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MARSHALL WARREN NIRENBERG (April 10, 1927 – January 15, 2010) was an American biochemist and geneticist . He shared a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1968 with Har Gobind Khorana and Robert W. Holley for "breaking the genetic code " and describing how it operates in protein synthesis. In the same year, together with Har Gobind Khorana , he was awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University .

CONTENTS

* 1 Research * 2 Biography * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Further reading

RESEARCH

By 1958, experiments and analysis such as the Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment , the Hershey–Chase experiment , the Watson–Crick structure and the Meselson–Stahl experiment had shown DNA
DNA
to be the molecule of genetic information. It was not known, however, how DNA
DNA
directed the expression of proteins , or what role RNA
RNA
had in these processes. Nirenberg teamed up with Heinrich J. Matthaei at the National Institutes of Health to answer these questions. They produced RNA
RNA
composed solely of uracil , a nucleotide that only occurs in RNA. They then added this synthetic poly-uracil RNA
RNA
into a cell-free extract of Escherichia coli which contained the DNA, RNA, ribosomes and other cellular machinery for protein synthesis. They added DNase
DNase
, which breaks apart the DNA, so that no additional proteins would be produced other than that from their synthetic RNA
RNA
. They then added 1 radioactively labeled amino acid , the building blocks of proteins, and 19 unlabeled amino acids to the extract, varying the labeled amino acid in each sample. Only in the extract containing the radioactively labeled phenylalanine , was the resulting protein also radioactive . This implied that the genetic code for phenylalanine on RNA
RNA
consisted of a repetition of uracil bases. Indeed, as we know now, it is UUU (three uracil bases in a row). This was the first step in deciphering the codons of the genetic code and the first demonstration of messenger RNA
RNA
(see Nirenberg and Matthaei experiment ).

In August 1961, at the International Congress of Biochemistry
Biochemistry
in Moscow, Nirenberg presented a paper to a small group of scientists. Francis Crick
Francis Crick
convinced the conference leaders to invite Nirenberg to repeat his performance the next day. Speaking before the assembled congress of more than a thousand people, Nirenberg electrified the scientific community. He quickly received great scientific attention for these experiments. Within a few years, his research team had performed similar experiments and found that three-base repeats of adenosine (AAA) produced the amino acid lysine , and cytosine repeats (CCC) produced proline . The next breakthrough came when Philip Leder , a postdoctoral researcher in Nirenberg's lab, developed a method for determining the genetic code on pieces of t RNA
RNA
(see Nirenberg and Leder experiment ). This greatly sped up the assignment of three-base codons to amino acids so that 50 codons were identified in this way. Khorana's experiments confirmed these results and completed the genetic code translation.

The period between 1961 and 1962 is often referred to as the "coding race" because of the competition between the labs of Nirenberg at NIH and Nobel laureate Severo Ochoa
Severo Ochoa
at New York University Medical School, who had a massive staff. Faced with the possibility of helping the first NIH
NIH
scientist win a Nobel prize, many NIH
NIH
scientists put aside their own work to help Nirenberg in deciphering the m RNA
RNA
codons for amino acids. Dr. DeWitt Stetten, Jr. , director of the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases, called this period of collaboration "NIH's finest hour".

Nirenberg's later research focused on neuroscience , neural development, and the homeobox genes.

BIOGRAPHY

Nirenberg was born in New York City, the son of Minerva (Bykowsky) and Harry Edward Nirenberg, a shirtmaker. He developed rheumatic fever as a boy, so the family moved to Orlando , Florida to take advantage of the subtropical climate . He developed an early interest in biology . In 1948 he received his B.S. degree , and in 1952, a master\'s degree in zoology from the University of Florida
University of Florida
at Gainesville where he was also a member of the Pi Lambda Phi Fraternity . His dissertation for the Master\'s thesis was an ecological and taxonomic study of caddis flies ( Trichoptera ). He received his Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of Michigan , Ann Arbor
Ann Arbor
in 1957.

He began his postdoctoral work at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1957 as a fellow of the American Cancer Society in what was then called the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases . In 1959 he became a research biochemist at the NIH
NIH
and began to study the steps that relate DNA
DNA
, RNA
RNA
and protein . Nirenberg's groundbreaking experiments advanced him to become the head of the Section of Biochemical Genetics
Genetics
in 1962 in the National Heart Institute (now the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ), where he remained a laboratory chief until his death. Fellow laboratory chiefs included Ernst Freese and Daniel Carleton Gajdusek . He was married in 1961 to Perola Zaltzman , a chemist from the University of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro , who also worked at NIH
NIH
and died in 2001. Nirenberg married Myrna M. Weissman , Ph.D. , Professor of Epidemiology
Epidemiology
and Psychiatry
Psychiatry
at Columbia University
Columbia University
College of Physicians and Surgeons in 2005. He had four stepchildren: Susan Weissman of Evanston , Illinois, Judith Weissman of New York , New York, Sharon Weissman of New Haven , Connecticut, and Jonathan Weissman of San Francisco , California. He was also survived by his sister, Joan Nirenberg Geiger of Dallas, Texas, several nieces and a nephew.

