Guinea
and Sulawesi
relatively recently via Australia.[46][47][48] A 2010 analysis of retroposon insertion sites in the nuclear DNA of a variety of marsupials has confirmed all living marsupials have South American ancestors. The branching sequence of marsupial orders indicated by the study puts Didelphimorphia
in the most basal position, followed by Paucituberculata, then Microbiotheria, and ending with the radiation of Australian marsupials. This indicates that Australidelphia
arose in South America, and reached Australia after Microbiotheria
split off.[3][4] In Australia, terrestrial placental mammals disappeared early in the Cenozoic
(their most recent known fossils being 55 million-year-old teeth resembling those of condylarths) for reasons that are not clear, allowing marsupials to dominate the Australian ecosystem.[46] Extant native Australian terrestrial placental mammals (such as hopping mice) are relatively recent immigrants, arriving via island hopping from Southeast Asia.[47] Genetic analysis suggests a divergence date between the marsupials and the placentals at 160 million years ago.[49] The ancestral number of chromosomes has been estimated to be 2n = 14. A new hypothesis suggests that South American microbiotheres resulted from a back-dispersal from eastern Gondwana
due to new cranial and post-cranial marsupial fossils from the Djarthia murgonensis
Djarthia murgonensis
from the early Eocene
Tingamarra Local Fauna in Australia that indicate the Djarthia murgonensis
Djarthia murgonensis
is the most plesiomorphic, the oldest unequivocal australidelphian, and may be the ancestral morphotype of the Australian marsupial radiation.[50]

v t e

Geological time scale of marsupial evolution




Holocene 10,000 ya – present

First Europeans visit Australia in 1606, settlements begin in 1788. Dingo
introduced 3500-4000 ya. Thylacine
and Tasmanian devil subsequently disappear from Australian mainland.

Pleistocene 1.75 Mya – 10,000

Last glacial maximum 18,000–20,000 ya Extinction of megafauna 45,000–55,000 ya. First humans arrive in Australia at least 70,000~65,000 ya.


Pliocene 5.3–1.7 Mya

Growing diversity in grazing marsupials as a result of grasslands and arid habitats development. First appearance of large marsupials.


Late Miocene
11–5.3 Mya

'Dim age' of marsupial fossils in Australia. Forest-dwellers diminish.

Middle Miocene
16.4–11 Mya

Icehouse conditions result in the number of forest and forest-dwelling marsupials to decrease.

Early Miocene
23.5–16.4 Mya

Greenhouse conditions in Australia result in great diversity of Australian marsupials.


33–23 Mya

Appearance of marsupials in Australian fossil record

53–33.7 Mya

Australia separates from Antarctica.

Paleocene 65–53 Mya

High marsupial diversity in South America. Appearance of the oldest Australian marsupial in late Paleocene. Dinosaurs are wiped off the Earth after an asteroid collision.



Late Cretaceous
97–65 Mya

The northern landmass, Laurasia, is inhabited by marsupials. Some of them start dispersing to South America.

Early Cretaceous
135–97 Mya

First appearance of marsupial and placental fossils.

203–135 Mya

Break apart of the great southern landmass, Gondwana. Marsupials and placentals diverge.

250–203 Mya

First mammals appear in late Triassic
in the supercontinent, Pangaea.

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Marsupial
reproductive system.

