Marie Dressler (born Leila Marie Koerber, November 9, 1868 –
July 28, 1934) was a
Canadian-American stage and screen actress,
comedian, and early silent film and Depression-era film star.
Successful on stage in vaudeville and comic operas, she was also
successful in film. In 1914, she was in the first full-length film
comedy and later won the
Academy Award for Best Actress
Academy Award for Best Actress in 1931.
Leaving home at the age of 14, Dressler built a career on stage in
traveling theatre troupes. While not conventionally beautiful, she
learned early to appreciate her talent in making people laugh. In
1892, she started a career on Broadway that lasted into the 1920s,
performing comedic roles that allowed her to improvise to get laughs.
From one of her successful Broadway roles, she played the titular role
in the first full-length screen comedy, Tillie's Punctured Romance
Charlie Chaplin and Mabel Normand. She made several
shorts, but mostly worked in New York City on stage. During World War
I, along with other celebrities, she helped sell Liberty Bonds. In
1919, she helped organize the first union for stage chorus players.
Her career declined in the 1920s, and Dressler was reduced to living
on her savings while sharing an apartment with a friend. In 1927, she
returned to films at the age of 59 and experienced a remarkable string
of successes. She won the
Academy Award for Best Actress
Academy Award for Best Actress in 1930–31
Min and Bill
Min and Bill and was named the top film star for 1932 and 1933.
She died of cancer in 1934.
1 Early life
2 Stage career
3 Film career
4 Personal life
10 See also
12 Further reading
13 External links
Dressler was born Leila Marie Koerber in Cobourg, Ontario, one of two
daughters born to Anna (née Henderson), a musician, and Alexander
Rudolph Koerber (b. 13 April 1826, Lindow, Neu-Ruppin, Germany – d.
November 1914, Wimbledon, Surrey, England), a German-born former
officer in the Crimean War. Leila's elder sister, Bonita Louise
Koerber (b. January 1864, Ontario, Canada – d. 18 September 1939,
Richmond, Surrey, England), later married playwright Richard
Her father was a music teacher in
Cobourg and the organist at St.
Peter's Anglican Church, where as a child Marie would sing and assist
in operating the organ. According to Dressler, the family regularly
moved from community to community during her childhood. It has been
Cobourg historian Andrew Hewson that Dressler attended a
private school, but this is doubtful if Dressler's recollections of
the family's genteel poverty are accurate.
The Koerber family eventually moved to the United States, where
Alexander Koerber is known to have worked as a piano teacher in the
late 1870s and early 1880s in Bay City and Saginaw (both in Michigan)
as well as Findlay, Ohio. Her first known acting appearance was as
Cupid at age five in a church theatrical performance in Lindsay,
Ontario. Residents of the towns where the Koerbers lived recalled
Dressler acting in many amateur productions, and Leila often irritated
her parents with those performances.
Dressler left home at 14 to begin her acting career with the Nevada
Stock Company, telling the company she was actually 18. The pay was
either $6 or $8 per week, and Dressler sent half to her mother.
At this time, Dressler adopted the name of an aunt as her stage
name. According to Dressler, her father objected to her using the
name of Koerber. The identity of the aunt was never confirmed,
although Dressler denied that she adopted the name from a store
awning. Dressler's sister Bonita, five years older, left home at about
the same time. Bonita also worked in the opera company. The Nevada
Stock Company was a travelling company that played mostly in the
American Midwest. Dressler described the troupe as a "wonderful school
in many ways. Often a bill was changed on an hour's notice or less.
Every member of the cast had to be a quick study". Dressler made
her professional debut as a chorus girl named Cigarette in the play
Under Two Flags, a dramatization of life in the Foreign Legion.
Dressler remained with the troupe for three years, while her sister
left to marry playwright Richard Ganthony. The company eventually
ended up in a small
Michigan town without money or a booking. Dressler
joined the Robert Grau Opera Company, which toured the Midwest, and
she received an improvement in pay to $8 per week, although Dressler
claimed she never received any wages.
Dressler ended up in Philadelphia, where she joined the Starr Opera
Company as a member of the chorus. A highlight with the Starr company
was portraying Katisha in The Mikado when the regular actress was
unable to go on, due to a sprained ankle, according to Dressler.
