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(i)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 _Population without double counting _: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

MARSEILLE (English /mɑːrˈseɪ/ ; French: (_ listen ), locally: ; Provençal Marselha_ ), also known as MARSEILLES, is a city in France
France
. The capital of the Bouches-du-Rhône department and Provence-Alpes-Côte d\'Azur region , Marseille, on France's south coast, is the country's second largest city , after Paris
Paris
, with a population of 852,516 in 2012, and an area of 241 km2 (93 sq mi), the 3rd-largest metropolitan area in France
France
after Paris
Paris
and Lyon
Lyon
.

Known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as _Massalia_ (Greek : Μασσαλία, _Massalía_), Marseille
Marseille
was the most important trading centre in the region and the main commercial port of the French Republic . Marseille
Marseille
is now France's largest city on the Mediterranean coast and the largest port for commerce, freight and cruise ships. The city was European Capital of Culture , together with Košice , Slovakia
Slovakia
, in 2013. It hosted the FIFA World Cup 1998 and the UEFA Euro 2016 , and will be the European Capital of Sport in 2017. The city is home to several campuses of Aix- Marseille
Marseille
University and part of one of the largest metropolitan conurbations in France, the Metropolis of Aix-Marseille-Provence .

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 1.1 Climate

* 2 History

* 3 Economy

* 3.1 Port * 3.2 Companies, services and high technologies * 3.3 Tourism and attractions * 3.4 Employment

* 4 Administration

* 4.1 Mayors

* 5 Population

* 5.1 Immigration * 5.2 Religion

* 6 Culture

* 6.1 European Capital of Culture * 6.2 Tarot
Tarot
de Marseille
Marseille
* 6.3 Opera * 6.4 Popular events and festivals * 6.5 Hip hop music * 6.6 Food * 6.7 Films set in Marseille
Marseille
* 6.8 Marseille
Marseille
in television

* 7 Main sights

* 7.1 Central Marseille
Marseille
* 7.2 Museums * 7.3 Outside of central Marseille
Marseille

* 8 Education and research

* 9 Transport

* 9.1 International and regional transport * 9.2 Public transport

* 10 Sport * 11 Personalities

* 12 International relations

* 12.1 Twin towns and sister cities * 12.2 Partner cities

* 13 See also

* 14 References

* 14.1 Notes * 14.2 Bibliography

* 15 Further reading * 16 External links

GEOGRAPHY

_ View of the "Petit Nice" on the Corniche with Frioul and Château d\'If in the background View from Marseille's Old Port (Vieux-Port_) towards Notre-Dame de la Garde

Marseille
Marseille
is the second-largest city in France
France
after Paris
Paris
and the centre of the third-largest metropolitan area in France
France
after Paris and Lyon. To the east, starting in the small fishing village of Callelongue on the outskirts of Marseille
Marseille
and stretching as far as Cassis
Cassis
, are the Calanques
Calanques
, a rugged coastal area interspersed with small fjord -like inlets. Further east still are the Sainte-Baume (a 1,147 m (3,763 ft) mountain ridge rising from a forest of deciduous trees), the city of Toulon
Toulon
and the French Riviera . To the north of Marseille, beyond the low Garlaban and Etoile mountain ranges , is the 1,011 m (3,317 ft) Mont Sainte Victoire . To the west of Marseille
Marseille
is the former artists' colony of l\'Estaque ; further west are the Côte Bleue , the Gulf of Lion and the Camargue region in the Rhône delta . The airport lies to the north west of the city at Marignane on the Étang de Berre . Aerial view of Marseille
Marseille

The city's main thoroughfare (the wide boulevard called the Canebière ) stretches eastward from the Old Port (Vieux Port) to the _Réformés_ quarter. Two large forts flank the entrance to the Old Port—Fort Saint-Nicolas on the south side and Fort Saint-Jean on the north. Further out in the Bay of Marseille
Marseille
is the Frioul archipelago which comprises four islands, one of which, If, is the location of Château d'If, made famous by the Dumas novel _The Count of Monte Cristo _. The main commercial centre of the city intersects with the Canebière at rue St Ferréol and the Centre Bourse (the main shopping mall). The centre of Marseille
Marseille
has several pedestrianised zones, most notably rue St Ferréol, Cours Julien near the Music Conservatory, the Cours Honoré-d'Estienne-d'Orves off the Old Port and the area around the Hôtel de Ville. To the south east of central Marseille
Marseille
in the 6th arrondissement are the Prefecture and the monumental fountain of Place Castellane, an important bus and metro interchange. To the south west are the hills of the 7th arrondissement, dominated by the basilica of Notre-Dame-de-la-Garde . The railway station—Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles —is north of the Centre Bourse in the 1st arrondissement; it is linked by the Boulevard d'Athènes to the Canebière.

CLIMATE

Marseille
Marseille
has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa) with mild, humid winters and warm to hot, mostly dry summers. December, January, and February are the coldest months, averaging temperatures of around 12 °C (54 °F) during the day and 4 °C (39 °F) at night. July and August are the hottest months, averaging temperatures of around 28–30 °C (82–86 °F) during the day and 19 °C (66 °F) at night in the Marignane airport (35 km (22 mi) from Marseille) but in the city near the sea the average high temperature is 27 °C (81 °F) in July.

Marseille
Marseille
is officially the sunniest major city in France
France
with over 2,900 hours of sunshine while the average sunshine in France
France
is around 1,950 hours. It is also the driest major city with only 512 mm (20 in) of precipitation annually, especially thanks to the Mistral , a cold, dry wind originating in the Rhône Valley that occurs mostly in winter and spring and which generally brings clear skies and sunny weather to the region. Less frequent is the Sirocco
Sirocco
, a hot, sand-bearing wind, coming from the Sahara
Sahara
Desert . Snowfalls are infrequent; over 50% of years do not experience a single snowfall.

The hottest temperature was 40.6 °C (105.1 °F) on 26 July 1983 during a great heat wave, the lowest temperature was −14.3 °C (6.3 °F) on 13 February 1929 during a strong cold wave, but 100 °F (38 °C) or 20 °F (−7 °C) temperatures are uncommon.

