HOME
The Info List - Maronite


--- Advertisement ---



Catholicism portal Eastern Christianity portal

v t e

Part of a series on

Particular churches sui iuris of the Catholic Church

Latin cross
Latin cross
and Byzantine Patriarchal cross

Particular churches are grouped by rite.

Latin Rite

Latin

Alexandrian Rite

Coptic Ethiopian Eritrean

Armenian Rite

Armenian

Byzantine Rite

Albanian Belarusian Bulgarian Croatian and Serbian Greek Hungarian Italo-Albanian Macedonian Melkite Romanian Russian Ruthenian Slovak Ukrainian

East Syriac Rite

Chaldean Syro-Malabar

West Syriac Rite

Maronite Syriac Syro-Malankara

Catholicism portal Eastern Christianity portal

v t e

The Maronite
Maronite
Church (Arabic: الكنيسة المارونية‎) is an Eastern Catholic
Eastern Catholic
sui iuris particular church in full communion with the Pope
Pope
and the Catholic Church, with self-governance under the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches. It is headed by the Patriarch Bechara Boutros al-Rahi
Bechara Boutros al-Rahi
since 2011. Officially known as the Syriac Maronite
Maronite
Church of Antioch (Latin: Ecclesia Syrorum Maronitarum; Classical Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ ܡܪܘܢܝܬܐ ܕܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ‎, translit. ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Morunoyṯo d'Anṭiokia; Arabic: الكنيسة الأنطاكية السريانية المارونية‎ al-Kanīsa al-Anṭākiyya al-Suryāniyya al-Mārūniyya), employing the West Syriac Rite
West Syriac Rite
with Syriac language, it is part of the Syriac Christianity
Syriac Christianity
by liturgy and heritage. Traditionally, the Maronite
Maronite
Church ministers to the Levant, particularly around Mount Lebanon, where its headquarters Bkerke
Bkerke
is located north of Beirut. Other centers of historical importance include Kfarhay, Yanouh, Mayfouq
Mayfouq
and Qadisha Valley. However, due to emigration since the 19th century, approximately two-thirds of church members are located outside "The Antiochian's Range" and live within the worldwide Lebanese diaspora
Lebanese diaspora
in Europe, the Americas, Australia
Australia
and Africa. Establishment of the Maronite
Maronite
Church can be divided into three periods, from the 4th to the 7th centuries. A congregation movement, with Saint Maroun
Maroun
as an inspirational leader and patron saint, marked the first period. The second began with the establishment of the Monastery of Saint Maroun
Maroun
on the Orontes, built after the Council of Chalcedon to defend the doctrines of the Council.[2] This monastery was described as the "Greatest Monastery" in the region of Secunda Syria, with more than 300 hermitages around it, according to ancient records.[3] After 518, the monastery de facto administered many parishes in Prima Syria, Cole Syria
Syria
and Phoenicia. The third period was when Sede Vacante
Sede Vacante
followed the Islamic conquest of the region and bishops of the Saint Maroun
Maroun
Monastery elected John Maron
Maron
as Patriarch around 685 AD, according to the Maronite
Maronite
tradition. The Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch re-established their patriarchate in 751 AD.[4] Although reduced in numbers today, Maronites
Maronites
remain one of the principal ethno-religious groups in Lebanon, with smaller minorities of Maronites
Maronites
in Syria, Cyprus, Israel, and Jordan. Over 3,198,600 Maronites
Maronites
practice the faith.[5]

Contents

1 Overview 2 History

2.1 First Maronite
Maronite
Patriarch 2.2 Islamic rule 2.3 Crusades 2.4 Ottoman rule 2.5 French rule 2.6 Independent Lebanon 2.7 Synod of Mount Lebanon
Lebanon
(1736)

2.7.1 Latinization

3 Organisation

3.1 Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Antioch 3.2 Dioceses

3.2.1 Middle East 3.2.2 Elsewhere

3.3 Titular sees 3.4 Religious institutes (orders)

4 Population

4.1 Diaspora

5 Other 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 Further reading 10 Sources and external links

10.1 Maronite
Maronite
hierarchy

10.1.1 Eparchies

10.2 Maronite
Maronite
Church Religious Orders

Overview[edit] St Maroun
Maroun
is considered the founder of the spiritual and monastic movement now called the Maronite
Maronite
Church. This movement has had a profound influence in Lebanon, and to a lesser degree in Syria, Jordan and Palestine. Saint Maroun
Maroun
spent his life on a mountain in Syria, generally believed to be "Kefar-Nabo" on the mountain of Ol-Yambos in the Taurus Mountains, contemporary Turkey, becoming the cradle of the Maronite
Maronite
movement established in the Monastery of Saint Maron. The six major traditions of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
are Alexandrian, Antiochene, Armenian, Chaldean, Constantinopolitan (Byzantine), and Latin (Roman). The Maronite
Maronite
Church follows the Antiochene Tradition.[6] A Roman Catholic may attend any Eastern Catholic
Eastern Catholic
Liturgy and fulfill his or her obligations at an Eastern Catholic
Eastern Catholic
Parish. That is, a Roman Catholic may join any Eastern Catholic
Eastern Catholic
Parish and receive any sacrament from an Eastern Catholic
Eastern Catholic
priest since all belong to the Catholic Church.[7] Maronites
Maronites
who do not reside within a convenient distance to a local Maronite
Maronite
Church are permitted to attend other Catholic churches while retaining their Maronite
Maronite
membership.[8] The Maronite
Maronite
Patriarchal Assembly (2003–2004) identified five distinguishing marks of the Maronite
Maronite
Church:

It is Antiochene. It is Chalcedonian, in that the Maronites
Maronites
were strong supporters of the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
of 451. It is Patriarchal and Monastic. It is faithful to the See of Peter in Rome. It has strong ties to Lebanon.[6]

