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1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Marseille
Marseille
(/mɑːrˈseɪ/; French: [maʁsɛj] ( listen), locally [mɑχˈsɛjə]; Provençal: Marselha [maʀˈsejɔ, -ˈsijɔ]), also known in British English
British English
as Marseilles, is the second-largest city of France. The capital of the Bouches-du-Rhône department and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
region, it is located on France's south coast and had a population of 852,516 in 2012,[1] and an area of 241 km2 (93 sq mi), the second largest city in France, the third-largest metropolitan area in France
France
after Paris and Lyon.[3] Known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Massalia[4] (Greek: Μασσαλία, Massalía),[5][page needed][6] Marseille
Marseille
was the most important trading centre in the region and the main commercial port of the French Republic. Marseille
Marseille
is now France's largest city on the Mediterranean coast and the largest port for commerce, freight and cruise ships. The city was European Capital of Culture, together with Košice, Slovakia, in 2013. It hosted the FIFA World Cup 1998 and the UEFA Euro 2016, and it was the European Capital of Sport in 2017. The city is home to several campuses of Aix-Marseille University
Aix-Marseille University
and part of one of the largest metropolitan conurbations in France, the Metropolis of Aix-Marseille-Provence.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Climate

2 History 3 Economy

3.1 Port 3.2 Companies, services and high technologies 3.3 Tourism and attractions 3.4 Employment

4 Administration

4.1 Mayors

5 Population

5.1 Immigration 5.2 Religion

6 Culture

6.1 European Capital of Culture 6.2 Tarot
Tarot
de Marseille 6.3 Opera 6.4 Popular events and festivals 6.5 Hip hop music 6.6 Food 6.7 Films set in Marseille 6.8 Marseille
Marseille
in television

7 Main sights

7.1 Central Marseille 7.2 Museums 7.3 Outside central Marseille

8 Education and research 9 Transport

9.1 International and regional transport 9.2 Public transport

10 Sport 11 Personalities 12 International relations

12.1 Twin towns and sister cities 12.2 Partner cities

13 See also 14 References

14.1 Notes 14.2 Bibliography

15 Further reading 16 External links

Geography[edit]

View of the "Petit Nice" on Marseille's corniche (7th arrondissement) with the Frioul archipelago
Frioul archipelago
and the Château d'If
Château d'If
in the background

Marseille's Old Port (Vieux-Port) towards Notre-Dame de la Garde

Marseille
Marseille
is the second-largest city in France
France
after Paris
Paris
and the centre of the third-largest metropolitan area in France
France
after Paris and Lyon. To the east, starting in the small fishing village of Callelongue on the outskirts of Marseille
Marseille
and stretching as far as Cassis, are the Calanques, a rugged coastal area interspersed with small fjord-like inlets. Farther east still are the Sainte-Baume
Sainte-Baume
(a 1,147 m (3,763 ft) mountain ridge rising from a forest of deciduous trees), the city of Toulon
Toulon
and the French Riviera. To the north of Marseille, beyond the low Garlaban
Garlaban
and Etoile mountain ranges, is the 1,011 m (3,317 ft) Mont Sainte Victoire. To the west of Marseille
Marseille
is the former artists' colony of l'Estaque; farther west are the Côte Bleue, the Gulf of Lion and the Camargue region in the Rhône
Rhône
delta. The airport lies to the north west of the city at Marignane
Marignane
on the Étang de Berre.[7]

Aerial view of Marseille

The city's main thoroughfare (the wide boulevard called the Canebière) stretches eastward from the Old Port to the Réformés quarter. Two large forts flank the entrance to the Old Port—Fort Saint-Nicolas on the south side and Fort Saint-Jean on the north. Farther out in the Bay of Marseille
Marseille
is the Frioul archipelago
Frioul archipelago
which comprises four islands, one of which, If, is the location of Château d'If, made famous by the Dumas novel The Count of Monte Cristo. The main commercial centre of the city intersects with the Canebière
Canebière
at Rue St Ferréol and the Centre Bourse (one of the city's main shopping malls). The centre of Marseille
Marseille
has several pedestrianised zones, most notably Rue St Ferréol, Cours Julien near the Music Conservatory, the Cours Honoré-d'Estienne-d'Orves off the Old Port and the area around the Hôtel de Ville. To the south east of central Marseille
Marseille
in the 6th arrondissement are the Prefecture and the monumental fountain of Place Castellane, an important bus and metro interchange. To the south west are the hills of the 7th and 8th arrondissements, dominated by the basilica of Notre-Dame de la Garde. Marseille's main railway station—Gare de Marseille
Marseille
Saint-Charles—is north of the Centre Bourse in the 1st arrondissement; it is linked by the Boulevard d'Athènes to the Canebière.[7] Climate[edit] Marseille
Marseille
has a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
(Köppen Csa) with mild, humid winters and warm to hot, mostly dry summers. December, January, and February are the coldest months, averaging temperatures of around 12 °C (54 °F) during the day and 4 °C (39 °F) at night. July and August are the hottest months, averaging temperatures of around 28–30 °C (82–86 °F) during the day and 19 °C (66 °F) at night in the Marignane
Marignane
airport (35 km (22 mi) from Marseille) but in the city near the sea the average high temperature is 27 °C (81 °F) in July.[8] Marseille
Marseille
is officially the sunniest major city in France
France
with over 2,900 hours of sunshine while the average sunshine in France
France
is around 1,950 hours. It is also the driest major city with only 512 mm (20 in) of precipitation annually, especially thanks to the Mistral, a cold, dry wind originating in the Rhône
Rhône
Valley that occurs mostly in winter and spring and which generally brings clear skies and sunny weather to the region. Less frequent is the Sirocco, a hot, sand-bearing wind, coming from the Sahara
Sahara
Desert. Snowfalls are infrequent; over 50% of years do not experience a single snowfall. The hottest temperature was 40.6 °C (105.1 °F) on 26 July 1983 during a great heat wave, the lowest temperature was −14.3 °C (6.3 °F) on 13 February 1929 during a strong cold wave.[9]

Climate data for Marseille
Marseille
(Longchamp observatory) 43°18'21.2"N 5°23'37.1"E (1981–2010 averages, record highs and lows 1868–2003)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 21.2 (70.2) 22.7 (72.9) 26.1 (79) 28.6 (83.5) 33.2 (91.8) 36.9 (98.4) 40.6 (105.1) 38.6 (101.5) 33.8 (92.8) 30.9 (87.6) 24.3 (75.7) 23.1 (73.6) 40.6 (105.1)

Average high °C (°F) 11.8 (53.2) 12.7 (54.9) 15.9 (60.6) 18.3 (64.9) 22.6 (72.7) 26.2 (79.2) 29.6 (85.3) 29.1 (84.4) 25.2 (77.4) 20.9 (69.6) 15.2 (59.4) 12.5 (54.5) 20.0 (68)

Daily mean °C (°F) 8.4 (47.1) 8.9 (48) 11.6 (52.9) 13.8 (56.8) 17.9 (64.2) 21.3 (70.3) 24.5 (76.1) 24.1 (75.4) 20.7 (69.3) 16.9 (62.4) 11.8 (53.2) 9.3 (48.7) 15.8 (60.4)

Average low °C (°F) 4.9 (40.8) 5.1 (41.2) 7.3 (45.1) 9.3 (48.7) 13.1 (55.6) 16.4 (61.5) 19.4 (66.9) 19.1 (66.4) 16.1 (61) 13.0 (55.4) 8.3 (46.9) 6.0 (42.8) 11.5 (52.7)

Record low °C (°F) −10.5 (13.1) −14.3 (6.3) −7.0 (19.4) −3.0 (26.6) 0.0 (32) 4.7 (40.5) 8.5 (47.3) 8.1 (46.6) 0.0 (32) −3.0 (26.6) −6.9 (19.6) −11.4 (11.5) −14.3 (6.3)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 51.1 (2.012) 32.1 (1.264) 30.7 (1.209) 51.1 (2.012) 38.7 (1.524) 23.5 (0.925) 7.6 (0.299) 27.9 (1.098) 71.6 (2.819) 78.6 (3.094) 58.0 (2.283) 52.3 (2.059) 523.2 (20.598)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 5.5 4.5 4.0 6.1 4.3 2.5 1.3 2.4 4.1 6.1 6.1 5.8 52.6

Source #1: Météo France[9]

Source #2: Infoclimat.fr[10]

Climate data for Marignane
Marignane
(Aéroport Marseille
Marseille
Provence) 43°26'18.4"N 5°12'51.9"E (1981–2010 averages, record highs and lows 1921–present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 19.9 (67.8) 22.1 (71.8) 25.4 (77.7) 29.6 (85.3) 34.9 (94.8) 37.6 (99.7) 39.7 (103.5) 39.2 (102.6) 34.3 (93.7) 30.4 (86.7) 25.2 (77.4) 20.3 (68.5) 39.7 (103.5)

Average high °C (°F) 11.4 (52.5) 12.5 (54.5) 15.8 (60.4) 18.6 (65.5) 22.9 (73.2) 27.1 (80.8) 30.2 (86.4) 29.7 (85.5) 25.5 (77.9) 20.9 (69.6) 15.1 (59.2) 11.9 (53.4) 20.2 (68.4)

Daily mean °C (°F) 7.1 (44.8) 8.1 (46.6) 11.0 (51.8) 13.8 (56.8) 18.0 (64.4) 21.8 (71.2) 24.8 (76.6) 24.4 (75.9) 20.6 (69.1) 16.6 (61.9) 11.1 (52) 7.9 (46.2) 15.5 (59.9)

Average low °C (°F) 2.9 (37.2) 3.6 (38.5) 6.2 (43.2) 9.1 (48.4) 13.1 (55.6) 16.6 (61.9) 19.4 (66.9) 19.0 (66.2) 15.7 (60.3) 12.4 (54.3) 7.2 (45) 4.0 (39.2) 10.8 (51.4)

Record low °C (°F) −12.4 (9.7) −16.8 (1.8) −10.0 (14) −2.4 (27.7) 0.0 (32) 5.4 (41.7) 7.8 (46) 8.1 (46.6) 1.0 (33.8) −2.2 (28) −5.8 (21.6) −12.8 (9) −16.8 (1.8)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 48.0 (1.89) 31.4 (1.236) 30.4 (1.197) 54.0 (2.126) 41.1 (1.618) 24.5 (0.965) 9.2 (0.362) 31.0 (1.22) 77.1 (3.035) 67.2 (2.646) 55.7 (2.193) 45.8 (1.803) 515.4 (20.291)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 5.3 4.5 3.9 6.1 4.5 3.0 1.3 2.7 4.5 6.1 5.9 5.5 53.2

Average snowy days 0.9 0.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 1.7

Average relative humidity (%) 75 72 67 65 64 63 59 62 69 74 75 77 68.5

Mean monthly sunshine hours 145.1 173.7 238.7 244.5 292.9 333.4 369.1 327.4 258.6 187.1 152.5 134.9 2,857.8

Source #1: Météo France[11]

Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity 1961–1990)[12]

History[edit] Main articles: History of Marseille
History of Marseille
and Timeline of Marseille

A silver drachma inscribed with MASSA[LIA] (ΜΑΣΣΑ[ΛΙΑ]), dated 375-200 BC, during the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
of Marseille, bearing the head of the Greek goddess Artemis
Artemis
on the obverse and a lion on the reverse.

