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Marshall Warren Nirenberg
Marshall Warren Nirenberg
(April 10, 1927 – January 15, 2010)[1] was a Jewish
Jewish
American biochemist and geneticist.[2] He shared a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1968 with Har Gobind Khorana
Har Gobind Khorana
and Robert W. Holley
Robert W. Holley
for "breaking the genetic code" and describing how it operates in protein synthesis. In the same year, together with Har Gobind Khorana, he was awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University.

Contents

1 Research 2 Biography 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading

Research[edit] By 1958, experiments and analysis such as the Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment, the Hershey–Chase experiment, the Watson–Crick structure and the Meselson–Stahl experiment
Meselson–Stahl experiment
had shown DNA
DNA
to be the molecule of genetic information. It was not known, however, how DNA
DNA
directed the expression of proteins, or what role RNA had in these processes. Nirenberg teamed up with Heinrich J. Matthaei at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
to answer these questions. They produced RNA
RNA
composed solely of uracil, a nucleotide that only occurs in RNA. They then added this synthetic poly-uracil RNA
RNA
into a cell-free extract of Escherichia coli
Escherichia coli
which contained the DNA, RNA, ribosomes and other cellular machinery for protein synthesis. They added DNase, which breaks apart the DNA, so that no additional proteins would be produced other than that from their synthetic RNA. They then added 1 radioactively labeled amino acid, the building blocks of proteins, and 19 unlabeled amino acids to the extract, varying the labeled amino acid in each sample. Only in the extract containing the radioactively labeled phenylalanine, was the resulting protein also radioactive. This implied that the genetic code for phenylalanine on RNA
RNA
consisted of a repetition of uracil bases. Indeed, as we know now, it is UUU (three uracil bases in a row). This was the first step in deciphering the codons of the genetic code and the first demonstration of messenger RNA
RNA
(see Nirenberg and Matthaei experiment).[3][4][5][6][7][8][9] In August 1961, at the International Congress of Biochemistry
Biochemistry
in Moscow, Nirenberg presented a paper to a small group of scientists. Francis Crick
Francis Crick
convinced the conference leaders to invite Nirenberg to repeat his performance the next day.[10][11] Speaking before the assembled congress of more than a thousand people, Nirenberg electrified the scientific community. He quickly received great scientific attention for these experiments. Within a few years, his research team had performed similar experiments and found that three-base repeats of adenosine (AAA) produced the amino acid lysine, and cytosine repeats (CCC) produced proline. The next breakthrough came when Philip Leder, a postdoctoral researcher in Nirenberg's lab, developed a method for determining the genetic code on pieces of tRNA (see Nirenberg and Leder experiment). This greatly sped up the assignment of three-base codons to amino acids so that 50 codons were identified in this way. Khorana's experiments confirmed these results and completed the genetic code translation. The period between 1961 and 1962 is often referred to as the "coding race" because of the competition between the labs of Nirenberg at NIH and Nobel laureate Severo Ochoa
Severo Ochoa
at New York University Medical School, who had a massive staff. Faced with the possibility of helping the first NIH
NIH
scientist win a Nobel prize, many NIH
NIH
scientists put aside their own work to help Nirenberg in deciphering the m RNA
RNA
codons for amino acids. Dr. DeWitt Stetten, Jr., director of the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases, called this period of collaboration "NIH's finest hour".[12] Nirenberg's later research focused on neuroscience, neural development, and the homeobox genes. Biography[edit] Nirenberg was born in New York City to a Jewish
Jewish
family, the son of Minerva (Bykowsky) and Harry Edward Nirenberg, a shirtmaker.[13][14] He developed rheumatic fever as a boy, so the family moved to Orlando, Florida to take advantage of the subtropical climate. He developed an early interest in biology. In 1948 he received his B.S. degree, and in 1952, a master's degree in zoology from the University of Florida
University of Florida
at Gainesville where he was also a member of the Pi Lambda Phi Fraternity.[15] His dissertation for the Master's thesis
Master's thesis
was an ecological and taxonomic study of caddis flies (Trichoptera). He received his Ph.D.
Ph.D.
in biochemistry from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Ann Arbor
in 1957. He began his postdoctoral work at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1957 as a fellow of the American Cancer Society
American Cancer Society
in what was then called the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases. In 1959 he became a research biochemist at the NIH
NIH
and began to study the steps that relate DNA, RNA
RNA
and protein. Nirenberg's groundbreaking experiments advanced him to become the head of the Section of Biochemical Genetics
Genetics
in 1962 in the National Heart Institute (now the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute), where he remained a laboratory chief until his death. Fellow laboratory chiefs included Ernst Freese
Ernst Freese
and Daniel Carleton Gajdusek. He was married in 1961 to Perola Zaltzman, a chemist from the University of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, who also worked at NIH
NIH
and died in 2001. Nirenberg married Myrna Weissman, Ph.D., Professor of Epidemiology
Epidemiology
and Psychiatry
Psychiatry
at Columbia University
Columbia University
College of Physicians and Surgeons in 2005. He had four stepchildren: Susan Weissman of Evanston, Illinois, Judith Weissman of New York, New York, Sharon Weissman of New Haven, Connecticut, and Jonathan Weissman of San Francisco, California. He was also survived by his sister, Joan Nirenberg Geiger of Dallas, Texas, several nieces and a nephew. Nirenberg was awarded the National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science
in 1964 and the National Medal of Honor in 1968 by President
President
Lyndon B. Johnson.[16] In 1981, Nirenberg became a founding member of the World Cultural Council.[17] In 1986, Nirenberg's achievements and contributions to the field of biochemistry genetics was recognized at an event honoring Maimonides
Maimonides
and Menachem M. Schneerson, in the nation's capital, hosted by Bob Dole
Bob Dole
and Joe Biden.[18] He was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 2001. He died on January 15, 2010, from cancer after several months of illness. Grandchildren Kerry Reddy, Rachel Weissman, Anna Weissman, Katherine Reifler, Erin Reifler, Sarah Beaglehole and Danny Beaglehole (enjoyed watching spongebob with his granddaughter Kerry on Saturday mornings) See also[edit]

