Marie Magdalene "Marlene" Dietrich (/mɑːrˈleɪnə ˈdiːtrɪk/,
German: [maɐ̯ˈleːnə ˈdiːtʁɪç]; 27 December 1901 – 6 May
1992) was a German actress and singer who held both German and
American citizenship. Throughout her long career, (which
spanned from the 1910s to the 1980s) she maintained popularity by
continually reinventing herself.
In 1920s Berlin, Dietrich acted on the stage and in silent films. Her
performance as Lola-Lola in
The Blue Angel
The Blue Angel (1930) brought her
international fame and a contract with Paramount Pictures. Dietrich
Hollywood films such as Morocco (1930), Shanghai Express
(1932), and Desire (1936). She successfully traded on her glamorous
persona and "exotic" looks, and became one of the highest-paid
actresses of the era. Throughout World War II, she was a high-profile
entertainer in the United States. Although she still made occasional
films after the war, Dietrich spent most of the 1950s to the 1970s
touring the world as a marquee live-show performer.
Dietrich was noted for her humanitarian efforts during the war,
housing German and French exiles, providing financial support and even
advocating their US citizenship. For her work on improving morale on
the front lines during the war, she received several honors from the
United States, France, Belgium, and Israel. In 1999, the American Film
Institute named Dietrich the ninth-greatest female star of classic
1 Early life
2 Film career
2.3 Success in the United States
2.4 "Box office poison"
2.5 Revival and later film career
3 World War II
4 Stage and cabaret
5 Final years and death
7 Personal life
10 See also
13 External links
Location of Marlene Dietrich's birthplace in Rote Insel
Dietrich's birthplace in Leberstraße 65, Berlin-Schöneberg
Marlene Dietrich (in gymnastics dress), c. 1910 (Deutsche Kinemathek,
Marlene Dietrich Collection, Berlin)
Dietrich was born on (1901-12-27)27 December 1901 at Leberstraße 65
in the neighborhood of
Rote Insel in Schöneberg, now a district of
Berlin. Her mother, Wilhelmina Elisabeth Josephine (née Felsing),
was from an affluent
Berlin family who owned a jewelry and
clock-making firm. Her father, Louis Erich Otto Dietrich, was a police
lieutenant. Dietrich had one sibling, Elisabeth, who was one year
older. Dietrich's father died in 1907. His best friend, Eduard von
Losch, an aristocratic first lieutenant in the Grenadiers, courted
Wilhelmina and married her in 1916, but he died soon afterwards from
injuries sustained during the First World War. Von Losch never
officially adopted the Dietrich girls, so Dietrich's surname was never
von Losch, as has sometimes been claimed.
Dietrich's family nicknamed her "Lena" and "Lene" (IPA: [leːnɛ]).
Around age 11, she combined her first two names to form the name
"Marlene". Dietrich attended the Auguste-Viktoria Girls' School from
1907 to 1917 and graduated from the Victoria-Luise-Schule (today
Berlin-Wilmersdorf) in 1918. She studied the violin and became
interested in theater and poetry as a teenager. A wrist injury
curtailed her dreams of becoming a concert violinist, but by 1922 she
had her first job, playing violin in a pit orchestra for silent films
Berlin cinema. She was fired after only four weeks.
Her earliest professional stage appearances were as a chorus girl on
tour with Guido Thielscher's Girl-Kabarett vaudeville-style
entertainments, and in Rudolf Nelson revues in Berlin. In 1922,
Dietrich auditioned unsuccessfully for theatrical director and
impresario Max Reinhardt's drama academy; however, she soon found
herself working in his theatres as a chorus girl and playing small
roles in dramas. She did not attract any special attention at first.
She made her film debut playing a bit part in the film The Little
Marlene Dietrich by Joël-Heinzelmann Atelier, 1918
She met her future husband, Rudolf Sieber, on the set of Tragödie der
Liebe in 1923. Dietrich and Sieber were married in a civil ceremony in
Berlin on 17 May 1923. Her only child, daughter Maria Elisabeth
Sieber, was born on 13 December 1924.
Dietrich continued to work on stage and in film both in
Vienna throughout the 1920s. On stage, she had roles of varying
importance in Frank Wedekind's Pandora's Box, William
Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew, A Midsummer Night's
Dream, as well as George Bernard Shaw's Back to Methuselah and
Misalliance. It was in musicals and revues such as Broadway, Es
Liegt in der Luft, and Zwei Krawatten, however, that she attracted the
most attention. By the late 1920s, Dietrich was also playing sizable
parts on screen, including roles in
Café Elektric (1927), Ich küsse
Ihre Hand, Madame (1928), and Das Schiff der verlorenen Menschen
Dietrich in her breakthrough role in
The Blue Angel
The Blue Angel (1930)
Josef von Sternberg
Josef von Sternberg used butterfly lighting to enhance Dietrich's
features in Shanghai Express (1932)
In 1929, Dietrich landed the breakthrough role of Lola Lola, a cabaret
singer who caused the downfall of a hitherto respectable schoolmaster
(played by Emil Jannings), in the UFA-Paramount co-production of The
Blue Angel (1930).
Josef von Sternberg
Josef von Sternberg directed the film and
thereafter took credit for having "discovered" Dietrich. The film is
also noteworthy for having introduced Dietrich's signature song
"Falling in Love Again", which she recorded for
Electrola and later
made further recordings in the 1930s for
Polydor and Decca Records.
Success in the United States
In 1930, on the strength of The Blue Angel's international success,
and with encouragement and promotion from Josef von Sternberg, who was
already established in Hollywood, Dietrich moved to the United States
under contract to Paramount Pictures. The studio sought to market
Dietrich as a German answer to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's Swedish
sensation, Greta Garbo. Sternberg welcomed her with gifts, including a
green Rolls-Royce Phantom II. The car later appeared in their first US
Dietrich starred in six films directed by von Sternberg at Paramount
between 1930 and 1935. Sternberg worked effectively with Dietrich to
create the image of a glamorous and mysterious femme fatale. He
encouraged her to lose weight and coached her intensively as an
actress. She willingly followed his sometimes imperious direction in a
way that a number of other performers resisted.
