Mark Zuckerberg
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Mark Elliot Zuckerberg (; born ) is an American , internet entrepreneur, and . He is known for co-founding (formerly named Facebook, Inc.) and serves as its chairman, chief executive officer, and controlling shareholder. He also is a co-founder of the spacecraft development project and serves as one of its board members. Zuckerberg attended , where he launched the from his dormitory room in February 2004 with his roommates , , , and . Originally launched to select college campuses, the site expanded rapidly and eventually beyond colleges, reaching one billion users by 2012. Zuckerberg took the company public in May 2012 with majority shares. In 2007, at age 23, he became the world's youngest self-made billionaire. As of December 2021, Zuckerberg's net worth was $115 billion, making him the . Since 2008, ' magazine has named Zuckerberg among the as a part of its award, which he was recognized with in 2010. In December 2016, Zuckerberg was ranked 10th on .


Early life

Mark Elliot Zuckerberg was born in , on May 14, 1984, the son of psychiatrist Karen (née Kempner) and dentist Edward Zuckerberg. He and his three sisters (Arielle, businesswoman , and writer ) were raised in a household in . His great-grandparents were Jewish emigrants from Austria, Germany, and Poland. He had a '-themed when he turned 13. He excelled academically at in . After two years, he transferred to the private and won prizes in astronomy, classical studies, mathematics, and physics. In his youth, he also attended 's summer camp. On his college application, he stated that he could read and write , , , and . He was captain of the fencing team.


Software developer


Early years

Zuckerberg began using computers and writing software in . His father taught him in the 1990s, and later hired software developer David Newman to tutor him privately. Zuckerberg took a graduate course in the subject at near his home while still in high school. In one program, since his father's dental practice was operated from their home, he built a software program he called "ZuckNet" that allowed all the computers between the house and dental office to communicate with each other. It is considered a "primitive" version of 's , which came out the following year. A ''New Yorker'' profile said of Zuckerberg: "some kids played computer games. Mark created them." Zuckerberg himself recalls this period: "I had a bunch of friends who were artists. They'd come over, draw stuff, and I'd build a game out of it." The ''New Yorker'' piece noted that Zuckerberg was not, however, a typical "geek-klutz", as he later became captain of his prep school team and earned a classics diploma. co-founder , a close friend, notes that Zuckerberg was "really into Greek odysseys and all that stuff", recalling how he once quoted lines from the Roman epic poem ', by , during a Facebook product conference. During Zuckerberg's high-school years, he worked under the company name Intelligent Media Group to build a music player called the Synapse Media Player. The device used to learn the user's listening habits, which was posted to ' and received a rating of 3 out of 5 from '.


College years

The ''New Yorker'' noted that by the time Zuckerberg began classes at in 2002, he had already achieved a "reputation as a programming prodigy". He studied and and belonged to and . In his year, he wrote a program that he called CourseMatch, which allowed users to make class selection decisions based on the choices of other students and also to help them form study groups. A short time later, he created a different program he initially called that let students select the best-looking person from a choice of photos. According to Arie Hasit, Zuckerberg's roommate at the time, "he built the site for fun". Hasit explains:
We had books called Face Books, which included the names and pictures of everyone who lived in the student dorms. At first, he built a site and placed two pictures or pictures of two males and two females. Visitors to the site had to choose who was "hotter" and according to the votes there would be a ranking.
The site went up over a weekend, but by Monday morning, the college shut it down, because its popularity had overwhelmed one of Harvard's es and prevented students from accessing the Internet. In addition, many students complained that their photos were being used without permission. Zuckerberg apologized publicly, and the student paper ran articles stating that his site was "completely improper". The following semester, in January 2004, Zuckerberg began writing code for a new website. On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched "Thefacebook", originally located at thefacebook.com. Six days after the site launched, three Harvard seniors, , , and , accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing he would help them build a social network called , while he was instead using their ideas to build a competing product. The three complained to ', and the newspaper began an investigation in response. While Zuckerberg tried to convince the editors not to run the story, Zuckerberg broke into two of the editors' email accounts. He did it based on the editors' private login data logs from TheFacebook. Following the official launch of the Facebook social media platform, the three filed a lawsuit against Zuckerberg that resulted in a settlement. The agreed settlement was for 1.2 million Facebook shares. Zuckerberg dropped out of Harvard in his sophomore year in order to complete his project. In January 2014, he recalled:
I remember really vividly, you know, having pizza with my friends a day or two after—I opened up the first version of Facebook at the time I thought, "You know, someone needs to build a service like this for the world." But I just never thought that we'd be the ones to help do it. And I think a lot of what it comes down to is we just cared more.
On May 25, 2017, at Harvard's 366th commencement Day, Zuckerberg, after giving a , received an from Harvard.