History[edit] Main article: Maron

St. Maron
Maron
Russian orthodox icon

Saint Maron, a fourth-century monk and the contemporary and friend of St. John Chrysostom, left Antioch for the Orontes River
Orontes River
in modern-day Syria
Syria
to lead an ascetic life, following the traditions of Anthony the Great of the Desert and Pachomius. Many of his followers also lived a monastic lifestyle. Following Maron's death in 410 AD, his disciples built Beth-Maron monastery at Apamea (present day Qalaat al-Madiq). This formed the nucleus of the Maronite
Maronite
Church. In 452, after the Council of Chalcedon, the monastery was expanded by the Byzantine emperor Marcian.[9] The Maronite
Maronite
movement reached Lebanon
Lebanon
when St. Maron's first disciple, Abraham of Cyrrhus, who was called the "Apostle of Lebanon", set out to convert the non-Christians by introducing them to St. Maron.[5] The Maronites
Maronites
subscribed to the beliefs of the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
in 451. Monophysites
Monophysites
of Antioch slew 350 monks and burned the monastery, although Justinian I
Justinian I
later restored the walls. Correspondence concerning the event brought the Maronites
Maronites
papal and orthodox recognition, indicated by a letter from Pope
Pope
Hormisdas (514–523) dated 10 February 518.[10] Representatives from Beth-Maron participated in the Constantinople synods of 536 and 553. An outbreak of civil war during the reign of Emperor Phocas
Phocas
brought forth riots in the cities of Syria
Syria
and Palestine and incursions by Persian King Khosrow II. In 609, the Patriarch
Patriarch
of Antioch, Anastasius II, was killed either at the hands of some soldiers or locals.[11] This left the Maronites
Maronites
without a leader, which continued because of the final Byzantine–Sassanid War of 602–628. In the aftermath of the war, the Emperor Heraclius
Heraclius
propagated a new Christological doctrine in an attempt to unify the various Christian churches of the east, who were divided over accepting the Council of Chalcedon. This doctrine, the unity of Christ's will with God's, was meant as a compromise between supporters of Chalcedon, such as the Maronites, and opponents, such as the Jacobites. The doctrine was endorsed by Pope
Pope
Honorius I to win back the Monophysites
Monophysites
but problems soon arose (see his anathematization). Instead, the unity of Christ's will with God's (mia-thelitism) was misunderstood as Monothelitism
Monothelitism
(that Christ and God have only one will) which caused even greater controversy, and was declared a heresy at the Third Council of Constantinople
Third Council of Constantinople
in 680–681. The Council condemned both Honorius and Patriarch
Patriarch
Sergius I of Constantinople but did not mention the Maronites.[9] Contemporary Greek and Arab sources misrepresented the miathelite Maronites
Maronites
as having rejected the third council and accepted monothelitism,[12] and that the miathelites in fact maintained monothelitism for centuries, only moving away from it in the time of the crusades in order to avoid being branded heretics by the crusaders. The Maronite
Maronite
Church, however, rejects the assertion that the Maronites
Maronites
were ever monothelites or apart from the Roman Catholic Church;[13] and the question remains a matter of controversy.[12] Elias El-Hāyek attributes much of the confusion to Eutyches of Alexandria, whose Annals contain erroneous material regarding the early Maronite
Maronite
Church, which was then picked up by William of Tyre
William of Tyre
and others.[9] During the start of the patriarchs periods, the persecution of Christians and Arabization
Arabization
of the region, including the destruction of the Monastery of Saint Maron, led the majority of the Maronites
Maronites
to move to the barren mountains of Lebanon, especially the northern territory. They established a closed, rural, hierarchical society; re-established their communications with the Papacy during the Crusades; maintained Syriac up to the 18th century;[citation needed] and shifted to Lebanese Arabic
Lebanese Arabic
as their native language. They issued many liturgical reforms, most notably during Qannoubin's council of 1580, and the Lebanese council of 1736 - which seems in many parts to be a Latinization- gained protection from the Monarchy of France
Monarchy of France
for the church and its community 1635. They organised the monastery in 1696. They played an influential role in Lebanon's political scene especially after 1770 when the Chehab dynasty joined the Maronite Church. That choice was an essential element of the creation of Greater Lebanon
Lebanon
in 1920, seen widely by scholars as fulfillment of the Maronites' desire. However, due to mass emigration and eventually the Lebanese Civil War
Lebanese Civil War
(1975–1990), the Maronite
Maronite
role in the Second Lebanese Republic declined. First Maronite
Maronite
Patriarch[edit] Main article: John Maron

Maronite
Maronite
monk and pilgrims, Mount Lebanon

The Patriarch
Patriarch
of Antioch, Anastasius II died in 609, and Constantinople began to appoint a series of titular patriarchs, who resided in Constantinople. In 685, the Maronites
Maronites
elected Bishop John Maron
Maron
of Batroun
Batroun
as Patriarch of Antioch
Patriarch of Antioch
and all the East.[9] Through him, later Maronites
Maronites
claimed full apostolic succession through the Patriarchal See of Antioch. While this installation of a patriarch was seen as a usurpation by the Orthodox hierarchy, John received the approval of Pope
Pope
Sergius I, and became the first Maronite
Maronite
Patriarch
Patriarch
of the oldest see in Christianity. In 687, as part of an agreements with Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, Byzantine emperor
Byzantine emperor
Justinian II
Justinian II
sent 12,000 Christian Maronites
Maronites
from Lebanon
Lebanon
to Armenia,[14] in exchange for a substantial payment and half the revenues of Cyprus.[9] There they were conscripted as rowers and marines in the Byzantine navy.[15] Additional resettlement efforts allowed Justinian to reinforce naval forces depleted by earlier conflicts.[16] The Maronites
Maronites
struggled to retain their autonomy against both imperial power and Arab incursions on the part of the Damascus
Damascus
Caliphate. Maron
Maron
established himself in the remote Qadisha Valley
Qadisha Valley
in Lebanon. In 694, Justinian sent troops against the Maronites
Maronites
in an unsuccessful attempt to capture the Patriarch.[17] Maron
Maron
died in 707 at the Monastery of St. Maron
Maron
in Lebanon. Around 749 the Maronite
Maronite
community, in the Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains, built the Mar-Mama church at Ehden. Meanwhile, caught between the Byzantines and the Arabs, the monastery at Beth- Maron
Maron
struggled to survive.[18] Islamic rule[edit]

1779 painting of a Maronite
Maronite
nun from Mount Lebanon, with brown jilbab, blue khumur and black hijab.