Marseille
Marseille
was originally founded circa 600 BC as the Greek colony of Massalia and populated by settlers from Phocaea
Phocaea
(modern Foça, Turkey). It became the preeminent Greek polis in the Hellenized region of southern Gaul. The city-state sided with the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
against Carthage
Carthage
during the Second Punic War
Second Punic War
(218-201 BC), retaining its independence and commercial empire throughout the western Mediterranean even as Rome expanded into Western Europe
Western Europe
and North Africa. However, the city lost its independence following the Roman Siege of Massilia
Siege of Massilia
in 49 BC, during Caesar's Civil War, in which Massalia sided with the exiled faction at war with Julius Caesar. Marseille
Marseille
continued to prosper as a Roman city, becoming an early center of Christianity during the Western Roman Empire. The city maintained its position as a premier maritime trading hub even after its capture by the Visigoths
Visigoths
in the 5th century AD, although the city went into decline following the sack of 739 AD by the forces of Charles Martel. It became part of the County of Provence
County of Provence
during the 10th century, although its renewed prosperity was curtailed by the Black Death of the 14th century and sack of the city by the Crown of Aragon in 1423. The city's fortunes rebounded with the ambitious building projects of René of Anjou, Count of Provence, who strengthened the city's fortifications during the mid-15th century. During the 16th century the city hosted a naval fleet with the combined forces of the Franco-Ottoman alliance, which threatened the ports and navies of Genoa
Genoa
and the Holy Roman Empire. Marseille
Marseille
lost a significant portion of its population during the Great Plague of Marseille
Great Plague of Marseille
in 1720, but the population had recovered by mid century. In 1792 the city became a focal point of the French Revolution and was the birthplace of France's national anthem, La Marseillaise. The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
and establishment of the French Empire during the 19th century allowed for further expansion of the city, although it was occupied by the German Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
in November 1942 and subsequently heavily damaged during World War II. The city has since become a major center for immigrant communities from former French colonies, such as French Algeria. Economy[edit]

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Marseille
Marseille
is a major French centre for trade and industry, with excellent transportation infrastructure (roads, sea port and airport). Marseille
Marseille
Provence Airport, is the fourth largest in France. In May 2005, the French financial magazine L'Expansion named Marseille
Marseille
the most dynamic of France's large cities, citing figures showing that 7,200 companies had been created in the city since 2000.[13] Marseille is also France's second largest research centre with 3,000 research scientists within Aix Marseille
Marseille
University.[citation needed] As of 2014[update], the Marseille
Marseille
metropolitan area had a GDP amounting to $60.3 billion, or $36,127 per capita (purchasing power parity).[14] Port[edit] See also: Marseille-Fos Port

The entrance to the Old Port, flanked by Fort Saint-Jean and Fort Saint-Nicolas

Historically, the economy of Marseille
Marseille
was dominated by its role as a port of the French Empire, linking the North African colonies of Algeria, Morocco
Morocco
and Tunisia
Tunisia
with Metropolitan France. The Old Port was replaced as the main port for trade by the Port de la Joliette during the Second Empire and now contains restaurants, offices, bars and hotels and functions mostly as a private marina. The majority of the port and docks, which experienced decline in the 1970s after the oil crisis, have been recently redeveloped with funds from the European Union. Fishing remains important in Marseille
Marseille
and the food economy of Marseille
Marseille
is fed by the local catch; a daily fish market is still held on the Quai des Belges of the Old Port. The economy of Marseille
Marseille
and its region is still linked to its commercial port, the first French port and the fifth European port by cargo tonnage, which lies north of the Old Port and eastern in Fos-sur-Mer. Some 45,000 jobs are linked to the port activities and it represents 4 billion euros added value to the regional economy.[15] 100 million tons of freight pass annually through the port, 60% of which is petroleum, making it number one in France
France
and the Mediterranean and number three in Europe. However, in the early 2000s, the growth in container traffic was being stifled by the constant strikes and social upheaval.[16] The port is among the 20th firsts in Europe for container traffic with 1,062,408 TEU and new infrastructures have already raised the capacity to 2M TEU.[17] Petroleum refining and shipbuilding are the principal industries, but chemicals, soap, glass, sugar, building materials, plastics, textiles, olive oil, and processed foods are also important products.[citation needed] Marseille
Marseille
is connected with the Rhône
Rhône
via a canal and thus has access to the extensive waterway network of France. Petroleum is shipped northward to the Paris
Paris
basin by pipeline. The city also serves as France's leading centre of oil refining. Companies, services and high technologies[edit]

From left to right: La Joliette
La Joliette
neighbourhood (old docks), ferry ship docks, new port, Euroméditerranée
Euroméditerranée
business district ( CMA CGM
CMA CGM
Tower) and surrounding areas

In recent years, the city has also experienced a large growth in service sector employment and a switch from light manufacturing to a cultural, high-tech economy.[citation needed] The Marseille
Marseille
region is home to thousands of companies, 90% of which are small and medium enterprises with less than 500 employees.[18][full citation needed] Among the most famous ones are CMA CGM, container-shipping giant; Compagnie maritime d'expertises
Compagnie maritime d'expertises
(Comex), world leader in sub-sea engineering and hydraulic systems; Airbus
Airbus
Helicopters, an Airbus division; Azur Promotel, an active real estate development company; La Provence, the local daily newspaper; RTM, Marseille's public transport company; and Société Nationale Maritime Corse Méditerranée (SNCM), a major operator in passenger, vehicle and freight transportation in the Western Mediterranean. The urban operation Euroméditerranée
Euroméditerranée
has developed a large offer of offices and thus Marseille
Marseille
hosts one of the main business district in France. Marseille
Marseille
is the home of three main technopoles: Château-Gombert (technological innovations), Luminy (biotechnology) and La Belle de Mai (17,000 sq.m. of offices dedicated to multimedia activities).[19][20] Tourism and attractions[edit]

Beach at the Pointe Rouge, Marseille

The port is also an important arrival base for millions of people each year, with 2.4 million including 890,100 from cruise ships.[15] With its beaches, history, architecture and culture (24 museums and 42 theatres), Marseille
Marseille
is one of the most visited cities in France, with 4.1 million visitors in 2012.[21] Marseille
Marseille
is ranked 86th in the world for business tourism and events, advancing from the 150th spot one year before.[citation needed] The number of congress days hosted on its territory increased from 109,000 in 1996 to almost 300,000 in 2011.[citation needed] They take place in three main sites, Le Palais du Pharo, Le Palais des Congrès et des Expositions (Parc Chanot) and the World Trade Center.[22] In 2012 Marseille
Marseille
hosted the World Water Forum. Several urban projects have been developed to make Marseille attractive. Thus new parks, museums, public spaces and real estate projects aim to improve the city cadre de vie (Parc du 26e Centenaire, Old Port of Marseille,[23] numerous places in Euromediterrannee) to attract firms and people. Marseille
Marseille
municipality acts to develop Marseille
Marseille
as a regional nexus for entertainment in the south of France with high concentration of museums, cinemas, theatres, clubs, bars, restaurants, fashion shops, hotels, and art galleries. Employment[edit] Unemployment in the economy fell from 20% in 1995 to 14% in 2004.[24] However, Marseille
Marseille
unemployment rate remains higher than the national average. In some parts of Marseille, youth unemployment is reported to be as high as 40%.[25] Administration[edit]

The sectors and arrondissements of Marseille

The city of Marseille
Marseille
is divided into 16 municipal arrondissements, which are themselves informally divided into quartiers (111 in total). The arrondissements are regrouped in pairs, into 8 secteurs, each with a mayor and council (like the arrondissements in Paris
Paris
and Lyon).[26] Municipal elections are held every six years and are carried out by secteur. There are 303 councillors in total, two-thirds sitting in the secteur councils and one third in the city council. From 1950 to the mid-1990s, Marseille
Marseille
was a socialist and communist stronghold. The socialist Gaston Defferre
Gaston Defferre
was consecutively re-elected six times as Mayor of Marseille
Marseille
from 1953 until his death in 1986. He was succeeded by Robert Vigouroux of the RDSE. Jean-Claude Gaudin
Jean-Claude Gaudin
of the right-wing UMP was elected mayor in 1995. Gaudin was re-elected in 2001, 2008 and 2015. In recent years, the Communist Party has lost most of its strength in the northern boroughs of the city, whereas the National Front has received significant support. At the last municipal election in 2008, Marseille
Marseille
was divided between the northern boroughs dominated by the left and the more affluent southern part dominated by the right, with the centre and eastern parts of the city as battlegrounds, allowing for a narrow re-election of the UMP administration. The cantons of Marseille : Marseille
Marseille
is also divided in 12 cantons, each of them returning two member of the General Council of the Bouches-du-Rhône
Bouches-du-Rhône
département.