History of RNA
RNA
biology List of Jewish
Jewish
Nobel laureates List of RNA
RNA
biologists J. Heinrich Matthaei

Notes[edit]

^ Wade, Nicholas (January 21, 2010), "Marshall Nirenberg, Biologist Who Untangled Genetic Code, Dies at 82", NY Times.  ^ "Marshall Nirenberg Biography". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2018-01-09.  ^ Leder, P; Nirenberg, MW (1964), " RNA
RNA
CODEWORDS AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, III. ON THE NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE OF A CYSTEINE AND A LEUCINE RNA
RNA
CODEWORD", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (published December 1964), 52 (6), pp. 1521–1529, Bibcode:1964PNAS...52.1521L, doi:10.1073/pnas.52.6.1521, PMC 300480 , PMID 14243527  ^ Eiserling, F; Levin, JG; Byrne, R; Karlsson, U; Nirenberg, MW; Sjoestrand, FS (1964), "Polyribosomes and DNA-dependent Amino Acid Incorporation in Escherichia coli
Escherichia coli
Extracts", Journal of Molecular Biology
Biology
(published December 1964), 10 (3), pp. 536–40, doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(64)80073-5, PMID 14257696  ^ BLADEN, HA; BYRNE, R; LEVIN, JG hi; NIRENBERG, MW (1965), "AN ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDY OF A DNA-RIBOSOME COMPLEX FORMED IN VITRO", J. Mol. Biol. (published Jan 1965), 11, pp. 78–83, doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(65)80172-3, PMID 14255762  ^ BERNFIELD, MR; NIRENBERG, MW (1965), " RNA
RNA
CODEWORDS AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS. THE NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCES OF MULTIPLE CODEWORDS FOR PHENYLALANINE, SERINE, LEUCINE, AND PROLINE", Science (published Jan 29, 1965), 147 (3657), pp. 479–84, Bibcode:1965Sci...147..479B, doi:10.1126/science.147.3657.479, PMID 14237203  ^ TRUPIN, JS; ROTTMAN, FM; BRIMACOMBE, RL; LEDER, P; Bernfield, MR; Nirenberg, MW (1965), " RNA
RNA
CODEWORDS AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, VI. ON THE NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCES OF DEGENERATE CODEWORD SETS FOR ISOLEUCINE, TYROSINE, ASPARAGINE, AND LYSINE", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (published April 1965), 53 (4), pp. 807–11, Bibcode:1965PNAS...53..807T, doi:10.1073/pnas.53.4.807, PMC 221071 , PMID 14324538  ^ Jones, OW; Nirenberg, MW (1966), "Degeneracy in the amino acid code", Biochim. Biophys. Acta (published May 19, 1966), 119 (2), pp. 400–6, doi:10.1016/0005-2787(66)90198-5, PMID 5335948  ^ Kellogg, DA; Doctor, BP; Loebel, JE; Nirenberg, MW (1966), "RNA codons and protein synthesis. IX. Synonym codon recognition by multiple species of valine-, alanine-, and methionine-sRNA", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (published Apr 1966), 55 (4), pp. 912–9, Bibcode:1966PNAS...55..912K, doi:10.1073/pnas.55.4.912, PMC 224250 , PMID 5327071  ^ Caskey, C. Thomas (Mar 2010), "Obituary: Marshall Nirenberg (1927–2010)", Nature, 464 (7285): 44, Bibcode:2010Natur.464...44C, doi:10.1038/464044a, PMID 20203601  ^ Leder, Philip (Feb 2010), "Retrospective. Marshall Warren Nirenberg (1927–2010)", Science, 327 (5968): 972, doi:10.1126/science.1187484, PMID 20167780  ^ The PolyU Experiment. history.nih.gov ^ " Marshall Warren Nirenberg
Marshall Warren Nirenberg
Biography". www.bookrags.com. Retrieved 18 March 2018.  ^ "Marshall Nirenberg". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2018-01-09.  ^ Membership Directory, 2010, Pi Lambda Phi
Pi Lambda Phi
Inc. ^ The Marshall W. Nirenberg Papers "Biographical Information" ^ "About Us". World Cultural Council. Retrieved November 8, 2016.  ^ The Marshall W. Nirenberg Papers "Letter from Bob Dole
Bob Dole
and Joe Biden to Marshall W. Nirenberg"