Nirenberg was awarded the National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science
in 1964 and the National Medal of Honor in 1968 by President
President
Lyndon B. Johnson . In 1981, Nirenberg became a founding member of the World Cultural Council . In 1986, Nirenberg's achievements and contributions to the field of biochemistry genetics was recognized at an event honoring Maimonides and Menachem M. Schneerson , in the nation's capital, hosted by Bob Dole and Joe Biden
Joe Biden
. He was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 2001. He died on January 15, 2010, from cancer after several months of illness.

SEE ALSO

* History of RNA
RNA
biology * List of Jewish Nobel laureates * List of RNA
RNA
biologists * J. Heinrich Matthaei

NOTES

* ^ Wade, Nicholas (January 21, 2010), "Marshall Nirenberg, Biologist Who Untangled Genetic Code, Dies at 82", NY Times. * ^ Leder, P; Nirenberg, MW (1964), " RNA
RNA
CODEWORDS AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, III. ON THE NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE OF A CYSTEINE AND A LEUCINE RNA
RNA
CODEWORD", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (published December 1964), 52 (6), pp. 1521–1529, Bibcode :1964PNAS...52.1521L, PMC 300480  , PMID 14243527 , doi :10.1073/pnas.52.6.1521 * ^ Eiserling, F; Levin, JG; Byrne, R; Karlsson, U; Nirenberg, MW; Sjoestrand, FS (1964), "Polyribosomes and DNA-dependent Amino Acid Incorporation in Escherichia coli Extracts", Journal of Molecular Biology
Biology
(published December 1964), 10 (3), pp. 536–40, PMID 14257696 , doi :10.1016/S0022-2836(64)80073-5 * ^ BLADEN, HA; BYRNE, R; LEVIN, JG; NIRENBERG, MW (1965), "AN ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDY OF A DNA-RIBOSOME COMPLEX FORMED IN VITRO", J. Mol. Biol. (published Jan 1965), 11, pp. 78–83, PMID 14255762 , doi :10.1016/S0022-2836(65)80172-3 * ^ BERNFIELD, MR; NIRENBERG, MW (1965), " RNA
RNA
CODEWORDS AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS. THE NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCES OF MULTIPLE CODEWORDS FOR PHENYLALANINE, SERINE, LEUCINE, AND PROLINE", Science (published Jan 29, 1965), 147 (3657), pp. 479–84, Bibcode :1965Sci...147..479B, PMID 14237203 , doi :10.1126/science.147.3657.479 * ^ TRUPIN, JS; ROTTMAN, FM; BRIMACOMBE, RL; LEDER, P; Bernfield, MR; Nirenberg, MW (1965), " RNA
RNA
CODEWORDS AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, VI. ON THE NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCES OF DEGENERATE CODEWORD SETS FOR ISOLEUCINE, TYROSINE, ASPARAGINE, AND LYSINE", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (published April 1965), 53 (4), pp. 807–11, Bibcode :1965PNAS...53..807T, PMC 221071  , PMID 14324538 , doi :10.1073/pnas.53.4.807 * ^ Jones, OW; Nirenberg, MW (1966), "Degeneracy in the amino acid code", Biochim. Biophys. Acta (published May 19, 1966), 119 (2), pp. 400–6, PMID 5335948 , doi :10.1016/0005-2787(66)90198-5 * ^ Kellogg, DA; Doctor, BP; Loebel, JE; Nirenberg, MW (1966), "RNA codons and protein synthesis. IX. Synonym codon recognition by multiple species of valine-, alanine-, and methionine-sRNA", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (published Apr 1966), 55 (4), pp. 912–9, Bibcode :1966PNAS...55..912K, PMC 224250  , PMID 5327071 , doi :10.1073/pnas.55.4.912 * ^ Caskey, C. Thomas (Mar 2010), "Obituary: Marshall Nirenberg (1927–2010)", Nature, 464 (7285): 44, Bibcode :2010Natur.464...44C, PMID 20203601 , doi :10.1038/464044a * ^ Leder, Philip (Feb 2010), "Retrospective. Marshall Warren Nirenberg (1927–2010)", Science, 327 (5968): 972, PMID 20167780 , doi :10.1126/science.1187484 * ^ The PolyU Experiment. history.nih.gov * ^ http://www.bookrags.com/biography/marshall-warren-nirenberg-wob/ * ^ Membership Directory, 2010, Pi Lambda Phi Inc. * ^ The Marshall W. Nirenberg Papers "Biographical Information" * ^ "About Us". World Cultural Council . Retrieved November 8, 2016. * ^ The Marshall W. Nirenberg Papers "Letter from Bob Dole and Joe Biden to Marshall W. Nirenberg"

REFERENCES

* Voet, Donald and Judith G. Voet. 1995. Biochemistry
Biochemistry
2nd ed. John Wilely & Sons, New York. * U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Profiles in Science: The Marshall W. Nirenberg Papers".