Mayors[edit]

Mayor Term start Term end   Party

Siméon Flaissières (fr) 1895 1901

Socialist

Marius-Justin-Albin-Hector Curet 1901 1902

Independent

Jean-Baptiste-Amable Chanot (fr) 1902 1908

Progressive Republican

Emmanuel Allard 1908 1910

Progressive Republican

Clément Lévy (fr) 1910 1910

Independent

Bernard Cadenat 1910 1912

SFIO

Jean-Baptiste-Amable Chanot (fr) 1912 1914

Progressive Republican

Eugène Pierre (fr) 1914 1919

Republican Independents

Siméon Flaissières (fr) 1919 1931

SFIO

Simon Sabiani 1931 1931

Republican Independents

Georges Ribot (fr) 1931 1935

Radical

Henri Tasso 1931 1939

SFIO

Nominated administrators 1939 1944

Gaston Defferre 1944 1946

SFIO

Marcel Renault 1946 1946

Independent

Jean Cristofol 1946 1947

PCF

Michel Carlini 1947 1953

RPF

Gaston Defferre 1953 1986

SFIO, PS

Jean-Victor Cordonnier (fr) 1986 1986

PS

Robert Vigouroux 1986 1995

DVG

Jean-Claude Gaudin 1995 incumbent

DL, UMP

Population[edit]

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Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1801 111,100 —    

1851 195,350 +75.8%

1881 360,100 +84.3%

1911 550,619 +52.9%

1931 606,000 +10.1%

1946 636,300 +5.0%

1954 661,407 +3.9%

1962 778,071 +17.6%

1968 889,029 +14.3%

1975 908,600 +2.2%

1982 874,436 −3.8%

1990 800,550 −8.4%

1999 798,430 −0.3%

2006 839,043 +5.1%

2011 850,636 +1.4%

Immigration[edit]

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (June 2017)

Because of its pre-eminence as a Mediterranean port, Marseille
Marseille
has always been one of the main gateways into France. This has attracted many immigrants and made Marseille
Marseille
a cosmopolitan melting pot. By the end of the 18th century about half the population originated from elsewhere in Provence mostly and also from southern France.[27][28][page needed] Economic conditions and political unrest in Europe and the rest of the world brought several other waves of immigrants during the 20th century: Greeks and Italians started arriving at the end of the 19th century and in the first half of the 20th century, up to 40% of the city's population was of Italian origin;[29] Russians in 1917; Armenians
Armenians
in 1915 and 1923; Vietnamese in the 1920s, 1954 and after 1975;[30] Corsicans during the 1920s and 1930s; Spanish after 1936; North Africans (both Arab and Berber) in the inter-war period; Sub-Saharan Africans after 1945; the pieds-noirs from the former French Algeria
French Algeria
in 1962; and then from Comoros. In 2006, it was reported that 70,000 city residents were considered to be of Maghrebi origin, mostly from Algeria. The second largest group in Marseille
Marseille
in terms of single nationalities were from the Comoros, amounting to some 45,000 people.[29] Currently, over one third of the population of Marseille
Marseille
can trace their roots back to Italy.[31] Marseille
Marseille
also has the second-largest Corsican and Armenian populations of France. Other significant communities include Maghrebis, Turks, Comorians, Chinese, and Vietnamese.[32] In 1999, in several arrondissements, about 40% of the young people under 18 were of Maghrebi origin (at least one immigrant parent).[33] Since 2013 immigrants from Eastern Europe travel to work in the city of Marseille, attracted by better job opportunities and the good climate of this Mediterranean city. The main nationalities are Romanians and Poles.[34]

Largest groups of foreign residents

Nationality Population (2011)[35]

 Algeria 37,673

 Tunisia 32,800

 Morocco 30,000

 Turkey 12,283

 Italy 9,094

 Poland 8,227

 Romania 7,134

 Portugal 6,988

 Spain 5,002

 Bulgaria 4,902

Place of birth of residents of the city proper of Marseille
Marseille
in 1999

Born in Metropolitan France Born outside Metropolitan France

78.9% 21.1%

Born in Overseas France Born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth1 EU-15
EU-15
immigrants2 Non- EU-15
EU-15
immigrants

0.9% 8.8% 2.1% 9.3%

Place of birth of residents of the metropolitan area of Marseille
Marseille
in 1999

Born in Metropolitan France Born outside Metropolitan France

81.2% 18.8%

Born in Overseas France Born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth1 EU-15
EU-15
immigrants2 Non- EU-15
EU-15
immigrants

0.7% N/A% N/A% N/A%

1This group is made up largely of former French settlers, such as pieds-noirs in Northwest Africa, followed by former colonial citizens who had French citizenship at birth (such as was often the case for the native elite in French colonies), and to a lesser extent foreign-born children of French expatriates. Note that a foreign country is understood as a country not part of France
France
in 1999, so a person born for example in 1950 in Algeria, when Algeria
Algeria
was an integral part of France, is nonetheless listed as a person born in a foreign country in French statistics. 2An immigrant is a person born in a foreign country not having French citizenship at birth. Note that an immigrant may have acquired French citizenship since moving to France, but is still considered an immigrant in French statistics. On the other hand, persons born in France
France
with foreign citizenship (the children of immigrants) are not listed as immigrants.

Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Marseille

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Major religious communities in Marseille
Marseille
include:

Roman Catholic (405,000) Muslim (200,000) Armenian Apostolic (80,000) Jewish (80,000, making Marseille
Marseille
the third largest urban Jewish community in Europe) Protestant (20,000) Eastern Orthodox (10,000) Hindu (4,000) Buddhist (3,000).[36]

Culture[edit]

Paul Cézanne's The Bay of Marseille, Seen from L'Estaque

Marseille
Marseille
is a city that has its own unique culture and is proud of its differences from the rest of France.[37] Today it is a regional centre for culture and entertainment with an important opera house, historical and maritime museums, five art galleries and numerous cinemas, clubs, bars and restaurants. Marseille
Marseille
has a large number of theatres, including La Criée, Le Gymnase and the Théâtre Toursky. There is also an extensive arts centre in La Friche, a former match factory behind the Sainst-Charles station. The Alcazar, until the 1960s a well known music hall and variety theatre, has recently been completely remodelled behind its original façade and now houses the central municipal library.[38] Other music venues in Marseille
Marseille
include Le Silo (also a theatre) and GRIM. Marseille
Marseille
has also been important in the arts. It has been the birthplace and home of many French writers and poets, including Victor Gélu (fr), Valère Bernard (fr), Pierre Bertas, Edmond Rostand and André Roussin. The small port of l'Estaque on the far end of the Bay of Marseille
Marseille
became a favourite haunt for artists, including Auguste Renoir, Paul Cézanne
Paul Cézanne
(who frequently visited from his home in Aix), Georges Braque
Georges Braque
and Raoul Dufy. European Capital of Culture[edit] See also: Marseille-Provence 2013 Marseille
Marseille
served as the European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
for 2013 along with Košice.[39] Marseille-Provence 2013
Marseille-Provence 2013
(MP2013) featured more than 900 cultural events held throughout Marseille
Marseille
and the surrounding communities. These cultural events generated more than 11 million visits.[40] The European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
was also the occasion to unveil more than 600 million euros in new cultural infrastructure in Marseille
Marseille
and it environs, including the iconic MuCEM
MuCEM
designed by Rudy Ricciotti. Tarot
Tarot
de Marseille[edit]

Marseille
Marseille
tarot card

The most commonly used tarot deck takes its name from the city; it has been called the Tarot
Tarot
de Marseille
Marseille
since the 1930s—a name coined for commercial use by the French cardmaker and cartomancer Paul Marteau, owner of B–P Grimaud. Previously this deck was called Tarot
Tarot
italien (Italian Tarot) and even earlier it was simply called Tarot. Before being de Marseille, it was used to play the local variant of tarocchi before it became used in cartomancy at the end of the 18th century, following the trend set by Antoine Court de Gébelin. The name Tarot de Marseille
Marseille
(Marteau used the name ancien Tarot
Tarot
de Marseille) was used by contrast to other types of Tarots such as Tarot
Tarot
de Besançon; those names were simply associated with cities where there were many cardmakers in the 18th century (previously several cities in France were involved in cardmaking).[41] Another local tradition is the making of santons, small hand-crafted figurines for the traditional Provençal Christmas creche. Since 1803, starting on the last Sunday of November, there has been a Santon Fair in Marseille; it is currently held in the Cours d'Estienne d'Orves, a large square off the Vieux-Port. Opera[edit]

The Opéra de Marseille

Marseille's main cultural attraction was, since its creation at the end of the 18th century and until the late 1970s, the Opéra. Located near the Old Port and the Canebière, at the very heart of the city, its architectural style was comparable to the classical trend found in other opera houses built at the same time in Lyon
Lyon
and Bordeaux. In 1919, a fire almost completely destroyed the house, leaving only the stone colonnade and peristyle from the original façade.[42][43] The classical façade was restored and the opera house reconstructed in a predominantly Art Deco
Art Deco
style, as the result of a major competition. Currently the Opéra de Marseille
Opéra de Marseille
stages six or seven operas each year.[44] Since 1972, the Ballet national de Marseille
Ballet national de Marseille
has performed at the opera house; its director from its foundation to 1998 was Roland Petit. Popular events and festivals[edit] There are several popular festivals in different neighborhoods, with concerts, animations, and outdoor bars, like the Fête du Panier in June. On 21 June, there are dozens of free concerts in the city as part of France's Fête de la Musique. Music from all over the world in introduced. Being a free event, many Marseille
Marseille
residents attend. Marseille
Marseille
hosts a Gay Pride event in early July. In 2013, Marseille hosted Europride, an international LGBT
LGBT
event, 10 July–20.[45] At the beginning of July, there is the International Documentary Festival.[46] At the end of September, the electronic music festival Marsatac
Marsatac
takes place. In October, the Fiesta des Suds offers many concerts of world music.[47] Hip hop music[edit] Marseille
Marseille
is also well known in France
France
for its hip hop music.[48] Bands like IAM originated from Marseille
Marseille
and initiated the rap phenomenon in France. Other known groups include Fonky Family, Psy 4 de la Rime (including rappers Soprano and Alonzo), and Keny Arkana. In a slightly different way, ragga music is represented by Massilia Sound System. Food[edit]