References[edit]

Voet, Donald and Judith G. Voet. 1995. Biochemistry
Biochemistry
2nd ed. John Wilely & Sons, New York. U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Profiles in Science: The Marshall W. Nirenberg Papers".

Further reading[edit]

Nobel Biography Marshall Nirenberg Papers (1937–2003) – National Library of Medicine finding aid The Marshall Nirenberg Papers – Profiles in Science, National Library of Medicine Free to View Video Interview with Marshall W. Nirenberg provided by the Vega Science Trust. The Life and Scientific Work of Marshall W. Nirenberg. (From Richard Olson & Roger Smith (eds.) The Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists. 1998.) The Official Site of Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize Ed Regis (November 2007), "The Forgotten Code Cracker", Scientific American, 297 (5): 50–51, Bibcode:2007SciAm.297e..50R, doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1107-50, PMID 17990823, (subtitle) In the 1960s Marshall W. Nirenberg deciphered the genetic code, the combination of A, T, G and C nucleotides that specify amino acids. So why do people think that Francis Crick
Francis Crick
did it? 

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

1901–1925

1901 Emil Behring 1902 Ronald Ross 1903 Niels Finsen 1904 Ivan Pavlov 1905 Robert Koch 1906 Camillo Golgi
Camillo Golgi
/ Santiago Ramón y Cajal 1907 Alphonse Laveran 1908 Élie Metchnikoff
Élie Metchnikoff
/ Paul Ehrlich 1909 Emil Kocher 1910 Albrecht Kossel 1911 Allvar Gullstrand 1912 Alexis Carrel 1913 Charles Richet 1914 Róbert Bárány 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 Jules Bordet 1920 August Krogh 1921 1922 Archibald Hill
Archibald Hill
/ Otto Meyerhof 1923 Frederick Banting
Frederick Banting
/ John Macleod 1924 Willem Einthoven 1925

1926–1950

1926 Johannes Fibiger 1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg 1928 Charles Nicolle 1929 Christiaan Eijkman
Christiaan Eijkman
/ Frederick Gowland Hopkins 1930 Karl Landsteiner 1931 Otto Warburg 1932 Charles Scott Sherrington
Charles Scott Sherrington
/ Edgar Adrian 1933 Thomas Morgan 1934 George Whipple
George Whipple
/ George Minot
George Minot
/ William Murphy 1935 Hans Spemann 1936 Henry Dale / Otto Loewi 1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi 1938 Corneille Heymans 1939 Gerhard Domagk 1940 1941 1942 1943 Henrik Dam
Henrik Dam
/ Edward Doisy 1944 Joseph Erlanger
Joseph Erlanger
/ Herbert Gasser 1945 Alexander Fleming
Alexander Fleming
/ Ernst Chain
Ernst Chain
/ Howard Florey 1946 Hermann Muller 1947 Carl Cori / Gerty Cori
Gerty Cori
/ Bernardo Houssay 1948 Paul Müller 1949 Walter Hess / António Egas Moniz 1950 Edward Kendall / Tadeusz Reichstein
Tadeusz Reichstein
/ Philip Hench

1951–1975

1951 Max Theiler 1952 Selman Waksman 1953 Hans Krebs / Fritz Lipmann 1954 John Enders / Thomas Weller / Frederick Robbins 1955 Hugo Theorell 1956 André Cournand / Werner Forssmann
Werner Forssmann
/ Dickinson W. Richards 1957 Daniel Bovet 1958 George Beadle / Edward Tatum
Edward Tatum
/ Joshua Lederberg 1959 Severo Ochoa
Severo Ochoa
/ Arthur Kornberg 1960 Frank Burnet / Peter Medawar 1961 Georg von Békésy 1962 Francis Crick
Francis Crick
/ James Watson
James Watson
/ Maurice Wilkins 1963 John Eccles / Alan Hodgkin / Andrew Huxley 1964 Konrad Bloch / Feodor Lynen 1965 François Jacob
François Jacob
/ André Lwoff / Jacques Monod 1966 Francis Rous / Charles B. Huggins 1967 Ragnar Granit
Ragnar Granit
/ Haldan Hartline / George Wald 1968 Robert W. Holley
Robert W. Holley
/ Har Khorana / Marshall Nirenberg 1969 Max Delbrück
Max Delbrück
/ Alfred Hershey
Alfred Hershey
/ Salvador Luria 1970 Bernard Katz / Ulf von Euler
Ulf von Euler
/ Julius Axelrod 1971 Earl Sutherland Jr. 1972 Gerald Edelman
Gerald Edelman
/ Rodney Porter 1973 Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch
/ Konrad Lorenz
Konrad Lorenz
/ Nikolaas Tinbergen 1974 Albert Claude
Albert Claude
/ Christian de Duve
Christian de Duve
/ George Palade 1975 David Baltimore
David Baltimore
/ Renato Dulbecco
Renato Dulbecco
/ Howard Temin