She was also known to have played the role of Princess Flametta in an
1887 production in Ann Arbor, Michigan. She left the Starr company
to return home to her parents in Saginaw. According to Dressler, when
the Bennett and Moulton Opera Company came to town, she was chosen
from the church choir by the company's manager and asked to join the
company. She remained with the company for three years, again on the
road, playing roles of light opera.
Dressler would recall specially the role of Barbara in The Black
Hussars, which she especially liked, and in which she would hit a
baseball into the stands. Dressler remained with the company until
1891, gradually increasing in popularity. She moved to Chicago and was
cast in productions of Little Robinson Crusoe and The Tar and the
Tartar. After the touring production of The Tar and the Tartar came to
a close, she moved to New York City.
In 1892, Dressler made her debut on Broadway at the Fifth Avenue
Theatre in Waldemar, the Robber of the Rhine, which only lasted five
weeks. She had hoped to become an operatic diva or tragedienne,
but the writer of Waldemar, Maurice Barrymore, convinced her to accept
that her best success was in comedy roles. Years later, she
appeared with his sons, Lionel and John, in motion pictures and became
good friends with his daughter, actress Ethel Barrymore. In 1893, she
was cast as the Duchess in Princess Nicotine, where she met and
befriended Lillian Russell.
Dressler now made $50 per week, with which she supported her parents.
She moved on into roles in 1492 Up To Date, Girofle-Girofla, and A
Stag Party, or A Hero in Spite of Himself After A Stag Party
flopped, she joined the touring
Camille D'Arville Company on a tour of
the Midwest in Madeleine, or The Magic Kiss, as Mary Doodle, a role
giving her a chance to clown.
Music for The Lady Slavey (1896)
Dressler had her first starring role as household servant Flo
Honeydew, an outstanding hit she performed in for four years.
In 1896, Dressler landed her first starring role as Flo in George
Lederer's production of The Lady Slavey at the Casino Theatre on
Broadway, co-starring British dancer Dan Daly. It was a great success,
playing for two years at the Casino. She became known for her
hilarious facial expressions, seriocomic reactions, and double takes.
With her large, strong body, Dressler could improvise routines where
she would carry Daly to the delight of the audience.
Her success enabled her to purchase a home for her parents on Long
Island. The Lady Slavey success turned sour when she quit the
production while it toured in Colorado. The Erlanger syndicate blocked
Dressler from appearing on Broadway, and she chose to work with the
Rich and Harris touring company. She returned to Broadway in Hotel
Topsy Turvy and The Man in the Moon.
In 1900, Dressler formed her own theatre troupe, which performed Miss
Prinnt in cities of the northeastern U.S. The production of Miss
Prinnt was a failure, and Dressler was forced to declare
In 1904, Dressler signed a three-year, $50,000 contract with the Weber
and Fields Music Hall management, performing lead roles in Higgeldy
Piggeldy and Twiddle Twaddle. After her contract expired, Dressler
performed vaudeville in New York, Boston, and other cities. Dressler
was known for her full-figured body, and buxom contemporaries included
her friends Lillian Russell, Fay Templeton,
May Irwin and Trixie
Friganza. Dressler herself was 5 feet 7 inches (1.70 m)
tall and weighed 200 pounds (91 kg).
In 1907, she met James Henry "Jim" Dalton. The two moved to London,
where she performed at the Palace Theatre of Varieties for $1500 per
week. After that, she planned to mount a show herself in the West End.
In 1909, with members of the Weber organization, Dressler staged a
modified production of Higgeldy Piggeldy at the Aldwych Theatre,
renaming the production Philopoena after Dressler's role. It was a
failure, closing after one week. Dressler lost $40,000 on the
production, a debt she eventually repaid in 1930. Dressler and
Dalton returned to New York. Dressler declared bankruptcy for a second
Dressler returned to the Broadway stage in a show called The Boy and
the Girl, but it lasted only a few weeks. She moved on to perform
vaudeville at Young's Pier in Atlantic City for the summer. In
addition to her stage work, Dressler recorded for
Edison Records in
1909 and 1910. In the fall of 1909, Dressler first entered rehearsals
for a new play Tillie's Nightmare. The play toured in Albany, Chicago,
Kansas City, and
Philadelphia and was a flop. Dressler helped to
revise the show, without the authors' permission, and Dressler had to
threaten to quit before the play opened on Broadway to keep the
changes. Her revisions to the play helped make it a big success on
Broadway. Biographer Betty Lee considers the play the high point of
her stage career.