Traditional Marseille
Marseille
bouillabaisse

Swordfish
Swordfish
in olive oil with ratatouille and saffron rice

Pieds paquets

Bouillabaisse
Bouillabaisse
is the most famous seafood dish of Marseille. It is a fish stew containing at least three varieties of very fresh local fish: typically red rascasse (Scorpaena scrofa); sea robin (fr: grondin); and European conger
European conger
(fr: congre).[49] It can include gilt-head bream (fr: dorade); turbot; monkfish (fr: lotte or baudroie); mullet; or silver hake (fr: merlan), and it usually includes shellfish and other seafood such as sea urchins (fr: oursins), mussels (fr: moules); velvet crabs (fr: étrilles); spider crab (fr: araignées de mer), plus potatoes and vegetables. In the traditional version, the fish is served on a platter separate from the broth.[50] The broth is served with rouille, a mayonnaise made with egg yolk, olive oil, red bell pepper, saffron, and garlic, spread on pieces of toasted bread, or croûtes.[51][52] In Marseille, bouillabaisse is rarely made for fewer than ten people; the more people who share the meal, and the more different fish that are included, the better the bouillabaisse.[53] Aïoli is a sauce made from raw garlic, lemon juice, eggs and olive oil, served with boiled fish, hard boiled eggs and cooked vegetables.[51] Anchoïade (fr) is a paste made from anchovies, garlic, and olive oil, spread on bread or served with raw vegetables.[51] Bourride (fr) is a soup made with white fish (monkfish, European sea bass, whiting, etc.) and aïoli.[54] Fougasse is a flat Provençal bread, similar to the Italian focaccia. It is traditionally baked in a wood oven and sometimes filled with olives, cheese or anchovies.[citation needed] Navette de Marseille (fr) are, in the words of food writer M. F. K. Fisher, "little boat-shaped cookies, tough dough tasting vaguely of orange peel, smelling better than they are."[55] Panisse (fr) is chickpea flour boiled into a thick mush, allowed to firm up, then cut into blocks and fried.[56] Pastis
Pastis
is an alcoholic beverage made with aniseed and spice. It is extremely popular in the region.[57] Pieds paquets
Pieds paquets
is a dish prepared from sheep's feet and offal.[54] Pistou
Pistou
is a combination of crushed fresh basil and garlic with olive oil, similar to the Italian pesto. Soup au pistou combines pistou in a broth with pasta and vegetables.[51] Tapenade
Tapenade
is a paste made from chopped olives, capers, and olive oil (sometimes anchovies may be added).[58]

Films set in Marseille[edit] Main article: List of films set in Marseille Marseille
Marseille
has been the setting for many films, mostly produced in France
France
or Hollywood. Marseille
Marseille
in television[edit] The French television series Plus belle la vie
Plus belle la vie
is set in an imaginary quartier, Le Mistral, of Marseille. It is filmed in the Panier quartier of Marseille. The Netflix series Marseille
Marseille
is set in the city in the 2010s.

Main sights[edit] Marseille
Marseille
is listed as a major centre of art and history. The city has many museums and galleries and there are many ancient buildings and churches of historical interest. Central Marseille[edit]

The Panier quarter with the Hotel de Ville and the church of Notre Dame des Accoules

La Vieille Charité

The Abbey of St. Victor and the basilica of Notre-Dame-de-la-Garde

Most of the attractions of Marseille
Marseille
(including shopping areas) are located in the 1st, 2nd, 6th and 7th arrondissements. These include:[59][60]

The Old Port or Vieux-Port, the main harbour and marina of the city. It is guarded by two massive forts (Fort Saint-Nicolas and Fort Saint-Jean) and is one of the main places to eat in the city. Dozens of cafés line the waterfront. The Quai des Belges at the end of the harbour is the site of the daily fish market. Much of the northern quayside area was rebuilt by the architect Fernand Pouillon after its destruction by the Nazis in 1943. The Hôtel de Ville (City Hall), a baroque building dating from the 17th century. The Centre Bourse and the adjacent Rue St Ferreol district (including Rue de Rome and Rue Paradis), the main shopping area in central Marseille. The Porte d'Aix, a triumphal arch commemorating French victories in the Spanish Expedition. The Hôtel-Dieu, a former hospital in Le Panier, transformed into an InterContinental hotel in 2013. La Vieille Charité
La Vieille Charité
in Le Panier, an architecturally significant building designed by the Puget brothers. The central baroque chapel is situated in a courtyard lined with arcaded galleries. Originally built as an alms house, it is now home to an archeological museum and a gallery of African and Asian art, as well as bookshops and a café. It also houses the Marseille
Marseille
International Poetry Centre.[61] The Cathedral of Sainte-Marie-Majeure or La Major, founded in the 4th century, enlarged in the 11th century and completely rebuilt in the second half of the 19th century by the architects Léon Vaudoyer
Léon Vaudoyer
and Henri-Jacques Espérandieu. The present day cathedral is a gigantic edifice in Romano-Byzantine style. A romanesque transept, choir and altar survive from the older medieval cathedral, spared from complete destruction only as a result of public protests at the time. The 12th-century parish church of Saint-Laurent and adjoining 17th-century chapel of Sainte-Catherine, on the quayside near the Cathedral. The Abbey of Saint-Victor, one of the oldest places of Christian worship in Europe. Its 5th-century crypt and catacombs occupy the site of a Hellenic burial ground, later used for Christian martyrs and venerated ever since. Continuing a medieval tradition,[62] every year at Candlemas a Black Madonna
Black Madonna
from the crypt is carried in procession along Rue Sainte for a blessing from the archbishop, followed by a mass and the distribution of "navettes" and green votive candles.

Museums[edit] In addition to the two in the Centre de la Vieille Charité, described above, the main museums are:[63]

The Musée des Civilisations de l'Europe et de la Méditerranée (MuCEM) and the Villa Méditerranée were inaugurated in 2013. The MuCEM
MuCEM
is devoted to the history and culture of European and Mediterranean civilisations. The adjacent Villa Méditerranée, an international centre for cultural and artistic interchange, is partially constructed underwater. The site is linked by footbridges to the Fort Saint-Jean and to the Panier.[64][65] The Musée Regards de Provence, opened in 2013, is located between the Cathedral of Notre Dame de la Majeur and the Fort Saint-Jean. It occupies a converted port building constructed in 1945 to monitor and control potential sea-borne health hazards, in particular epidemics. It now houses a permanent collection of historical artworks from Provence as well as temporary exhibitions.[66] The Musée du Vieux Marseille, housed in the 16th-century Maison Diamantée, describing everyday life in Marseille
Marseille
from the 18th century onwards. The Musée des Docks Romains preserves in situ the remains of Roman commercial warehouses, and has a small collection of objects, dating from the Greek period to the Middle Ages, that were uncovered on the site or retrieved from shipwrecks. The Marseille History Museum
Marseille History Museum
(Musée d'Histoire de Marseille), devoted to the history of the town, located in the Centre Bourse. It contains remains of the Greek, and Roman history of Marseille
Marseille
as well as the best preserved hull of a 6th-century boat in the world. Ancient remains from the Hellenic port are displayed in the adjacent archeological gardens, the Jardin des Vestiges. The Musée Cantini, a museum of modern art near the Palais de Justice. It houses artworks associated with Marseille
Marseille
as well as several works by Picasso. The Musée Grobet-Labadié, opposite the Palais Longchamp, houses an exceptional collection of European objets d'art and old musical instruments. The 19th-century Palais Longchamp, designed by Esperandieu, is located in the Parc Longchamp. Built on a grand scale, this italianate colonnaded building rises up behind a vast monumental fountain with cascading waterfalls. The jeux d'eau marks and masks the entry point of the Canal
Canal
de Provence into Marseille. Its two wings house the Musée des beaux-arts de Marseille
Musée des beaux-arts de Marseille
(a fine arts museum), and the Natural History Museum (Muséum d'histoire naturelle de Marseille). The Château Borély
Château Borély
is located in the Parc Borély, a park off the Bay of Marseille
Marseille
with the Jardin botanique E.M. Heckel, a botanical garden. The Museum of the Decorative Arts, Fashion and Ceramics (fr) opened in the renovated château in June 2013.[67] The Musée d'Art Contemporain de Marseille (fr) (MAC), a museum of contemporary art, opened in 1994. It is devoted to American and European art from the 1960s to the present day.[68] The Musée du Terroir Marseillais (fr) in Château-Gombert, devoted to Provençal crafts and traditions.[69]

The MuCEM, Musée Regards de Provence and Villa Mediterannée, with Notre Dame de la Majeur on the right

The sixteenth century Maison Diamantée which houses the Musée du Vieux Marseille

The music room in the Grobet-Labadié museum

The Palais Longchamp
Palais Longchamp
with its monumental fountain

Outside central Marseille[edit]

The Calanque
Calanque
of Sugiton in the 9th arrondissement of Marseille

The Château d'If

The main attractions outside the city centre include:[60]

The 19th-century Basilica
Basilica
of Notre-Dame de la Garde, an enormous Romano-Byzantine basilica built by architect Espérandieu in the hills to the south of the Old Port. The terrace offers spectacular panoramic views of Marseille
Marseille
and its surroundings.[70] The Stade Vélodrome, the home stadium of the city's main football team, Olympique de Marseille. The Unité d'Habitation, an influential and iconic modernist building designed by the Swiss architect Le Corbusier
Le Corbusier
in 1952. On the third floor is the gastronomic restaurant, Le Ventre de l'Architecte. On the roof is the contemporary gallery MaMo opened in 2013. The Docks de Marseille, a 19th-century warehouse transformed into offices.[71] The Pharo Gardens, a park with views of the Mediterranean and the Old Port.[72] The Corniche, a picturesque waterfront road between the Old Port and the Bay of Marseille.[72] The beaches at the Prado, Pointe Rouge, les Goudes, Callelongue, and Le prophète.[73] The Calanques, a wild mountainous coastal area of outstanding natural beauty accessible from Callelongue, Sormiou, Morgiou, Luminy, and Cassis. Calanques National Park
Calanques National Park
became France's tenth national park in 2012.[74][75] The islands of the Frioul archipelago
Frioul archipelago
in the Bay of Marseille, accessible by ferry from the Old Port. The prison of Château d'If
Château d'If
was one of the settings for The Count of Monte Cristo, the novel by Alexandre Dumas.[76] The neighbouring islands of Ratonneau and Pomègues are joined by a man-made breakwater. The site of a former garrison and quarantine hospital, these islands are also of interest for their marine wildlife.