CLIMATE DATA FOR MARSEILLE (LONGCHAMP OBSERVATORY) _43°18\'21.2"N 5°23\'37.1"E_ (SUNSHINE HOURS 1961–1990)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 21.2 (70.2) 22.7 (72.9) 26.1 (79) 28.5 (83.3) 33.2 (91.8) 36.9 (98.4) 40.6 (105.1) 38.6 (101.5) 33.8 (92.8) 30.9 (87.6) 24.3 (75.7) 23.1 (73.6) 40.6 (105.1)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 11.8 (53.2) 12.9 (55.2) 15.5 (59.9) 17.9 (64.2) 22.2 (72) 25.7 (78.3) 29.1 (84.4) 28.7 (83.7) 25.0 (77) 20.4 (68.7) 15.0 (59) 12.6 (54.7) 19.7 (67.5)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 8.4 (47.1) 9.1 (48.4) 11.2 (52.2) 13.4 (56.1) 17.5 (63.5) 20.8 (69.4) 24.0 (75.2) 23.7 (74.7) 20.4 (68.7) 16.3 (61.3) 11.5 (52.7) 9.3 (48.7) 15.5 (59.9)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 4.9 (40.8) 5.3 (41.5) 6.9 (44.4) 8.9 (48) 12.7 (54.9) 16.0 (60.8) 18.9 (66) 18.7 (65.7) 15.8 (60.4) 12.3 (54.1) 7.9 (46.2) 6.0 (42.8) 11.2 (52.2)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −10.5 (13.1) −14.3 (6.3) −7.0 (19.4) −3.0 (26.6) 0.0 (32) 7.7 (45.9) 9.0 (48.2) 8.1 (46.6) 2.7 (36.9) −1.1 (30) −6.0 (21.2) −11.4 (11.5) −14.3 (6.3)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 65.4 (2.575) 47.3 (1.862) 48.7 (1.917) 55.2 (2.173) 41.0 (1.614) 26.8 (1.055) 9.1 (0.358) 34.0 (1.339) 65.5 (2.579) 91.6 (3.606) 55.2 (2.173) 52.3 (2.059) 592.2 (23.315)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS 6.1 5.1 4.9 6.3 4.6 3.3 1.4 2.7 3.8 6.3 5.5 5.8 55.8

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 75 72 67 65 64 63 59 62 69 74 75 77 68.5

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 150.0 155.5 215.1 244.8 292.5 326.2 366.4 327.4 254.3 204.5 155.5 143.3 2,835.5

Source: , Météo France
France
1971–2000 raw averages for Longchamp observatory, extremes 1881–31 December 2004 (sun and humidity 1961–1990 at Marignane)

CLIMATE DATA FOR MARIGNANE _(AéROPORT MARSEILLE PROVENCE)_ (1981–2010) _43°26\'18.4"N 5°12\'51.9"E_

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 11.4 (52.5) 12.5 (54.5) 15.7 (60.3) 18.6 (65.5) 22.9 (73.2) 27.0 (80.6) 30.2 (86.4) 29.7 (85.5) 25.5 (77.9) 20.9 (69.6) 15.1 (59.2) 11.9 (53.4) 20.1 (68.2)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 7.2 (45) 8.1 (46.6) 11.0 (51.8) 13.9 (57) 18.0 (64.4) 21.9 (71.4) 24.8 (76.6) 24.4 (75.9) 20.6 (69.1) 16.7 (62.1) 11.2 (52.2) 7.9 (46.2) 15.5 (59.9)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 2.9 (37.2) 3.6 (38.5) 6.2 (43.2) 9.1 (48.4) 13.1 (55.6) 16.6 (61.9) 19.4 (66.9) 19.0 (66.2) 15.7 (60.3) 12.4 (54.3) 7.2 (45) 4.0 (39.2) 10.8 (51.4)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 48.0 (1.89) 31.4 (1.236) 30.1 (1.185) 53.7 (2.114) 40.9 (1.61) 24.2 (0.953) 9.2 (0.362) 31.0 (1.22) 77.1 (3.035) 67.2 (2.646) 55.6 (2.189) 45.5 (1.791) 513.9 (20.232)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1 MM) 5.3 4.5 3.9 6.0 4.5 2.9 1.3 2.7 4.5 6.2 5.9 5.5 53.2

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 151 166 230 240 288 329 366 327 257 189 154 138 2,853

Source: Metereological data for Marseille–Marignane, from 1981 to 2010 November 2015

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Marseille and Timeline of Marseille A silver drachma inscribed with MASSA (ΜΑΣΣΑ), dated 375-200 BC, during the Hellenistic period of Marseille, bearing the head of the Greek goddess Artemis
Artemis
on the obverse and a lion on the reverse

Marseille
Marseille
was originally founded circa 600 BC as the Greek colony of Massalia and populated by settlers from Phocaea
Phocaea
(modern Foça
Foça
, Turkey ). It became the preeminent Greek _polis _ in the Hellenized region of southern Gaul . The city-state sided with the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
against Carthage
Carthage
during the Second Punic War (218-201 BC), retaining its independence and commercial empire throughout the western Mediterranean even as Rome expanded into Western Europe
Western Europe
and North Africa . However, the city lost its independence following the Roman Siege of Massilia in 49 BC, during Caesar\'s Civil War , in which Massalia sided with the exiled faction at war with Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
.

Marseille
Marseille
continued to prosper as a Roman city, becoming an early center of Christianity during the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
. The city maintained its position as a premier maritime trading hub even after its capture by the Visigoths in the 5th century AD, although the city went into decline following the sack of 739 AD by the forces of Charles Martel . It became part of the County of Provence during the 10th century, although its renewed prosperity was curtailed by the Black Death of the 14th century and sack of the city by the Crown of Aragon in 1423. The city's fortunes rebounded with the ambitious building projects of René of Anjou , Count of Provence, who strengthened the city's fortifications during the mid-15th century. During the 16th century the city hosted a naval fleet with the combined forces of the Franco-Ottoman alliance , which threatened the ports and navies of Genoa
Genoa
and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
.

Marseille
Marseille
lost a significant portion of its population during the Great Plague of Marseille in 1720, but the population had recovered by mid century. In 1792 the city became a focal point of the French Revolution and was the birthplace of France's national anthem , _La Marseillaise _. The Industrial Revolution and establishment of the French Empire during the 19th century allowed for further expansion of the city, although it was captured and heavily damaged by Nazi Germany during World War II
World War II
. The city has since become a major center for immigrant communities from former French colonies, such as French Algeria
Algeria
.

ECONOMY

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Marseille
Marseille
is a major French centre for trade and industry, with excellent transportation infrastructure (roads, sea port and airport). Marseille
Marseille
Provence Airport, is the fourth largest in France. In May 2005, the French financial magazine _L'Expansion_ named Marseille
Marseille
the most dynamic of France's large cities, citing figures showing that 7,200 companies had been created in the city since 2000. Marseille
Marseille
is also France's second largest research centre with 3,000 research scientists within Aix Marseille University . As of 2014 , the Marseille
Marseille
metropolitan area had a GDP amounting to $60.3 billion , or $36,127 per capita (purchasing power parity).

PORT

See also: Marseille-Fos Port The entrance to the Old Port, flanked by Fort Saint-Jean and Fort Saint-Nicolas

Historically, the economy of Marseille
Marseille
was dominated by its role as a port of the French Empire, linking the North African colonies of Algeria, Morocco
Morocco
and Tunisia
Tunisia
with Metropolitan France
France
. The Old Port was replaced as the main port for trade by the Port de la Joliette during the Second Empire and now contains restaurants, offices, bars and hotels and functions mostly as a private marina. The majority of the port and docks, which experienced decline in the 1970s after the oil crisis , have been recently redeveloped with funds from the European Union
European Union
. Fishing remains important in Marseille
Marseille
and the food economy of Marseille
Marseille
is fed by the local catch; a daily fish market is still held on the Quai des Belges of the Old Port.