After they came under Arab rule following the Muslim conquest of Syria (634–638), Maronite
Maronite
immigration to Lebanon, which had begun some time before, increased, intensifying under the Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun (813–33).[17] The Maronites
Maronites
experienced an improvement in their relationship with the Byzantine Empire. Emperor Constantine IV (reigned 668–685) provided direct ecclesiastical, political and military support to the Maronites. The new alliance coordinated devastating raids on Muslim forces, providing a welcome relief to besieged Christians throughout the Middle East. During this period the region was dominated by the Abbasids, who persecuted the Maronites. Around AD 1017, a new Muslim sect, the Druze, emerged. At that time the Maronites, as dhimmis, were required to wear black robes and black turbans and they were forbidden to ride horses. To eliminate internal dissent, from 1289 to 1291 Egyptian Mamluk troops descended on Mount Lebanon, destroying forts and monasteries.[19] Crusades[edit] Following the Muslim conquest of Eastern Christendom outside Anatolia and Europe
Europe
and after the establishment of secured lines of demarcation between Islamic Caliphs
Caliphs
and Byzantine Emperors, little was heard from the Maronites
Maronites
for 400 years. Secure in their mountain strongholds, the Maronites
Maronites
were re-discovered in the mountains near Tripoli, Lebanon
Lebanon
by Raymond of Toulouse on his way to conquer Jerusalem in the Great Crusade of 1096–1099. Raymond later returned to besiege Tripoli (1102–1109) after the conquest of Jerusalem in 1099, and relations between the Maronites
Maronites
and European Christianity were re-established.[20] The Maronites
Maronites
assisted the crusaders and affirmed their affiliation with the Holy See
Holy See
of Rome in 1182.[21] To commemorate their communion, Maronite
Maronite
Patriarch
Patriarch
Youseff Al Jirjisi received the crown and staff, marking his patriarchal authority, from Pope
Pope
Paschal II in 1100 AD. In 1131, Maronite
Maronite
Patriarch
Patriarch
Gregorios Al-Halati received letters from Pope
Pope
Innocent II
Innocent II
in which the Papacy recognized the authority of the Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Antioch. Patriarch
Patriarch
Jeremias II Al-Amshitti (1199–1230) became the first Maronite
Maronite
Patriarch
Patriarch
to visit Rome when he attended the Fourth Council of the Lateran
Fourth Council of the Lateran
in 1215.[21] The Patriarchate of Antioch
Patriarchate of Antioch
was also represented at the Council of Ferrara in 1438.[22] Peter-Hans Kolvenback notes, "This contact with the Latin Church enriched the intellectual world of Europe
Europe
in the Middle Ages. Maronites
Maronites
taught Oriental languages and literature at the universities of Italy and France."[18] Ottoman rule[edit] In the Ottoman Empire, indigenous concentrated religious communities dealt mainly with the provincial administration. Officially, Maronites had to pay the jizya tax as non-Muslims, but sometimes the monks and clergy were exempt because they were considered to be "poor".[23] Fakhr-al-Din II
Fakhr-al-Din II
(1572 – 1635) was a Druze
Druze
prince and a leader of the Emirate of Chouf District
Chouf District
in the governorate of Mount Lebanon. Maronite
Maronite
Abū Nādir al-Khāzin was one of his foremost supporters and served as Fakhr-al-Din's adjutant. Phares notes that "The emirs prospered from the intellectual skills and trading talents of the Maronites, while the Christians gained political protection, autonomy and a local ally against the ever-present threat of direct Ottoman rule."[24] In 1649, Patriarch
Patriarch
Yuhanna al-Sufrari placed the Maronites under French protection, and the French opened a consulate in Beirut.[25] The Khāzin sheiks increased in power and influence. In 1662, with the mediation of Jesuit missionaries, Abū Nawfal al-Khāzin was named French consul, despite complaints by Marseille merchants that he wasn't from Marseille.[23] The Church prospered from the protection and influence of the Khāzins, but at the expense of interference in church affairs, particularly ecclesiastical appointments, which the Khāzins saw as an extension of their political influence.[24] In 1610, the Maronite
Maronite
monks of the Monastery of Saint Anthony of Qozhaya
Qozhaya
imported one of the first printing presses in the Arabic-speaking world; however, that press printed in the Syriac language, not Arabic. The monasteries of Lebanon
Lebanon
later became key players in the Arabic
Arabic
Renaissance of the late 19th century as a result of developing Arabic, as well as Syriac, printable script. Bachir Chehab II was the first and last Maronite
Maronite
ruler of the Emirate of Mount Lebanon.[26] A convert from Sunni Islam, his rivalry with the Druze
Druze
leader Bashir Jumblatt
Jumblatt
caused tension between the two communities. In the 1822 war between Damascus
Damascus
and Acre, they backed opposite sides.