Education and research[edit] A number of the faculties of the three universities that comprise Aix-Marseille University
Aix-Marseille University
are located in Marseille:

Université de Provence Aix- Marseille
Marseille
I Université de la Méditerranée Aix- Marseille
Marseille
II Université Paul Cézanne
Paul Cézanne
Aix- Marseille
Marseille
III

In addition Marseille
Marseille
has three grandes écoles:

Ecole Centrale de Marseille
Marseille
part of Centrale Graduate School École pour l'informatique et les nouvelles technologies KEDGE Business School

The main French research bodies including the CNRS, INSERM
INSERM
and INRA are all well represented in Marseille. Scientific research is concentrated at several sites across the city, including Luminy, where there are institutes in developmental biology (the IBDML), immunology (CIML), marine sciences and neurobiology (INMED), at the CNRS
CNRS
Joseph Aiguier campus (a world-renowned institute of molecular and environmental microbiology) and at the Timone hospital site (known for work in medical microbiology). Marseille
Marseille
is also home to the headquarters of the IRD, which promotes research into questions affecting developing countries. Transport[edit]

Motorways around Marseille

International and regional transport[edit]

Marseille
Marseille
Provence Airport, the fifth busiest in France.

The city is served by an international airport, Marseille
Marseille
Provence Airport, located in Marignane. The airport is the fifth busiest French airport, and known the 4th most important European traffic growth in 2012.[77] An extensive network of motorways connects Marseille
Marseille
to the north and west (A7), Aix-en-Provence
Aix-en-Provence
in the north (A51), Toulon
Toulon
(A50) and the French Riviera
French Riviera
(A8) to the east. Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles
Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles
is Marseille's main railway station. It operates direct regional services to Aix-en-Provence, Briançon, Toulon, Avignon, Nice, Montpellier, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Nantes, etc. Gare Saint-Charles is also one of the main terminal stations for the TGV
TGV
in the south of France
France
making Marseille
Marseille
reachable in three hours from Paris
Paris
(a distance of over 750 km) and just over one and a half hours from Lyon. There are also direct TGV
TGV
lines to Lille, Brussels, Nantes, Geneva
Geneva
and Strasbourg
Strasbourg
as well as Eurostar
Eurostar
services to London. In addition, the night train (Intercités de Nuit) from Luxembourg and Strasbourg
Strasbourg
stops here on its way to Nice, whereas the night train from Paris
Paris
to Nice
Nice
serves the Gare de Blancarde. There is a new long distance bus station adjacent to new modern extension to the Gare Saint-Charles with destinations mostly to other Bouches-du-Rhône
Bouches-du-Rhône
towns, including buses to Aix-en-Provence, Cassis, La Ciotat
La Ciotat
and Aubagne. The city is also served with 11 other regional trains stations in the east and the north of the city. Marseille
Marseille
has a large ferry terminal, the Gare Maritime, with services to Corsica, Sardinia, Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia. Public transport[edit] See also: Transportation in Marseille

Metro and tramway network

Marseille
Marseille
is connected by the Marseille
Marseille
Métro train system operated by the Régie des transports de Marseille
Régie des transports de Marseille
(RTM). It consists of two lines: Line 1 (blue) between Castellane and La Rose opened in 1977 and Line 2 (red) between Sainte-Marguerite-Dromel and Bougainville opened between 1984 and 1987. An extension of the Line 1 from Castellane to La Timone was completed in 1992, another extension from La Timone to La Fourragère (2.5 km (1.6 mi) and 4 new stations) was opened in May 2010. The Métro system operates on a turnstile system, with tickets purchased at the nearby adjacent automated booths. Both lines of the Métro intersect at Gare Saint-Charles and Castellane. Three bus rapid transit lines are under construction to better connect the Métro to farther places (Castellane -> Luminy ; Capitaine Gèze – La Cabucelle -> Vallon des Tuves ; La Rose -> Château Gombert – Saint Jérome).

The new tramway

An extensive bus network serves the city and suburbs of Marseille, with 104 lines and 633 buses. The three lines of the tramway,[78] opened in 2007, go from the CMA CGM Tower
CMA CGM Tower
towards Les Caillols. As in many other French cities, a bike-sharing service nicknamed "Le vélo", free for trips of less than half an hour, was introduced by the city council in 2007.[79] A free ferry service operates between the two opposite quays of the Old Port. From 2011 ferry shuttle services operate between the Old Port and Pointe Rouge; in spring 2013 it will also run to l'Estaque.[80] There are also ferry services and boat trips available from the Old Port to Frioul, the Calanques
Calanques
and Cassis. Sport[edit]

The Stade Vélodrome, home of Olympique de Marseille

The city boasts a wide variety of sports facilities and teams. The most popular team is the city's football club, Olympique de Marseille, which was the finalist of the UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
in 1991, before winning the competition in 1993. The club also became finalists of the UEFA Cup (now known as the UEFA Europa League) in both 1999 and 2004. The club had a history of success under then-owner Bernard Tapie. The club's home, the Stade Vélodrome, which can seat around 67,000 people, also functions for other local sports, as well as the national rugby team. Stade Velodrome hosted a number of games during the 1998 FIFA World Cup, 2007 Rugby World Cup, and UEFA Euro 2016. The local rugby teams are Marseille XIII
Marseille XIII
and Marseille
Marseille
Vitrolles Rugby.[citation needed] Marseille
Marseille
is famous for its important pétanque activity, it is even renown as the pétanque capitale.[81] In 2012 Marseille
Marseille
hosted the Pétanque
Pétanque
World Championship and the city hosts every year the Mondial la Marseillaise de pétanque, the main pétanque competition.

Match Race France
France
2008

Sailing is a major sport in Marseille. The wind conditions allow regattas in the warm waters of the Mediterranean.[citation needed] Throughout most seasons of the year it can be windy while the sea remains smooth enough to allow sailing. Marseille
Marseille
has been the host of 8 (2010) Match Race France
France
events which are part of the World Match Racing Tour. The event draws the world's best sailing teams to Marseille. The identical supplied boats (J Boats J-80 racing yachts) are raced two at a time in an on the water dogfight which tests the sailors and skippers to the limits of their physical abilities. Points accrued count towards the World Match Racing Tour
World Match Racing Tour
and a place in the final event, with the overall winner taking the title ISAF World Match Racing Tour Champion. Match racing is an ideal sport for spectators in Marseille, as racing in close proximity to the shore provides excellent views. The city was also considered as a possible venue for 2007 America's Cup.[82] Marseille
Marseille
is also a place for other water sports such as windsurfing and powerboating. Marseille
Marseille
has three golf courses. The city has dozens of gyms and several public swimming pools. Running is also popular in many of Marseille's parks such as Le Pharo and Le Jardin Pierre Puget. An annual footrace is held between the city and neighbouring Cassis: the Marseille- Cassis
Cassis
Classique Internationale.[citation needed]

Personalities[edit] See also: List of people from Marseille

Honoré Daumier: Sunday at the Museum

Edmond Rostand

Memorial to Eliane Plewman
Eliane Plewman
in Dachau concentration camp

Jean-Pierre Rampal

Zinedine Zidane

Marseille
Marseille
was the birthplace of:

Pytheas
Pytheas
(fl. 4th century BC), Greek merchant, geographer and explorer Petronius
Petronius
(fl. 1st century AD), Roman novelist and satirist Pierre Demours
Pierre Demours
(1702–1795), physician Jean-Henri Gourgaud, aka. "Dugazon" (1746–1809), actor Jean-Baptiste Benoît Eyriès (1767–1846), geographer, author and translator Désirée Clary
Désirée Clary
(1777–1860), wife of King Carl XIV Johan of Sweden, and therefore Queen Desirée or Queen Desideria of Sweden Sabin Berthelot
Sabin Berthelot
(1794–1880), naturalist and ethnologist Adolphe Thiers
Adolphe Thiers
(1797–1877), first president of the Third Republic Étienne Joseph Louis Garnier-Pages (1801–1841), politician Honoré Daumier
Honoré Daumier
(1808–1879), caricaturist and painter Joseph Autran
Joseph Autran
(1813–1877), poet Charles-Joseph-Eugene de Mazenod
Charles-Joseph-Eugene de Mazenod
(1782–1861), bishop of Marseille and founder of the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate. Lucien Petipa
Lucien Petipa
(1815–1898), ballet dancer Joseph Mascarel
Joseph Mascarel
(1816–1899), mayor of Los Angeles Marius Petipa
Marius Petipa
(1818–1910), ballet dancer and choreographer Ernest Reyer
Ernest Reyer
(1823–1909), opera composer and music critic Olivier Émile Ollivier
Émile Ollivier
(1825–1913), statesman Victor Maurel
Victor Maurel
(1848–1923), operatic baritone Joseph Pujol, aka. "Le Pétomane" (1857–1945), entertainer Charles Fabry
Charles Fabry
(1867–1945), physicist Edmond Rostand
Edmond Rostand
(1868–1918), poet and dramatist Pavlos Melas
Pavlos Melas
(1870–1904), Greek army officer Louis Nattero, (1870–1915), painter Vincent Scotto
Vincent Scotto
(1876–1952), guitarist, songwriter[83] Charles Camoin (1879–1965), fauvist painter Henri Fabre
Henri Fabre
(1882–1984), aviator and inventor of the first seaplane Frédéric Mariotti (1883–1971), actor Darius Milhaud
Darius Milhaud
(1892–1974), composer and teacher[84][85] Berty Albrecht
Berty Albrecht
(1893–1943), French Resistance, Croix de Guerre Antonin Artaud
Antonin Artaud
(1897–1948), author Henri Tomasi
Henri Tomasi
(1901–1971), composer and conductor Zino Francescatti (1902–1991), violinist Fernandel
Fernandel
(1903–1971), actor Marie-Madeleine Fourcade (1909–1989), French Resistance, Commander of the Légion d'honneur Éliane Browne-Bartroli (Eliane Plewman, 1917–1944), French Resistance, Croix de Guerre César Baldaccini
César Baldaccini
(1921–1998), sculptor Louis Jourdan
Louis Jourdan
(1921–2015), actor Jean-Pierre Rampal
Jean-Pierre Rampal
(1922–2000), flautist Alice Colonieu, (1924–2010), ceramist Paul Mauriat (1925–2006), orchestra leader, composer Maurice Béjart
Maurice Béjart
(1927–2007), ballet choreographer Régine Crespin
Régine Crespin
(1927–2007), opera singer Ginette Garcin (1928–2010), actor André di Fusco (1932–2001), known as André Pascal, songwriter, composer Henry de Lumley
Henry de Lumley
(born 1934), archaeologist Sacha Sosno
Sacha Sosno
(1937–2013), sculptor Jean-Pierre Ricard
Jean-Pierre Ricard
(born 1944), cardinal, archbishop of Bordeaux Georges Chappe (born 1944), cyclist Jean-Claude Izzo (1945–2000), author Denis Ranque
Denis Ranque
(born 1952), businessman Ariane Ascaride
Ariane Ascaride
(born 1954), actress Myriam Fox-Jerusalmi
Myriam Fox-Jerusalmi
(born 1961), world champion slalom canoer Eric Cantona
Eric Cantona
(born 1966), Manchester United and French national team football player Patrick Fiori
Patrick Fiori
(born 1969), singer Marc Panther
Marc Panther
(born 1970), member of the popular Japanese rock band Globe Zinedine Zidane
Zinedine Zidane
(born 1972), professional football player and former captain of the France
France
national football team Romain Barnier
Romain Barnier
(born 1976), freestyle swimmer Sébastien Grosjean
Sébastien Grosjean
(born 1978), tennis player Philippe Echaroux
Philippe Echaroux
(born 1983), photographer

Play media

Newsreel
Newsreel
showing the murder of King Alexander of Yugoslavia and French Foreign Minister Louis Barthou
Louis Barthou
in Marseille
Marseille
(October 1934).

Mathieu Flamini
Mathieu Flamini
(born 1984), football player Rémy Di Gregorio
Rémy Di Gregorio
(born 1985), cyclist Jessica Fox (born 1994), French-born Australian slalom canoer, Olympic silver (K-1 slalom), world championships bronze (C-1)[86]

The following personalities died in Marseille:

Blessed Antoine Frédéric Ozanam, on 8 September 1853. French poet Arthur Rimbaud, on 10 November 1891. Brice Meuleman, 2nd Catholic Archbishop of Calcutta, on 15 July 1924. King Alexander I of Yugoslavia
Alexander I of Yugoslavia
was assassinated on 9 October 1934 in Marseille
Marseille
along with French Foreign Minister Louis Barthou.

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Marseille
Marseille
is currently officially twinned with 13 cities:[87]

Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire[87] Antwerp, Belgium[87] Copenhagen, Denmark[87] Dakar, Senegal[87] Genoa, Italy[87] Glasgow, United Kingdom[87] Haifa, Israel[87] Hamburg, Germany[87] Kobe, Japan[87][88] Marrakech, Morocco[87] Odessa, Ukraine[87] Piraeus, Greece[87][89] Shanghai, China[87]

Partner cities[edit] In addition, Marseille
Marseille
has signed various types of formal agreements of cooperation with 27 cities all over the world:[90]

Agadir, Morocco
Morocco
(2003)[90] Alexandria, Egypt
Egypt
(1990)[90] Algiers, Algeria
Algeria
(1980)[90] Bamako, Mali
Mali
(1991)[90] Barcelona, Spain
Spain
(1998)[90] Beirut, Lebanon
Lebanon
(2003)[90] Casablanca, Morocco
Morocco
(1998)[90] Gdańsk, Poland
Poland
(1992)[90][91] Istanbul, Turkey
Turkey
(2003)[90] Jerusalem, Israel
Israel
(2006)[90] Limassol, Cyprus[92] Lomé, Togo
Togo
(1995)[90] Lyon, France Meknes, Morocco
Morocco
(1998)[90] Montevideo, Uruguay
Uruguay
(1999)[90] Nice, France Nîmes, France Rabat, Morocco
Morocco
(1989)[90] Saint Petersburg, Russia
Russia
(2013)[90] Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina (2003)[90] Thessaloniki, Greece[89] Tirana, Albania
Albania
(1991)[90][93] Tripoli, Libya
Libya
(1991)[90] Tunis, Tunisia
Tunisia
(1998)[90] Valparaíso, Chile
Chile
(2013)[90] Varna, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(2007)[90] Yerevan, Armenia
Armenia
(1992)[90][94][95]

See also[edit]

France
France
portal

List of films set in Marseille Marcel Pagnol Marseille
Marseille
Marine Fire Battalion Marseille
Marseille
soap