FURTHER READING

* Nobel Biography * Marshall Nirenberg Papers (1937–2003) – National Library of Medicine finding aid * The Marshall Nirenberg Papers – Profiles in Science, National Library of Medicine * Free to View Video Interview with Marshall W. Nirenberg provided by the Vega Science Trust. * The Life and Scientific Work of Marshall W. Nirenberg. (From Richard Olson & Roger Smith (eds.) The Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists. 1998.) * The Official Site of Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize * Ed Regis (November 2007), "The Forgotten Code Cracker", Scientific American , 297 (5): 50–51, Bibcode :2007SciAm.297e..50R, PMID 17990823 , doi :10.1038/scientificamerican1107-50 , (subtitle) In the 1960s Marshall W. Nirenberg deciphered the genetic code, the combination of A, T, G and C nucleotides that specify amino acids. So why do people think that Francis Crick
Francis Crick
did it?

* v * t * e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

1901–1925

* 1901 Emil Behring * 1902 Ronald Ross
Ronald Ross
* 1903 Niels Finsen * 1904 Ivan Pavlov
Ivan Pavlov
* 1905 Robert Koch
Robert Koch
* 1906 Camillo Golgi
Camillo Golgi
/ Santiago Ramón y Cajal * 1907 Alphonse Laveran * 1908 Élie Metchnikoff / Paul Ehrlich
Paul Ehrlich
* 1909 Emil Kocher * 1910 Albrecht Kossel * 1911 Allvar Gullstrand * 1912 Alexis Carrel * 1913 Charles Richet * 1914 Róbert Bárány * 1915 * 1916 * 1917 * 1918 * 1919 Jules Bordet
Jules Bordet
* 1920 August Krogh * 1921 * 1922 Archibald Hill / Otto Meyerhof * 1923 Frederick Banting / John Macleod * 1924 Willem Einthoven
Willem Einthoven
* 1925

1926–1950

* 1926 Johannes Fibiger * 1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg * 1928 Charles Nicolle
Charles Nicolle
* 1929 Christiaan Eijkman / Frederick Gowland Hopkins * 1930 Karl Landsteiner * 1931 Otto Warburg * 1932 Charles Scott Sherrington / Edgar Adrian * 1933 Thomas Morgan * 1934 George Whipple / George Minot / William Murphy * 1935 Hans Spemann * 1936 Henry Dale / Otto Loewi * 1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi * 1938 Corneille Heymans
Corneille Heymans
* 1939 Gerhard Domagk
Gerhard Domagk
* 1940 * 1941 * 1942 * 1943 Henrik Dam / Edward Doisy * 1944 Joseph Erlanger / Herbert Gasser * 1945 Alexander Fleming
Alexander Fleming
/ Ernst Chain / Howard Florey * 1946 Hermann Muller * 1947 Carl Cori / Gerty Cori / Bernardo Houssay * 1948 Paul Müller * 1949 Walter Hess / António Egas Moniz * 1950 Edward Kendall / Tadeusz Reichstein / Philip Hench

1951–1975

* 1951 Max Theiler * 1952 Selman Waksman * 1953 Hans Krebs / Fritz Lipmann * 1954 John Enders / Thomas Weller / Frederick Robbins * 1955 Hugo Theorell * 1956 André Cournand / Werner Forssmann / Dickinson W. Richards * 1957 Daniel Bovet * 1958 George Beadle / Edward Tatum / Joshua Lederberg * 1959 Severo Ochoa
Severo Ochoa
/ Arthur Kornberg * 1960 Frank Burnet / Peter Medawar
Peter Medawar
* 1961 Georg von Békésy * 1962 Francis Crick
Francis Crick
/ James Watson
James Watson
/ Maurice Wilkins
Maurice Wilkins
* 1963 John Eccles / Alan Hodgkin / Andrew Huxley * 1964 Konrad Bloch / Feodor Lynen * 1965 François Jacob / André Lwoff / Jacques Monod * 1966 Francis Rous / Charles B. Huggins * 1967 Ragnar Granit
Ragnar Granit
/ Haldan Hartline / George Wald * 1968 Robert W. Holley / Har Khorana / Marshall Nirenberg * 1969 Max Delbrück / Alfred Hershey / Salvador Luria * 1970 Bernard Katz / Ulf von Euler / Julius Axelrod * 1971 Earl Sutherland Jr. * 1972 Gerald Edelman / Rodney Porter * 1973 Karl von Frisch / Konrad Lorenz
Konrad Lorenz
/ Nikolaas Tinbergen * 1974 Albert Claude / Christian de Duve / George Palade * 1975 David Baltimore / Renato Dulbecco
Renato Dulbecco
/ Howard Temin