In Morocco (1930), Dietrich was again cast as a cabaret singer. The
film is best remembered for the sequence in which she performs a song
dressed in a man's white tie and kisses another woman, both
provocative for the era. The film earned Dietrich her only Academy
Morocco was followed by Dishonored (1931), a major success with
Dietrich cast as a Mata Hari-like spy. Shanghai Express (1932), which
was dubbed by the critics "Grand Hotel on wheels", was Sternberg and
Dietrich's biggest box office success, becoming the highest-grossing
film of 1932. Dietrich and Sternberg again collaborated on the romance
Blonde Venus (1932). Dietrich worked without Sternberg for the first
time in three years in the romantic drama Song of Songs (1933),
playing a naive German peasant, under the direction of Rouben
Mamoulian. Dietrich and Sternberg's last two films, The Scarlet
Empress (1934), and The Devil Is a Woman (1935)—the most stylized of
their collaborations—were their lowest-grossing films. Dietrich
later remarked that she was at her most beautiful in The Devil Is a
Sternberg is noted for his exceptional skill in lighting and
photographing Dietrich to optimum effect. He had a signature use of
light and shadow, including the impact of light passed through a veil
or slatted blinds (as for example in Shanghai Express). This combined
with the scrupulous attention to set design and costumes makes the
films they made together among the most visually stylish in cinema
history. Critics still vigorously debate how much of the credit
belonged to Sternberg and how much to Dietrich, but most would agree
that neither consistently reached such heights again after Paramount
fired Sternberg and the two ceased working together. The
collaboration of one actress and director creating seven films is
still unmatched in cinema history, with the exception Katharine
Hepburn and George Cukor, who made ten films together.
Dietrich's first film after the end of her partnership with Sternberg
was Frank Borzage's Desire (1936), a commercial success that gave
Dietrich an opportunity to try her hand at romantic comedy. Her next
I Loved a Soldier (1936), ended in shambles when the film was
scrapped several weeks into production due to script problems,
scheduling confusion and the studio's decision to fire the director,
"Box office poison"
Extravagant offers lured Dietrich away from Paramount to make her
first color film The Garden of Allah (1936) for independent producer
David O. Selznick, for which she received $200,000, and to Britain for
Alexander Korda's production,
Knight Without Armour
Knight Without Armour (1937), at a
salary of $450,000, which made her one of the best paid film stars.
While both films performed respectably at the box office, her vehicles
were costly to produce and her public popularity had declined. By this
time, Dietrich placed 126th in box office rankings, and American film
exhibitors proclaimed her "box office poison" in May 1938, a
distinction she shared with Greta Garbo, Joan Crawford, Mae West,
Katharine Hepburn, Norma Shearer,
Dolores del Río
Dolores del Río and Fred Astaire
While she was in London, officials of the
Nazi Party approached
Dietrich and offered her lucrative contracts, should she agree to
return to Germany as a foremost film star in the Third Reich. She
refused their offers and applied for US citizenship in 1937. She
returned to Paramount to make Angel (1937), another romantic comedy
directed by Ernst Lubitsch; the film was poorly received, leading
Paramount to buy out the remainder of Dietrich's contract.
Revival and later film career
James Stewart and
Marlene Dietrich in
Destry Rides Again
Destry Rides Again (1939)
In 1939, with encouragement from Josef von Sternberg, she accepted
producer Joe Pasternak's offer to play against type in her first film
in two years: that of the cowboy saloon girl, Frenchie, in the
western-comedy Destry Rides Again, opposite James Stewart. This was a
significantly less well paid role than she had been accustomed to. The
bawdy role revived her career and "See What the Boys in the Back Room
Will Have", a song she introduced in the film, became a hit when she
recorded it for Decca. She played similar types in Seven Sinners
(1940) and The Spoilers (1942) both opposite John Wayne.
While Dietrich never fully regained her former screen success, she
continued performing in motion pictures, including appearances for
such distinguished directors as Alfred Hitchcock, Fritz Lang, Orson
Billy Wilder in films that included Golden Earrings
A Foreign Affair
A Foreign Affair (1948), Stage Fright (1950), Rancho Notorious
(1952), Witness for the Prosecution (1957), and
Touch of Evil
Touch of Evil (1958).
World War II
Dietrich's uniform, worn during her tours supporting Allied personnel
in World War II
Dietrich received the
Medal of Freedom
Medal of Freedom from Gen.
Maxwell D. Taylor
Maxwell D. Taylor in
a ceremony at West Point (1947)
Rita Hayworth serve food to soldiers at the Hollywood
Canteen (17 November 1942)
Dietrich with airmen of the 401st Bomb Group (29 September 1944)
Dietrich signing a soldier's cast in
Belgium (24 November 1944)
Dietrich and US soldiers somewhere in
France during her second USO
Dietrich was known to have strong political convictions and the mind
to speak them. In interviews, Dietrich stated that she had been
approached by representatives of the
Nazi Party to return to Germany
but had turned them down flat. In the late 1930s, Dietrich created
a fund with
Billy Wilder and several other Germans to help Jews and
dissidents escape from Germany. In 1937, her entire salary for Knight
Without Armor ($450,000) was put into escrow to help the refugees. In
1939, she became an American citizen and renounced her German
citizenship. In December 1941, the U.S. entered World War II, and
Dietrich became one of the first celebrities to help sell war bonds.
She toured the US from January 1942 to September 1943 (appearing
before 250,000 troops on the Pacific Coast leg of her tour alone) and
was reported to have sold more war bonds than any other star.
During two extended tours for the USO in 1944 and 1945, she
performed for Allied troops in Algeria, Italy, the UK and France, then
went into Germany with Generals
James M. Gavin
James M. Gavin and George S. Patton.
When asked why she had done this, in spite of the obvious danger of
being within a few kilometers of German lines, she replied, "aus
Anstand"—"out of decency". Wilder later remarked that she was at
the front lines more than Eisenhower. Her revue, with
Danny Thomas as
her opening act for the first tour, included songs from her films,
performances on her musical saw (a skill she had originally acquired
for stage appearances in
Berlin in the 1920s) and a "mindreading" act
that her friend
Orson Welles had taught her for his Mercury Wonder
Show. Dietrich would inform the audience that she could read minds and
ask them to concentrate on whatever came into their minds. Then she
would walk over to a soldier and earnestly tell him, "Oh, think of
something else. I can't possibly talk about that!" American church
papers reportedly published stories complaining about this part of
In 1944, the Morale Operations Branch of the Office of Strategic
Services (OSS) initiated the Musak project, musical propaganda
broadcasts designed to demoralize enemy soldiers. Dietrich, the
only performer who was made aware that her recordings would be for OSS
use, recorded a number of songs in German for the project, including
"Lili Marleen", a favorite of soldiers on both sides of the
conflict. Major General William J. Donovan, head of the OSS, wrote
to Dietrich, "I am personally deeply grateful for your generosity in
making these recordings for us."