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ a b "Séries historiques des résultats du recensement – Commune Marseille
Marseille
(13055)". INSEE. Retrieved 30 July 2014.  ^ "Évolution et structure de la population en 2014 − Unité urbaine de Marseille
Marseille
- Aix-en-Provence
Aix-en-Provence
(00759) Insee". www.insee.fr (in French).  ^ a b "Insee – Territoire – Métropole Aix-Marseille Provence : Un territoire fragmenté, des solidarités à construire". insee.fr.  ^ Also occasionally spelled Masalia. ^ Duchêne & Contrucci 1998, page needed A. ^ Ebel, Charles (1976). "Transalpine Gaul: the emergence of a Roman province". Brill Archive: 5–16. ISBN 90-04-04384-5. , Chapter 2, Massilia and Rome before 390 B.C. ^ a b Michelin Guide to Provence, ISBN 2-06-137503-0 ^ Météo France, 1981–2010 averages ^ a b "Marseille–Obs (13)" (PDF). Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques 1981–2010 et records (in French). Meteo France. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 March 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2018.  ^ "Normales et records pour la période 1981-2010 à Marseille Observatoire Longchamp" (in French). Infoclimat. Archived from the original on 10 March 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2018.  ^ " Marignane
Marignane
(13)" (PDF). Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques 1981–2010 et records (in French). Meteo France. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 March 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2018.  ^ "Normes et records 1961–1990: Marseille- Marignane
Marignane
(Marseille Provence) (13) - altitude 5m" (in French). Infoclimat. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 10 March 2018.  ^ Neumann, Benjamin (1 May 2005). "Les villes qui font bouger la France" [Cities That Are Moving France]. L'Express (in French). Paris: Roularta Media Group. Retrieved 28 January 2008.  ^ Parilla, Joseph; Trujillo, Jesus Leal; Berube, Alan; Ran, Tao. "Global Metro Monitor". Brookings Institution. Retrieved 4 March 2015.  ^ a b "Record Container Year as Marseilles Fos Sets Vision for Future" (PDF). Port of Marseilles Fos. 5 February 2013. Retrieved 8 March 2013.  ^ "Les ports français" (PDF). Cour de comptes. Retrieved 5 January 2008.  ^ "Marseille: Strategic Call for Arkas". Port Strategy. 11 April 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ " Marseille
Marseille
Metropole Provence" (in French). Marseille-provence.com. Retrieved 1 February 2010.  ^ "Technopôles". Marseille
Marseille
Provence Metropole. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ "Marseilles Euroméditerranée: Between Europe and the Mediterranean" (PDF). Euroméditerranée. Etablissement Public d'Aménagement Euroméditerranée. p. 5. Retrieved 8 March 2003.  ^ "Découvrir Marseille
Marseille
– Une ville de tourisme" (in French). Marseille.fr. 26 September 2004. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2013.  ^ "Economie – Tourisme d'affaires et congrès" (in French). Marseille.fr. 26 September 2004. Archived from the original on 17 February 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ Ravenscroft, Tom (5 March 2013). "Foster Unveils Reflective Events Pavilion in Marseille". Architects Journal. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ "Jean-Claude Gaudin: Sénateur-Maire de Marseille" (in French). Polytechnique.fr. 2 March 2004. Archived from the original on 30 December 2008. Retrieved 1 February 2010.  ^ Kimmelman, Michael (19 December 2007). "In Marseille, Rap Helps Keep the Peace". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 May 2010.  ^ "Mairies d'Arrondissements" (in French). Archived from the original on 5 January 2009. Retrieved 16 November 2007.  ^ Liauzu 1996 ^ Duchêne & Contrucci 1998, page needed E. ^ a b "Local0631EN:Quality0667EN" (PDF). Retrieved 8 July 2009.  ^ Guillemin, Alain. "Les Vietnamiens a Marseille" (in French). Archived from the original on 23 March 2014.  ^ Citoyenneté et intégration : Marseille, modèle d'intégration ?, report by Patrick Parodi, Académie d'Aix-Marseille. ^ "Diverse Marseille
Marseille
Spared in French Riots". Npr.org. 10 December 2005. Retrieved 1 February 2010.  ^ Michèle Tribalat (2007). "Les concentrations ethniques en France" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 September 2011.  ^ "Insee – Population – Les immigrés récemment arrivés en France
France
– Une immigration de plus en plus européenne". insee.fr.  ^ " Aire urbaine
Aire urbaine
2010 de Marseille
Marseille
Aix-en-Provence
Aix-en-Provence
(003) – NAT1 – Population par sexe, âge et nationalité – 2011". INSEE. Retrieved 2 June 2015.  ^ " Marseille
Marseille
Espérance. All different, all Marseilles, Part II". France
France
Diplomatie. Retrieved 10 April 2010. [dead link] ^ Chris Kimble. " Marseille
Marseille
Culture". Marseillecityofculture.eu. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2013.  ^ History of library[dead link] ^ " Marseille
Marseille
Provence 2013: European Capital of Culture". Archived from the original on 26 August 2010.  ^ "11 millions de visiteurs pour la capitale européenne de la culture". Retrieved 20 April 2015.  ^ see: Musée du Vieux- Marseille
Marseille
(2004), Cartes à jouer & tarots de Marseille: La donation Camoin, Alors Hors Du Temps, ISBN 2-9517932-7-8 , official catalogue of the permanent collection of playing cards from the museum of Vieux-Marseille, including a detailed history of Tarot
Tarot
de Marseille
Marseille
Depaulis, Thierry (1984), Tarot, jeu et magie, Bibliothèque nationale, ISBN 2-7177-1699-8  ^ "Opera in Genoa, Nice, Marseille, Montpellier, Barcelona". Capsuropera.com. Archived from the original on 23 December 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2009.  ^ "Schmap Marseille
Marseille
Sights & Attractions – 6th arrond". Schmap.com. Retrieved 5 May 2009.  ^ "Actualités". Opéra de Marseille
Opéra de Marseille
(in French).  ^ " Marseille
Marseille
2013". EuroPride. Retrieved 20 April 2015.  ^ "March 2013 Newsletter". FIDMarseille. Archived from the original on 7 October 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ "octobre, 2012 – Dock des Suds : festivals, concerts de musique et location de salles à Marseille" (in French). Dock des Suds. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ "In Marseille, Rap Helps Keep the Peace", Article in New York Times, December 2007 Cannon, Steve; Dauncey, Hugh (2003), Popular music in France
France
from chanson to techno: culture, identity, and society, Ashgate Publishing, pp. 194–198, ISBN 0-7546-0849-2  ^ "La bouillabaisse classique doit comporter les 'trois poissons': rascasse, grondin, congre." Michelin Guide Vert -Côte dAzur, 1990, page 31 ^ [1]History and traditional recipe of bouillabaisse on the site of the Marseille
Marseille
Tourism Office ^ a b c d David, Elizabeth (1999). French Provincial Cooking. Penguin Classics. ISBN 0-14-118153-2.  ^ Wright, Clifford (2002). "Real Stew". Harvard Common Press. ISBN 1-55832-199-3.  ^ Jean-Louis André, Cuisines des pays de France, Éditions du Chêne, 2001 ^ a b Trott 2007, pp. 104. ^ Fisher, M. F. K. (1978). A Considerable Town. New York: Knopf. p. 150. ISBN 0-394-42711-4.  ^ Root, Waverley (1992) [Originally published 1958]. The Food of France. New York: Vintage Books. p. 333. ISBN 0-679-73897-5. panisso, made either of chick-pea or maize flour, boiled into a sort of mush, then allowed to cool and become more solid, when it is fried.  ^ Redman, Chris (5 June 2003). "Pass the Pastis". France
France
Today.  ^ Olney, Richard (1994). Lulu's Provenc̜al Table: the exuberant food and wine from Domaine Tempier Vineyard. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 79. ISBN 0-06-016922-2.  ^ Trott 2007, pp. 251–253. ^ a b "The Highlights". Office de tourisme Marseille.  ^ "Présentation du CiPM". Centre international de la Poèsie, Marseille
Marseille
(CiPM) (in French).  ^ "Christmas Time". Office de tourisme Marseille.  ^ Trott 2007, pp. 264–267. ^ " MuCEM
MuCEM
and J4". Office de tourisme Marseille. Retrieved 2 April 2015.  ^ "Between the sky and the sea". Villa Méditerranée. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2015.  ^ "Regards de Provence Museum". Musée Regards de Provence.  ^ "Opening of the Château Borély, Musée des Arts Décoratifs, de la Faïence et de la Mode". Marseille-Provence 2013
Marseille-Provence 2013
European Capital of Culture. June 2013. Archived from the original on 4 April 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2015.  ^ "Musée d'Art Contemporain de Marseille". Saatchi Gallery. Retrieved 5 May 2013.  ^ Trott 2007, p. 225. ^ Trott 2007, pp. 256–257. ^ "The Docks". Office de tourisme Marseille. Retrieved 27 May 2015.  ^ a b Trott 2007, pp. 261. ^ "The Beaches". Office de tourisme Marseille. Retrieved 27 May 2015.  ^ Trott 2007, pp. 195–197. ^ "Origins of the Calanques
Calanques
National Park". Parc National des Calanques. Retrieved 27 May 2015.  ^ Trott 2007, pp. 267. ^ "Marseille-Provence bat tous les records avec 8,3 millions de passagers en 2012". Tourmag.com. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ "Official website of the Marseille
Marseille
tramway". Le-tram.fr. Retrieved 1 February 2010.  ^ "Website for Le vélo" (in French). Levelo-mpm.fr. Retrieved 1 February 2010.  ^ "Se déplacer – Navettes maritimes" (in French). Marseille.fr. 26 September 2004. Archived from the original on 17 February 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ "Boules : Marseille
Marseille
capitale mondiale de la pétanque en 2012". La Provence. 14 December 2008. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ Eric Pape (3 July 2006). "Sailing to Success". Newsweek. Retrieved 5 May 2009.  ^ "Scotto Opérettes Marseillaises Accord 4762107; Classical CD Reviews – November 2006 MusicWeb-International". Musicweb-international.com. Retrieved 5 May 2009.  ^ Jessula, Georges (2003). "Darius Milhaud, Compositeur de Musique". Revue Juive: 140–144.  Since their marriage in 1892, Milhaud's parents lived in the Bras d'Or in Aix-en-Provence, where their son grew up; however he was delivered at the home of his maternal grandparents in Marseille. ^ Milhaud, Darius (1998). "Ma Vie heureuse". Zurfluh. ISBN 2-87750-083-7.  ^ "Jewish Australian kayaker Jessica Fox takes silver medal". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved 20 April 2015.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Villes jumelées" (PDF). Site Officiel de la Ville de Marseille
Marseille
(in French). 20 July 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2015.  ^ "Kobe's Sister Cities". Kobe
Kobe
Trade Information Office. Archived from the original on 21 April 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2013.  ^ a b "Twinnings" (PDF). Central Union of Municipalities & Communities of Greece. Retrieved 25 August 2013.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "Accords de coopération" (PDF). Site Officiel de la Ville de Marseille
Marseille
(in French). Retrieved 6 October 2015.  ^ " Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Official Website: 'Miasta partnerskie'" (in Polish and English). Urząd Miejski w Gdańsku. 2009. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2009.  ^ " Limassol
Limassol
Twinned Cities". Limassol
Limassol
(Lemesos) Municipality. Archived from the original on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.  ^ "Twinning Cities: International Relations" (PDF). Municipality of Tirana. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2009.  ^ " Yerevan
Yerevan
– Twin Towns & Sister Cities". Yerevan
Yerevan
Municipality Official Website. Retrieved 4 November 2013.  ^ ԵՐԵՎԱՆԻ ՔԱՂԱՔԱՊԵՏԱՐԱՆՊԱՇՏՈՆԱԿԱՆ ԿԱՅՔ [ Yerevan
Yerevan
expanding its international relations]. Yerevan Municipality Official Website (in Armenian). Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 

Bibliography[edit]

INSEE Palanque, J.R. (1990). "Ligures, Celtes et Grecs" [Ligures, Celts and Greeks]. In Baratier, Edouard. Histoire de la Provence [History of Provence]. Univers de la France
France
(in French). Toulouse: Editions Privat. ISBN 2-7089-1649-1.  Abulafia, David, ed. (1999). The New Cambridge Medieval History. 5. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-36289-X.  Duchêne, Roger; Contrucci, Jean (1998). Marseille, 2600 ans d'histoire [Marseille, 2600 Years of History] (in French). Paris: Editions Fayard. ISBN 2-213-60197-6.  Kitson, Simon (2014). Police and Politics in Marseille, 1936–1945. Amsterdam: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-24835-9.  Liauzu, Claude (1996). Histoire des migrations en Méditerranée occidentale [History of Migration in the Western Mediterranean] (in French). Brussels: Editions Complexe. ISBN 2-87027-608-7.  Trott, Victoria (2007). Cannon, Gwen; Watkins, Gaven, eds. Provence. London: Michelin Apa Publications. ISBN 978-1-906261-29-0. 

Further reading[edit]

Cobb, Richard (2001). Marseille
Marseille
(in French). Paris: Allia. ISBN 978-2-84485-064-5.  Savitch, H.V.; Kantor, Paul (2002). "Cities in the International Market Place: The Political Economy of Urban Development in North America and Western Europe". Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09159-5.  Peraldi, Michel; Samson, Michel (2006). "Gouverner Marseille : Enquête sur les mondes politiques marseillais". Editions La Découverte. ISBN 2-7071-4964-0.  Busquet, Raoul (1954). "Histoire de la Provence des origines à la révolution française". Éditions Jeanne Lafitte. ISBN 2-86276-319-5.  Attard-Marainchi, Marie-Françoise; Échinard, Pierre; Jordi, Jean-Jacques; Lopez, Renée; Sayad, Abdelmalek; Témime, Émile (2007). "Migrance – histoires des migrations à Marseille". Éditions Jeanne Laffitte. ISBN 978-2-86276-450-4. , single book comprising 4 separate volumes: La préhistoire de la migration (1482–1830); L'expansion marseillaise et «l'invasion italienne» (1830–1918); Le cosomopolitisme de l'entre-deux-guerres (1919–1945); Le choc de la décolonisation (1945–1990).