lawn Metatheria



^ a b Gardner, A. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. Mammal Species
of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 3–21. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ a b Groves, C.P. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. Mammal Species
of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 22–70. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.  ^ a b Schiewe, Jessie (2010-07-28). "Australia's marsupials originated in what is now South America, study says". LA Times. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 1 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-01.  ^ a b c Nilsson, M. A.; Churakov, G.; Sommer, M.; Van Tran, N.; Zemann, A.; Brosius, J.; Schmitz, J. (2010). "Tracking Marsupial Evolution Using Archaic Genomic Retroposon
Insertions". PLoS Biology. Public Library of Science. 8 (7): e1000436. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000436. PMC 2910653 . PMID 20668664.  ^ Gallus, A. Kumar; Janke, S.; Nilsson, M.A. (2015). "Disentangling the relationship of the Australian marsupial orders using retrotransposon and evolutionary network analyses". Genome Biol Evol. 7 (4): 985–92. doi:10.1093/gbe/evv052. PMC 4419798 . PMID 25786431.  ^ Samuels, Mark E.; Regnault, Sophie; Hutchinson, John R. (2017). "Evolution of the patellar sesamoid bone in mammals". PeerJ: e3103. doi:10.7717/peerj.3103. PMC 5363259 . PMID 28344905.  ^ a b c d e Nowak 1999. ^ a b c d e f Renfree, Marilyn; Hugh Tyndale-Biscoe (1987). Reproductive Physiology of Marsupials. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521337922.  ^ Short, R. V.; Balaban, E. (1994). The Differences Between the Sexes. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-44878-9.  ^ a b c d e King, Anna (2001). "Discoveries about Marsupial Reproduction". Iowa State University Biology Dept. Archived from the original on 5 September 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-22.  ^ Lynda Staker (30 June 2014). Macropod Husbandry, Healthcare and Medicinals—Volumes One and Two. Lynda Staker. ISBN 978-0-9775751-2-1.  ^ On the Habits and Affinities of the New Australian Mammal, Notoryctes typhlops E. D. Cope The American Naturalist Vol. 26, No. 302 (February 1892), pp. 121–128 ^ a b Don II Hunsaker (1977). The Biology of Marsupials. Elsevier Science. ISBN 978-0-323-14620-3.  ^ Biggers, J. D. "Reproduction in male marsupials." Comparative biology of reproduction in mammals (IW Rowlands, ed.). Academic Press, New York (1966): 251–280. ^ Sharman, G. B.; Pilton, Phyllis E. (1964). "The life history and reproduction of the red kangaroo (Megaleia rufa)". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 142 (1): 29–48. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1964.tb05152.x.  ^ Sadleir, R. M. F. S. (1965). "Reproduction in two species of kangaroo (Macropus robustus and Megaleia rufa in the arid Pilbara region of Western Australia". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 145 (2): 239–261. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1965.tb02016.x.  ^ Sadleir, Richard (1973). The Reproduction of Vertebrates. Elsevier Science. ISBN 978-0-323-15935-7.  ^ Australian Mammal
Society (1978). Australian Mammal
Society. Australian Mammal
Society. pp. 73–.  ^ Osgood, Wilfred Hudson; Herrick, Charles Judson (1921). A monographic study of the American marsupial, Caēnolestes ... University of Chicago. pp. 64–.  ^ The Urologic and Cutaneous Review. Urologic & Cutaneous Press. 1920. pp. 677–.  ^ Paddle, Robert (2002). The last Tasmanian tiger : the history and extinction of the thylacine (Paperback ed.). Port Melbourne, Vic.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-53154-2.  ^ Nogueira, J., Castro, A. S., Câamara, E. C., & Câmara, B. O. (2004). "Morphology of the Male Genital system of Chironectes minimus and Comparison to other didelphid marsupials". Journal of Mammalogy. 85 (5): 834–841. doi:10.1644/207. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Woolley, Patricia A., Michael Westerman, and Carey Krajewski. "Interspecific affinities within the genus Sminthopsis (Dasyuromorphia: Dasyuridae) based on morphology of the penis: congruence with other anatomical and molecular data." Journal of Mammalogy 88.6 (2007): 1381–1392. ^ Rodger, JC; Hughes, RL (1973). "Studies of the accessory glands of male marsupials". Australian Journal of Zoology. 21 (3): 303. doi:10.1071/ZO9730303.  ^ Rodger, John C. "Comparative aspects of the accessory sex glands and seminal biochemistry of mammals." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Comparative Biochemistry 55.1 (1976): 1-8. ^ Inns, R. W. (1982). "Seasonal changes in the accessory reproductive system and plasma testosterone levels of the male tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, in the wild". Journal of Reproduction and Fertility. 66 (2): 675–80. doi:10.1530/jrf.0.0660675. PMID 7175821.  ^ Sears, K. E. (2009). "Differences in the Timing of Prechondrogenic Limb Development in Mammals: The Marsupial- Placental