At the war's end in Europe, Dietrich reunited with her sister
Elisabeth and her sister's husband and son. They had resided in the
German city of Belsen throughout the war years, running a cinema
frequented by Nazi officers and officials who oversaw the
Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. Dietrich's mother remained in Berlin
during the war; her husband moved to a ranch in the San Fernando
Valley of California. Dietrich vouched on behalf of her sister and her
sister's husband, sheltering them from possible prosecution as Nazi
collaborators. Dietrich would later omit the existence of her
sister and her sister's son from all accounts of her life, completely
disowning them and claiming to be an only child.
Dietrich received the
Medal of Freedom
Medal of Freedom in November 1947, for her
"extraordinary record entertaining troops overseas during the
war". She said this was her proudest accomplishment. She was
also awarded the
Légion d'honneur by the French government for her
Stage and cabaret
Dietrich often performed parts of her show in top hat and tails.
Caricature by Hans Georg Pfannmüller showing Dietrich during a
cabaret performance in 1954.
From the early 1950s until the mid-1970s, Dietrich worked almost
exclusively as a highly paid cabaret artist, performing live in large
theatres in major cities worldwide.
In 1953, Dietrich was offered a then-substantial $30,000 per week
to appear live at the Sahara Hotel on the Las Vegas Strip. The
show was short, consisting only of a few songs associated with
her. Her daringly sheer "nude dress"—a heavily beaded evening
gown of silk soufflé, which gave the illusion of
transparency—designed by Jean Louis, attracted a lot of
publicity. This engagement was so successful that she was signed
to appear at the Café de
London the following year; her Las
Vegas contracts were also renewed.
Burt Bacharach as her musical arranger starting in
the mid-1950s; together, they refined her nightclub act into a more
ambitious theatrical one-woman show with an expanded repertoire.
Her repertoire included songs from her films as well as popular songs
of the day. Bacharach's arrangements helped to disguise Dietrich's
limited vocal range—she was a contralto—and allowed her to
perform her songs to maximum dramatic effect; together, they
recorded four albums and several singles between 1957 and 1964. In
a TV interview in 1971, she credited Bacharach with giving her the
"inspiration" to perform during those years.
Bacharach then felt he needed to devote his full-time to songwriting.
But she had also come to rely on him in order to perform, and wrote
about his leaving in her memoir:
From that fateful day on, I have worked like a robot, trying to
recapture the wonderful woman he helped make out of me. I even
succeeded in this effort for years, because I always thought of him,
always longed for him, always looked for him in the wings, and always
fought against self-pity...He had become so indispensable to me that,
without him, I no longer took much joy in singing. When he left me, I
felt like giving everything up. I had lost my director, my support, my
teacher, my maestro.
She would often perform the first part of her show in one of her
body-hugging dresses and a swansdown coat, and change to top hat and
tails for the second half of the performance. This allowed her to
sing songs usually associated with male singers, like "One for My
Baby" and "I've Grown Accustomed to Her Face".
"She … transcends her material," according to Peter Bogdanovich.
"Whether it's a flighty old tune like 'I Can't Give You Anything But
Love, Baby' … a schmaltzy German love song, 'Das Lied ist Aus' or a
French one 'La Vie en Rose', she lends each an air of the aristocrat,
yet she never patronises … A folk song, 'Go 'Way From My Window' has
never been sung with such passion, and in her hands 'Where Have All
the Flowers Gone?' is not just another anti-war lament but a tragic
accusation against us all."
Francis Wyndham offered a more critical appraisal of the phenomenon of
Dietrich in concert. He wrote in 1964: "What she does is neither
difficult nor diverting, but the fact that she does it at all fills
the onlookers with wonder … It takes two to make a conjuring trick:
the illusionist's sleight of hand and the stooge's desire to be
deceived. To these necessary elements (her own technical competence
and her audience's sentimentality)
Marlene Dietrich adds a third—the
mysterious force of her belief in her own magic. Those who find
themselves unable to share this belief tend to blame themselves rather
Her use of body-sculpting undergarments, nonsurgical temporary
facelifts (tape), expert makeup and wigs, combined with
careful stage lighting, helped to preserve Dietrich's glamorous
image as she grew older.
Jerusalem during a tour in Israel, 1960
Marlene Dietrich discusses her film and cabaret career in an interview
recorded in Paris, 1959.
Dietrich's return to West Germany in 1960 for a concert tour was met
with mixed reception— despite a consistently negative press,
vociferous protest by chauvinistic Germans who felt she had betrayed
her homeland, and two bomb threats, her performance attracted huge
crowds. During her performances at Berlin's Titania Palast theatre,
protesters chanted, "Marlene Go Home!" On the other hand, Dietrich
was warmly welcomed by other Germans, including
Berlin Mayor Willy
Brandt, who was, like Dietrich, an opponent of the Nazis who had lived
in exile during their rule. The tour was an artistic triumph, but
a financial failure. She was left emotionally drained by the
hostility she encountered, and she left convinced never to visit
again. East Germany, however, received her well. She also
undertook a tour of
Israel around the same time, which was
well-received; she sang some songs in German during her concerts,
including, from 1962, a German version of Pete Seeger's anti-war
anthem "Where Have All the Flowers Gone", thus breaking the unofficial
taboo against the use of German in Israel. She would become the
first woman and German to receive the Israeli Medallion of Valor in
1965, "in recognition for her courageous adherence to principle and
consistent record of friendship for the Jewish people". Dietrich in
London, a concert album, was recorded during the run of her 1964
engagement at the Queen's Theatre.
She performed on Broadway twice (in 1967 and 1968) and won a special
Tony Award in 1968. In November 1972, I Wish You Love, a version of
Dietrich's Broadway show titled An Evening With Marlene Dietrich, was
filmed in London. She was paid $250,000 for her cooperation but
was unhappy with the result. The show was broadcast in the UK on the
BBC and in the US on
CBS in January 1973.