Career


Facebook

On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched Facebook from his Harvard dormitory room. An earlier inspiration for Facebook may have come from , the prep school from which Zuckerberg graduated in 2002. It published its own student directory, "The Photo Address Book", which students referred to as "The Facebook". Such photo directories were an important part of the student social experience at many private schools. With them, students were able to list attributes such as their class years, their friends, and their telephone numbers. Once at college, Zuckerberg's Facebook started off as just a "Harvard thing" until Zuckerberg decided to spread it to other schools, enlisting the help of roommate . They began with , , , , , , , and . , a er representing at the , shared a room with Zuckerberg during Facebook's founding. "Mark was clearly on to great things," said Laine, who was Facebook's fourteenth user. Zuckerberg, Moskovitz and some friends moved to , where they leased a small house that served as an office. Over the summer, Zuckerberg met , who invested in the company. They got their first office in mid-2004. According to Zuckerberg, the group planned to return to Harvard, but they eventually decided to remain in California, where Zuckerberg appreciated the "mythical place" of , the center of computer technology in California. They had already turned down offers by major corporations to buy the company. In an interview in 2007, Zuckerberg explained his reasoning: "It's not because of the amount of money. For me and my colleagues, the most important thing is that we create an open information flow for people. Having media corporations owned by is just not an attractive idea to me." The same year, speaking at 's ''Startup School'' course at , Zuckerberg made a that "young people are just smarter" and that other entrepreneurs should bias towards hiring young people. He restated these goals to ' magazine in 2010: "The thing I really care about is the mission, making the world open." Earlier, in April 2009, Zuckerberg sought the advice of former CFO about financing strategies for Facebook. On July 21, 2010, Zuckerberg reported that the company reached the 500-million-user mark. When asked whether Facebook could earn more income from advertising as a result of its phenomenal growth, he explained:
I guess we could ... If you look at how much of our page is taken up with ads compared to the average query. The average for us is a little less than 10 percent of the pages and the average for search is about 20 percent taken up with ads ... That's the simplest thing we could do. But we aren't like that. We make enough money. Right, I mean, we are keeping things running; we are growing at the rate we want to.
In 2010, , who wrote the 1984 book ', wrote that Zuckerberg "clearly thinks of himself as a ". Zuckerberg said that "it's OK to break things" "to make them better". Facebook instituted "s" held every six to eight weeks where participants would have one night to conceive of and complete a project. The company provided music, food, and beer at the hackathons, and many Facebook staff members, including Zuckerberg, regularly attended. "The idea is that you can build something really good in a night", Zuckerberg told Levy. "And that's part of the personality of Facebook now ... It's definitely very core to my personality." ' magazine named Zuckerberg number 1 on its 2010 list of the Top 100 "most influential people of the ". Zuckerberg ranked number 23 on the ''Vanity Fair'' 100 list in 2009. In 2010, Zuckerberg was chosen as number 16 in 's annual survey of the world's 50 most influential figures. In a 2011 interview with shortly after the death of , Zuckerberg said that Jobs had advised him on how to create a management team at Facebook that was "focused on building as high quality and good things as you are". On October 1, 2012, Zuckerberg visited n Prime Minister in Moscow to stimulate social media innovation in Russia and to boost Facebook's position in the Russian market. Russia's communications minister tweeted that Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev urged the social media giant's founder to abandon plans to lure away Russian programmers and instead consider opening a research center in Moscow. In 2012, Facebook had roughly 9 million users in Russia, while domestic clone had around 34 million. Rebecca Van Dyck, Facebook's head of consumer marketing, said that 85 million American Facebook users were exposed to the first day of the Home promotional campaign on April 6, 2013. On August 19, 2013, ' reported that Zuckerberg's Facebook profile was hacked by an unemployed web developer. At the 2013 conference, held in September, Zuckerberg stated that he is working towards registering the 5 billion people who were not connected to the Internet as of the conference on Facebook. Zuckerberg then explained that this is intertwined with the aim of the Internet.org project, whereby Facebook, with the support of other technology companies, seeks to increase the number of people connected to the internet. Zuckerberg was the keynote speaker at the 2014 Mobile World Congress (MWC), held in , Spain, in March 2014, which was attended by 75,000 delegates. Various media sources highlighted the connection between Facebook's focus on mobile technology and Zuckerberg's speech, stating that mobile represents the future of the company. Zuckerberg's speech expands upon the goal that he raised at the conference in September 2013, whereby he is working towards expanding Internet coverage into developing countries. Alongside other American technology figures like and , Zuckerberg hosted visiting Chinese politician , known as the "Internet czar" for his influence in the enforcement of China's online policy, at Facebook's headquarters on December 8, 2014. The meeting occurred after Zuckerberg participated in a Q&A session at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, on October 23, 2014, where he attempted to converse in ; although Facebook is banned in China, Zuckerberg is highly regarded among the people and was at the university to help fuel the nation's burgeoning entrepreneur sector. Zuckerberg fielded questions during a live Q&A session at the company's headquarters in Menlo Park on December 11, 2014. The founder and CEO explained that he does not believe Facebook is a waste of time, because it facilitates social engagement, and participating in a public session was so that he could "learn how to better serve the community". Zuckerberg receives a as CEO of Facebook. In June 2016, ' named Zuckerberg one of the "Top 10 Business Visionaries Creating Value for the World" along with and , due to the fact that he and his wife "pledged to give away 99% of their wealth — which is estimated at $55.0 billion." In January 2019, Zuckerberg laid plans to integrate an end-to-end encrypted system for three major social media platforms, including Facebook, and . On August 14, 2020, Facebook integrated the chat systems for Instagram and Messenger on both iOS and Android devices. The update encouraged cross-communication between Instagram and Facebook users.