1976–2000

* 1976 Baruch Blumberg / Daniel Gajdusek * 1977 Roger Guillemin / Andrew Schally / Rosalyn Yalow * 1978 Werner Arber / Daniel Nathans / Hamilton O. Smith * 1979 Allan Cormack / Godfrey Hounsfield * 1980 Baruj Benacerraf / Jean Dausset
Jean Dausset
/ George Snell * 1981 Roger Sperry / David H. Hubel / Torsten Wiesel
Torsten Wiesel
* 1982 Sune Bergström
Sune Bergström
/ Bengt I. Samuelsson / John Vane * 1983 Barbara McClintock * 1984 Niels Jerne / Georges Köhler / César Milstein
César Milstein
* 1985 Michael Brown / Joseph L. Goldstein * 1986 Stanley Cohen / Rita Levi-Montalcini * 1987 Susumu Tonegawa * 1988 James W. Black / Gertrude B. Elion / George H. Hitchings * 1989 J. Michael Bishop
J. Michael Bishop
/ Harold E. Varmus * 1990 Joseph Murray
Joseph Murray
/ E. Donnall Thomas
E. Donnall Thomas
* 1991 Erwin Neher
Erwin Neher
/ Bert Sakmann * 1992 Edmond Fischer / Edwin G. Krebs
Edwin G. Krebs
* 1993 Richard J. Roberts / Phillip Sharp * 1994 Alfred G. Gilman
Alfred G. Gilman
/ Martin Rodbell
Martin Rodbell
* 1995 Edward B. Lewis / Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
/ Eric F. Wieschaus * 1996 Peter C. Doherty / Rolf M. Zinkernagel * 1997 Stanley B. Prusiner * 1998 Robert F. Furchgott / Louis Ignarro / Ferid Murad * 1999 Günter Blobel
Günter Blobel
* 2000 Arvid Carlsson / Paul Greengard
Paul Greengard
/ Eric Kandel

2001–PRESENT

* 2001 Leland H. Hartwell / Tim Hunt / Paul Nurse
Paul Nurse
* 2002 Sydney Brenner
Sydney Brenner
/ H. Robert Horvitz / John E. Sulston * 2003 Paul Lauterbur / Peter Mansfield * 2004 Richard Axel / Linda B. Buck * 2005 Barry Marshall / Robin Warren
Robin Warren
* 2006 Andrew Fire / Craig Mello * 2007 Mario Capecchi / Martin Evans / Oliver Smithies * 2008 Harald zur Hausen / Luc Montagnier / Françoise Barré-Sinoussi * 2009 Elizabeth Blackburn / Carol W. Greider / Jack W. Szostak * 2010 Robert G. Edwards
Robert G. Edwards
* 2011 Bruce Beutler / Jules A. Hoffmann / Ralph M. Steinman (posthumously) * 2012 John B. Gurdon / Shinya Yamanaka * 2013 James Rothman / Randy Schekman / Thomas C. Südhof * 2014 John O\'Keefe / May-Britt Moser / Edvard Moser
Edvard Moser
* 2015 William C. Campbell / Satoshi Ōmura
Satoshi Ōmura
/ Tu Youyou * 2016 Yoshinori Ohsumi

* v * t * e

United States National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science
laureates

BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE

1960S

* 1964: Roger Adams * Othmar H. Ammann * Theodosius Dobzhansky * Neal Elgar Miller

1980S

* 1986: Herbert A. Simon * 1987: Anne Anastasi * George J. Stigler * 1988: Milton Friedman

1990S

* 1990: Leonid Hurwicz
Leonid Hurwicz
* Patrick Suppes * 1991: Robert W. Kates * George A. Miller * 1992: Eleanor J. Gibson * 1994: Robert K. Merton
Robert K. Merton
* 1995: Roger N. Shepard * 1996: Paul Samuelson
Paul Samuelson
* 1997: William K. Estes * 1998: William Julius Wilson * 1999: Robert M. Solow

2000S

* 2000: Gary Becker * 2001: George Bass * 2003: R. Duncan Luce * 2004: Kenneth Arrow * 2005: Gordon H. Bower * 2008: Michael I. Posner * 2009: Mortimer Mishkin

2010S

* 2011: Anne Treisman
Anne Treisman
* 2014: Robert Axelrod * 2015: Albert Bandura

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

1960S

* 1963: C. B. van Niel
C. B. van Niel
* 1964: Marshall W. Nirenberg * 1965: Francis P. Rous * George G. Simpson * Donald D. Van Slyke * 1966: Edward F. Knipling * Fritz Albert Lipmann
Fritz Albert Lipmann
* William C. Rose * Sewall Wright
Sewall Wright
* 1967: Kenneth S. Cole * Harry F. Harlow * Michael Heidelberger * Alfred H. Sturtevant * 1968: Horace Barker * Bernard B. Brodie * Detlev W. Bronk * Jay Lush * Burrhus Frederic Skinner * 1969: Robert Huebner * Ernst Mayr