In her sixties and seventies, Dietrich's health declined: she survived
cervical cancer in 1965 and suffered from poor circulation in her
legs. Dietrich became increasingly dependent on painkillers and
alcohol. A stage fall at the Shady Grove Music Fair in Maryland in
1973 injured her left thigh, necessitating skin grafts to allow the
wound to heal. She fractured her right leg in August 1974. "Do
you think this is glamorous? That it's a great life and that I do it
for my health? Well it isn't. Maybe once, but not now," Dietrich told
Clive Hirschhorn in 1973, explaining that she continued performing
only for the money.
Final years and death
Dietrich's show business career largely ended on 29 September 1975,
when she fell off the stage and broke her thigh during a performance
in Sydney, Australia. The following year, her husband, Rudolf
Sieber, died of cancer on 24 June 1976. Dietrich's final on-camera
film appearance was a cameo role in Just a Gigolo (1979), starring
David Bowie and directed by David Hemmings, in which she sang the
Dietrich's gravestone in Berlin. The inscription reads "Hier steh ich
an den Marken meiner Tage" (literally: "Here I stand at the marks of
my days"), a line from the sonnet "Abschied vom Leben" ("Farewell to
Life") by Theodor Körner.
An alcoholic dependent on painkillers, Dietrich withdrew to her
apartment at 12
Avenue Montaigne in Paris. She spent the final 11
years of her life mostly bedridden, allowing only a select
few—including family and employees—to enter the apartment. During
this time, she was a prolific letter-writer and phone-caller. Her
autobiography, Nehmt nur mein Leben (Take Just My Life), was published
In 1982, Dietrich agreed to participate in a documentary film about
her life, Marlene (1984), but refused to be filmed. The film's
director, Maximilian Schell, was allowed only to record her voice. He
used his interviews with her as the basis for the film, set to a
collage of film clips from her career. The final film won several
European film prizes and received an
Academy Award nomination for Best
Documentary in 1984.
Newsweek named it "a unique film, perhaps the
most fascinating and affecting documentary ever made about a great
In 1988, Dietrich recorded spoken introductions to songs for a
nostalgia album by Udo Lindenberg. In an interview with the German
Der Spiegel in November 2005, Dietrich's daughter and
grandson claim that Dietrich was politically active during these
years. She kept in contact with world leaders by telephone,
Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev, running up a monthly
bill of over US$3,000. In 1989, her appeal to save the Babelsberg
studios from closure was broadcast on
BBC Radio, and she spoke on
television via telephone on the occasion of the fall of the Berlin
Wall later that year.
On 6 May 1992, Dietrich died of renal failure at her flat in
age 90. Her funeral ceremony was conducted at La Madeleine in Paris, a
Roman Catholic church on 14 May 1992. Dietrich's funeral service
was attended by approximately 1,500 mourners in the church
itself—including several ambassadors from Germany, Russia, the US,
the UK and other countries—with thousands more outside. Her closed
coffin rested beneath the altar draped in the French flag and adorned
with a simple bouquet of white wildflowers and roses from the French
President, François Mitterrand. Three medals, including France's
Legion of Honour and the US Medal of Freedom, were displayed at the
foot of the coffin, military style, for a ceremony symbolising the
sense of duty Dietrich embodied in her career as an actress, and in
her personal fight against Nazism. The officiating priest remarked:
"Everyone knew her life as an artist of film and song, and everyone
knew her tough stands... She lived like a soldier and would like to be
buried like a soldier". By coincidence, her picture was used
Cannes Film Festival
Cannes Film Festival poster that year which was currently
pasted up all over Paris.
After the fall of the
Berlin Wall, Dietrich instructed in her will
that she was to be buried in her birthplace, Berlin, near her family;
on 16 May her body was flown there to fulfill her wish. Dietrich
was interred at the Städtischer Friedhof III, Berlin-Schöneberg,
next to the grave of her mother, Josefine von Losch, and near the
house where she was born.
On 24 October 1993, the largest portion of Dietrich's estate was sold
to the Stiftung Deutsche Kinemathek—after U.S. institutions showed
no interest—where it became the core of the exhibition at the
Filmmuseum Berlin. The collection includes: over 3,000 textile items
from the 1920s to the 1990s, including film and stage costumes as well
as over a thousand items from Dietrich's personal wardrobe; 15,000
photographs, by Sir Cecil Beaton, Horst P. Horst, George Hurrell, Lord
Snowdon and Edward Steichen; 300,000 pages of documents, including
correspondence with Burt Bacharach, Yul Brynner, Maurice Chevalier,
Noël Coward, Jean Gabin, Ernest Hemingway, Karl Lagerfeld, Nancy and
Ronald Reagan, Erich Maria Remarque, Josef von Sternberg, Orson Welles
and Billy Wilder; as well as other items like film posters and sound
The contents of Dietrich's Manhattan apartment, along with other
personal effects such as jewelry and items of clothing, were sold by
public auction by
Los Angeles on 1 November 1997. Her
former apartment located at 993 Park Avenue was sold for $615,000 in
Unlike her professional celebrity, which was carefully crafted and
maintained, Dietrich's personal life was kept out of public view. She
was fluent in German, English, and French. Dietrich, who was bisexual,
quietly enjoyed the thriving gay scene of the time and drag balls of
1920s Berlin. She also defied conventional gender roles
through her boxing at Turkish trainer and prizefighter Sabri Mahir’s
boxing studio in Berlin, which opened to women in the late 1920s. As
Austrian writer Hedwig (Vicki) Baum recalls in her memoir, "I don't
know how the feminine element sneaked into those masculine realms [the
boxing studio], but in any case, only three or four of us were tough
enough to go through with it (
Marlene Dietrich was one)."
Dietrich was married only once, to assistant director Rudolf Sieber,
who later became an assistant director at
Paramount Pictures in
France, responsible for foreign language dubbing. Dietrich's only
child, Maria Riva, was born in
Berlin on 13 December 1924. She would
later become an actress, primarily working in television. When Maria
gave birth to a son (John, later a famous production designer) in
1948, Dietrich was dubbed "the world's most glamorous grandmother".
After Dietrich's death, Riva published a frank biography of her
Marlene Dietrich (1992).