Wirehog

A month after Zuckerberg launched Facebook in February 2004, , another campus-only service, created by , was launched. i2hub focused on file sharing. At the time, both i2hub and Facebook were gaining the attention of the press and growing rapidly in users and publicity. In August 2004, Zuckerberg, , , and launched a competing peer-to-peer file sharing service called , a precursor to applications.


Platform, Beacon, and Connect

On May 24, 2007, Zuckerberg announced , a development platform for programmers to create social applications within Facebook. Within weeks, many applications had been built and some already had millions of users. It grew to more than 800,000 developers around the world building applications for Facebook Platform. On November 6, 2007, Zuckerberg announced Beacon, a social advertising system that enabled people to share information with their Facebook friends based on their browsing activities on other sites. For example, sellers could let friends know automatically what they have for sale via the Facebook news feed as they listed items for sale. The program came under scrutiny because of privacy concerns from groups and individual users. Zuckerberg and Facebook failed to respond to the concerns quickly, and on December 5, 2007, Zuckerberg wrote a blog post on Facebook, taking responsibility for the concerns about Beacon and offering an easier way for users to opt out of the service. In 2007, Zuckerberg was added to 's list as one of the top 35 innovators in the world under the age of 35. On July 23, 2008, Zuckerberg announced , a version of Facebook Platform for users.


Internet.org

In a public Facebook post, Zuckerberg launched the project in late August 2013. He explained that the primary aim of the initiative is to provide Internet access to the five billion people who are not connected as of the launch date. According to Zuckerberg, Internet.org would also create new jobs and open up new markets using a three-tier strategy. He stated in his post:
The world economy is going through a massive transition right now. The knowledge economy is the future. By bringing everyone online, we'll not only improve billions of lives, but we'll also improve our own as we benefit from the ideas and productivity they contribute to the world. Giving everyone the opportunity to connect is the foundation for enabling the knowledge economy. It is not the only thing we need to do, but it's a fundamental and necessary step.
Internet.org faced significant opposition in India, where activists said its limited internet ran counter to the idea of net neutrality; Zuckerberg said that a limited internet was better than no internet. Internet.org was shut down in India in February 2016. Zuckerberg later met with , and in the San Francisco Bay Area to discuss how to effectively establish affordable access in less developed countries. He also changed his Facebook profile picture to extend his support to to help rural communities stay connected to the internet.