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Marseille.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Marseille.

Official website

v t e

Marseille

Landmarks

Belsunce Château d'If Gare de Marseille
Marseille
Saint-Charles Hippodrome de Marseille L'Estaque Musée Cantini Église Saint Roch Palais de la Bourse Docks Musée Grobet-Labadié Place Castellane Château Pastré Porte d'Aix Marseille
Marseille
History Museum La Joliette Bastide de la Guillermy Place Jean-Jaurès Oppidum de Verduron CMA CGM
CMA CGM
Tower La Treille Palais du Pharo Parc du 26e Centenaire Musée de la Faïence de Marseille Stade Vélodrome Château Borély Muséum d'histoire naturelle de Marseille Canebière Mazargues Notre-Dame de la Garde Opéra Unité d'habitation La Vieille Charité Vieux-Port Museum of European and Mediterranean Civilisations La Friche Plages du Prado Parc Borély Villa Valmer Palais Longchamp Fort Saint-Jean Bompard

Geography

Huveaune Massif de l'Étoile Massif des Calanques Mont Puget Frioul archipelago Arrondissements of Marseille

History

Timeline of Marseille

Sporting clubs

Olympique de Marseille Marseille
Marseille
Consolat Marseille
Marseille
Provence XV Marseille
Marseille
XIII

v t e

Arrondissements of Marseille

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th

v t e

Prefectures of departments of France

Bourg-en-Bresse
Bourg-en-Bresse
(Ain) Laon
Laon
(Aisne) Moulins (Allier) Digne-les-Bains
Digne-les-Bains
(Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) Gap (Hautes-Alpes) Nice
Nice
(Alpes-Maritimes) Privas
Privas
(Ardèche) Charleville-Mézières
Charleville-Mézières
(Ardennes) Foix
Foix
(Ariège) Troyes
Troyes
(Aube) Carcassonne
Carcassonne
(Aude) Rodez
Rodez
(Aveyron) Marseille
Marseille
(Bouches-du-Rhône) Caen
Caen
(Calvados) Aurillac
Aurillac
(Cantal) Angoulême
Angoulême
(Charente) La Rochelle
La Rochelle
(Charente-Maritime) Bourges
Bourges
(Cher) Tulle
Tulle
(Corrèze) Ajaccio
Ajaccio
(Corse-du-Sud) Bastia
Bastia
(Haute-Corse) Dijon
Dijon
(Côte-d'Or) Saint-Brieuc
Saint-Brieuc
(Côtes-d'Armor) Guéret
Guéret
(Creuse) Périgueux
Périgueux
(Dordogne) Besançon
Besançon
(Doubs) Valence (Drôme) Évreux
Évreux
(Eure) Chartres
Chartres
(Eure-et-Loir) Quimper
Quimper
(Finistère) Nîmes
Nîmes
(Gard) Toulouse
Toulouse
(Haute-Garonne) Auch
Auch
(Gers) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(Gironde) Montpellier
Montpellier
(Hérault) Rennes
Rennes
(Ille-et-Vilaine) Châteauroux
Châteauroux
(Indre) Tours
Tours
(Indre-et-Loire) Grenoble
Grenoble
(Isère) Lons-le-Saunier
Lons-le-Saunier
(Jura) Mont-de-Marsan
Mont-de-Marsan
(Landes) Blois
Blois
(Loir-et-Cher) Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
(Loire) Le Puy-en-Velay
Le Puy-en-Velay
(Haute-Loire) Nantes
Nantes
(Loire-Atlantique) Orléans
Orléans
(Loiret) Cahors
Cahors
(Lot) Agen
Agen
(Lot-et-Garonne) Mende (Lozère) Angers
Angers
(Maine-et-Loire) Saint-Lô
Saint-Lô
(Manche) Châlons-en-Champagne
Châlons-en-Champagne
(Marne) Chaumont (Haute-Marne) Laval (Mayenne) Nancy (Meurthe-et-Moselle) Bar-le-Duc
Bar-le-Duc
(Meuse) Vannes
Vannes
(Morbihan) Metz
Metz
(Moselle) Nevers
Nevers
(Nièvre) Lille
Lille
(Nord) Beauvais
Beauvais
(Oise) Alençon
Alençon
(Orne) Arras
Arras
(Pas-de-Calais) Clermont-Ferrand
Clermont-Ferrand
(Puy-de-Dôme) Pau (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) Tarbes
Tarbes
(Hautes-Pyrénées) Perpignan
Perpignan
(Pyrénées-Orientales) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Bas-Rhin) Colmar
Colmar
(Haut-Rhin) Lyon
Lyon
(Rhône) Vesoul
Vesoul
(Haute-Saône) Mâcon
Mâcon
(Saône-et-Loire) Le Mans
Le Mans
(Sarthe) Chambéry
Chambéry
(Savoie) Annecy
Annecy
(Haute-Savoie) Paris
Paris
(Paris) Rouen
Rouen
(Seine-Maritime) Melun
Melun
(Seine-et-Marne) Versailles (Yvelines) Niort
Niort
(Deux-Sèvres) Amiens
Amiens
(Somme) Albi
Albi
(Tarn) Montauban
Montauban
(Tarn-et-Garonne) Toulon
Toulon
(Var) Avignon
Avignon
(Vaucluse) La Roche-sur-Yon
La Roche-sur-Yon
(Vendée) Poitiers
Poitiers
(Vienne) Limoges
Limoges
(Haute-Vienne) Épinal
Épinal
(Vosges) Auxerre
Auxerre
(Yonne) Belfort
Belfort
(Territoire de Belfort) Évry (Essonne) Nanterre
Nanterre
(Hauts-de-Seine) Bobigny
Bobigny
(Seine-Saint-Denis) Créteil
Créteil
(Val-de-Marne) Cergy, Pontoise
Pontoise
(Val-d'Oise)

Overseas departments

Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
France
(Martinique) Cayenne
Cayenne
(French Guiana) Saint-Denis (Réunion) Mamoudzou
Mamoudzou
(Mayotte)

v t e

Prefectures of the regions of France

Metropolitan France

Lyon
Lyon
(Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes) Dijon
Dijon
(Bourgogne-Franche-Comté) Rennes
Rennes
(Brittany) Orléans
Orléans
(Centre-Val de Loire) Ajaccio
Ajaccio
(Corsica) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Grand Est) Lille
Lille
(Hauts-de-France) Paris
Paris
(Île-de-France) Rouen
Rouen
(Normandy) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(Nouvelle-Aquitaine) Toulouse
Toulouse
(Occitanie) Nantes
Nantes
(Pays de la Loire) Marseille
Marseille
(Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur)

Overseas regions

Cayenne
Cayenne
(French Guiana) Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
France
(Martinique) Mamoudzou
Mamoudzou
(Mayotte) Saint-Denis (Réunion)

v t e

Communes of the Bouches-du-Rhône
Bouches-du-Rhône
department

Aix-en-Provence Allauch Alleins Arles Aubagne Aureille Auriol Aurons La Barben Barbentane Les Baux-de-Provence Beaurecueil Belcodène Berre-l'Étang Bouc-Bel-Air La Bouilladisse Boulbon Cabannes Cabriès Cadolive Carnoux-en-Provence Carry-le-Rouet Cassis Ceyreste Charleval Châteauneuf-le-Rouge Châteauneuf-les-Martigues Châteaurenard La Ciotat Cornillon-Confoux Coudoux Cuges-les-Pins La Destrousse Éguilles Ensuès-la-Redonne Eygalières Eyguières Eyragues La Fare-les-Oliviers Fontvieille Fos-sur-Mer Fuveau Gardanne Gémenos Gignac-la-Nerthe Grans Graveson Gréasque Istres Jouques Lamanon Lambesc Lançon-Provence Maillane Mallemort Marignane Marseille Martigues Mas-Blanc-des-Alpilles Maussane-les-Alpilles Meyrargues Meyreuil Mimet Miramas Mollégès Mouriès Noves Orgon Paradou Pélissanne Les Pennes-Mirabeau La Penne-sur-Huveaune Peynier Peypin Peyrolles-en-Provence Plan-de-Cuques Plan-d'Orgon Port-de-Bouc Port-Saint-Louis-du-Rhône Puyloubier Le Puy-Sainte-Réparade Rognac Rognes Rognonas La Roque-d'Anthéron Roquefort-la-Bédoule Roquevaire Rousset Le Rove Saint-Andiol Saint-Antonin-sur-Bayon Saint-Cannat Saint-Chamas Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer Saint-Estève-Janson Saint-Étienne-du-Grès Saint-Marc-Jaumegarde Saint-Martin-de-Crau Saint-Mitre-les-Remparts Saint-Paul-lès-Durance Saint-Pierre-de-Mézoargues Saint-Rémy-de-Provence Saint-Savournin Saint-Victoret Salon-de-Provence Sausset-les-Pins Sénas Septèmes-les-Vallons Simiane-Collongue Tarascon Le Tholonet Trets Vauvenargues Velaux Venelles Ventabren Vernègues Verquières Vitrolles

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European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg City
Luxembourg City
and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

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European Capitals of Sport

2001 Madrid 2002 Stockholm 2003 Glasgow 2004 Alicante 2005 Rotterdam 2006 Copenhagen 2007 Stuttgart 2008 Warsaw 2009 Milan 2010 Dublin 2011 Valencia 2012 Istanbul 2013 Antwerp 2014 Cardiff 2015 Turin 2016 Prague 2017 Marseille 2018 Sofia 2019 Budapest 2020 Málaga 2021 Lisboa 2022 The Hague

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 157970874 LCCN: n79108882 GND: 4037694-1 SUDOC: 026392356 BNF: cb11864855

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