Throughout her career, Dietrich had an unending string of affairs,
some short-lived, some lasting decades. They often overlapped and were
almost all known to her husband, to whom she was in the habit of
passing the love letters from her men, sometimes with biting
comments. When Dietrich arrived in
Hollywood and filmed Morocco
(1930), she had an affair with Gary Cooper, even though he was already
having an affair with Mexican actress Lupe Vélez. Vélez once
said, "If I had the opportunity to do so, I would tear out Marlene
Dietrich's eyes." Another of her famous affairs was John Gilbert,
famous for his alleged affair with Greta Garbo. Gilbert's untimely
death was one of the most painful events of her life. Dietrich
also had a brief affair with Douglas Fairbanks Jr., even though he was
married to Joan Crawford. At the filming of Destry Rides Again,
Dietrich started a love affair with co-star James Stewart, which ended
after filming. In 1938, Dietrich met and began a relationship with
writer Erich Maria Remarque, and in 1941, the French actor and
military hero Jean Gabin. Their romance began when both were
supporting the Allied troops in World War II. The relationship ended
in the mid-1940s.
In the early 1940s, Dietrich also had an affair with John Wayne, her
co-star in two films. Dietrich had a strong friendship with Orson
Welles, who for her was a kind of platonic love and whom she
considered a genius. She also had an affair with Cuban-American
writer Mercedes de Acosta, who claimed to be Greta Garbo's lover.
Sewing circle was a phrase used by Dietrich to describe the
underground, closeted lesbian and bisexual film actresses and their
relationships in Hollywood.
In the supposed "Marlene's Sewing Circle"  are mentioned the names
of other close friends such as Ann Warner (the wife of Jack L. Warner,
one of the owners of the Warner studios),
Lili Damita (an old friend
of Marlene's from
Berlin and the wife of Errol Flynn), Claudette
Dolores del Río
Dolores del Río (whom Dietrich considered the most
beautiful woman in Hollywood). The French singer Edith Piaf
was also one of Dietrich's closest friends during her stay in
the 1950s, and there were always rumors of something more than
friendship between them.
Greta Garbo has been commonly regarded as Dietrich's greatest film
rival, but there is also a rumor of an affair between them. This rumor
had its highlight in 2000 when writer Diana McLellan released her book
The Girls: Sappho goes to Hollywood. The author wrote that, in her
research, she found proof of a never-before-reported affair between
Garbo and Dietrich. She wrote that they met in
Berlin in 1925 while
Garbo was filming
The Joyless Street and Dietrich had a minor part in
the film. Dietrich confirmed that she was indeed in The Joyless Street
with Garbo. She admitted it to her British late-life friend and
biographer David Bret, an expert on the
Berlin nightlife of her era.
The two enemies shared the most intimate friends, without so much as a
word passing between them or speaking each other's names in public.
Finally, in the summer of 1945, when Dietrich was the guest of Orson
Welles and his wife
Rita Hayworth at their house in Los Angeles, she
decided it was time to attempt a reconciliation with Garbo. Dietrich
persuaded Welles to invite Garbo to a dinner hosted by Clifton Webb,
and Garbo accepted. Welles presented the two women to each other, and
promptly Dietrich swarmed around Garbo and told her how inspiring she
was, calling Garbo goettlich (divine) and an unsterbliche (undying)
muse. Dietrich was evidently unimpressed by Garbo remarking to
Welles, "It's not true that she doesn't wear makeup. She had her
eyelashes beaded. Do you know how long it takes to have your eyelashes
beaded?" They are alleged to have met one last time in New York, when
Dietrich, dressed as a nurse to remain incognito, was with her
grandson in Central Park. Garbo is supposed to have admired the baby
and not recognized Dietrich.
In one of her last interviews, in the early 1990s, the
magazine asked Dietrich who are, beside her, the biggest movie legends
of all time. She named Garbo, Marilyn Monroe, and Rita Hayworth.
Her last great passion, when Dietrich was in her 50s, appears to have
been for the actor Yul Brynner, with whom she had an affair that
lasted more than a decade; her love life continued well into her 70s.
She counted Errol Flynn, George Bernard Shaw, John F. Kennedy,
Michael Wilding, and
Frank Sinatra among her conquests. Dietrich
maintained her husband and his mistress first in Europe and later on a
ranch in the San Fernando Valley, near Hollywood.
Dietrich's family brought her up to follow the Lutheran religion, but
she abandoned it as a result of her experiences as a teenager during
World War I, after hearing preachers from both sides invoking God as
their support. "I lost my faith during the war and can't believe they
are all up there, flying around or sitting at tables, all those I've
Goethe in her autobiography, she wrote, "If God
created this world, he should review his plan." However,
according to her daughter, Maria Riva, Dietrich always travelled with
a satchel containing many religious medallions (St. Christopher,
etc.), showing her desire to keep her faith. Also, during her
reclusive twilight years in Paris, Dietrich allegedly converted to and
strongly embraced Roman Catholicism but this hasn't been well
corroborated. On 14 May 1992, her funeral ceremony was performed
at her favorite
Paris church, La Madeleine.
Dietrich was a fashion icon to the top designers as well as a screen
icon that later stars would follow. Edith Head remarked that she knew
more about fashion than any other actress. Dietrich herself favored
Dior. In an interview with The Observer in 1960, she said, "I dress
for the image. Not for myself, not for the public, not for fashion,
not for men. If I dressed for myself I wouldn't bother at all. Clothes
bore me. I'd wear jeans. I adore jeans. I get them in a public store
– men's, of course; I can't wear women's trousers. But I dress for
the profession."  Her public image included openly defying sexual
norms, and she was known for her androgynous film roles and her
A significant volume of academic literature, especially since 1975,
analyzes Dietrich's image, as created by the film industry, within
various theoretical frameworks, including that of psycho-analysis.
Emphasis is placed, inter alia, on the "fetishistic" manipulation of
the female image.
Commemorative Plaque at her birth-house in Berlin
In 1992, a plaque was unveiled at Leberstraße 65 in
Berlin-Schöneberg, the site of Dietrich's birth. A postage stamp
bearing her portrait was issued in Germany on 14 August 1997.
Luxury pen manufacturer MontBlanc produced a limited edition "Marlene
Dietrich" pen to commemorate Dietrich's life. It is platinum-plated
and has an encrusted deep blue sapphire.