Archbishop
Archbishop
of Beirut
Beirut
Tobia Aoun
Tobia Aoun
(1803–1871)

In the spring of 1860, war broke out between the Druze
Druze
population and the Maronite
Maronite
Christians. The Ottoman authorities in Lebanon
Lebanon
could not stop the violence, and it spread into neighboring Syria, with the massacre of many Christians. In Damascus, the Emir Abd-el-Kadr protected the Christians there against the Muslim rioters. French emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III
felt obliged to intervene on behalf of the Christians, despite London's opposition, which feared it would lead to a wider French presence in the Middle East. After arduous negotiations to obtain the approval of the British government, Napoleon III
Napoleon III
sent a French contingent of seven thousand men for a period of six months. The troops arrived in Beirut
Beirut
in August 1860, and took positions in the mountains between the Christian and Muslim communities. He then organized an international conference in Paris, where the country was placed under the rule of a Christian governor named by the Ottoman Sultan, which restored a fragile peace. French rule[edit] Main article: French Mandate for Syria
Syria
and Lebanon Independent Lebanon[edit] Main article: Christianity in Lebanon Synod of Mount Lebanon
Lebanon
(1736)[edit] Maronite
Maronite
orientalist Joseph Simon Assemani presided as papal legate for Pope
Pope
Clement XII. The synod drafted a Code of Canons for the Maronite
Maronite
Church and created the first regular diocesan structure.[21] The Council of Luwayza led to a more effective church structure and to gradual emancipation from the influence of Maronite
Maronite
families.[27] Education was declared a major task. Through the joint efforts of the Church and French Jesuits, literacy became widespread. Latinization[edit] Due to closer ties with the Latin Church, the Maronite
Maronite
Church is among the most Latinized of the Eastern Catholic
Eastern Catholic
Churches, although there have been moves to return to Eastern practices.[citation needed] Contacts between the Maronite
Maronite
monks and Rome date to the 5th century[citation needed] and were revived during the Crusades. The Maronites
Maronites
introduced to Eastern Churches Western devotional practices such as the rosary and the Stations of the Cross.[18] Late in the 16th century, Pope
Pope
Gregory XIII sent Jesuits to the Lebanese monasteries to ensure that their practice conformed to decisions made at the Council of Trent.[19] The Maronite
Maronite
College in Rome was established by Gregory XIII in 1584.[24] The Maronite
Maronite
missal (Qurbono) was first printed between 1592 and 1594 in Rome, although with fewer anaphoras. The venerable Anaphora (Eucharistic Prayer) Sharrar, attributed to St. Peter, was eliminated from later editions.[citation needed] Patriarch
Patriarch
Stephan al-Duwayhî (1670–1704), (later declared a "Servant of God"), was able to find a middle ground between reformers and conservatives, and re-vitalized Maronite
Maronite
liturgical tradition.[22] The Synod of Mount Lebanon
Lebanon
sought to incorporate both traditions. It formalized many of the Latin practices that had developed, but also attempted to preserve ancient Maronite
Maronite
liturgical tradition. The Synod did not sanction the exclusive use of the Roman ritual in the administration of Baptism. However, in the Eastern tradition, the Oil of catechumens is blessed by the priest during the baptismal rite. This blessing was now reserved to the Chrism
Chrism
Mass of Holy Thursday. A practice common among all the Eastern Churches is to administer First Communion immediately after Baptism. As in the Latin Rite Holy Communion is to be given only to those who have attained the age of reason, priests were forbidden to give Communion to infants.[28] In Orientale lumen, the Apostolic Letter to the Churches of the East, issued 2 May 1995, Pope
Pope
John Paul II quotes Orientalium Ecclesiarum, the Second Vatican Council's Decree on the Eastern Catholic
Eastern Catholic
Churches:

It has been stressed several times that the full union of the Catholic Eastern Churches with the Church of Rome which has already been achieved must not imply a diminished awareness of their own authenticity and originality. Wherever this occurred, the Second Vatican Council has urged them to rediscover their full identity, because they have "the right and the duty to govern themselves according to their own unique disciplines. For these are guaranteed by ancient tradition and seem to be better suited to the customs of their faithful and to the good of their souls."[29]

Cardinal Sfeir's personal commitment accelerated liturgical reforms in the 1980s and 1990s. In 1992 he published a new Maronite
Maronite
Missal.[22] This represents an attempt to return to the original form of the Antiochene Liturgy, removing the liturgical Latinization of past centuries. The Service of the Word has been described as far more enriched than in previous missals,[citation needed] and it features six Anaphoras. Patriarch
Patriarch
Sfeir stated that Sacrosanctum concilium
Sacrosanctum concilium
and the Roman liturgical changes following Vatican II apply to the Maronite
Maronite
Church. Sancrosanctum Concilium says, "Among these principles and norms there are some which can and should be applied both to the Roman rite and also to all the other rites. The practical norms which follow, however, should be taken as applying only to the Roman rite, except for those which, in the very nature of things, affect other rites as well."[30] Organisation[edit]

The Peshitta
Peshitta
is the standard Syriac Bible, used by the Maronite Church, amongst others. The illustration is of the Peshitta
Peshitta
text of Exodus 13:14–16 produced in Amida in the year 464.

Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Antioch[edit] The head of the Maronite
Maronite
Church is the Patriarch of Antioch
Patriarch of Antioch
and the Whole Levant, who is elected by the Maronite
Maronite
bishops and resides in Bkerké, close to Jounieh, north of Beirut
Beirut
(the Maronite
Maronite
Patriarch resides in the northern town of Dimane
Dimane
during the summer months).[6] There are four other claimants to the Patriarchal succession of Antioch :

two other Eastern Catholic, also in full communion with the Papal Holy See of Rome :

the Patriarch of Antioch
Patriarch of Antioch
and All the East, Alexandria and Jerusalem of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(Byzantine Rite) the Patriarch of Antioch
Patriarch of Antioch
and All the East of the Syriacs of the Syriac Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(Antiochian Rite)

two Orthodox :

Eastern Orthodox Church, the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch
Patriarch of Antioch
and All the East, of the Antiochian Orthodox Church, in communion with the Ecumenical Patriarch
Patriarch
of Constantinople Oriental Orthodoxy, the Patriarch of Antioch
Patriarch of Antioch
and All the East, Supreme Head of the Syriac Orthodox Church

The Maronite Patriarch of Antioch
Maronite Patriarch of Antioch
and the Whole Levant
Levant
since March 2011 is Cardinal Mar Bechara Boutros Rahi, while Cardinal Mar Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir
Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir
is Patriarch
Patriarch
Emeritus. When a new Patriarch
Patriarch
is elected and enthroned, he requests ecclesiastical recognition by the Pope, thus maintaining their communion with the Holy See. As an Eastern Catholic
Eastern Catholic
Patriarch, the Patriarch
Patriarch
is usually created a Cardinal by the Pope
Pope
in the rank of a Cardinal Bishop; he does however not receive a suburbicarian see (required to become Dean), even ranks below those six, but is known by the title of the patriarchate of his sui iuris Church. Celibacy is not strictly required for Maronite
Maronite
deacons and priests of parishes outside of North America; monks, however, must remain celibate, as well as bishops who are normally selected from the monasteries. Due to a long-term understanding with their Latin counterparts in North America, Maronite
Maronite
priests in that area have traditionally remained celibate. However, in February 2014, Wissam Akiki was ordained to the priesthood by Bishop A. Elias Zaidan of the U.S. Maronite
Maronite
Eparchy of Our Lady of Lebanon
Lebanon
at St. Raymond's Maronite Cathedral in St. Louis. Deacon Akiki is the first married man to be ordained to the Maronite
Maronite
priesthood in North America and will not be expected to uphold a vow of celibacy.[31] Dioceses[edit] The Maronite
Maronite
church has twenty-six eparchies and patriarchal vicariates as follows:[32] Despite the many archiepiscopates, none is a Metropolitan abstraction made of the Patriarch
Patriarch
of Antioch, who has a single Suffragan (Jebbeh–Sarba–Jounieh) and hence an ecclesiastical province. In Latin America, two Maronite
Maronite
eparchies are suffragans of Latin metropolitans: Middle East[edit]

Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch
Patriarchate of Antioch
see above

Worldwide Immediately subject to the Patriarch

In Lebanon :

Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Archeparchy of Antelias Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Eparchy of Baalbek-Deir El Ahmar Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Eparchy of Batroun Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Archeparchy of Beirut Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Eparchy of Jbeil Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Eparchy of Joubbé, Sarba and Jounieh
Jounieh
(sole Suffragan of the Patriarch
Patriarch
of Antioch) Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Eparchy of Sidon Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Archeparchy of Tripoli Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Archeparchy of Tyre Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Eparchy of Zahleh

In the Holy Land :

Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Archeparchy of Haifa and the Holy Land, in Israel whose Archeparch holds the offices of Patriarchal Vicar of:

Patriarchal Exarch of the Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Patriarchal Exarchate of Jerusalem and Palestine in the Palestinian Territories
Palestinian Territories
and Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Patriarchal Exarchate of Jordan
Jordan
in (Trans)Jordan

In Syria:

Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Archeparchy of Damascus Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Archeparchy of Aleppo Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Eparchy of Latakia

In Cyprus: Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Archeparchy of Cyprus
Cyprus
in Nicosia In Egypt: Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Eparchy of Cairo

Elsewhere[edit]

Exempt, i.e. immediately subject to the Holy See:

In Africa: Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Eparchy of Annunciation of Ibadan, with cathedral see being Church of Our Lady of the Annunciation, in Ibadan, in Nigeria In South America: Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Colombia, with pro-cathedral see being Church of Our Lady of Lebanon, in Bogota, in Colombia

Subject to the Synod in matters of liturgical and particular law, otherwise exempt, i.e. immediately subject to the Holy See
Holy See
and its Roman Congregation for the Eastern Churches :

In Europe:

Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Eparchy of Our Lady of Lebanon
Lebanon
of Paris in France

In North and Central America:

Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Eparchy of Saint Maron
Maron
of Montreal, in Canada Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Eparchy of Our Lady of Lebanon
Lebanon
of Los Angeles in the United States[33] (US West Coast) Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Eparchy of Saint Maron
Maron
of Brooklyn in the United States[34] (US East Coast) St Joseph Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in Sandy Springs, Georgia Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Eparchy of Our Lady of the Martyrs of Lebanon
Lebanon
in Mexico
Mexico
in Mexico

In Oceania :

Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Eparchy of Saint Maron
Maron
of Sydney, in Australia

Suffragan Eparchies in the ecclesiastical provinces of Latin Metropolitan Archbishops; both in South America :

Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Eparchy of San Charbel in Buenos Aires in Argentina, suffragan of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Buenos Aires Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Eparchy of Our Lady of Lebanon
Lebanon
of São Paulo in Brazil, suffragan of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of São Paulo

Titular sees[edit]

Four Titular archbishoprics (none Metropolitan): Cyrrhus of the Maronites, Laodicea in Syria
Syria
of the Maronites, Nazareth of the Maronites, Nisibis of the Maronites Nine Titular bishoprics : Apamea in Syria
Syria
of the Maronites, Arca in Armenia of the Maronites, Arca in Phoenicia
Phoenicia
of the Maronites, Callinicum of the Maronites, Epiphania in Syria
Syria
of the Maronites, Hemesa of the Maronites, Ptolemais in Phœnicia of the Maronites, Sarepta of the Maronites, Tarsus of the Maronites.