1970S

* 1970: Barbara McClintock * Albert B. Sabin * 1973: Daniel I. Arnon * Earl W. Sutherland Jr. * 1974: Britton Chance * Erwin Chargaff * James V. Neel * James Augustine Shannon * 1975: Hallowell Davis * Paul Gyorgy * Sterling B. Hendricks * Orville lvin Vogel * 1976: Roger Guillemin * Keith Roberts Porter * Efraim Racker * E. O. Wilson * 1979: Robert H. Burris * Elizabeth C. Crosby * Arthur Kornberg * Severo Ochoa
Severo Ochoa
* Earl Reece Stadtman * George Ledyard Stebbins * Paul Alfred Weiss
Paul Alfred Weiss

1980S

* 1981: Philip Handler * 1982: Seymour Benzer * Glenn W. Burton * Mildred Cohn * 1983: Howard L. Bachrach * Paul Berg * Wendell L. Roelofs * Berta Scharrer * 1986: Stanley Cohen * Donald A. Henderson * Vernon B. Mountcastle * George Emil Palade * Joan A. Steitz * 1987: Michael E. DeBakey * Theodor O. Diener * Harry Eagle * Har Gobind Khorana * Rita Levi-Montalcini * 1988: Michael S. Brown * Stanley Norman Cohen * Joseph L. Goldstein * Maurice R. Hilleman * Eric R. Kandel * Rosalyn Sussman Yalow * 1989: Katherine Esau * Viktor Hamburger * Philip Leder * Joshua Lederberg * Roger W. Sperry * Harland G. Wood

1990S

* 1990: Baruj Benacerraf * Herbert W. Boyer * Daniel E. Koshland Jr.
Daniel E. Koshland Jr.
* Edward B. Lewis * David G. Nathan * E. Donnall Thomas
E. Donnall Thomas
* 1991: Mary Ellen Avery * G. Evelyn Hutchinson * Elvin A. Kabat * Salvador Luria * Paul A. Marks * Folke K. Skoog * Paul C. Zamecnik * 1992: Maxine Singer
Maxine Singer
* Howard Martin Temin * 1993: Daniel Nathans * Salome G. Waelsch * 1994: Thomas Eisner * Elizabeth F. Neufeld * 1995: Alexander Rich * 1996: Ruth Patrick * 1997: James Watson
James Watson
* Robert A. Weinberg * 1998: Bruce Ames * Janet Rowley * 1999: David Baltimore * Jared Diamond * Lynn Margulis
Lynn Margulis

2000S

* 2000: Nancy C. Andreasen * Peter H. Raven * Carl Woese * 2001: Francisco J. Ayala * Mario R. Capecchi * Ann Graybiel * Gene E. Likens * Victor A. McKusick
Victor A. McKusick
* Harold Varmus
Harold Varmus
* 2002: James E. Darnell * Evelyn M. Witkin * 2003: J. Michael Bishop
J. Michael Bishop
* Solomon H. Snyder * Charles Yanofsky * 2004: Norman E. Borlaug * Phillip A. Sharp * Thomas E. Starzl * 2005: Anthony S. Fauci * Torsten N. Wiesel * 2006: Rita R. Colwell
Rita R. Colwell
* Nina Fedoroff * Lubert Stryer * 2007: Robert J. Lefkowitz * Bert W. O\'Malley * 2008: Francis S. Collins * Elaine Fuchs * J. Craig Venter * 2009: Susan L. Lindquist * Stanley B. Prusiner

2010S

* 2010: Ralph L. Brinster * Shu Chien * Rudolf Jaenisch * 2011: Lucy Shapiro * Leroy Hood * Sallie Chisholm * 2014: May Berenbaum
May Berenbaum
* Bruce Alberts
Bruce Alberts
* 2015: Stanley Falkow * Rakesh K. Jain * Mary-Claire King
Mary-Claire King
* Simon Levin

CHEMISTRY

1980S

* 1982: F. Albert Cotton * Gilbert Stork * 1983: Roald Hoffmann * George C. Pimentel * Richard N. Zare * 1986: Harry B. Gray * Yuan Tseh Lee * Carl S. Marvel * Frank H. Westheimer * 1987: William S. Johnson * Walter H. Stockmayer * Max Tishler
Max Tishler
* 1988: William O. Baker * Konrad E. Bloch
Konrad E. Bloch
* Elias J. Corey * 1989: Richard B. Bernstein * Melvin Calvin * Rudolph A. Marcus * Harden M. McConnell

1990S

* 1990: Elkan Blout * Karl Folkers * John D. Roberts
John D. Roberts
* 1991: Ronald Breslow * Gertrude B. Elion * Dudley R. Herschbach * Glenn T. Seaborg * 1992: Howard E. Simmons Jr. * 1993: Donald J. Cram * Norman Hackerman * 1994: George S. Hammond * 1995: Thomas Cech
Thomas Cech
* Isabella L. Karle * 1996: Norman Davidson * 1997: Darleane C. Hoffman * Harold S. Johnston * 1998: John W. Cahn * George M. Whitesides * 1999: Stuart A. Rice * John Ross * Susan Solomon