The main-belt asteroid 1010 Marlene, discovered by German astronomer
Karl Reinmuth at
Heidelberg Observatory in 1923, was named in her
For some Germans, Dietrich remained a controversial figure for having
sided with the Allies during World War II. In 1996, after some debate,
it was decided not to name a street after her in Berlin-Schöneberg,
her birthplace. However, on 8 November 1997, the central
Marlene-Dietrich-Platz was unveiled in
Berlin to honour her. The
commemoration reads: Berliner Weltstar des Films und des Chansons.
Einsatz für Freiheit und Demokratie, für
Berlin und Deutschland
Berlin world star of film and song. Dedication to freedom and
Berlin and Germany").
Dietrich was made an honorary citizen of
Berlin on 16 May 2002.
Translated from German, her memorial plaque reads
Berlin Memorial Plaque
"Tell me, where have all the flowers gone"
27 December 1901 – 6 May 1992
Actress and Singer
She was one of the few German actresses that attained international
Despite tempting offers by the Nazi regime, she emigrated to the USA
and became an American citizen.
In 2002, the city of
Berlin posthumously made her an honorary citizen.
"I am, thank God, a Berliner."
Funded by the GASAG
Berlin Gasworks Corporation.
The U.S. Government awarded Dietrich the
Medal of Freedom
Medal of Freedom for her war
work. Dietrich has been quoted as saying this was the honor of which
she was most proud in her life. They also awarded her with the
Operation Entertainment Medal. The French Government made her a
Chevalier (later upgraded to Commandeur) of the
Légion d'honneur and
a Commandeur of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres. Her other awards
include the Medallion of Honor of the State of Israel, the Fashion
Foundation of America award and a Chevalier de l'Ordre de Leopold
Dietrich is referenced in a number of popular 20th century songs,
including Rodgers and Hart's "The Most Beautiful Girl in the World"
(1935), Peter Sarstedt's "Where Do You Go To, My Lovely?" (1969), and
Suzanne Vega's "Marlene On The Wall" (1985).
In 2000 a German biopic film Marlene was made, directed by Joseph
Vilsmaier and starring
Katja Flint as Dietrich.
Dietrich is referred to in the fourth season of American Horror Story,
in which Elsa Mars, a German woman with dreams of stardom, fails to
become famous in part because of her similarities to the already
On 27 December 2017, she was given a
Google Doodle on the 116th
anniversary of her birth.
Marlene Dietrich filmography
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Marlene Dietrich discography
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Dietrich goes over a radio script in her office in the War
Department's Bureau of Public Relations (May 1942)
Noteworthy appearances include:
Lux Radio Theater: The Legionnaire and the Lady opposite Clark Gable
(1 August 1936)
Lux Radio Theater: Desire opposite Herbert Marshall (22 July 1937)
Lux Radio Theater: Song of Songs opposite Douglas Fairbanks, Jr (20
The Chase and Sanborn Hour
The Chase and Sanborn Hour with Edgar Bergen and Don Ameche (2 June
Lux Radio Theater: Manpower opposite Edward G Robinson and George Raft
(15 March 1942)
The Gulf Screen Guild Theater: Pittsburgh opposite
John Wayne (12
Theatre Guild on the Air: Grand Hotel opposite Ray Milland (24 March
Studio One: Arabesque (29 June 1948)
Theatre Guild on the Air: The Letter opposite Walter Pidgeon (3
Ford Radio Theater: Madame Bovary opposite Claude Rains (8 October
Screen Director's Playhouse:
A Foreign Affair
A Foreign Affair opposite Rosalind
Russell and John Lund (5 March 1949)
MGM Theatre of the Air: Anna Karenina (9 December 1949)
MGM Theatre of the Air: Camille (6 June 1950)
Lux Radio Theater: No Highway in the Sky opposite
James Stewart (21
Screen Director's Playhouse:
A Foreign Affair
A Foreign Affair opposite Lucille Ball
and John Lund (1 March 1951)
The Big Show starring Tallulah Bankhead (2 October 1951)
Marlene Dietrich in conversation with J. W. Lambert and Carl Wildman
recorded after her season at the
Queen's Theatre London,
BBC radio, 12
August 1965 (a shorter version had been broadcast on 2 April).
The Child, with Godfrey Kenton, radio play by Shirley Jenkins,
Richard Imison for the
BBC on 18 August 1965
Dietrich's appeal to save the
Babelsberg Studio was broadcast on BBC
Dietrich made several appearances on Armed Forces Radio Services shows
like The Army Hour and Command Performance during the war years. In
1952, she had her own series on American ABC entitled, Cafe Istanbul.
During 1953–54, she starred in 38 episodes of Time for Love on CBS
(which debuted 15 January 1953). She recorded 94 short inserts,
"Dietrich Talks on Love and Life", for NBC's Monitor in 1958. Dietrich
gave many radio interviews worldwide on her concert tours. In 1960,
her show at the Tuschinski in Amsterdam was broadcast live on Dutch
radio. Her 1962 appearance at the Olympia in
Paris was also broadcast.
Desert Island Discs, Dietrich asked to choose eight recordings,
broadcast Monday 4 January 1965
Dietrich, Marlene (1962). Marlene Dietrich's ABC. Doubleday.
Dietrich, Marlene (1979). Nehmt nur mein Leben: Reflexionen (in
German). Goldmann. ISBN 3-442-06327-2.
Dietrich, Marlene (1989). Marlene. Salvator Attanasio (translator).
Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-1117-3.
Dietrich, Marlene (1990). Some Facts About Myself. Helnwein, Gottfried
[Conception and photographs]. ISBN 3-89322-226-X.
List of German-speaking
Academy Award winners and nominees
List of people from Berlin
^ a b Flint, Peter B. (7 May 1992). "Marlene Dietrich, 90, Symbol of
Glamour, Dies". The New York Times.
Marlene Dietrich to be US Citizen". Painesville Telegraph. 6 March
^ "Citizen Soon". The Telegraph Herald. 10 March 1939.