Religious institutes (orders)[edit]

Lebanese Maronite
Maronite
Order[35] Antonin Maronite
Maronite
Order[36] Mariamite Maronite
Maronite
Order[37] Congregation of Maronite
Maronite
Lebanese Missionaries[38]

Population[edit] Main articles: Maronites
Maronites
and Maronite
Maronite
Christianity in Lebanon The global Maronite
Maronite
population is not exactly known, but is estimated at more than 3 million, according to the Catholic Near East Welfare Association. Based on a 2007 report, approximately 930,000 Maronites
Maronites
live in Lebanon, where they constitute up to 22 percent of the population.[39] Syrian Maronites
Maronites
total 51,000, following the archdioceses of Aleppo and Damascus
Damascus
and the Diocese
Diocese
of Latakia.[40] A Maronite
Maronite
community of about 10,000 lives in Cyprus[40] that speaks Cypriot Maronite Arabic.[41][42] A noticeable Maronite
Maronite
community exists in northern Israel
Israel
(Galilee), numbering 7,504,[40] famous for its preservation attempts of the Aramaic language
Aramaic language
and Aramean ethnic identity. Diaspora[edit] Immigration of Maronite
Maronite
faithful from the Middle East to the United States began during the latter part of the nineteenth century. When the faithful were able to obtain a priest, communities were established as parishes under the jurisdiction of the local Latin bishops. In January 1966, Pope
Pope
Paul VI established the Maronite Apostolic Exarchate for the Maronite
Maronite
faithful of the United States. In a decree of the Sacred Congregation for the Eastern Churches, Bishop Francis Mansour Zayek was appointed the first exarch. The see, in Detroit, Michigan, with a cathedral under the patronage of Saint Maron, was suffragan to the Archdiocese of Detroit. In 1971, Pope
Pope
Paul VI elevated the Exarchate to the status of an Eparchy, with the name of Eparchy of Saint Maron
Maron
of Detroit. In 1977, the see of the Eparchy of Saint Maron
Maron
was transferred to Brooklyn, New York, with the cathedral under the patronage of Our Lady of Lebanon. The name of the Eparchy was modified to Eparchy of Saint Maron
Maron
of Brooklyn.[8] In 1994, the Eparchy of Our Lady of Lebanon
Lebanon
was established with the cathedral at Los Angeles, California, under the patronage of Our Lady of Lebanon.[8] John George Chedid, auxiliary bishop of the Diocese
Diocese
of Saint Maron
Maron
of Brooklyn, was ordained as the first Bishop of the Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Eparchy of Our Lady of Lebanon
Lebanon
of Los Angeles at the Our Lady of Lebanon
Lebanon
Cathedral in Los Angeles, California, where served until he reached the mandatory retirement age of 80. In December 2000, Robert Joseph Shaheen
Robert Joseph Shaheen
succeeded Chedid as eparch. The two eparchies in the United States have issued their own "Maronite Census," designed to estimate the population of Maronites
Maronites
in the United States. Many have been assimilated into Western Catholicism absent Maronite
Maronite
parishes or priests. The " Maronite
Maronite
Census" was designed to locate these Maronites. Eparchies operate in São Paulo in Brazil, as well as in México, France, Australia,[43] South Africa, Cánada and Argentina.[40] The history of the Lebanese community in South Africa
Africa
dates to the late 19th century, when the first immigrants arrived in Johannesburg, the biggest city in the Transvaal coming from Sebhel, Mesyara, Becharre, Hadath El-Joube, Maghdoushe and other places. It is recorded[by whom?] that in 1896, the first Maronite
Maronite
and Lebanese immigrants arrived in Durban, Cape Town, and Mozambique, and congregated around their local Catholic churches. Other[edit]

Medal,[44] Great Cross,[45] and Golden Order of the Maronite
Maronite
General Council of the Maronite
Maronite
Church[46]

See also[edit]

Syriac Christianity
Syriac Christianity
portal Catholicism portal

Charbel Makhlouf Phoenicianism Cross of All Nations Our Lady of Lebanon Saint George in devotions, traditions and prayers

References[edit]