2000S

* 2000: John D. Baldeschwieler * Ralph F. Hirschmann * 2001: Ernest R. Davidson * Gábor A. Somorjai * 2002: John I. Brauman * 2004: Stephen J. Lippard * 2006: Marvin H. Caruthers * Peter B. Dervan * 2007: Mostafa A. El-Sayed * 2008: Joanna Fowler * JoAnne Stubbe * 2009: Stephen J. Benkovic * Marye Anne Fox

2010S

* 2010: Jacqueline K. Barton * Peter J. Stang * 2011: Allen J. Bard
Allen J. Bard
* M. Frederick Hawthorne * 2014: Judith P. Klinman * Jerrold Meinwald * 2015: A. Paul Alivisatos * Geraldine L. Richmond

ENGINEERING SCIENCES

1960S

* 1962: Theodore von Kármán
Theodore von Kármán
* 1963: Vannevar Bush * John Robinson Pierce
John Robinson Pierce
* 1964: Charles S. Draper * 1965: Hugh L. Dryden * Clarence L. Johnson
Clarence L. Johnson
* Warren K. Lewis * 1966: Claude E. Shannon * 1967: Edwin H. Land * Igor I. Sikorsky * 1968: J. Presper Eckert * Nathan M. Newmark
Nathan M. Newmark
* 1969: Jack St. Clair Kilby

1970S

* 1970: George E. Mueller * 1973: Harold E. Edgerton
Harold E. Edgerton
* Richard T. Whitcomb * 1974: Rudolf Kompfner * Ralph Brazelton Peck * Abel Wolman * 1975: Manson Benedict * William Hayward Pickering * Frederick E. Terman * Wernher von Braun * 1976: Morris Cohen * Peter C. Goldmark * Erwin Wilhelm Müller * 1979: Emmett N. Leith * Raymond D. Mindlin * Robert N. Noyce * Earl R. Parker * Simon Ramo

1980S

* 1982: Edward H. Heinemann * Donald L. Katz * 1983: William Redington Hewlett * George M. Low * John G. Trump
John G. Trump
* 1986: Hans Wolfgang Liepmann * T. Y. Lin * Bernard M. Oliver * 1987: R. Byron Bird * H. Bolton Seed
H. Bolton Seed
* Ernst Weber * 1988: Daniel C. Drucker * Willis M. Hawkins * George W. Housner * 1989: Harry George Drickamer * Herbert E. Grier

1990S

* 1990: Mildred Dresselhaus
Mildred Dresselhaus
* Nick Holonyak Jr. * 1991: George H. Heilmeier * Luna B. Leopold * H. Guyford Stever * 1992: Calvin F. Quate * John Roy Whinnery * 1993: Alfred Y. Cho * 1994: Ray W. Clough * 1995: Hermann A. Haus * 1996: James L. Flanagan * C. Kumar N. Patel * 1998: Eli Ruckenstein * 1999: Kenneth N. Stevens

2000S

* 2000: Yuan-Cheng B. Fung * 2001: Andreas Acrivos
Andreas Acrivos
* 2002: Leo Beranek * 2003: John M. Prausnitz * 2004: Edwin N. Lightfoot * 2005: Jan D. Achenbach * Tobin J. Marks * 2006: Robert S. Langer
Robert S. Langer
* 2007: David J. Wineland * 2008: Rudolf E. Kálmán * 2009: Amnon Yariv

2010S

* 2010: Shu Chien * 2011: John B. Goodenough * 2014: Thomas Kailath

MATHEMATICAL, STATISTICAL, AND COMPUTER SCIENCES

1960S

* 1963: Norbert Wiener * 1964: Solomon Lefschetz * H. Marston Morse * 1965: Oscar Zariski
Oscar Zariski
* 1966: John Milnor * 1967: Paul Cohen
Paul Cohen
* 1968: Jerzy Neyman * 1969: William Feller
William Feller

1970S

* 1970: Richard Brauer * 1973: John Tukey
John Tukey
* 1974: Kurt Gödel
Kurt Gödel
* 1975: John W. Backus * Shiing-Shen Chern
Shiing-Shen Chern
* George Dantzig
George Dantzig
* 1976: Kurt Otto Friedrichs * Hassler Whitney
Hassler Whitney
* 1979: Joseph L. Doob * Donald E. Knuth

1980S

* 1982: Marshall Harvey Stone * 1983: Herman Goldstine * Isadore Singer * 1986: Peter Lax * Antoni Zygmund * 1987: Raoul Bott * Michael Freedman * 1988: Ralph E. Gomory * Joseph B. Keller * 1989: Samuel Karlin * Saunders Mac Lane * Donald C. Spencer

1990S

* 1990: George F. Carrier * Stephen Cole Kleene * John McCarthy * 1991: Alberto Calderón * 1992: Allen Newell * 1993: Martin David Kruskal * 1994: John Cocke * 1995: Louis Nirenberg
Louis Nirenberg
* 1996: Richard Karp * Stephen Smale * 1997: Shing-Tung Yau
Shing-Tung Yau
* 1998: Cathleen Synge Morawetz * 1999: Felix Browder * Ronald R. Coifman