Legal controversies


ConnectU lawsuits

Harvard students , , and accused Zuckerberg of intentionally making them believe he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com (later called ). They filed a lawsuit in 2004; it was dismissed on a technicality on March 28, 2007. It was refiled soon thereafter in in . Facebook countersued in regards to Social Butterfly, a project put out by , an alleged partnership between ConnectU and . On June 25, 2008, the case settled and Facebook agreed to transfer over 1.2 million common shares and pay $20 million in cash. In November 2007, confidential court documents were posted on the website of ', a magazine that catered to Harvard alumni. They included Zuckerberg's Social Security number, his parents' home address, and his girlfriend's address. Facebook filed to have the documents removed; the judge ruled in favor of ''02138''.


Saverin lawsuit

A lawsuit filed by against Facebook and Zuckerberg was settled out of court. Though terms of the settlement were sealed, the company affirmed Saverin's title as co-founder of Facebook. Saverin signed a non-disclosure contract after the settlement.


Pakistan criminal investigation

In June 2010, i Deputy Attorney General Muhammad Azhar Sidiqque launched a criminal investigation into Zuckerberg and Facebook co-founders and after a "" contest was hosted on Facebook. The investigation named the anonymous German woman who created the contest. Sidiqque asked the country's police to contact to have Zuckerberg and the three others arrested for . On May 19, 2010, Facebook's website was temporarily blocked in Pakistan until Facebook removed the contest from its website at the end of May. Sidiqque also asked its UN representative to raise the issue with the .


Paul Ceglia

In June 2010, Paul Ceglia, the owner of a wood company in , filed suit against Zuckerberg, claiming 84 percent ownership of Facebook and seeking monetary damages. According to Ceglia, he and Zuckerberg signed a contract on April 28, 2003, that an initial fee of $1,000 entitled Ceglia to 50% of the website's revenue, as well as an additional 1% interest in the business per day after January 1, 2004, until website completion. Zuckerberg was developing other projects at the time, among which was ''Facemash'', the predecessor of Facebook, but did not register the domain name ''thefacebook.com'' until January 1, 2004. Facebook management dismissed the lawsuit as "completely frivolous". Facebook spokesman Barry Schnitt told a reporter that Ceglia's counsel had unsuccessfully sought an out-of-court settlement. On October 26, 2012, federal authorities arrested Ceglia, charging him with mail and wire fraud and of "tampering with, destroying and fabricating evidence in a scheme to defraud the Facebook founder of billions of dollars." Ceglia is accused of fabricating emails to make it appear that he and Zuckerberg discussed details about an early version of Facebook, although after examining their emails, investigators found there was no mention of Facebook in them. Some law firms withdrew from the case before it was initiated and others after Ceglia's arrest.


Hawaiian land ownership

In January 2017, Zuckerberg filed eight " and " lawsuits against hundreds of to purchase small tracts of land which they own. This land is contained within the 700 s of land in the Hawaiian island of that Zuckerberg had purchased in 2014. When he learned that Hawaiian differs from that of the other 49 states, he dropped the lawsuits.


Testimony before U.S. Congress

On April 10 and 11, 2018, Zuckerberg began testifying before the regarding the usage of personal data by Facebook in relation to the . He has called the whole affair a breach of trust between , , and Facebook. Zuckerberg has refused requests to appear to give evidence on the matter to a committee in the United Kingdom. On October 1, 2020, the unanimously voted to issue to the CEOs of three top tech firms, including Zuckerberg, ’s and 's . The subpoenas aimed to force the CEOs to testify about the legal immunity the law affords tech platforms under of 1934. US argued that the law unduly protected companies against allegations of anti-conservative censorship. In March 2021, it was announced that Zuckerberg would testify before Congress again on March 26, when he will be questioned about the role that Facebook played in the .