^ http://www.cnewa.org/source-images/Roberson-eastcath-statistics/eastcatholic-stat16.pdf ^ History of the Maronites, Maronite
Maronite
Heritage.com, 13 April 2016. ^ Beggiani, Seely. "Aspects of Maronite
Maronite
History—Monastery of St. Maron". Eparchy of Saint Maron
Maron
of Brooklyn. Archived from the original on 2 March 2001. Retrieved 4 July 2017.  ^ No'man 1996, p. 22. ^ a b "There are 3,198,600 Maronites
Maronites
in the World". Maronite-heritage.com. 3 January 1994. Retrieved 3 January 2015.  ^ a b c " Maronite
Maronite
Church". Retrieved 16 June 2016.  ^ "About the Maronite
Maronite
Rite - Our Lady's Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Church". Retrieved 16 June 2016.  ^ a b c "MARONITE HISTORY & SAINT MARON - St. Anthony Maronite Catholic Church". Retrieved 16 June 2016.  ^ a b c d e El-Hāyek, Elias. "Struggle for Survival: The Maronites
Maronites
of the Middle Ages," Conversion and Continuity, (Michael Gervers and Ramzi Jibran Bikhazi, eds.), Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1990 ISBN 978-0-88844-809-5 ^ Attwater, Donald; The Christian Churches of the East ^ J. D. Frendo, "Who killed Anastasius II?" Jewish Quarterly Review vol. 72 (1982), 202-4) ^ a b Moosa 1986, pp. 195–216. ^ "The Story of the Maronite
Maronite
Catholics - The Maronite
Maronite
Monks of Adoration". Retrieved 16 June 2016.  ^ Bury, J.B., A History of the Later Roman Empire from Arcadius to Irene, Vol. II, MacMillan & Co., 1889, p. 321 ^ Treadgold, Warren T., Byzantium and Its Army, 284–1081, 1998, Stanford University Press, p. 72, ISBN 0-8047-3163-2, ^ Ostrogorsky, George, History of the Byzantine state, (Joan Hussey, trans.), 1957, Rutgers University Press, pp. 116–122, ISBN 0-8135-0599-2 ^ a b Beggiani, Seely. "The Formation of the Maronite
Maronite
Patriarchate", Aspects of Maronite
Maronite
History, (Part Two), Eparchy off St. Maron
Maron
of Brooklyn Archived 20 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c Kolvenbach, Peter-Hans. " Maronites
Maronites
Between Two Worlds", Eparchy of Saint Maron
Maron
of Brooklyn ^ a b Frazee, Charles. "Maronites", Encyclopedia of Monasticism, (William C. Johnston, ed.), Routledge, 2013 ISBN 978-1-136-78716-4 ^ "The Eastern Catholic
Eastern Catholic
Churches".  ^ a b c "CNEWA - The Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Church". Retrieved 16 June 2016.  ^ a b c Van Rompay, Lucas. "Excursus: the Maronites", The Oxford History of Christian Worship, (Geoffrey Wainwright, ed.), Oxford University Press, 2006 ISBN 978-0-19-513886-3 ^ a b Van, Leeuwen, Richard. "The Maronites," Chap. 4, Notables and Clergy in Mount Lebanon: The Khāzin Sheikhs and the Maronite
Maronite
Church, 1736–1840, Brill, 1994 ISBN 978-90-04-09978-4 ^ a b c McCallum, Fiona. "The Maronites
Maronites
in Lebanon", Eastern Christianity in the Modern Middle East, (Anthony O'Mahony and Emma Loosley, eds.), Routledge, 2009 ISBN 978-1-135-19371-3 ^ Phan, Peter C., Christianities in Asia, John Wiley & Sons, 2011 ISBN 978-1-4443-9260-9 ^ Moosa 1986, p. 283. ^ Hakim, Carol. The Origins of the Lebanese National Idea: 1840–1920, University of California Press, 2013 ISBN 978-0-520-95471-7 ^ Beggiani, Seely. "The Mysteries", Aspects of Maronite
Maronite
History: The 18th Century Archived 20 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Pope
Pope
John Paul II, Orientale Lumen, §21, May 2, 1995, L'Osservatore Romano ^ Pope
Pope
Paul VI, Sacrosanctum concilium, §3, December 4, 1963 Archived 21 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Brinker, Jennifer. "First married man ordained priest for U.S. Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Church", National Catholic Reporter, February 28, 2014 ^ Church website Archived 23 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine., accessed 20 March 2011 ^ Soumen. "MARONITE EPARCHY OF OUR LADY OF LOS ANGELES". Retrieved 16 June 2016.  ^ "Eparchy of Saint Maron
Maron
of Brooklyn". Retrieved 16 June 2016.  ^ "Home". Retrieved 16 June 2016.  ^ "OAM - Accueil". Retrieved 16 June 2016.  ^ Mariamite Maronite Order
Mariamite Maronite Order
(O.M.M.) Archived 28 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Arabic ^ "Congregation Of Maronite
Maronite
Lebanese Missionaries". Retrieved 16 June 2016.  ^ Lebanon
Lebanon
- International Religious Freedom Report 2008 U.S. Department of State. Retrieved on 4 September 2009. ^ a b c d Annuario Pontificio : The Eastern Catholic
Eastern Catholic
Churches 2008. Retrieved 25 January 2010. ^ Maria Tsiapera, A Descriptive Analysis of Cypriot Maronite
Maronite
Arabic, 1969, Mouton and Company, The Hague, 69 pages ^ " Cyprus
Cyprus
Ministry of Interior : European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages : Answers to the Comments/Questions Submitted to the Government of Cyprus
Cyprus
Regarding its Initial Periodical Report" (PDF). 28 July 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 November 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2010.  ^ M. Ghosn, Maronite
Maronite
institutional development across Australia, Journal of the Australian Catholic Historical Society 31/2 (2010/11), 15-26. ^ "The Maronite
Maronite
Central Council Medal, About Us - Central Council of the Maronite
Maronite
Societies". Retrieved 16 June 2016.  ^ "Great Cross of the Maronite
Maronite
Central Council, About Us - Central Council of the Maronite
Maronite
Societies". Retrieved 16 June 2016.  ^ "The King of Morocco Mohamad VI Awards Prince Alwaleed His 60th Honorary Medal - Kingdom Holding Company". Retrieved 16 June 2016. 

Bibliography[edit]

Moosa, Matti (1986). The Maronites
Maronites
in History. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press.  No'man, Paul (1996). The Yesterday of the Maronite
Maronite
Church and it's Tomorrow. Ghosta: Books.  (in Arabic)

Further reading[edit]

Moosa, Matti, The Maronites
Maronites
in History, Gorgias Press, Piscataway, New Jersey, 2005, ISBN 978-1-59333-182-5 R. J. Mouawad, Les Maronites. Chrétiens du Liban, Brepols Publishers, Turnhout, 2009, ISBN 978-2-503-53041-3 Kamal Salibi, A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered (University of California Press, 1990). Maronite
Maronite
Church. New Catholic Encyclopedia, Second Edition, 2003. Riley-Smith, Johnathan. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1995) Suermann, Harald. Histoire des origines de l'Eglise Maronite, PUSEK, Kaslik, 2010, ISBN 978-9953-491-67-7 Barber, Malcolm. Letters from the East: Crusades, Pilgrims
Pilgrims
and Settlers in the 12th–13th centuries, Ashgate Press, Reading, United Kingdom, 2013, ISBN 978-1-4724-1393-2

Sources and external links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Church.