Dressler continued to work in the theater during the 1910s, and toured
United States during World War I, selling Liberty Bonds and
entertaining the American Expeditionary Forces. American doughboys in
France named both a street and a cow after Dressler. The cow was
killed, leading to "Marie Dressler: Killed in Line of Duty" headlines,
about which Dressler (paraphrasing Mark Twain) quipped, "I had a hard
time convincing people that the report of my death had been greatly
Mabel Normand and
Charles Chaplin in Tillie's Punctured Romance
After the war, Dressler returned to vaudeville in New York, and toured
in Cleveland and Buffalo. She owned the rights to the play Tillie's
Nightmare, the play upon which her 1914 movie Tillie's Punctured
Romance was based. Her husband Jim Dalton and she made plans to
self-finance a revival of the play. The play fizzled in the summer of
1920, and the production was disbanded. In 1919, during the Actors'
Equity strike in New York City, the
Chorus Equity Association
Chorus Equity Association was
formed and voted Dressler its first president.
Dressler accepted a role in Cinderella on Broadway in October 1920,
but the play failed after only a few weeks. She signed on for a role
The Passing Show
The Passing Show of 1921, but left the cast after only a few weeks.
She returned to the vaudeville stage with the Schubert Organization,
travelling through the Midwest. Dalton traveled with her, although he
was very ill from renal failure. He stayed in Chicago while she
traveled on to St. Louis and Milwaukee. He died while Marie was
in St. Louis, and Marie then left the tour. His body was claimed
by his ex-wife, and he was buried in the Dalton plot.
After failing to sell a film script, Dressler took an extended trip to
Europe in Fall 1922. After she returned, Dressler found it difficult
to find work, considering America to be "youth-mad" and
"flapper-crazy". She busied herself with visits to veteran hospitals.
To save money, Dressler moved into the Ritz Hotel, arranging for a
small room at a discount. In 1923, she received a small part in a
revue at the Winter Garden Theatre, called The Dancing Girl, but she
was not offered any work after the show closed. In 1925, she was able
to perform as part of the cast of a vaudeville show which went on a
five-week tour, but still could not find any work back in New York
City. In 1926, Dressler made a final appearance on Broadway as
part of an Old Timers' bill at the Palace Theatre.
Early in 1930, Dressler joined Edward Everett Horton's theater troupe
in Los Angeles to play a princess in Ferenc Molnár's The Swan, but
after one week, she quit the troupe. She proceeded to leave Horton
flat, much to his indignation. Dressler later in 1930 played the
princess-mother of Lillian Gish's character in the 1930 film
adaptation of Molnar's The Swan called One Romantic Night.
The Scrublady (1917)
Dressler had appeared in two shorts as herself, but her first role in
a feature film came in 1914 at the age of 44. In 1902, she had met
Mack Sennett and helped him get a job in the theater.
After Sennett became the owner of his namesake motion picture studio,
he convinced Dressler to star in his 1914 silent film Tillie's
Punctured Romance. The film was to be the first full-length, six-reel
motion picture comedy. According to Sennett, a prospective budget of
$200,000 meant that he needed "a star whose name and face meant
something to every possible theatre-goer in the
United States and the
The movie was based on Dressler's hit Tillie's Nightmare. She
claimed to have cast
Charlie Chaplin in the movie as her leading man,
and was "proud to have had a part in giving him his first big
chance." Instead of his recently invented Tramp character, Chaplin
played a villainous rogue.
Silent film comedian
Mabel Normand also
starred in the movie. Tillie's Punctured Romance was a hit with
audiences, and Dressler appeared in two Tillie sequels and other
comedies until 1918, when she returned to vaudeville.
In 1922, after her husband's death, Dressler and writers Helena Dayton
and Louise Barrett tried to sell a script to the Hollywood studios,
but were turned down. The one studio to hold a meeting with the group
rejected the script, saying all the audiences wanted is "young love."
The proposed co-star of
Lionel Barrymore or
George Arliss were
rejected as "old fossils". In 1925, Dressler filmed a pair of
two-reel short movies in Europe for producer Harry Reichenbach. The
movies, titled the Travelaffs, were not released and were considered a
failure by both Dressler and Reichenbach. Dressler announced her
retirement from show business.