The economy of Marseille
Marseille
and its region is still linked to its commercial port, the first French port and the fifth European port by cargo tonnage , which lies north of the Old Port and eastern in Fos-sur-Mer . Some 45,000 jobs are linked to the port activities and it represents 4 billion euros added value to the regional economy. 100 million tons of freight pass annually through the port, 60% of which is petroleum, making it number one in France
France
and the Mediterranean and number three in Europe. However, in the early 2000s, the growth in container traffic was being stifled by the constant strikes and social upheaval. The port is among the 20th firsts in Europe for container traffic with 1,062,408 TEU and new infrastructures have already raised the capacity to 2M TEU. Petroleum refining and shipbuilding are the principal industries, but chemicals, soap, glass, sugar, building materials , plastics, textiles, olive oil, and processed foods are also important products. Marseille
Marseille
is connected with the Rhône via a canal and thus has access to the extensive waterway network of France. Petroleum is shipped northward to the Paris
Paris
basin by pipeline. The city also serves as France's leading centre of oil refining.

COMPANIES, SERVICES AND HIGH TECHNOLOGIES

In recent years, the city has also experienced a large growth in service sector employment and a switch from light manufacturing to a cultural, high-tech economy. The Marseille
Marseille
region is home to thousands of companies, 90% of which are small and medium enterprises with less than 500 employees. Among the most famous ones are CMA CGM , container-shipping giant; Compagnie maritime d\'expertises (Comex), world leader in sub-sea engineering and hydraulic systems; Airbus Helicopters , an Airbus
Airbus
division; Azur Promotel, an active real estate development company; _La Provence_, the local daily newspaper ; RTM, Marseille's public transport company; and Société Nationale Maritime Corse Méditerranée (SNCM), a major operator in passenger, vehicle and freight transportation in the Western Mediterranean. The urban operation Euroméditerranée has developed a large offer of offices and thus Marseille
Marseille
hosts one of the main business district in France.

Marseille
Marseille
is the home of three main technopoles : Château-Gombert (technological innovations), Luminy (biotechnology) and La Belle de Mai (17,000 sq.m. of offices dedicated to multimedia activities).

TOURISM AND ATTRACTIONS

_ Beach at the Pointe Rouge_, Marseille.

The port is also an important arrival base for millions of people each year, with 2.4 million including 890,100 from cruise ships. With its beaches, history, architecture and culture (24 museums and 42 theatres), Marseille
Marseille
is one of the most visited cities in France, with 4.1 million visitors in 2012. Marseille
Marseille
is ranked 86th in the world for business tourism and events, advancing from the 150th spot one year before. The number of congress days hosted on its territory increased from 109,000 in 1996 to almost 300,000 in 2011. They take place in three main sites, _Le Palais du Pharo_, _Le Palais des Congrès et des Expositions (Parc Chanot)_ and the _World Trade Center_. In 2012 Marseille
Marseille
hosted the World Water Forum . Several urban projects have been developed to make Marseille
Marseille
attractive. Thus new parks, museums, public spaces and real estate projects aim to improve the city cadre de vie ( Parc du 26e Centenaire , Old Port of Marseille, numerous places in Euromediterrannee) to attract firms and people. Marseille
Marseille
municipality acts to develop Marseille
Marseille
as a regional nexus for entertainment in the south of France
France
with high concentration of museums, cinemas, theatres, clubs, bars, restaurants, fashion shops, hotels, and art galleries . From left to right: La Joliette neighbourhood (old docks ), ferry ship docks, new port, Euroméditerranée business district ( CMA CGM Tower ) and surrounding areas.

EMPLOYMENT

Unemployment in the economy fell from 20% in 1995 to 14% in 2004. However, Marseille
Marseille
unemployment rate remains higher than the national average. In some parts of Marseille, youth unemployment is reported to be as high as 40%.

ADMINISTRATION

The sectors and arrondissements of Marseille
Marseille

The city of Marseille
Marseille
is divided into 16 municipal arrondissements , which are themselves informally divided into _quartiers_ (111 in total). The arrondissements are regrouped in pairs, into 8 secteurs, each with a mayor and council (like the arrondissements in Paris
Paris
and Lyon
Lyon
).

Municipal elections are held every six years and are carried out by secteur. There are 303 councillors in total, two-thirds sitting in the secteur councils and one third in the city council.

From 1950 to the mid-1990s, Marseille
Marseille
was a socialist and communist stronghold. The socialist Gaston Defferre was consecutively re-elected six times as Mayor of Marseille
Marseille
from 1953 until his death in 1986. He was succeeded by Robert Vigouroux of the RDSE . Jean-Claude Gaudin of the right-wing UMP was elected mayor in 1995. Gaudin was re-elected in 2001 and 2008.

In recent years, the Communist Party has lost most of its strength in the northern boroughs of the city, whereas the far-right National Front has received significant support.

At the last municipal election in 2008, Marseille
Marseille
was divided between the northern boroughs dominated by the left and the more affluent southern part dominated by the right, with the centre and eastern parts of the city as battlegrounds, allowing for a narrow re-election of the UMP administration.

THE CANTONS OF MARSEILLE :

Marseille
Marseille
is also divided in 12 cantons , each of them returning two member of the General Council of the Bouches-du-Rhône département .

MAYORS

MAYOR TERM START TERM END

PARTY

Siméon Flaissières (fr) 1895 1901

Socialist

Marius-Justin-Albin-Hector Curet 1901 1902

Independent

Jean-Baptiste-Amable Chanot (fr) 1902 1908

Progressive Republican

Emmanuel Allard 1908 1910

Progressive Republican

Clément Lévy (fr) 1910 1910

Independent

Bernard Cadenat 1910 1912

SFIO

Jean-Baptiste-Amable Chanot (fr) 1912 1914

Progressive Republican

Eugène Pierre (fr) 1914 1919

Republican Independents

Siméon Flaissières (fr) 1919 1931

SFIO

Simon Sabiani 1931 1931

Republican Independents

Georges Ribot (fr) 1931 1935

Radical

Henri Tasso 1931 1939

SFIO

Nominated administrators 1939 1944

Gaston Defferre 1944 1946

SFIO

Marcel Renault 1946 1946

Independent

Jean Cristofol 1946 1947

PCF

Michel Carlini 1947 1953

RPF

Gaston Defferre 1953 1986

SFIO , PS

Jean-Victor Cordonnier (fr) 1986 1986

PS

Robert Vigouroux 1986 1995

DVG

Jean-Claude Gaudin 1995 _incumbent_

DL , UMP

POPULATION

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HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1801 111,100 —

1851 195,350 +75.8%

1881 360,100 +84.3%

1911 550,619 +52.9%

1931 606,000 +10.1%

1946 636,300 +5.0%

1954 661,407 +3.9%

1962 778,071 +17.6%

1968 889,029 +14.3%

1975 908,600 +2.2%

1982 874,436 −3.8%

1990 800,550 −8.4%

1999 798,430 −0.3%

2006 839,043 +5.1%

2011 850,636 +1.4%

IMMIGRATION

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The 7th arrondissement of Marseille

Because of its pre-eminence as a Mediterranean port, Marseille
Marseille
has always been one of the main gateways into France. This has attracted many immigrants and made Marseille
Marseille
a cosmopolitan melting pot . By the end of the 18th century about half the population originated from elsewhere in Provence mostly and also from southern France.