^ "Seize Luggage of Marlene Dietrich". Lawrence Journal World. 14 June
Marlene Dietrich – The Ultimate Gay Icon » The Cinema
Museum, London". The Cinema Museum, London. Retrieved
^ "AFI's 50 Greatest American Screen Legends". American Film
Institute. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
^ a b Born as Maria Magdalena, not Marie Magdalene, according to
Dietrich's biography by her daughter,
Maria Riva (Riva 1993); however
Dietrich's biography by Charlotte Chandler cites "Marie Magdalene" as
her birth name (Chandler 2011, p. 12).
^ Bach 2011, p. 19.
Marlene Dietrich (German-American actress and singer)". Our Queer
^ Bach 1992, p. 20.
^ Bach 1992, p. 26.
^ Bach 1992, p. 32.
^ Bach 1992, p. 39.
^ Bach 1992, p. 42.
^ Bach 1992, p. 44.
^ Bach 1992, p. 49.
^ Bach 1992, p. 491.
^ Bach 2011, p. 62.
^ Bach 1992, p. 65.
^ a b Bach 1992, p. 480.
^ Bach 1992, p. 482.
^ Bach 1992, p. 483.
^ Bach 1992, p. 488.
^ "Ship of Lost Men (Das Schiff der verlorenen Menschen)". Amazon.
Retrieved 17 May 2013.
^ "The Ex-Marlene Dietrich, Multiple Best in Show Winning 1930
Rolls-Royce Phantom". Bonhams.
^ See e.g., Thomson (1975), p. 587: "He was not an easy man to be
directed by. Many actors—notably [Emil] Jannings and William
Powell—reacted violently to him. Dietrich adored him, and trusted
^ See, for example, Thomson (1975). The entry for Dietrich: "With him
[von Sternberg] Dietrich made seven masterpieces [i.e., Blue Angel in
Germany and the six in Hollywood], films that are still breathtakingly
modern, which have no superior for their sense of artificiality
suffused with emotion and which visually combine decadence and
austerity, tenderness and cruelty, gaiety and despair."
^ See, for example, the entries for Dietrich and Sternberg in Thomson
^ Nightingale, Benedict (1 February 1979). "After Making Nine Films
Together, Hepburn Can Practically Direct Cukor; Hepburn Helps Cukor
Direct The Corn Is Green'" – via NYTimes.com.
^ Spoto, Donald (5 July 2000). Blue Angel: The Life of Marlene
Dietrich. Cooper Square Press. ISBN 978-1-4616-2421-9.
^ Bach 1992, pp. 210-211.
Joan Crawford Survived Box Office Poison twice!". 29 July
^ a b Helm, Toby (24 June 2000). "Film star felt ashamed of Belsen
link". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
^ a b c Sudendorf, Werner.
^ "Thanks Soldier". MarleneDietrich.org. 2000. Archived from the
original on 25 September 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2010.
^ "A Soldier Lovingly Remembers Marlene Dietrich". Sister
^ a b "A Look Back … Marlene Dietrich: Singing For A Cause". Central
Intelligence Agency. 23 October 2008. Retrieved 20 March 2010.
^ McIntosh 1998, p. 58.
^ McIntosh 1998, p. 59.
^ Marlene Dietrich: Her Own Song. TCM documentary. 2001.
^ Helm, Toby (24 June 2000). "Film star felt ashamed of Belsen link".
The Telegraph. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
^ "Miss Dietrich to Receive Medal". The New York Times. 18 November
^ "Marlene Dietrich : Biography". Who's Who – The People
Lexicon (in German). www.whoswho.de. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur and Officier de la Légion
^ Bach 1992, p. 369.
^ a b c Bach 1992, p. 368.
^ a b Bach 1992, p. 371.
^ a b c Bach 1992, p. 395.
^ Carpenter, Cassie (9 August 2011). "Cassie's Corner: Marlene
Dietrich's Top 10 Badass One-Liners". L.A Slush. Archived from the
original on 12 January 2012.
^ O'Connor 1991, p. 154.
Marlene Dietrich 1971 Copenhagen Interview" on YouTube, 1/2 hour
^ a b Dietrich, Marlene. Marlene, Grove Press (1989) ebook
^ Bach 1992, p. 394.
^ Morley 1978, p. 69.
^ O'Connor 1991, p. 133.
^ "How one night in Montreal changed the life of Marlene Dietrich".
The Montreal Gazette. 2 May 2012.
^ a b c d Bach 1992, p. 406.
^ a b c Bach 1992, p. 401.
^ Chesnoff, Richard Z. (7 March 1966). "A Candid Portrait of Marlene
Dietrich". The Montreal Gazette.
^ Bach 1992, p. 526.
^ "I Wish You Love Production Schedule".
Marlene Dietrich Collection
Berlin. Archived from the original on 24 September 2008. Retrieved 11
^ "Marlene Dietrich". New World Encyclopedia.
^ Bach 1992, p. 416.
^ Bach 1992, p. 436.
^ Bach 1992, p. 437.
^ Morley 1978, p. 72.
^ "Act follows suggestion of song's title". Toledo Blade. Ohio. 7
November 1973. p. 37.
^ Voss, Joan. "Marlene Dietrich". Senior Connection. Retrieved 24 July
^ "Nehmt nur mein Leben ... : Reflexionen / Marlene Dietrich".
Library of Congress Online Catalogue. Retrieved 11 October 2016.
^ "Marlene". Atlas International. Archived from the original on 5
January 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2009.
^ Bach 1992, p. 528.
^ "Der Himmel war grün, wenn sie es sagte".
Der Spiegel (in German).
13 November 2005.
^ "I have given up belief in a God." Allen Smith, Warren (2002).
Celebrities in Hell: A Guide to Hollywood's Atheists, Agnostics,
Skeptics, Free Thinkers, and More. Barricade Books Inc. p. 130.
^ a b "Obituary of Maria Magdalene "Marlene" Dietrich". The Message
Newsjournal. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
Marlene Dietrich Funeral".
Associated Press Images. Retrieved 2
^ "15 Most Inspiring
Cannes Film Festival
Cannes Film Festival Posters". Retrieved 12
^ "Obituary for Marlene Magdelene Dietrich". The Message Newsjournal.
Retrieved 9 June 2013.
^ "Marlene Dietrich: Berlin". Archived from the original on 3 January
2013. Retrieved 18 May 2007.
^ "Dietrich fans scramble to pick up actress's treasures".
BBC News. 2
November 1997. Retrieved 18 May 2007.