Breakthrough Starshot

Zuckerberg co-founded and is a board member of the spacecraft development project .


Depictions in media


''The Social Network''

A movie based on Zuckerberg and the founding years of Facebook, ' was released on October 1, 2010, starring as Zuckerberg. After Zuckerberg was told about the film, he responded, "I just wished that nobody made a movie of me while I was still alive." Also, after the film's script was leaked on the Internet and it was apparent that the film would not portray Zuckerberg in a wholly positive light, he stated that he wanted to establish himself as a "good guy". The film is based on the book ' by , which the book's publicist once described as "big juicy fun" rather than "reportage". The film's screenwriter told , "I don't want my fidelity to be the truth; I want it to be storytelling", adding, "What is the big deal about accuracy purely for accuracy's sake, and can we not have the true be the enemy of the good?" Upon winning the for Best Picture on January 16, 2011, producer thanked Facebook and Zuckerberg "for his willingness to allow us to use his life and work as a through which to tell a story about communication and the way we relate to each other." Sorkin, who won for Best Screenplay, retracted some of the impressions given in his script: :I wanted to say to Mark Zuckerberg tonight, if you're watching, 's character makes a prediction at the beginning of the movie. She was wrong. You turned out to be a great entrepreneur, a visionary, and an incredible altruist. On January 29, 2011, Zuckerberg made a surprise guest appearance on ', which was hosted by Jesse Eisenberg. They both said it was the first time they had met. Eisenberg asked Zuckerberg, who had been critical of his portrayal by the film, what he thought of the movie. Zuckerberg replied, "It was interesting." In a subsequent interview about their meeting, Eisenberg explained that he was "nervous to meet him, because I had spent now, a year and a half thinking about him ..." He added, "Mark has been so gracious about something that's really so uncomfortable ... The fact that he would do ''SNL'' and make fun of the situation is so sweet and so generous. It's the best possible way to handle something that, I think, could otherwise be very uncomfortable."


Disputed accuracy

Jeff Jarvis, author of the book ''Public Parts'', interviewed Zuckerberg and believed Sorkin made up too much of the story. He stated, "That's what the internet is accused of doing, making stuff up, not caring about the facts."Rohrer, Finlo
"Is the Facebook movie the truth about Mark Zuckerberg"
BBC, September 30, 2010
According to David Kirkpatrick, former technology editor at ' magazine and author of ''The Facebook Effect: The Inside Story of the Company That Is Connecting the World,'' (2011), "the film is only "40% true ... he is not snide and sarcastic in a cruel way, the way Zuckerberg is played in the movie." He says that "a lot of the factual incidents are accurate, but many are distorted and the overall impression is false", and concludes that primarily "his motivations were to try and come up with a new way to share information on the Internet". Although the film portrayed Zuckerberg's creation of Facebook in order to elevate his stature after not getting into any of the elite at Harvard, Zuckerberg said he had no interest in joining the clubs. Kirkpatrick agreed that the impression implied by the film is "false". Karel Baloun, a former senior engineer at Facebook, noted that the "image of Zuckerberg as a socially inept nerd is overstated ... It is fiction ..." He likewise dismissed the film's assertion that he "would deliberately betray a friend."


Other depictions

Zuckerberg voiced himself on an episode of ' titled "", which first aired on October 3, 2010. In the episode, and her friend Nelson encounter Zuckerberg at an entrepreneurs' convention. Zuckerberg tells Lisa that she does not need to graduate from college to be wildly successful, referencing and as examples. On October 9, 2010, ' lampooned Zuckerberg and Facebook. played Zuckerberg. The real Zuckerberg was reported to have been amused: "I thought this was funny." awarded a "Medal of Fear" to Zuckerberg at the on October 30, 2010, "because he values his privacy much more than he values yours". Zuckerberg appears in the climax of the documentary film '. Zuckerberg was parodied in the ' episode "". On December 7, 2018, ' released a rap battle video between Zuckerberg and .