Economic conditions and political unrest in Europe and the rest of the world brought several other waves of immigrants during the 20th century: Greeks and Italians started arriving at the end of the 19th century and in the first half of the 20th century, up to 40% of the city's population was of Italian origin; Russians in 1917; Armenians in 1915 and 1923; Vietnamese in the 1920s, 1954 and after 1975; Corsicans during the 1920s and 1930s; Spanish after 1936; North Africans (both Arab and Berber ) in the inter-war period ; Sub-Saharan Africans after 1945; the pieds-noirs from the former French Algeria in 1962; and then from Comoros . In 2006, it was reported that 70,000 city residents were considered to be of Maghrebi origin, mostly from Algeria. The second largest group in Marseille
Marseille
in terms of single nationalities were from the Comoros, amounting to some 45,000 people.

Currently, over one third of the population of Marseille
Marseille
can trace their roots back to Italy. Marseille
Marseille
also has the second-largest Corsican and Armenian populations of France. Other significant communities include Maghrebis , Turks , Comorians, Chinese, and Vietnamese .

In 1999, in several arrondissements, about 40% of the young people under 18 were of Maghrebi origin (at least one immigrant parent).

Since 2013 immigrants from Eastern Europe travel to work in the city of Marseille, attracted by better job opportunities and the good climate of this Mediterranean city. The main nationalities are Romanians and Poles.

LARGEST GROUPS OF FOREIGN RESIDENTS

NATIONALITY POPULATION (2011)

Algeria
Algeria
37,673

Tunisia
Tunisia
32,800

Morocco
Morocco
30,000

Turkey
Turkey
12,283

Italy
Italy
9,094

Poland
Poland
8,227

Romania
Romania
7,134

Portugal
Portugal
6,988

Spain
Spain
5,002

Place of birth of residents of the city proper of Marseille
Marseille
in 1999 BORN IN METROPOLITAN FRANCE BORN OUTSIDE METROPOLITAN FRANCE

78.9% 21.1%

Born in Overseas France
France
BORN IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES WITH FRENCH CITIZENSHIP AT BIRTH1 EU-15 IMMIGRANTS2 NON- EU-15 IMMIGRANTS

0.9% 8.8% 2.1% 9.3%

Place of birth of residents of the metropolitan area of Marseille
Marseille
in 1999 BORN IN METROPOLITAN FRANCE BORN OUTSIDE METROPOLITAN FRANCE

81.2% 18.8%

Born in Overseas France
France
BORN IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES WITH FRENCH CITIZENSHIP AT BIRTH1 EU-15 IMMIGRANTS2 NON- EU-15 IMMIGRANTS

0.7% N/A% N/A% N/A%

1This group is made up largely of former French settlers, such as pieds-noirs in Northwest Africa , followed by former colonial citizens who had French citizenship at birth (such as was often the case for the native elite in French colonies), and to a lesser extent foreign-born children of French expatriates. Note that a foreign country is understood as a country not part of France
France
in 1999, so a person born for example in 1950 in Algeria, when Algeria
Algeria
was an integral part of France, is nonetheless listed as a person born in a foreign country in French statistics. 2An immigrant is a person born in a foreign country not having French citizenship at birth. Note that an immigrant may have acquired French citizenship since moving to France, but is still considered an immigrant in French statistics. On the other hand, persons born in France
France
with foreign citizenship (the children of immigrants) are not listed as immigrants.

RELIGION

Main article: Religion in Marseille

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Major religious communities in Marseille
Marseille
include:

* Roman Catholic (405,000) * Muslim (200,000) * Armenian Apostolic (80,000) * Jewish (80,000, making Marseille
Marseille
the third largest urban Jewish community in Europe) * Protestant (20,000) * Eastern Orthodox (10,000) * Hindu (4,000) * Buddhist (3,000).

CULTURE

Paul Cézanne : The bay of Marseille
Marseille
from l'Estaque

Marseille
Marseille
is a city that has its own unique culture and is proud of its differences from the rest of France. Today it is a regional centre for culture and entertainment with an important opera house , historical and maritime museums, five art galleries and numerous cinemas, clubs, bars and restaurants.

Marseille
Marseille
has a large number of theatres, including la Criée, le Gymnase and the Théâtre Toursky. There is also an extensive arts centre in La Friche , a former match factory behind the St-Charles station. The Alcazar (fr), until the 1960s a well known music-hall and variety theatre , has recently been completely remodelled behind its original façade and now houses the central municipal library. Other music venues in Marseille
Marseille
are L\'Embobineuze and GRIM .

Marseille
Marseille
has also been important in the arts. It has been the birthplace and home of many French writers and poets, including Victor Gélu (fr), Valère Bernard (fr), Pierre Bertas , Edmond Rostand and André Roussin . The small port of l\'Estaque on the far end of the Bay of Marseille
Marseille
became a favourite haunt for artists, including Auguste Renoir , Paul Cézanne (who frequently visited from his home in Aix ), Georges Braque and Raoul Dufy .

EUROPEAN CAPITAL OF CULTURE

See also: Marseille-Provence 2013

Marseille
Marseille
served as the European Capital of Culture for 2013 along with Košice. Marseille-Provence 2013 (MP2013) featured more than 900 cultural events held throughout Marseille
Marseille
and the surrounding communities. These cultural events generated more than 11 million visits. The European Capital of Culture was also the occasion to unveil more than 600 million euros in new cultural infrastructure in Marseille
Marseille
and it environs, including the iconic MuCEM
MuCEM
designed by Rudy Ricciotti .

TAROT DE MARSEILLE

Marseille
Marseille
tarot card

The most commonly used tarot deck takes its name from the city; it has been called the _ Tarot
Tarot
de Marseille
Marseille
_ since the 1930s—a name coined for commercial use by the French cardmaker and cartomancer Paul Marteau, owner of B–P Grimaud. Previously this deck was called _ Tarot
Tarot
italien_ (Italian Tarot) and even earlier it was simply called Tarot. Before being _de Marseille_, it was used to play the local variant of tarocchi before it became used in cartomancy at the end of the 18th century, following the trend set by Antoine Court de Gébelin . The name _ Tarot
Tarot
de Marseille_ (Marteau used the name _ancien Tarot de Marseille_) was used by contrast to other types of Tarots such as _ Tarot
Tarot
de Besançon _; those names were simply associated with cities where there were many cardmakers in the 18th century (previously several cities in France
France
were involved in cardmaking).

Another local tradition is the making of santons , small hand-crafted figurines for the traditional Provençal Christmas creche . Since 1803, starting on the last Sunday of November, there has been a Santon Fair in Marseille; it is currently held in the Cours d'Estienne d'Orves, a large square off the Vieux-Port.