2000S

* 2000: John Griggs Thompson
John Griggs Thompson
* Karen K. Uhlenbeck * 2001: Calyampudi R. Rao * Elias M. Stein * 2002: James G. Glimm * 2003: Carl R. de Boor * 2004: Dennis P. Sullivan * 2005: Bradley Efron * 2006: Hyman Bass
Hyman Bass
* 2007: Leonard Kleinrock
Leonard Kleinrock
* Andrew J. Viterbi * 2009: David B. Mumford

2010S

* 2010: Richard A. Tapia * S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan * 2011: Solomon W. Golomb * Barry Mazur * 2014: Alexandre Chorin
Alexandre Chorin
* David Blackwell * 2015: Michael Artin

PHYSICAL SCIENCES

1960S

* 1963: Luis W. Alvarez * 1964: Julian Schwinger
Julian Schwinger
* Harold Clayton Urey * Robert Burns Woodward
Robert Burns Woodward
* 1965: John Bardeen * Peter Debye * Leon M. Lederman * William Rubey * 1966: Jacob Bjerknes * Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar * Henry Eyring * John H. Van Vleck * Vladimir K. Zworykin
Vladimir K. Zworykin
* 1967: Jesse Beams * Francis Birch * Gregory Breit * Louis Hammett * George Kistiakowsky
George Kistiakowsky
* 1968: Paul Bartlett * Herbert Friedman * Lars Onsager * Eugene Wigner * 1969: Herbert C. Brown * Wolfgang Panofsky

1970S

* 1970: Robert H. Dicke * Allan R. Sandage * John C. Slater * John A. Wheeler * Saul Winstein * 1973: Carl Djerassi * Maurice Ewing * Arie Jan Haagen-Smit * Vladimir Haensel * Frederick Seitz * Robert Rathbun Wilson * 1974: Nicolaas Bloembergen
Nicolaas Bloembergen
* Paul Flory * William Alfred Fowler * Linus Carl Pauling * Kenneth Sanborn Pitzer * 1975: Hans A. Bethe * Joseph O. Hirschfelder * Lewis Sarett * Edgar Bright Wilson * Chien-Shiung Wu * 1976: Samuel Goudsmit
Samuel Goudsmit
* Herbert S. Gutowsky * Frederick Rossini * Verner Suomi * Henry Taube * George Uhlenbeck * 1979: Richard P. Feynman * Herman Mark
Herman Mark
* Edward M. Purcell * John Sinfelt * Lyman Spitzer * Victor F. Weisskopf
Victor F. Weisskopf

1980S

* 1982: Philip W. Anderson * Yoichiro Nambu * Edward Teller * Charles H. Townes * 1983: E. Margaret Burbidge
E. Margaret Burbidge
* Maurice Goldhaber * Helmut Landsberg * Walter Munk
Walter Munk
* Frederick Reines * Bruno B. Rossi * J. Robert Schrieffer * 1986: Solomon J. Buchsbaum * H. Richard Crane * Herman Feshbach * Robert Hofstadter
Robert Hofstadter
* Chen-Ning Yang * 1987: Philip Abelson * Walter Elsasser * Paul C. Lauterbur * George Pake * James A. Van Allen * 1988: D. Allan Bromley * Paul Ching-Wu Chu * Walter Kohn * Norman F. Ramsey * Jack Steinberger * 1989: Arnold O. Beckman * Eugene Parker * Robert Sharp * Henry Stommel

1990S

* 1990: Allan M. Cormack * Edwin M. McMillan * Robert Pound * Roger Revelle * 1991: Arthur L. Schawlow * Ed Stone * Steven Weinberg
Steven Weinberg
* 1992: Eugene M. Shoemaker * 1993: Val Fitch * Vera Rubin * 1994: Albert Overhauser * Frank Press * 1995: Hans Dehmelt * Peter Goldreich * 1996: Wallace S. Broecker * 1997: Marshall Rosenbluth * Martin Schwarzschild * George Wetherill * 1998: Don L. Anderson * John N. Bahcall
John N. Bahcall
* 1999: James Cronin
James Cronin
* Leo Kadanoff

2000S

* 2000: Willis E. Lamb * Jeremiah P. Ostriker * Gilbert F. White * 2001: Marvin L. Cohen * Raymond Davis Jr. * Charles Keeling
Charles Keeling
* 2002: Richard Garwin * W. Jason Morgan * Edward Witten
Edward Witten
* 2003: G. Brent Dalrymple
G. Brent Dalrymple
* Riccardo Giacconi
Riccardo Giacconi
* 2004: Robert N. Clayton * 2005: Ralph A. Alpher * Lonnie Thompson * 2006: Daniel Kleppner * 2007: Fay Ajzenberg-Selove * Charles P. Slichter * 2008: Berni Alder * James E. Gunn * 2009: Yakir Aharonov * Esther M. Conwell * Warren M. Washington