Philanthropy and Chan Zuckerberg Initiative

In 2010, Zuckerberg donated an undisclosed amount to , an open-source personal Web server that implements a distributed social networking service. He called it a "cool idea". Zuckerberg founded the Start-up: Education foundation. On September 22, 2010, it was reported that Zuckerberg had donated $100 million to , the public school system of . Critics noted the timing of the donation as being close to the release of ''The Social Network'', which painted a somewhat negative portrait of Zuckerberg. Zuckerberg responded to the criticism, saying, "The thing that I was most sensitive about with the movie timing was, I didn't want the press about ''The Social Network'' movie to get conflated with the Newark project. I was thinking about doing this anonymously just so that the two things could be kept separate." Newark Mayor stated that he and New Jersey Governor had to convince Zuckerberg's team not to make the donation anonymously. The money was largely wasted, according to journalist Dale Russakoff. In 2010, Zuckerberg, , and investor signed "", in which they said they would donate to charity at least half of their wealth over the course of time, and invited others among the wealthy to donate 50 percent or more of their wealth to charity. In December 2012, Zuckerberg and his wife said that over the course of their lives they would give the majority of their wealth to "advancing human potential and promoting equality" in the spirit of The Giving Pledge. On December 19, 2013, Zuckerberg announced a donation of 18 million Facebook shares to the , to be executed by the end of the month—based on Facebook's valuation as of then, the shares totaled $990 million in value. On December 31, 2013, the donation was recognized as the largest charitable gift on public record for 2013. ' placed Zuckerberg and his wife at the top of the magazine's annual list of 50 most generous Americans for 2013, having donated roughly $1 billion to charity. In October 2014, Zuckerberg and Chan donated US$25 million to combat the , specifically the . On December 1, 2015, Zuckerberg and Chan pledged to transfer 99% of their Facebook shares, then valued at US$45 billion, to the , their new organization that will focus on health and education. The funds will not be transferred immediately, but over the course of their lives. Instead of forming a charitable corporation to donate the value of the stock to, as , , , and other billionaires have done, Zuckerberg and Chan chose to use the structure of a . Some journalists and academics have said the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative conducts . In 2016, the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative gave $600 million to create the tax-exempt charity Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, a collaborative research space in San Francisco's Mission Bay District near the , with the intent to foster interaction and collaboration between scientists at UCSF, , and . Intellectual property generated would be jointly owned by Biohub and the discoverer's home institution. Unlike foundations like the which open up all research funded to unrestricted access and reuse by the public, Biohub retains the right to commercialize any research it funds. Inventors will have the option of making their discoveries open-source, with permission from Biohub. To increase access to scientific research and promote open science, CZ Biohub requires its investigators and staff scientists to publish submitted manuscripts and related data on s servers like . Amidst the , Zuckerberg donated $25 million to a -backed accelerator that is searching for treatments for the disease. He also announced $25 million in grants to support local journalism that was impacted by the pandemic and $75 million in advertisement purchases in local newspapers by , where Facebook will market itself.