OPERA

The Opéra de Marseille

Marseille's main cultural attraction was, since its creation at the end of the 18th century and until the late 1970s, the Opéra . Located near the Old Port and the Canebière, at the very heart of the city, its architectural style was comparable to the classical trend found in other opera houses built at the same time in Lyon
Lyon
and Bordeaux . In 1919, a fire almost completely destroyed the house, leaving only the stone colonnade and peristyle from the original façade. The classical façade was restored and the opera house reconstructed in a predominantly Art Deco
Art Deco
style, as the result of a major competition. Currently the Opéra de Marseille stages six or seven operas each year.

Since 1972, the Ballet national de Marseille has performed at the opera house; its director from its foundation to 1998 was Roland Petit .

POPULAR EVENTS AND FESTIVALS

There are several popular festivals in different neighborhoods, with concerts, animations, and outdoor bars, like the FêTE DU PANIER in June. On 21 June, there are dozens of free concerts in the city as part of the Fête de la Musique . Music from all over the world in introduced. Being a free event, many Marseille
Marseille
residents attend.

Marseille
Marseille
hosts a Gay Pride event in early July. In 2013, Marseille hosted Europride , an international LGBT
LGBT
event, 10 July–20. At the beginning of July, there is the International Documentary Festival. At the end of September, the electronic music festival Marsatac
Marsatac
takes place. In October, the Fiesta des Suds offers many concerts of world music.

HIP HOP MUSIC

Marseille
Marseille
is also well known in France
France
for its hip hop music . Bands like IAM originated from Marseille
Marseille
and initiated the rap phenomenon in France. Other known groups include Fonky Family , Psy 4 de la Rime (including rappers Soprano and Alonzo ), and Keny Arkana . In a slightly different way, ragga music is represented by Massilia Sound System .

FOOD

_ Traditional Marseille
Marseille
bouillabaisse Swordfish in olive oil with ratatouille and saffron rice Pieds paquets

* Bouillabaisse
Bouillabaisse
is the most famous seafood dish of Marseille. It is a fish stew containing at least three varieties of very fresh local fish: typically red rascasse ( Scorpaena scrofa
Scorpaena scrofa
); sea robin (fr: grondin_); and European conger (fr: _congre_). It can include gilt-head bream (fr: _dorade_); turbot ; monkfish (fr: _lotte_ or _baudroie_); mullet ; or silver hake (fr: _merlan_), and it usually includes shellfish and other seafood such as sea urchins (fr: _oursins_), mussels (fr: _moules_); velvet crabs (fr: _étrilles_); spider crab (fr: _araignées de mer_), plus potatoes and vegetables. In the traditional version, the fish is served on a platter separate from the broth. The broth is served with rouille , a mayonnaise made with egg yolk, olive oil, red bell pepper, saffron, and garlic, spread on pieces of toasted bread, or _croûtes_. In Marseille, bouillabaisse is rarely made for fewer than ten people; the more people who share the meal, and the more different fish that are included, the better the bouillabaisse. * Aïoli is a sauce made from raw garlic, lemon juice, eggs and olive oil, served with boiled fish, hard boiled eggs and cooked vegetables. * Anchoïade (fr) is a paste made from anchovies, garlic, and olive oil, spread on bread or served with raw vegetables. * Bourride (fr) is a soup made with white fish (monkfish, European sea bass, whiting, etc.) and aïoli. * Fougasse is a flat Provençal bread, similar to the Italian focaccia . It is traditionally baked in a wood oven and sometimes filled with olives, cheese or anchovies. * Navette de Marseille
Marseille
(fr) are, in the words of food writer M. F. K. Fisher , "little boat-shaped cookies, tough dough tasting vaguely of orange peel, smelling better than they are." * Panisse (fr) is chickpea flour boiled into a thick mush, allowed to firm up, then cut into blocks and fried. * Pastis
Pastis
is an alcoholic beverage made with aniseed and spice. It is extremely popular in the region. * Pieds paquets is a dish prepared from sheep's feet and offal. * Pistou is a combination of crushed fresh basil and garlic with olive oil, similar to the Italian pesto . Soup au pistou combines pistou in a broth with pasta and vegetables. * Tapenade
Tapenade
is a paste made from chopped olives, capers, and olive oil (sometimes anchovies may be added).

FILMS SET IN MARSEILLE

Marseille
Marseille
has been the setting for many films, mostly produced in France
France
or Hollywood . A list of films set in Marseille
Marseille
is available here .

MARSEILLE IN TELEVISION

The French television series _ Plus belle la vie _ is set in an imaginary quartier , _Le Mistral_, of Marseille. It is filmed in the _Panier_ quartier of Marseille.

The Netflix series _ Marseille
Marseille
_ is set in the city in the 2010s.

MAIN SIGHTS

_ The Panier_ quarter with the Hotel de Ville and the church of Notre Dame des Accoules La Vieille Charité The Abbey of St. Victor and the basilica of Notre-Dame-de-la-Garde

Marseille
Marseille
is listed as a major centre of art and history. The city has many museums and galleries and there are many ancient buildings and churches of historical interest.

CENTRAL MARSEILLE

Most of the attractions of Marseille
Marseille
(including shopping areas) are located in the 1st, 2nd, 6th and 7th arrondissements. These include:

* The Old Port or Vieux-Port, the main harbour and marina of the city. It is guarded by two massive forts (Fort Saint-Nicolas and Fort Saint-Jean ) and is one of the main places to eat in the city. Dozens of cafés line the waterfront. The Quai des Belges at the end of the harbour is the site of the daily fish market. Much of the northern quayside area was rebuilt by the architect Fernand Pouillon after its destruction by the Nazis in 1943. * The Hôtel de Ville (City Hall), a baroque building dating from the 17th century. * The Centre Bourse and the adjacent rue St Ferreol district (including rue de Rome and rue Paradis), the main shopping area in central Marseille. * The Porte d\'Aix , a triumphal arch commemorating French victories in the Spanish Expedition . * The Hôtel-Dieu, a former hospital in _Le Panier_, transformed into an InterContinental
InterContinental
hotel in 2013. * La Vieille Charité in _Le Panier_, an architecturally significant building designed by the Puget brothers. The central baroque chapel is situated in a courtyard lined with arcaded galleries. Originally built as an alms house , it is now home to an archeological museum and a gallery of African and Asian art, as well as bookshops and a café. It also houses the Marseille
Marseille
International Poetry Centre. * The Cathedral of Sainte-Marie-Majeure or La Major, founded in the 4th century, enlarged in the 11th century and completely rebuilt in the second half of the 19th century by the architects Léon Vaudoyer and Henri-Jacques Espérandieu . The present day cathedral is a gigantic edifice in Romano-Byzantine style. A romanesque transept , choir and altar survive from the older medieval cathedral, spared from complete destruction only as a result of public protests at the time. * The 12th-century parish church of Saint-Laurent and adjoining 17th-century chapel of Sainte-Catherine, on the quayside near the Cathedral. * The Abbey of Saint-Victor , one of the oldest places of Christian worship in Europe. Its 5th-century crypt and catacombs occupy the site of a Hellenic burial ground, later used for Christian martyrs and venerated ever since. Continuing a medieval tradition , every year at Candlemas a Black Madonna from the crypt is carried in procession along rue Sainte for a blessing from the archbishop, followed by a mass and the distribution of "navettes " and green votive candles .