Dichotomy Resolved". Evolution. 63 (8): 2193–2200. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2009.00690.x. PMID 19453378.  ^ Smith, K. K. (2001). "Early development of the neural plate, neural crest and facial region of marsupials". Journal of Anatomy. 199 (Pt 1–2): 121–131. doi:10.1046/j.1469-7580.2001.19910121.x. PMC 1594995 . PMID 11523813.  ^ Larry Vogelnest, Graeme Allan, Radiology of Australian Mammals ^ http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2013/03/18/3718274.htm. Abc.net.au (2013-03-18). Retrieved on 2015-12-15. ^ Schneider, Nanette Yvette (August 2011). "The development of the olfactory organs in newly hatched monotremes and neonate marsupials". J. Anat. 219 (2): 229–242. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7580.2011.01393.x.  ^ Beck, Robin M. D.; Godthelp, Henk; Weisbecker, Vera; Archer, Michael; Hand, Suzanne J. (2008). Hawks, John, ed. "Australia's oldest marsupial fossils and their biogeographical implications". PLoS ONE. 3 (3): e1858. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001858. PMC 2267999 . PMID 18365013.  ^ Moyal, Ann Mozley (2004). Platypus: The Extraordinary Story of How a Curious Creature Baffled the World. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-8052-1.  ^ van Rheede, T.; Bastiaans, T.; Boone, D.; Hedges, S.; De Jong, W.; Madsen, O. (2006). "The platypus is in its place: nuclear genes and indels confirm the sister group relation of monotremes and therians". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 23 (3): 587–597. doi:10.1093/molbev/msj064. PMID 16291999.  ^ Zhe-Xi Luo; Chong-Xi Yuan; Qing-Jin Meng; Qiang Ji (2011). "A Jurassic
eutherian mammal and divergence of marsupials and placentals". Nature. 476 (7361): 442–445. doi:10.1038/nature10291. PMID 21866158.  ^ Benton, Michael J. (1997). Vertebrate
Palaeontology. London: Chapman & Hall. p. 306. ISBN 0-412-73810-4.  ^ Rincon, Paul (2003-12-12). "Oldest Marsupial
Ancestor Found, BBC, Dec 2003". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-03-16.  ^ Hu, Y; Meng, J; Li, C; Wang, Y (2010). "New basal eutherian mammal from the Early Cretaceous
Jehol biota, Liaoning, China". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 277 (1679): 229–236. doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.0203. PMC 2842663 . PMID 19419990.  ^ Luo, Zhe-Xi; Ji, Qiang; Wible, John R.; Yuan, Chong-Xi (2003-12-12). "An early Cretaceous
tribosphenic mammal and metatherian evolution". Science. 302 (5652): 1934–1940. doi:10.1126/science.1090718. PMID 14671295.  ^ O'Leary, Maureen A.; Bloch, Jonathan I.; Flynn, John J.; Gaudin, Timothy J.; Giallombardo, Andres; Giannini, Norberto P.; Goldberg, Suzann L.; Kraatz, Brian P.; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Meng, Jin; Ni, Michael J.; Novacek, Fernando A.; Perini, Zachary S.; Randall, Guillermo; Rougier, Eric J.; Sargis, Mary T.; Silcox, Nancy b.; Simmons, Micelle; Spaulding, Paul M.; Velazco, Marcelo; Weksler, John r.; Wible, Andrea L.; Cirranello, A. L. (8 February 2013). "The Placental
Mammal Ancestor and the Post–K-Pg Radiation of Placentals". Science. 339 (6120): 662–667. doi:10.1126/science.1229237. PMID 23393258.  ^ Kemp, Thomas Stainforth (2005). The origin and evolution of mammals (PDF). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 217. ISBN 0 19 850760 7.  ^ Boschman, Lydian M.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.; Torsvik, Trond H.; Spakman, Wim; Pindell, James L. (23 August 2014). "Kinematic reconstruction of the Caribbean region since the Early Jurassic". Earth-Science Reviews. 138: 102–136. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2014.08.007. Retrieved 11 October 2017.  ^ Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo (2012). "Why are There Fewer Marsupials than Placentals? On the Relevance of Geography and Physiology to Evolutionary Patterns of Mammalian Diversity and Disparity". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 20 (4): 279–290. doi:10.1007/s10914-012-9220-3.  ^ Wilson, G.P.; Ekdale, E.G.; Hoganson, J.W.; Calede, J.J.; Linden, A.V. (2016). "A large carnivorous mammal from the Late Cretaceous
and the North American origin of marsupials". Nature Communications. 7. doi:10.1038/ncomms13734. ^ Prevosti, Francisco J.; Forasiepi, Analía; Zimicz, Natalia (2011). "The Evolution of the Cenozoic
Terrestrial Mammalian Predator Guild in South America: Competition or Replacement?". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 20: 3–21. doi:10.1007/s10914-011-9175-9.  ^ a b Dawkins, Richard (2005). The Ancestor's Tale : A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Evolution. Boston: Mariner Books. p. 223. ISBN 0-618-61916-X.  ^ a b Hand, Suzanne J.; Long, John; Archer, Michael; Flannery, Timothy Fridtjof (2002). Prehistoric mammals of Australia and New Guinea: one hundred million years of evolution. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-7223-5.  ^ Kemp, T.S. (2005). The origin and evolution of mammals. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850761-5.  ^ Graves JA, Renfree MB (2013) Marsupials in the age of genomics. Annu Rev Genom Hum Genet ^ Beck, Robin M. D.; Godthelp, Henk; Weisbecker, Vera; Archer, Michael; Hand, Suzanne J. (2008). "Australia's Oldest Marsupial Fossils and their Biogeographical Implications". PLoS ONE. 3 (3): e1858. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001858. PMC 2267999 . PMID 18365013. 