Marie Dressler in
Photoplay magazine in 1930
Greta Garbo and
Marie Dressler in Anna Christie (1930)
Lobby card for
Tugboat Annie (1933) with Wallace Beery
Marie Dressler on the cover of Time (August 7, 1933)
In early 1927, Dressler received a lifeline from director Allan Dwan.
Although versions differ as to how Dressler and Dwan met, including
that Dressler was contemplating suicide, Dwan offered her a part in a
film he was planning to make in Florida. The film, The Joy Girl, an
early color production, only provided a small part as her scenes were
finished in two days, but Dressler returned to New York upbeat after
her experience with the production.
Later that year, Frances Marion, a screenwriter for the
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) studio, came to Dressler's rescue. Marion
had seen Dressler in the 1925 vaudeville tour and witnessed Dressler
at her professional low-point. Dressler had shown great kindness to
Marion during the filming of
Tillie Wakes Up
Tillie Wakes Up in 1917, and in return,
Marion used her influence with MGM's production chief Irving Thalberg
to return Dressler to the screen. Her first MGM feature was The
Callahans and the Murphys (1927), a rowdy silent comedy co-starring
Dressler (as Ma Callahan) with another former
Mack Sennett comedian,
Polly Moran, written by Marion.
The film was initially a success, but the portrayal of Irish
characters caused a protest in the Irish World newspaper, protests by
the American Irish Vigilance Committee, and pickets outside the film's
New York theatre. The film was first cut by MGM in an attempt to
appease the Irish community, then eventually pulled from release after
Cardinal Dougherty of the diocese of
Philadelphia called MGM president
Nicholas Schenck. It was not shown again, and the negative and
prints may have been destroyed. While the film brought Dressler to
Hollywood, it did not re-establish her career. Her next appearance was
a minor part in the First National film Breakfast at Sunrise. She
appeared again with Moran in Bringing Up Father, another film written
by Marion. Dressler returned to MGM in 1928's The Patsy as the
mother of the characters played by stars
Marion Davies and Jane
Hollywood was converting from silent films, but "talkies" presented no
problems for Dressler, whose rumbling voice could handle both
sympathetic scenes and snappy comebacks (the wisecracking stage
actress in Chasing Rainbows and the dubious matron in Rudy
Frances Marion persuaded Thalberg to give
Dressler the role of Marthy in the 1930 film Anna Christie. Garbo and
the critics were impressed by Dressler's acting ability, and so was
MGM, which quickly signed her to a $500-per-week contract. Dressler
went on to act in comedic films which were popular with movie-goers
and a lucrative investment for MGM. She became Hollywood's number-one
box-office attraction, and stayed on top until her death in
She also took on serious roles. For Min and Bill, with Wallace Beery,
she won the 1930–31
Academy Award for Best Actress
Academy Award for Best Actress (the eligibility
years were staggered at that time). She was nominated again for Best
Actress for her 1932 starring role in Emma, but lost to Helen Hayes.
Dressler followed these successes with more hits in 1933, including
the comedy Dinner at Eight, in which she played an aging but vivacious
former stage actress. Dressler had a memorable bit with
Jean Harlow in
Harlow: I was reading a book the other day.
Dressler: Reading a book?
Harlow: Yes, it's all about civilization or something. A nutty kind of
a book. Do you know that the guy said that machinery is going to take
the place of every profession?
Dressler: Oh my dear, that's something you need never worry about.
Following the release of
Tugboat Annie (1933), Dressler appeared on
the cover of Time, in its August 7, 1933 issue. MGM held a huge
birthday party for Dressler in 1933, broadcast live via radio. Her
newly regenerated career came to an abrupt end when she was diagnosed
with terminal cancer in 1934. MGM head
Louis B. Mayer
Louis B. Mayer learned of
Dressler's illness from her doctor and reportedly asked that she not
be told. To keep her home, he ordered her not to travel on her
vacation because he wanted to put her in a new film. Dressler was
furious but complied. She appeared in more than 40 films, and achieved
her greatest successes in talking pictures made during the last years
of her life. The first of her two autobiographies, The Life Story of
an Ugly Duckling, was published in 1924; a second book, My Own Story,
"as told to Mildred Harrington," appeared a few months after her
Dressler's first marriage was to an American, George Francis Hoeppert
(1862 - September 7, 1929), a theatrical manager. His surname is
sometimes given as Hopper. According to Dressler's testimony, the
couple married in Elizabeth, New Jersey, in 1899, although biographer
Matthew Kennedy puts the marriage date as May 6, 1894. Some sources
indicate Dressler had a daughter who died as a small child, but this
has not been confirmed.