1976–2000

1976 Baruch Blumberg / Daniel Gajdusek 1977 Roger Guillemin / Andrew Schally
Andrew Schally
/ Rosalyn Yalow 1978 Werner Arber
Werner Arber
/ Daniel Nathans
Daniel Nathans
/ Hamilton O. Smith 1979 Allan Cormack / Godfrey Hounsfield 1980 Baruj Benacerraf / Jean Dausset
Jean Dausset
/ George Snell 1981 Roger Sperry / David H. Hubel
David H. Hubel
/ Torsten Wiesel 1982 Sune Bergström
Sune Bergström
/ Bengt I. Samuelsson / John Vane 1983 Barbara McClintock 1984 Niels Jerne / Georges Köhler / César Milstein 1985 Michael Brown / Joseph L. Goldstein 1986 Stanley Cohen / Rita Levi-Montalcini 1987 Susumu Tonegawa 1988 James W. Black / Gertrude B. Elion
Gertrude B. Elion
/ George H. Hitchings 1989 J. Michael Bishop
J. Michael Bishop
/ Harold E. Varmus 1990 Joseph Murray
Joseph Murray
/ E. Donnall Thomas 1991 Erwin Neher
Erwin Neher
/ Bert Sakmann 1992 Edmond Fischer / Edwin G. Krebs 1993 Richard J. Roberts
Richard J. Roberts
/ Phillip Sharp 1994 Alfred G. Gilman
Alfred G. Gilman
/ Martin Rodbell 1995 Edward B. Lewis
Edward B. Lewis
/ Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
/ Eric F. Wieschaus 1996 Peter C. Doherty
Peter C. Doherty
/ Rolf M. Zinkernagel 1997 Stanley B. Prusiner 1998 Robert F. Furchgott
Robert F. Furchgott
/ Louis Ignarro
Louis Ignarro
/ Ferid Murad 1999 Günter Blobel 2000 Arvid Carlsson
Arvid Carlsson
/ Paul Greengard
Paul Greengard
/ Eric Kandel

2001–present

2001 Leland H. Hartwell / Tim Hunt
Tim Hunt
/ Paul Nurse 2002 Sydney Brenner
Sydney Brenner
/ H. Robert Horvitz / John E. Sulston 2003 Paul Lauterbur
Paul Lauterbur
/ Peter Mansfield 2004 Richard Axel
Richard Axel
/ Linda B. Buck 2005 Barry Marshall
Barry Marshall
/ Robin Warren 2006 Andrew Fire / Craig Mello 2007 Mario Capecchi
Mario Capecchi
/ Martin Evans
Martin Evans
/ Oliver Smithies 2008 Harald zur Hausen
Harald zur Hausen
/ Luc Montagnier
Luc Montagnier
/ Françoise Barré-Sinoussi 2009 Elizabeth Blackburn
Elizabeth Blackburn
/ Carol W. Greider
Carol W. Greider
/ Jack W. Szostak 2010 Robert G. Edwards 2011 Bruce Beutler
Bruce Beutler
/ Jules A. Hoffmann / Ralph M. Steinman (posthumously) 2012 John B. Gurdon
John B. Gurdon
/ Shinya Yamanaka 2013 James Rothman
James Rothman
/ Randy Schekman
Randy Schekman
/ Thomas C. Südhof 2014 John O'Keefe / May-Britt Moser
May-Britt Moser
/ Edvard Moser 2015 William C. Campbell / Satoshi Ōmura
Satoshi Ōmura
/ Tu Youyou 2016 Yoshinori Ohsumi 2017 Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, Michael W. Young

v t e

United States National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science
laureates

Behavioral and social science

1960s

1964: Roger Adams Othmar H. Ammann Theodosius Dobzhansky Neal Elgar Miller

1980s

1986: Herbert A. Simon 1987: Anne Anastasi George J. Stigler 1988: Milton Friedman