This section's use of external links may not follow's policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references. (June 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Our Lady of Lebanon
Lebanon
Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Cathedral, Brooklyn, New York Maronite
Maronite
History Project—a Maronite
Maronite
encyclopedia wiki[dead link] Catholic Culture: News— Maronite
Maronite
population discussed Monasterio San Charbel Caracas Venezuela The Divine Office for Lent is a Maronite
Maronite
document from 1695 Article on the Maronite
Maronite
Catholic Church
Catholic Church
by Ronald Roberson on the CNEWA web site Homepage of Fr. Damian Hungs (in German)

Maronite
Maronite
hierarchy[edit]

The Maronite
Maronite
Patriarchate
Patriarchate
at Bkerké Maronite
Maronite
eparchies

Eparchies[edit]

Maronite
Maronite
Rite diocese based in Sydney, Australia Eparchy of Saint Maron
Maron
of Brooklyn Eparchy of Our Lady of Lebanon
Lebanon
of Los Angeles Eparchy of Saint Maron
Maron
of Canada, Montréal, Canada

Maronite
Maronite
Church Religious Orders[edit]

Maronite
Maronite
Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary Congregation of the Maronite
Maronite
Lebanese Missionaries The Maronite
Maronite
Monks of Adoration, Most Holy Trinity Monastery—monastery in Massachusetts

v t e

Syriac Christianity

Eastern Christian
Eastern Christian
traditions that employ Syriac language
Syriac language
in their liturgical rites

West Syriac

Eastern Catholic

Maronite
Maronite
Church Syriac Catholic Church

Oriental Orthodox

Syriac Orthodox Church

East Syriac

Eastern Catholic

Chaldean Catholic Church

Independent

Assyrian Church of the East Ancient Church of the East

Protestant

Assyrian Evangelical Church Assyrian Pentecostal Church

Saint Thomas Christians

Eastern Catholic

Syro-Malabar Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(East Syriac) Syro-Malankara Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(West Syriac)

Oriental Orthodox

Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church Malabar Independent Syrian Church

Assyrian

Chaldean Syrian Church

Protestant

Mar Thoma Syrian Church St. Thomas Evangelical Church

Identity

Terms for Syriac Christians Assyrian nationalism

Languages

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Bohtan Neo-Aramaic Chaldean Neo-Aramaic Garshuni Hértevin Koy Sanjaq Surat Mlahsô Senaya Syriac Malayalam Turoyo Liturgical: Syriac

History

Church of the East Nestorianism

Syriac Christianity
Syriac Christianity
portal

v t e

Catholic Church

Index Outline

History (Timeline)

Jesus Holy Family

Mary Joseph

Apostles Early Christianity History of the papacy Ecumenical councils Missions Great Schism of East Crusades Great Schism of West Age of Discovery Protestant
Protestant
Reformation Council of Trent Counter-Reformation Catholic Church
Catholic Church
by country Vatican City

index outline

Second Vatican Council

Hierarchy (Precedence)

Pope
Pope
(List)

Pope
Pope
Francis (2013–present)

conclave inauguration theology canonizations visits

Pope
Pope
Emeritus Benedict XVI (2005–2013)

Roman Curia College of Cardinals

Cardinal List

Patriarchate Episcopal conference Patriarch Major archbishop Primate Metropolitan Archbishop Diocesan bishop Coadjutor bishop Auxiliary bishop Titular bishop Bishop emeritus Abbot Abbess Superior general Provincial superior Grand Master Prior
Prior
(-ess) Priest Brother

Friar

Sister Monk Nun Hermit Master of novices Novice Oblate Postulant Laity

Theology

Body and soul Bible Catechism Divine grace Dogma Ecclesiology

Four Marks of the Church

Original sin

List

Salvation Sermon on the Mount Ten Commandments Trinity Worship

Mariology

Assumption History Immaculate Conception Mariology of the popes Mariology of the saints Mother of God Perpetual virginity Veneration

Philosophy

Natural law Moral theology Personalism Social teaching Philosophers

Sacraments

Baptism Confirmation Eucharist Penance Anointing of the Sick

Last rites

Holy orders Matrimony

Saints

Mary Apostles Archangels Confessors Disciples Doctors of the Church Evangelists Church Fathers Martyrs Patriarchs Prophets Virgins

Doctors of the Church

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Institutes, orders, and societies

Assumptionists Annonciades Augustinians Basilians Benedictines Bethlehemites Blue nuns Camaldoleses Camillians Carmelites Carthusians Cistercians Clarisses Conceptionists Crosiers Dominicans Franciscans Good Shepherd Sisters Hieronymites Jesuits Mercedarians Minims Olivetans Oratorians Piarists Premonstratensians Redemptorists Servites Theatines Trappists Trinitarians Visitandines

Associations of the faithful

International Federation of Catholic Parochial Youth Movements International Federation of Catholic Universities International Kolping Society Schoenstatt Apostolic Movement International Union of Catholic Esperantists Community of Sant'Egidio

Charities

Aid to the Church in Need Caritas Internationalis Catholic Home Missions Catholic Relief Services CIDSE

Particular churches (By country)

Latin Church Eastern Catholic
Eastern Catholic
Churches: Albanian Armenian Belarusian Bulgarian Chaldean Coptic Croatian and Serbian Eritrean Ethiopian Georgian Greek Hungarian Italo-Albanian Macedonian Maronite Melkite Romanian Russian Ruthenian Slovak Syriac Syro-Malabar Syro-Malankara Ukrainian

Liturgical rites

Alexandrian Antiochian Armenian Byzantine East Syrian Latin

Anglican Use Ambrosian Mozarabic Roman

West Syrian

Catholicism portal Pope
Pope
portal Vatican City
Vatican City
portal

Book Name Media

Category Templates WikiProject

Authority control

GND: 16289967-1 NDL: 00576297

Coordinates: 33°58′04″N 35°38′02″E / 33.9678°N 35.6339°E

.