Further reading[edit]

Austin, C. R.; Russell Austin, Colin; Valentine Short, Roger, eds. (21 March 1985). Reproduction in Mammals: Volume 4, Reproductive Fitness. Cambridge University Press. pp. 4–. ISBN 978-0-521-31984-3.  Bronson, F. H. (1989). Mammalian Reproductive Biology. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-07559-4.  Dawson, Terence J. (1995). Kangaroos: Biology of the Largest Marsupials. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-8262-3.  Flannery, Tim (2002). The Future Eaters: An Ecological History of the Australasian Lands and People. Grove Press. pp. 67–75. ISBN 978-0-8021-3943-6.  Flannery, Tim (2008). Chasing kangaroos : a continent, a scientist, and a search for the world's most extraordinary creature (1st American ed.). New York: Grove. ISBN 9780802143716.  Flannery, Tim (2005). Country : a continent, a scientist & a kangaroo (2nd ed.). Melbourne: Text Pub. ISBN 1-920885-76-5.  Frith, H. J. and J. H. Calaby. Kangaroos. New York: Humanities Press, 1969. McKay, George (2006). The Encyclopedia of MAMMALS. Weldon Owen. ISBN 978-1-74089-352-7.  Hunsaker, Don. The Biology of Marsupials. New York: Academic Press, 1977. Johnson, M. H.; Everitt, Barry J. (1988). Essential Reproduction. Blackwell Scientific. ISBN 978-0-632-02183-3.  Jones, Menna; Dickman, Chris; Archer, Mike (2003). Predators with pouches : the biology of carnivorous marsupials. Collingwood, Victoria: Australia). ISBN 9780643066342.  Knobill, Ernst; Neill, Jimmy D., eds. (1998). Encyclopedia of Reproduction. 3. New York: Academic Press.  McCullough, Dale R. (2000). Kangaroos in Outback Australia: Comparative Ecology and Behavior of Three Coexisting Species. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-11916-0.  first2= missing last2= in Authors list (help) Nowak, Ronald M. (7 April 1999). Walker's Mammals of the World. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-5789-8.  Taylor, Andrea C.; Taylor, Paul (1997). "Sex of Pouch Young Related to Maternal Weight in Macropus eugeni and M. parma". Australian Journal of Zoology. 45 (6): 573–578. doi:10.1071/ZO97038. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity Taxonomy from Wikispecies

Western Australian Mammal
Species Researchers Publish First Marsupial
Genome Sequence The National Institutes of Health May 2007 First marsupial genome released. Most differences between the opossom and placental mammals stem from non-coding DNA

v t e

Extant mammal orders

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata (unranked) Amniota



Monotremata ( Platypus
and echidnas)


Metatheria ( Marsupial


Paucituberculata (Shrew opossums) Didelphimorphia


(Monito del monte) Notoryctemorphia
( Marsupial
moles) Dasyuromorphia
(Quolls and dunnarts) Peramelemorphia
(Bilbies and bandicoots) Diprotodontia
(Kangaroos and relatives)

Eutheria ( Placental



Cingulata (Armadillos) Pilosa
(Anteaters and sloths)


(Tenrecs and golden moles) Macroscelidea (Elephant shrews) Tubulidentata (Aardvark) Hyracoidea (Hyraxes) Proboscidea
(Elephants) Sirenia
(Dugongs and manatees)



(Hedgehogs, shrews, moles and relatives) Chiroptera (Bats) Pholidota (Pangolins) Carnivora
(Dogs, cats and relatives) Perissodactyla (Odd-toed ungulates) Artiodactyla (Even-toed ungulates and cetaceans)


Rodentia (Rodents) Lagomorpha
(Rabbits and pikas) Scandentia (Treeshrews) Dermoptera (Colugos) Primates

Mammals portal


Wd: Q25336 EoL: 42415193 Fossilworks: 327562 ITIS: 179918

Authority control

GND: 4145110-7 N