1990s

1990: Leonid Hurwicz Patrick Suppes 1991: Robert W. Kates George A. Miller 1992: Eleanor J. Gibson 1994: Robert K. Merton 1995: Roger N. Shepard 1996: Paul Samuelson 1997: William K. Estes 1998: William Julius Wilson 1999: Robert M. Solow

2000s

2000: Gary Becker 2001: George Bass 2003: R. Duncan Luce 2004: Kenneth Arrow 2005: Gordon H. Bower 2008: Michael I. Posner 2009: Mortimer Mishkin

2010s

2011: Anne Treisman 2014: Robert Axelrod 2015: Albert Bandura

Biological sciences

1960s

1963: C. B. van Niel 1964: Marshall W. Nirenberg 1965: Francis P. Rous George G. Simpson Donald D. Van Slyke 1966: Edward F. Knipling Fritz Albert Lipmann William C. Rose Sewall Wright 1967: Kenneth S. Cole Harry F. Harlow Michael Heidelberger Alfred H. Sturtevant 1968: Horace Barker Bernard B. Brodie Detlev W. Bronk Jay Lush Burrhus Frederic Skinner 1969: Robert Huebner Ernst Mayr

1970s

1970: Barbara McClintock Albert B. Sabin 1973: Daniel I. Arnon Earl W. Sutherland Jr. 1974: Britton Chance Erwin Chargaff James V. Neel James Augustine Shannon 1975: Hallowell Davis Paul Gyorgy Sterling B. Hendricks Orville Alvin Vogel 1976: Roger Guillemin Keith Roberts Porter Efraim Racker E. O. Wilson 1979: Robert H. Burris Elizabeth C. Crosby Arthur Kornberg Severo Ochoa Earl Reece Stadtman George Ledyard Stebbins Paul Alfred Weiss

1980s

1981: Philip Handler 1982: Seymour Benzer Glenn W. Burton Mildred Cohn 1983: Howard L. Bachrach Paul Berg Wendell L. Roelofs Berta Scharrer 1986: Stanley Cohen Donald A. Henderson Vernon B. Mountcastle George Emil Palade Joan A. Steitz 1987: Michael E. DeBakey Theodor O. Diener Harry Eagle Har Gobind Khorana Rita Levi-Montalcini 1988: Michael S. Brown Stanley Norman Cohen Joseph L. Goldstein Maurice R. Hilleman Eric R. Kandel Rosalyn Sussman Yalow 1989: Katherine Esau Viktor Hamburger Philip Leder Joshua Lederberg Roger W. Sperry Harland G. Wood

1990s

1990: Baruj Benacerraf Herbert W. Boyer Daniel E. Koshland Jr. Edward B. Lewis David G. Nathan E. Donnall Thomas 1991: Mary Ellen Avery G. Evelyn Hutchinson Elvin A. Kabat Salvador Luria Paul A. Marks Folke K. Skoog Paul C. Zamecnik 1992: Maxine Singer Howard Martin Temin 1993: Daniel Nathans Salome G. Waelsch 1994: Thomas Eisner Elizabeth F. Neufeld 1995: Alexander Rich 1996: Ruth Patrick 1997: James Watson Robert A. Weinberg 1998: Bruce Ames Janet Rowley 1999: David Baltimore Jared Diamond Lynn Margulis

2000s

2000: Nancy C. Andreasen Peter H. Raven Carl Woese 2001: Francisco J. Ayala Mario R. Capecchi Ann Graybiel Gene E. Likens Victor A. McKusick Harold Varmus 2002: James E. Darnell Evelyn M. Witkin 2003: J. Michael Bishop Solomon H. Snyder Charles Yanofsky 2004: Norman E. Borlaug Phillip A. Sharp Thomas E. Starzl 2005: Anthony S. Fauci Torsten N. Wiesel 2006: Rita R. Colwell Nina Fedoroff Lubert Stryer 2007: Robert J. Lefkowitz Bert W. O'Malley 2008: Francis S. Collins Elaine Fuchs J. Craig Venter 2009: Susan L. Lindquist Stanley B. Prusiner

2010s

2010: Ralph L. Brinster Shu Chien Rudolf Jaenisch 2011: Lucy Shapiro Leroy Hood Sallie Chisholm 2014: May Berenbaum Bruce Alberts 2015: Stanley Falkow Rakesh K. Jain Mary-Claire King Simon Levin

Chemistry

1980s

1982: F. Albert Cotton Gilbert Stork 1983: Roald Hoffmann George C. Pimentel Richard N. Zare 1986: Harry B. Gray Yuan Tseh Lee Carl S. Marvel Frank H. Westheimer 1987: William S. Johnson Walter H. Stockmayer Max Tishler 1988: William O. Baker Konrad E. Bloch Elias J. Corey 1989: Richard B. Bernstein Melvin Calvin Rudolph A. Marcus Harden M. McConnell