2010S

* 2011: Sidney Drell * Sandra Faber * Sylvester James Gates * 2014: Burton Richter
Burton Richter
* Sean C. Solomon * 2015: Shirley Ann Jackson

* v * t * e

Pfizer Award in Enzyme Chemistry

Formerly the PAUL-LEWIS AWARD IN ENZYME CHEMISTRY

* David E. Green (1946) * Van R. Potter (1947) * Albert L. Lehninger (1948) * Henry A. Lardy (1949) * Britton Chance (1950) * Arthur Kornberg (1951) * Bernard L. Horecker (1952) * Earl R. Stadtman (1953) * Alton Meister (1954) * Paul D. Boyer (1955) * Merton F. Utter (1956) * G. Robert Greenberg (1957) * Eugene P. Kennedy (1958) * Minor J. Coon (1959) * Arthur Pardee (1960) * Frank M. Huennekens (1961) * Jack L. Strominger (1962) * Charles Gilvarg (1963) * Marshall Nirenberg (1964) * Frederic M. Richards (1965) * Samuel B. Weiss (1966) * P. Roy Vagelos & Salih J. Wakil (1967) * William J. Rutter (1968) * Robert T. Schimke (1969) * Herbert Weissbach (1970) * Jack Preiss (1971) * Ekkehard K. F. Bautz (1972) * Howard M. Temin (1973) * Michael J. Chamberlin (1974) * Malcolm L. Gefter (1975) * Michael S. Brown ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Founding members of the World Cultural Council

* Christian B. Anfinsen
Christian B. Anfinsen
* Werner Arber * James Baddiley * M. Balasegaram * Frank Barnaby * Christiaan Barnard * Colin Blakemore * Aage N. Bohr * Norman Borlaug
Norman Borlaug
* Harold G. Callan * André Frédéric Cournand * William J. Darby * Eduardo de Robertis * Cornelis de Jager * Guy Blaudin de Thé * Jean-François Denisse * Venancio Deulofeu * Frank J. Dixon * Richard S. Doll * Audouin Dollfus * Jacques-Émile Dubois * Gerald Durrell
Gerald Durrell
* Francisco J. Dy * John C. Eccles * Paul Ehrlich
Paul Ehrlich
* Manfred Eigen * Mohammed El Fasi * Ernest L. Eliel * Kenneth O. Emergy * José Rafael Estrada * Hans J. Eysenck * Don W. Fawcett * David J. Finney * Val L. Fitch * Carl G. Gahmberg * Alfred D. Hershey * Gerhard Herzberg * David H. Hubel * Osmo H. Järvi * Reginald V. Jones * Adrian Kantrowitz * Nathan O. Kaplan * Leo A. Kaprio * Vasso Karageorghis * Peter E. Kent * Donald W. Kerst * Seymour S. Kety * Prem N. Kirpal * Georges B. Koelle * Walther Manshard * Georges Mathé * William D. McElroy * Henry McIlwain * John McMichael * Jerrold Meinwald * Harry Melville * Desmond J. Morris * Giuseppe Moruzzi * Nevill Mott * Vernon B. Mountcastle * Robert S. Mulliken
Robert S. Mulliken
* Walter H. Munk * Ilie G. Murgulescu * Jayant V. Narlikar * Louis E. F. Néel * Yuval Ne\'eman * Bernhard H. Neumann * William A. Nierenberg * Marshall W. Nirenberg * George E. Palade * Arthur B. Pardee * David Phillips * Jacques Piccard * Jens J. Pindborg * Comlan A. A. Quenum * Hermann Rahn * G. N. Ramachandran * Gunnar Randers * Chintamani N. R. Rao * Rex Richards * Jean Rösch * Abraham J. A. Roux * Stanley K. Runcorn * Donald H. Sadler * Hakim Muhammad Saeed * Nobufusa Saito * Abdus Salam * Stuart J. Saunders * Menahem Max Schiffer * William G. Schneider * Glenn T. Seaborg * Ernest R. Sears * Frederick Seitz * Leonard T. Skeggs * Stefan Ślopek * George J. Smets * George D. Snell * Leonard Sosnowky * Roger W. Sperry * Lyman Spitzer * Frederick Stewart * Heikki Suomalainen * Pol Swings * Charles Tanford * Henry Taube * John M. Tedder * Edward Teller * Howard Temin * Harold Thompson * Peter C. Thonemann * Phillip V. Tobias * Alexander R. Todd * Jan Peter Toennies * Andrzej Trautman * Jean L. F. Tricart * Ioan Ursu * Constantin Vago * Eugene van Tamelen * Ulf S. von Euler * Alan Walsh * William J. Whelan * Karel F. Wiesner * Rosalyn S. Yalow * John Z. Young

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 103754050 * LCCN : n99803888 * ISNI : 0000 0000 7889 0884 * GND : 140212523 * SUDOC : 085757144 * IATH : w6d81grb

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