MUSEUMS

In addition to the two in the Centre de la Vieille Charité, described above, the main museums are: _ The MuCEM, Musée Regards de Provence and Villa Mediterannée, with Notre Dame de la Majeur on the right The sixteenth century Maison Diamentée_ which houses the _Musée du Vieux Marseille_ _ The music room in the Grobet-Labadié museum The Palais Longchamp
Palais Longchamp
with its monumental fountain

* The Musée des Civilisations de l\'Europe et de la Méditerranée (MuCEM) and the Villa Méditerranée were inaugurated in 2013. The MuCEM
MuCEM
is devoted to the history and culture of European and Mediterranean civilisations. The adjacent Villa Méditerranée, an international centre for cultural and artistic interchange, is partially constructed underwater. The site is linked by footbridges to the Fort Saint-Jean and to the Panier_. * The Musée Regards de Provence, opened in 2013, is located between the Cathedral of Notre Dame de la Majeur and the Fort Saint-Jean. It occupies a converted port building constructed in 1945 to monitor and control potential sea-borne health hazards, in particular epidemics. It now houses a permanent collection of historical artworks from Provence as well as temporary exhibitions. * The _Musée du Vieux Marseille_, housed in the 16th-century Maison Diamantée, describing everyday life in Marseille
Marseille
from the 18th century onwards. * The _Musée des Docks Romains_ preserves in situ the remains of Roman commercial warehouses, and has a small collection of objects, dating from the Greek period to the Middle Ages, that were uncovered on the site or retrieved from shipwrecks. * The Marseille History Museum (Musée d'Histoire de Marseille), devoted to the history of the town, located in the Centre Bourse. It contains remains of the Greek, and Roman history of Marseille
Marseille
as well as the best preserved hull of a 6th-century boat in the world. Ancient remains from the Hellenic port are displayed in the adjacent archeological gardens, the _Jardin des Vestiges_. * The Musée Cantini , a museum of modern art near the Palais de Justice. It houses artworks associated with Marseille
Marseille
as well as several works by Picasso . * The Musée Grobet-Labadié , opposite the Palais Longchamp, houses an exceptional collection of European objets d\'art and old musical instruments . * The 19th-century Palais Longchamp
Palais Longchamp
, designed by Esperandieu, is located in the Parc Longchamp . Built on a grand scale, this italianate colonnaded building rises up behind a vast monumental fountain with cascading waterfalls. The jeux d\'eau marks and masks the entry point of the Canal
Canal
de Provence into Marseille. Its two wings house the Musée des beaux-arts de Marseille (a fine arts museum), and the Natural History Museum (Muséum d'histoire naturelle de Marseille). * The Château Borély is located in the Parc Borély , a park off the Bay of Marseille
Marseille
with the Jardin botanique E.M. Heckel , a botanical garden . The Museum of the Decorative Arts, Fashion and Ceramics (fr) opened in the renovated château in June 2013. * The Musée d\'Art Contemporain de Marseille
Marseille
(fr) (MAC), a museum of contemporary art, opened in 1994. It is devoted to American and European art from the 1960s to the present day. * The Musée du Terroir Marseillais (fr) in Château-Gombert, devoted to Provençal crafts and traditions.

OUTSIDE OF CENTRAL MARSEILLE

The Calanque of Sugiton in the 9th arrondissement of Marseille The Château d'If

The main attractions outside the city centre include:

* The 19th-century Basilica
Basilica
of Notre-Dame de la Garde , an enormous Romano-Byzantine basilica built by architect Espérandieu in the hills to the south of the Old Port. The terrace offers spectacular panoramic views of Marseille
Marseille
and its surroundings. * The Stade Vélodrome , the home stadium of the city's main football team, Olympique de Marseille
Olympique de Marseille
. * The Unité d\'Habitation , an influential and iconic modernist building designed by the Swiss architect Le Corbusier in 1952. On the third floor is the gastronomic restaurant, Le Ventre de l'Architecte. On the roof is the contemporary gallery MaMo opened in 2013. * The Docks de Marseille
Marseille
, a 19th-century warehouse transformed into offices. * The Pharo Gardens, a park with views of the Mediterranean and the Old Port. * The Corniche, a picturesque waterfront road between the Old Port and the Bay of Marseille. * The beaches at the Prado, Pointe Rouge, les Goudes, Callelongue, and Le prophète. * The Calanques, a wild mountainous coastal area of outstanding natural beauty accessible from Callelongue, Sormiou, Morgiou, Luminy, and Cassis. Calanques National Park became France's tenth national park in 2012. * The islands of the Frioul archipelago in the Bay of Marseille, accessible by ferry from the Old Port. The prison of Château d\'If was one of the settings for The Count of Monte Cristo
The Count of Monte Cristo
, the novel by Alexandre Dumas . The neighbouring islands of Ratonneau and Pomègues are joined by a man-made breakwater . The site of a former garrison and quarantine hospital, these islands are also of interest for their marine wildlife.

EDUCATION AND RESEARCH

_ This section USES ABBREVIATIONS THAT MAY BE CONFUSING OR AMBIGUOUS . There might be a discussion about this on the Talk
Talk
page . Please improve this section if you can. (May 2012)_

Euromed in Luminy, near the Calanques
Calanques
of Sugiton and Morgiou

A number of the faculties of the three universities that comprise Aix-Marseille University are located in Marseille:

* Université de Provence Aix- Marseille
Marseille
I * Université de la Méditerranée Aix- Marseille
Marseille
II * Université Paul Cézanne Aix- Marseille
Marseille
III

In addition Marseille
Marseille
has three _grandes écoles_:

* Ecole Centrale de Marseille
Marseille
part of Centrale Graduate School * École pour l\'informatique et les nouvelles technologies * KEDGE Business School

The main French research bodies including the CNRS , INSERM and INRA are all well represented in Marseille. Scientific research is concentrated at several sites across the city, including Luminy, where there are institutes in developmental biology (the IBDML), immunology ( CIML ), marine sciences and neurobiology (INMED), at the CNRS Joseph Aiguier campus and at the Timone hospital site (known for work in microbiology ). Marseille
Marseille
is also home to the headquarters of the IRD , which promotes research into questions affecting developing countries.

TRANSPORT

Motorways around Marseille
Marseille

INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL TRANSPORT

Marseille Provence Airport , the fifth busiest in France.

The city is served by an international airport, Marseille
Marseille
Provence Airport , located in Marignane. The airport is the fifth busiest French airport, and known the 4th most important European traffic growth in 2012. An extensive network of motorways connects Marseille to the north and west (A7 ), Aix-en-Provence in the north (A51 ), Toulon
Toulon
(A50 ) and the French Riviera (A8 ) to the east.

Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles is Marseille's main railway station. It operates direct regional services to Aix-en-Provence, Briançon , Toulon, Avignon
Avignon
, Nice, Montpellier , Toulouse
Toulouse
, Bordeaux, Nantes
Nantes
, etc. Gare Saint-Charles is also one of the main terminal stations for the TGV
TGV
in the south of France
France
making Marseille
Marseille
reachable in three hours from Paris
Paris
(a distance of over 750 km) and just over one and a half hours from Lyon. There are also direct TGV
TGV
lines to Lille
Lille
, Brussels, Nantes, Geneva
Geneva
and Strasbourg
Strasbourg
as well as Eurostar
Eurostar
services to London
London
. In addition, the night train ( Intercités de Nuit ) from Luxembourg and Strasbourg
Strasbourg
stops here on its way to Nice, whereas the night train from Paris
Paris
to Nice
Nice
serves the Gare de Blancarde . The new tramway Metro and tramway network

There is a new long distance bus station adjacent to new modern extension to the Gare Saint-Charles with destinations mostly to other Bouches-du-Rhône towns, including buses to Aix-en-Provence, Cassis, La Ciotat and Aubagne . The city is also served with 11 other regional trains stations in the east and the north of the city.

Marseille
Marseille
has a large ferry terminal , the _Gare Maritime_, with services to Corsica, Sardinia, Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

See also: Transportation in Marseille

Marseille
Marseille
is connected by the Marseille
Marseille
Métro train system operated by the _ Régie des transports de Marseille _ (RTM). It consists of two lines: Line 1 (blue) between Castellane and La Rose opened in 1977 and Line 2 (red) between Sainte-Marguerite-Dromel and Bougainville opened between 1984 and 1987. An extension of the Line 1 from Castellane to La Timone was completed in 1992, another extension from La Timone to La Fourragère (2.5 km (1.6 mi) and 4 new stations) was opened in May 2010. The Métro system operates on a turnstile system, with tickets purchased at the nearby adjacent automated booths. Both lines of the Métro intersect at Gare Saint-Charles and Castellane. Three bus rapid transit lines are under construction to better connect the Métro to farther places (Castellane -> Luminy ; Capitaine Gèze – La Cabucelle -> Vallon des Tuves ; La Rose -> Château Gombert – Saint Jérome).

An extensive bus network serves the city and suburbs of Marseille, with 104 lines and 633 buses. The three lines of the tramway , opened in 2007, go from the CMA CGM Tower towards Les Caillols.

As in many other French cities, a bike-sharing service nicknamed "Le vélo", free for trips of less than half an hour, was introduced by the city council in 2007.

A free ferry service operates between the two opposite quays of the Old Port. From 2011 ferry shuttle services operate between the Old Port and Pointe Rouge; in spring 2013 it will also run to l'Estaque. There are also ferry services and boat trips available from the Old Port to Frioul , the Calanques
Calanques
and Cassis.

SPORT

The Stade Vélodrome in Marseille.

The city boasts a wide variety of sports facilities and teams. The most popular team is the city's football club , Olympique de Marseille , which was the finalist of the UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
in 1991, before winning the competition in 1993. The club also became finalists of the UEFA Cup in both 1999 and 2004. The club had a history of success under then-owner Bernard Tapie . The club's home, the Stade Vélodrome , which can seat around 67,000 people, also functions for other local sports, as well as the national rugby team . Stade Velodrome hosted a number of games during the 1998 FIFA World Cup , 2007 Rugby World Cup , and UEFA Euro 2016 . The local rugby teams are Marseille XIII and Marseille Vitrolles Rugby . Marseille
Marseille
is famous for its important pétanque activity, it is even renown as the _pétanque capitale_. In 2012 Marseille
Marseille
hosted the Pétanque World Championship and the city hosts every year the Mondial la Marseillaise de pétanque , the main pétanque competition. Match Race France
France
2008

Sailing is a major sport in Marseille. The wind conditions allow regattas in the warm waters of the Mediterranean. Throughout most seasons of the year it can be windy while the sea remains smooth enough to allow sailing. Marseille
Marseille
has been the host of 8 (2010) Match Race France
France
events which are part of the World Match Racing Tour . The event draws the world's best sailing teams to Marseille. The identical supplied boats (J Boats J-80 racing yachts) are raced two at a time in an on the water dogfight which tests the sailors and skippers to the limits of their physical abilities. Points accrued count towards the World Match Racing Tour and a place in the final event, with the overall winner taking the title ISAF World Match Racing Tour Champion. Match racing is an ideal sport for spectators in Marseille, as racing in close proximity to the shore provides excellent views. The city was also considered as a possible venue for 2007 America\'s Cup .

Marseille
Marseille
is also a place for other water sports such as windsurfing and powerboating . Marseille
Marseille
has three golf courses . The city has dozens of gyms and several public swimming pools. Running is also popular in many of Marseille's parks such as Le Pharo and Le Jardin Pierre Puget. An annual footrace is held between the city and neighbouring Cassis: the Marseille- Cassis
Cassis
Classique Internationale .

PERSONALITIES

See also: List of people from Marseille Honoré Daumier : Sunday at the Museum Edmond Rostand Memorial to Eliane Plewman in Dachau concentration camp Jean-Pierre Rampal Zinedine Zidane

Marseille
Marseille
was the birthplace of:

* Pytheas (fl. 4th century BC), Greek merchant, geographer and explorer * Petronius
Petronius
(fl. 1st century AD), Roman novelist and satirist * Pierre Demours (1702–1795), physician * Jean-Henri Gourgaud , aka. "Dugazon" (1746–1809), actor * Jean-Baptiste Benoît Eyriès (1767–1846), geographer, author and translator * Désirée Clary (1777–1860), wife of King Carl XIV Johan of Sweden , and therefore _Queen Desirée_ or _Queen Desideria of Sweden _ * Sabin Berthelot (1794–1880), naturalist and ethnologist * Adolphe Thiers (1797–1877), first president of the Third Republic * Étienne Joseph Louis Garnier-Pages (1801–1841), politician * Honoré Daumier (1808–1879), caricaturist and painter * Joseph Autran (1813–1877), poet * Charles-Joseph-Eugene de Mazenod (1782–1861), bishop of Marseille
Marseille
and founder of the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate . * Lucien Petipa (1815–1898), ballet dancer * Joseph Mascarel (1816–1899), mayor of Los Angeles * Marius Petipa (1818–1910), ballet dancer and choreographer * Ernest Reyer (1823–1909), opera composer and music critic * Olivier Émile Ollivier (1825–1913), statesman * Victor Maurel (1848–1923), operatic baritone * Joseph Pujol, aka. " Le Pétomane " (1857–1945), entertainer * Charles Fabry (1867–1945), physicist * Edmond Rostand (1868–1918), poet and dramatist * Pavlos Melas (1870–1904), Greek army officer * Louis Nattero , (1870–1915), painter * Vincent Scotto (1876–1952), guitarist, songwriter * Charles Camoin (1879–1965), fauvist painter * Henri Fabre (1882–1984), aviator and inventor of the first seaplane * Frédéric Mariotti (1883–1971), actor * Darius Milhaud (1892–1974), composer and teacher * Berty Albrecht (1893–1943), French Resistance
French Resistance
, Croix de Guerre * Antonin Artaud (1897–1948), author * Henri Tomasi (1901–1971), composer and conductor * Zino Francescatti (1902–1991), violinist * Fernandel (1903–1971), actor * Marie-Madeleine Fourcade (1909–1989), French Resistance
French Resistance
, Commander of the Légion d\'honneur * Éliane Browne-Bartroli (Eliane Plewman, 1917–1944), French Resistance, Croix de Guerre * César Baldaccini (1921–1998), sculptor * Louis Jourdan
Louis Jourdan
(1921–2015), actor * Jean-Pierre Rampal (1922–2000), flautist * Alice Colonieu , (1924–2010), ceramist * Paul Mauriat (1925–2006), orchestra leader, composer * Maurice Béjart (1927–2007), ballet choreographer * Régine Crespin (1927–2007), opera singer * Ginette Garcin (1928–2010), actor * André di Fusco (1932–2001), known as André Pascal , songwriter , composer * Henry de Lumley (born 1934), archaeologist * Sacha Sosno (1937–2013), sculptor * Jean-Pierre Ricard (born 1944), cardinal, archbishop of Bordeaux * Georges Chappe (born 1944), cyclist * Jean-Claude Izzo (1945–2000), author * Denis Ranque (born 1952), businessman * Ariane Ascaride (born 1954), actress * Myriam Fox-Jerusalmi (born 1961), world champion slalom canoer * Eric Cantona (born 1966), Manchester United and French national team football player * Patrick Fiori (born 1969), singer * Marc Panther (born 1970), member of the popular Japanese rock band Globe * Zinedine Zidane (born 1972), professional football player and former captain of the France
France
national football team * Romain Barnier (born 1976), freestyle swimmer * Sébastien Grosjean (born 1978), tennis player * Philippe Echaroux (born 1983), photographer * Mathieu Flamini (born 1984), football player * Rémy Di Gregorio (born 1985), cyclist * Jessica Fox (born 1994), French-born Australian slalom canoer , Olympic silver (K-1 slalom), world championships bronze (C-1)

The following personalities died in Marseille: Play media Newsreel showing the murder of King Alexander of Yugoslavia and French Foreign Minister Louis Barthou
Louis Barthou
in Marseille
Marseille
(October 1934).

* Blessed Antoine Frédéric Ozanam , on 8 September 1853. * French poet Arthur Rimbaud , on 10 November 1891. * Brice Meuleman , 2nd Catholic Archbishop of Calcutta
Calcutta
, on 15 July 1924. * King Alexander I of Yugoslavia was assassinated on 9 October 1934 in Marseille
Marseille
along with French Foreign Minister Louis Barthou
Louis Barthou
.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France
France

TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES

Marseille
Marseille
is currently officially twinned with 13 cities:

* Antwerp
Antwerp
, Belgium
Belgium
* Hamburg
Hamburg
, Germany
Germany
* Abidjan
Abidjan
, Côte d'Ivoire * Copenhagen
Copenhagen
, Denmark
Denmark
* Dakar
Dakar
, Senegal
Senegal
* Genoa
Genoa
, Italy
Italy
* Glasgow
Glasgow
, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* Haifa
Haifa
, Israel
Israel
* Kobe
Kobe
, Japan
Japan
* Marrakech
Marrakech
, Morocco
Morocco
* Odessa , Ukraine
Ukraine
* Piraeus
Piraeus
, Greece
Greece
* Shanghai
Shanghai
, China
China

PARTNER CITIES

In addition, Marseille
Marseille
has signed various types of formal agreements of cooperation with 27 cities all over the world:

* Barcelona
Barcelona
, Spain
Spain
(1998) * Gdańsk , Poland
Poland
(1992) * Agadir
Agadir
, Morocco
Morocco
(2003) * Alexandria
Alexandria
, Egypt
Egypt
(1990) * Algiers
Algiers
, Algeria
Algeria
(1980) * Bamako , Mali
Mali
(1991) * Beirut
Beirut
, Lebanon
Lebanon
(2003) * Casablanca
Casablanca
, Morocco
Morocco
(1998) * Istanbul
Istanbul
, Turkey
Turkey
(2003) * Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, Israel
Israel
(2006) * Limassol
Limassol
, Cyprus
Cyprus
* Lomé , Togo
Togo
(1995) * Lyon
Lyon
, France * Meknes
Meknes
, Morocco
Morocco
(1998) * Montevideo
Montevideo
, Uruguay
Uruguay
(1999) * Nice
Nice
, France * Nîmes , France * Rabat , Morocco
Morocco
(1989) * Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
, Russia
Russia
(2013) * Sarajevo
Sarajevo
, Bosnia-Herzegovina (2003) * Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
, Greece
Greece
* Tirana
Tirana
, Albania
Albania
(1991) * Tripoli
Tripoli
, Libya
Libya
(1991) * Tunis
Tunis
, Tunisia
Tunisia
(1998) * Valparaíso
Valparaíso
, Chile
Chile
(2013) * Varna
Varna
, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(2007) * Yerevan
Yerevan
, Armenia
Armenia
(1992)

SEE ALSO

* France
France
portal

* List of films set in Marseille * Marcel Pagnol * Marseille Marine Fire Battalion * Marseille soap

REFERENCES

NOTES

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* ^ _A_ _B_ "Twinnings" (PDF). _Central Union of Municipalities & Communities of Greece_. Retrieved 25 August 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ _P_ _Q_ _R_ _S_ _T_ _U_ _V_ _W_ "Accords de coopération" (PDF). _Site Officiel de la Ville de Marseille_ (in French). Retrieved 6 October 2015. * ^ " Gdańsk Official Website: \'Miasta partnerskie\'" (in Polish and English). Urząd Miejski w Gdańsku. 2009. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2009. * ^ " Limassol
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

* INSEE * Palanque, J.R. (1990). "Ligures, Celtes et Grecs" . In Baratier, Edouard. _Histoire de la Provence_ . Univers de la France
France
(in French). Toulouse: Editions Privat. ISBN 2-7089-1649-1 . * Abulafia, David, ed. (1999). _The New Cambridge Medieval History_. 5. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-36289-X . * Duchêne, Roger; Contrucci, Jean (1998). _Marseille, 2600 ans d'histoire_ (in French). Paris: Editions Fayard. ISBN 2-213-60197-6 .

* Kitson, Simon (2014). _Police and Politics in Marseille, 1936–1945_. Amsterdam: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-24835-9 . * Liauzu, Claude (1996). _Histoire des migrations en Méditerranée occidentale_ (in French). Brussels: Editions Complexe.