1990s

1990: Elkan Blout Karl Folkers John D. Roberts 1991: Ronald Breslow Gertrude B. Elion Dudley R. Herschbach Glenn T. Seaborg 1992: Howard E. Simmons Jr. 1993: Donald J. Cram Norman Hackerman 1994: George S. Hammond 1995: Thomas Cech Isabella L. Karle 1996: Norman Davidson 1997: Darleane C. Hoffman Harold S. Johnston 1998: John W. Cahn George M. Whitesides 1999: Stuart A. Rice John Ross Susan Solomon

2000s

2000: John D. Baldeschwieler Ralph F. Hirschmann 2001: Ernest R. Davidson Gábor A. Somorjai 2002: John I. Brauman 2004: Stephen J. Lippard 2006: Marvin H. Caruthers Peter B. Dervan 2007: Mostafa A. El-Sayed 2008: Joanna Fowler JoAnne Stubbe 2009: Stephen J. Benkovic Marye Anne Fox

2010s

2010: Jacqueline K. Barton Peter J. Stang 2011: Allen J. Bard M. Frederick Hawthorne 2014: Judith P. Klinman Jerrold Meinwald 2015: A. Paul Alivisatos Geraldine L. Richmond

Engineering sciences

1960s

1962: Theodore von Kármán 1963: Vannevar Bush John Robinson Pierce 1964: Charles S. Draper 1965: Hugh L. Dryden Clarence L. Johnson Warren K. Lewis 1966: Claude E. Shannon 1967: Edwin H. Land Igor I. Sikorsky 1968: J. Presper Eckert Nathan M. Newmark 1969: Jack St. Clair Kilby

1970s

1970: George E. Mueller 1973: Harold E. Edgerton Richard T. Whitcomb 1974: Rudolf Kompfner Ralph Brazelton Peck Abel Wolman 1975: Manson Benedict William Hayward Pickering Frederick E. Terman Wernher von Braun 1976: Morris Cohen Peter C. Goldmark Erwin Wilhelm Müller 1979: Emmett N. Leith Raymond D. Mindlin Robert N. Noyce Earl R. Parker Simon Ramo

1980s

1982: Edward H. Heinemann Donald L. Katz 1983: William Redington Hewlett George M. Low John G. Trump 1986: Hans Wolfgang Liepmann T. Y. Lin Bernard M. Oliver 1987: R. Byron Bird H. Bolton Seed Ernst Weber 1988: Daniel C. Drucker Willis M. Hawkins George W. Housner 1989: Harry George Drickamer Herbert E. Grier

1990s

1990: Mildred Dresselhaus Nick Holonyak Jr. 1991: George H. Heilmeier Luna B. Leopold H. Guyford Stever 1992: Calvin F. Quate John Roy Whinnery 1993: Alfred Y. Cho 1994: Ray W. Clough 1995: Hermann A. Haus 1996: James L. Flanagan C. Kumar N. Patel 1998: Eli Ruckenstein 1999: Kenneth N. Stevens

2000s

2000: Yuan-Cheng B. Fung 2001: Andreas Acrivos 2002: Leo Beranek 2003: John M. Prausnitz 2004: Edwin N. Lightfoot 2005: Jan D. Achenbach Tobin J. Marks 2006: Robert S. Langer 2007: David J. Wineland 2008: Rudolf E. Kálmán 2009: Amnon Yariv

2010s

2010: Shu Chien 2011: John B. Goodenough 2014: Thomas Kailath

Mathematical, statistical, and computer sciences

1960s

1963: Norbert Wiener 1964: Solomon Lefschetz H. Marston Morse 1965: Oscar Zariski 1966: John Milnor 1967: Paul Cohen 1968: Jerzy Neyman 1969: William Feller

1970s

1970: Richard Brauer 1973: John Tukey 1974: Kurt Gödel 1975: John W. Backus Shiing-Shen Chern George Dantzig 1976: Kurt Otto Friedrichs Hassler Whitney 1979: Joseph L. Doob Donald E. Knuth

1980s

1982: Marshall Harvey Stone 1983: Herman Goldstine Isadore Singer 1986: Peter Lax Antoni Zygmund 1987: Raoul Bott Michael Freedman 1988: Ralph E. Gomory Joseph B. Keller 1989: Samuel Karlin Saunders Mac Lane Donald C. Spencer

1990s

1990: George F. Carrier Stephen Cole Kleene John McCarthy 1991: Alberto Calderón 1992: Allen Newell 1993: Martin David Kruskal 1994: John Cocke 1995: Louis Nirenberg 1996: Richard Karp Stephen Smale 1997: Shing-Tung Yau 1998: Cathleen Synge Morawetz 1999: Felix Browder Ronald R. Coifman

2000s

2000: John Griggs Thompson Karen K. Uhlenbeck 2001: Calyampudi R. Rao Elias M. Stein 2002: James G. Glimm 2003: Carl R. de Boor 2004: Dennis P. Sullivan 2005: Bradley Efron 2006: Hyman Bass 2007: Leonard Kleinrock Andrew J. Viterbi 2009: David B. Mumford