^ Swanson, Carl (5 April 1998). "Recent Transactions in the Real
Estate Market". The New York Observer. Archived from the original on
11 August 2014.
^ Bourke, Amy (29 May 2007). "
Bisexual side of Dietrich show". Pink
^ Kennison, Rebecca (2002). "Clothes Make the (Wo)man: Marlene
Dietrich and "Double Drag"". Journal of
Lesbian Studies. 6 (2):
^ Baum cited in Gammel (2012), p. 372
Marlene Dietrich by Her Daughter". Goodreads. Retrieved 19 March
^ Riva 1994, p. 344.
^ "History on Film: Actors: Gary Cooper". Archived from the original
on 11 February 2012.
^ "Marlene Dietrich". Revista
Vanidades de México. Editorial Televisa
S.A. de C.V. 46 (12): 141. 2006. ISSN 1665-7519.
^ Bach 1992, pp. 207, 211.
^ Bach 1992, p. 223.
^ Bach 1992, p. 462.
^ Freeman, David (7 January 2001). "Closet Hollywood: A gossip
columnist discloses some secrets about movie idols". The New York
Times. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
^ Madsen, Axel (2002). The Sewing Circle: Sappho's Leading Ladies. New
York: Kensington Books. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-7582-0101-0.
^ Moser, Margaret (2011). Movie Stars Do the Dumbest Things.
Macmillan. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-4299-7837-8.
^ Bach 1992, p. 240.
^ Riva 1994, pp. 489, 675.
^ Bach 1992, pp. 316, 380.
Marlene Dietrich – Did they meet?". Garbo Forever.
^ "Marlene's fave movie legends". Garbo Forever.
^ McNulty, Thomas (2004). Errol Flynn: The Life and Career. McFarland.
^ Riva 1994, passim.
^ Bach 2011.
^ "Dead Atheists Society". Michaelnugent.com. 15 September 2010.
Retrieved 27 September 2010.
^ "Interview with Maria Riva, Actress and daughter of Marlene
Dietrich". Archive of American Television. Retrieved 9 June
^ Meyer, Ronald Bruce. "December 27:
Marlene Dietrich (1901)".
^ "From the Observer archive, 6 March 1960: Marlene Dietrich's
wardrobe secrets". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
^ Gammel 2012, p. 373.
^ Weber, Caroline (September–November 2007). "Academy Award: A new
volume analyzes Dietrich in and out of the seminar room".
^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names –
(1010) Marlene. Springer
Berlin Heidelberg. p. 87.
ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
^ "The German-
Hollywood Connection: Dietrich's Street". Archived from
the original on 22 December 2008.
^ "The Legendary, Lovely Marlene". marlenedietrich.org.uk. Archived
from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
^ Rentschler, Eric (2007). "An Icon between the Fronts". In
Schindler,, Stephan K; Koepnick, Lutz Peter. The Cosmopolitan Screen:
German Cinema and the Global Imaginary, 1945 to the present.
University of Michigan Press. p. 207.
^ "Marlene Dietrich: Why Google honours her today". www.aljazeera.com.
Retrieved 27 December 2017.
^ Morse, Leon (22 October 1949). "The MGM Theater of the Air".
Billboard. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
^ Kirby, Walter (11 January 1953). "Better Radio Programs for the
Week". The Decatur Daily Review. p. 42. Retrieved 19 June 2015
– via Newspapers.com.
Bach, Steven (1992). Marlene Dietrich: Life and Legend. William Morrow
and Company, Inc. ISBN 0-688-07119-8.
Bach, Steven (2011). Marlene Dietrich: Life and Legend. University of
Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-7584-8.
Carr, Larry (1970). Four Fabulous Faces:The Evolution and
Metamorphosis of Swanson, Garbo, Crawford and Dietrich. Doubleday and
Company. ISBN 0-87000-108-6.
Chandler, Charlotte (2011). Marlene Dietrich, a personal biography.
Simon & Schuster. ISBN 1-4391-8835-1.
Gammel, Irene (2012). "Lacing up the Gloves: Women,
Modernity" (PDF). Cultural and Social History. 9 (3).
McIntosh, Elizabeth P. (1998). Sisterhood of Spies: The Women of the
OSS. London: Dell. ISBN 0-440-23466-2.
Morley, Sheridan (1978). Marlene Dietrich. Sphere Books.
O'Connor, Patrick (1991). The Amazing Blonde Woman: Dietrich's Own
Style. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 0-7475-1264-7.
Riva, David J. (2006). A Woman at War:
Marlene Dietrich Remembered.
Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-3249-8.
Riva, Maria (1993).
Marlene Dietrich (1st ed.). Knopf.
Riva, Maria (1994). Marlene Dietrich. Ballantine Books.
Spoto, Donald (1992). Blue Angel: The Life of Marlene Dietrich.
Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-42553-8.
Thomson, David (1975). A Biographical Dictionary of the Cinema.
London: Secker and Warburg. ISBN 0-436-52010-9.
Walker, Alexander (1984). Dietrich. Harper & Row.
Find more aboutMarlene Dietrichat's sister projects
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Marlene Dietrich at the TCM Movie Database
Marlene Dietrich Collection,
Marlene Dietrich – Daily Telegraph obituary
A film clip Air Army Invades Germany (1945) is available at the
A film clip Atom Test Nears, 1946/06/13 (1946) is available at the
A film clip Cruiser Bow Ripped Off By Typhoon, 1945/07/23 (1945) is
available at the Internet Archive
A Soldier Lovingly Remembers Marlene Dietrich
Marlene Dietrich FBI Files
Marlene Dietrich at Find a Grave
Spring, Kelly. "Marlene Dietrich". National Women's History Museum.
Marlene Dietrich Overseas
Marlene Dietrich Overseas (1951)
Die neue Marlene
Die neue Marlene (1965)
Marlene singt Berlin,
Live at the Café de
Dietrich in Rio
Dietrich in Rio (1959)
Wiedersehen mit Marlene
Wiedersehen mit Marlene (1960)
"Falling in Love Again"
"The Boys in the Backroom"
"Sag' mir, wo die Blumen sind"
"Die Antwort Weiss Ganz Allein Der Wind"
"Come Rain or Come Shine"
An Evening with Marlene Dietrich
An Evening with Marlene Dietrich (2003)
ISNI: 0000 0001 2144 7133
BNF: cb12013957t (data)