Politics

In 2002, Zuckerberg registered to vote in , where he grew up, but did not cast a ballot until November 2008. Registrar of Voters Spokeswoman, Elma Rosas, told Bloomberg that Zuckerberg is listed as "no preference" on voter rolls, and he voted in at least two of the past three general elections, in and . Zuckerberg has never revealed his own political affiliation or voting history: some news outlets consider him to be a , while others consider him . On February 13, 2013, Zuckerberg hosted his first ever fundraising event for New Jersey Governor . Zuckerberg's particular interest on this occasion was education reform, and Christie's education reform work focused on teachers unions and the expansion of s. Later that year, Zuckerberg hosted a campaign fundraiser for Newark mayor , who was running in the . In September 2010, with the support of Governor Chris Christie, Booker obtained a US$100 million pledge from Zuckerberg to . In December 2012, Zuckerberg donated 18 million shares to the , a community organization that includes education in its list of grant-making areas. On April 11, 2013, Zuckerberg led the launch of a called . The founders and contributors to the group were primarily Silicon Valley entrepreneurs and investors, and its president was , a close friend of Zuckerberg. The goals of the group include , improving the state of education in the United States, and enabling more technological breakthroughs that benefit the public, yet it has also been criticized for financing ads advocating a variety of oil and gas development initiatives, including drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and the Keystone XL pipeline. In 2013, numerous liberal and progressive groups, such as , , the , , CREDO, , , and Presente and Progressives United agreed to either pull their Facebook ad buys or not buy Facebook ads for at least two weeks, in protest of Zuckerberg ads funded by FWD.us that were in support of oil drilling and the , and in opposition to among Republican United States senators who back immigration reform. A media report on June 20, 2013, revealed that Zuckerberg actively engaged with Facebook users on his own profile page after the online publication of a FWD.us video. In response to a claim that the FWD.us organization is "just about tech wanting to hire more people", the Internet entrepreneur replied: "The bigger problem we're trying to address is ensuring the 11 million undocumented folks living in this country now and similar folks in the future are treated fairly." In June 2013, Zuckerberg joined Facebook employees in a company float as part of the annual . The company first participated in the event in 2011, with 70 employees, and this number increased to 700 for the 2013 march. The 2013 pride celebration was especially significant, as it followed a ruling that deemed the (DOMA) unconstitutional. When questioned about the mid-2013 scandal at the TechCrunch Disrupt conference in September 2013, Zuckerberg stated that the U.S. government "blew it". He further explained that the government performed poorly in regard to the protection of the freedoms of its citizens, the economy, and companies. Zuckerberg placed a statement on his Facebook wall on December 9, 2015 which said that he wants "to add my voice in support of Muslims in our community and around the world" in response to the of the and the . The statement also said that Muslims are "always welcome" on Facebook, and that his position was a result of the fact that ", my parents taught me that we must stand up against attacks on all communities." On February 24, 2016, Zuckerberg sent out a company-wide internal memo to employees formally rebuking employees who had crossed out handwritten "" phrases on the company walls and had written "All Lives Matter" in their place. Facebook allows employees to free-write thoughts and phrases on company walls. The memo was then leaked by several employees. As Zuckerberg had previously condemned this practice at previous company meetings, and other similar requests had been issued by other leaders at Facebook, Zuckerberg wrote in the memo that he would now consider this overwriting practice not only disrespectful, but "malicious as well." According to Zuckerberg's memo, "''Black Lives Matter'' doesn't mean other lives don't – it's simply asking that the black community also achieves the justice they deserve." The memo also noted that the act of crossing something out in itself, "means silencing speech, or that one person's speech is more important than another's." Zuckerberg also said in the memo that he would be launching investigations into the incidents. New York's ' interviewed Facebook employees who commented anonymously that, "Zuckerberg was genuinely angry about the incident and it really encouraged staff that Zuckerberg showed a clear understanding of why the phrase 'Black Lives Matter' must exist, as well as why writing through it is a form of harassment and erasure." In January 2017, Zuckerberg criticized Donald Trump's to severely limit immigrants and refugees from some countries. Zuckerberg has funded a state-level ballot initiative for the that would raise taxes by altering California's to require the tax assessment of commercial and industrial properties in the state at market rate.


Personal life

Raised as a , Zuckerberg later identified as an but subsequently revised his views. In 2016, he said, "I was raised Jewish and then I went through a period where I questioned things, but now I believe religion is very important." Zuckerberg met his future wife, fellow student , at a frat party during his sophomore year there. They began dating in 2003. In September 2010, Chan, who was by then a medical student at the , moved into Zuckerberg's rented house in . He studied before they visited , the home country of Chan's parents, later that year. On May 19, 2012, they married in his backyard in an event that also celebrated her graduation from medical school. On July 31, 2015, Zuckerberg revealed that they were expecting a baby girl and that Chan had previously experienced three miscarriages. Their daughter, Maxima Chan Zuckerberg, was born on December 1, 2015. They announced in a video that their daughter's Chinese name is Chen Mingyu (). Their second daughter, August, was born in August 2017. The couple also have a named Beast, who has over two million followers on Facebook.


See also

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References


External links


"Zuckerberg's Love Affair With Xi Jinping"
– ''Forbes'' * * * *
Mark Zuckerberg – ''Forbes''
* {{DEFAULTSORT:Zuckerberg, Mark World Economic Forum Young Global Leaders