2010s

2010: Richard A. Tapia S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan 2011: Solomon W. Golomb Barry Mazur 2014: Alexandre Chorin David Blackwell 2015: Michael Artin

Physical sciences

1960s

1963: Luis W. Alvarez 1964: Julian Schwinger Harold Clayton Urey Robert Burns Woodward 1965: John Bardeen Peter Debye Leon M. Lederman William Rubey 1966: Jacob Bjerknes Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Henry Eyring John H. Van Vleck Vladimir K. Zworykin 1967: Jesse Beams Francis Birch Gregory Breit Louis Hammett George Kistiakowsky 1968: Paul Bartlett Herbert Friedman Lars Onsager Eugene Wigner 1969: Herbert C. Brown Wolfgang Panofsky

1970s

1970: Robert H. Dicke Allan R. Sandage John C. Slater John A. Wheeler Saul Winstein 1973: Carl Djerassi Maurice Ewing Arie Jan Haagen-Smit Vladimir Haensel Frederick Seitz Robert Rathbun Wilson 1974: Nicolaas Bloembergen Paul Flory William Alfred Fowler Linus Carl Pauling Kenneth Sanborn Pitzer 1975: Hans A. Bethe Joseph O. Hirschfelder Lewis Sarett Edgar Bright Wilson Chien-Shiung Wu 1976: Samuel Goudsmit Herbert S. Gutowsky Frederick Rossini Verner Suomi Henry Taube George Uhlenbeck 1979: Richard P. Feynman Herman Mark Edward M. Purcell John Sinfelt Lyman Spitzer Victor F. Weisskopf

1980s

1982: Philip W. Anderson Yoichiro Nambu Edward Teller Charles H. Townes 1983: E. Margaret Burbidge Maurice Goldhaber Helmut Landsberg Walter Munk Frederick Reines Bruno B. Rossi J. Robert Schrieffer 1986: Solomon J. Buchsbaum H. Richard Crane Herman Feshbach Robert Hofstadter Chen-Ning Yang 1987: Philip Abelson Walter Elsasser Paul C. Lauterbur George Pake James A. Van Allen 1988: D. Allan Bromley Paul Ching-Wu Chu Walter Kohn Norman F. Ramsey Jack Steinberger 1989: Arnold O. Beckman Eugene Parker Robert Sharp Henry Stommel

1990s

1990: Allan M. Cormack Edwin M. McMillan Robert Pound Roger Revelle 1991: Arthur L. Schawlow Ed Stone Steven Weinberg 1992: Eugene M. Shoemaker 1993: Val Fitch Vera Rubin 1994: Albert Overhauser Frank Press 1995: Hans Dehmelt Peter Goldreich 1996: Wallace S. Broecker 1997: Marshall Rosenbluth Martin Schwarzschild George Wetherill 1998: Don L. Anderson John N. Bahcall 1999: James Cronin Leo Kadanoff

2000s

2000: Willis E. Lamb Jeremiah P. Ostriker Gilbert F. White 2001: Marvin L. Cohen Raymond Davis Jr. Charles Keeling 2002: Richard Garwin W. Jason Morgan Edward Witten 2003: G. Brent Dalrymple Riccardo Giacconi 2004: Robert N. Clayton 2005: Ralph A. Alpher Lonnie Thompson 2006: Daniel Kleppner 2007: Fay Ajzenberg-Selove Charles P. Slichter 2008: Berni Alder James E. Gunn 2009: Yakir Aharonov Esther M. Conwell Warren M. Washington

2010s

2011: Sidney Drell Sandra Faber Sylvester James Gates 2014: Burton Richter Sean C. Solomon 2015: Shirley Ann Jackson

v t e

Pfizer Award in Enzyme Chemistry

Formerly the Paul-Lewis Award in Enzyme Chemistry

David E. Green
David E. Green
(1946) Van R. Potter (1947) Albert L. Lehninger (1948) Henry A. Lardy (1949) Britton Chance
Britton Chance
(1950) Arthur Kornberg
Arthur Kornberg
(1951) Bernard L. Horecker (1952) Earl R. Stadtman (1953) Alton Meister (1954) Paul D. Boyer
Paul D. Boyer
(1955) Merton F. Utter (1956) G. Robert Greenberg (1957) Eugene P. Kennedy (1958) Minor J. Coon (1959) Arthur Pardee (1960) Frank M. Huennekens (1961) Jack L. Strominger (1962) Charles Gilvarg (1963) Marshall Nirenberg (1964) Frederic M. Richards
Frederic M. Richards
(1965) Samuel B. Weiss (1966) P. Roy Vagelos
P. Roy Vagelos
& Salih J. Wakil (1967) William J. Rutter
William J. Rutter
(1968) Robert T. Schimke (1969) Herbert Weissbach (1970) Jack Preiss (1971) Ekkehard K. F. Bautz (1972) Howard M. Temin (1973) Michael J. Chamberlin (1974) Malcolm L. Gefter (1975) Michael S. Brown
Michael S. Brown
& Joseph L. Goldstein
Joseph L. Goldstein
(1976) Stephen J. Benkovic (1977) Paul Schimmel
Paul Schimmel
(1978) Frederik C. Hartman (1979) Thomas A. Steitz
Thomas A. Steitz
(1980) Daniel V. Santi (1981) Richard R. Burgess (1982) Paul L. Mordich (1983) Robert T.N. Tjian (1984) Thomas Cech
Thomas Cech
(1985) JoAnne Stubbe (1986) Gregory Petsko (1987) John W. Kozarich (1988) Kenneth A. Johnson (1989) James A. Wells (1990) Ronald Vale (1991) Carl O. Pabo (1992) Michael H. Gelb
Michael H. Gelb
(1993) Donald Hilvert (1994) Gerald Joyce
Gerald Joyce
(1995) P. Andrew Karplus (1996) Daniel Herschlag (1997) Ronald T. Raines (1998) David W. Christianson (1999) Eric T. Kool (2000) Ruma Banerjee (2001) Karin Musier-Forsyth (2002) Dorothee Kern (2003) Wilfred A. van der Donk (2004) Nicole S. Sampson (2005) James Berger (2006) Neil L. Kelleher (2007) Carsten Krebs (2008) Virginia Cornish (2009) Vahe Bandarian (2010) Sarah O'Connor (2011) Jin Zhang (2012) Kate Carroll (2013) Hening Lin (2014) Douglas Mitchell (2015) Michelle Chang (2016) Emily Balskus (2017) Mohammad Seyedsayamdost (2018)

v t e

Founding members of the World Cultural Council

Christian B. Anfinsen Werner Arber James Baddiley M. Balasegaram Frank Barnaby Christiaan Barnard Colin Blakemore Aage N. Bohr Norman Borlaug Harold G. Callan André Frédéric Cournand William J. Darby Eduardo de Robertis Cornelis de Jager Guy Blaudin de Thé Jean-François Denisse Venancio Deulofeu Frank J. Dixon Richard S. Doll Audouin Dollfus Jacques-Émile Dubois Gerald Durrell Francisco J. Dy John C. Eccles Paul Ehrlich Manfred Eigen Mohammed El Fasi Ernest L. Eliel Kenneth O. Emergy José Rafael Estrada Hans J. Eysenck Don W. Fawcett David J. Finney Val L. Fitch Carl G. Gahmberg Alfred D. Hershey Gerhard Herzberg David H. Hubel Osmo H. Järvi Reginald V. Jones Adrian Kantrowitz Nathan O. Kaplan Leo A. Kaprio Vasso Karageorghis Peter E. Kent Donald W. Kerst Seymour S. Kety Prem N. Kirpal Georges B. Koelle Walther Manshard Georges Mathé William D. McElroy Henry McIlwain John McMichael Jerrold Meinwald Harry Melville Desmond J. Morris Giuseppe Moruzzi Nevill Mott Vernon B. Mountcastle Robert S. Mulliken Walter H. Munk Ilie G. Murgulescu Jayant V. Narlikar Louis E. F. Néel Yuval Ne'eman Bernhard H. Neumann William A. Nierenberg Marshall W. Nirenberg George E. Palade Arthur B. Pardee David Phillips Jacques Piccard Jens J. Pindborg Comlan A. A. Quenum Hermann Rahn G. N. Ramachandran Gunnar Randers Chintamani N. R. Rao Rex Richards Jean Rösch Abraham J. A. Roux Stanley K. Runcorn Donald H. Sadler Hakim Muhammad Saeed Nobufusa Saito Abdus Salam Stuart J. Saunders Menahem Max Schiffer William G. Schneider Glenn T. Seaborg Ernest R. Sears Frederick Seitz Leonard T. Skeggs Stefan Ślopek George J. Smets George D. Snell Leonard Sosnowky Roger W. Sperry Lyman Spitzer Frederick Stewart Heikki Suomalainen Pol Swings Charles Tanford Henry Taube John M. Tedder Edward Teller Howard Temin Harold Thompson Peter C. Thonemann Phillip V. Tobias Alexander R. Todd Jan Peter Toennies Andrzej Trautman Jean L. F. Tricart Ioan Ursu Constantin Vago Eugene van Tamelen Ulf S. von Euler Alan Walsh William J. Whelan Karel F. Wiesner Rosalyn S. Yalow John Z. Young

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 103754050 LCCN: n99803888 ISNI: 0000 0000 7889 0884 GND: 140212523 SUDOC: 085757

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