Dressler in 1909
Her marriage to Hoeppert gave Dressler U.S. citizenship, which was
useful later in life, when immigration rules meant permits were needed
to work in the United States, and Dressler had to appear before an
immigration hearing. Ever since her start in the theatre, Dressler
had sent a portion of her salary to her parents. Her success on
Broadway meant she could afford to buy a home and later a farm on Long
Island, which she shared with her parents. Dressler made several
attempts to set up theatre companies or theatre productions of her own
using her Broadway proceeds, but these failed and she had to declare
bankruptcy several times.
In 1907, Dressler met a
Maine businessman, James Henry "Jim" Dalton,
who became her companion until his death [Death Record 3104-27934] on
November 29, 1921, at the Congress Hotel in Chicago from diabetes.
According to Dalton, the two were married in Europe in 1908.
However, according to Dressler's U.S. passport application, the couple
married in 1904 in France.
Dressler reportedly later learned that the "minister" who had married
Monte Carlo was actually a local man paid by Dalton to stage a
fake wedding. Dalton's first wife, Lizzie Augusta Britt Dalton,
claimed he had not consented to a divorce or been served divorce
papers, although Dalton claimed to have divorced her in 1905. By
1921, Dalton had become an invalid due to diabetes mellitus, and
watched her from the wings in his wheelchair. After his death that
year, Dressler was planning for Dalton to be buried as her husband,
but Lizzie Dalton had Dalton's body returned to be buried in the
Dalton family plot.
After Dalton's death, which coincided with a decline in her stage
career, Dressler moved into a servant's room in the Ritz Hotel to save
money. Eventually, she moved in with friend Nella Webb to save on
expenses. After finding work in film again in 1927, she rented a
home in Hollywood on Hillside Avenue. Although Dressler was working
from 1927 on, she was still reportedly living hand to mouth. In
November 1928, wealthy friends Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Neurmberg gave her
$10,000, explaining they planned to give her a legacy someday, but
they thought she needed the money then. In 1929, she moved to Los
Angeles to 6718 Milner Road in Whitley Heights, then to 623 North
Bedford Drive in Beverly Hills, both rentals. She moved to her final
home at 801 North Alpine in Beverly Hills in 1932, a home which she
bought from the estate of King C. Gillette. During her seven years
in Hollywood, Dressler lived with her maid Mamie Cox and later Mamie's
Although atypical in size for a Hollywood star, Dressler was reported
in 1931 to use the services of a "body sculptor to the stars", Sylvia
of Hollywood, to keep herself at a steady weight.
Biographers Betty Lee and Matthew Kennedy document Dressler's
long-standing friendship with actress Claire Du Brey, whom she met in
1928. Dressler and Du Brey's falling out in 1931 was followed by a
later lawsuit by Du Brey, who had been trained as a nurse, claiming
back wages as the elder woman's nurse.
On Saturday, July 28, 1934, Dressler died of cancer, aged 65, in Santa
Barbara, California. After a private funeral held at The Wee Kirk o’
the Heather chapel, Dressler was interred in a crypt in the Great
Mausoleum in the Forest Lawn Memorial Park, Glendale, California.
Marie Dressler's crypt in the Great Mausoleum, Forest Lawn Glendale.
Dressler left an estate worth $310,000, the bulk left to her sister
She bestowed her 1931 automobile and $35,000 to her maid of 20 years,
Mamie Steele Cox, and $15,000 to Cox's husband, Jerry R. Cox, who had
served as Dressler's butler for 4 years. Dressler intended that
the funds should be used to provide a place of comfort for Black
travelers, and the Coxes used the funds to open the Cocoanut Grove
night club and adjacent tourist cabins in Savannah, Georgia, in 1936,
named after the night club in Los Angeles.
Dressler's birth home in Cobourg, Ontario, is known as Marie Dressler
House and is open to the public. The home was converted to a
restaurant in 1937 and operated as a restaurant until 1989, when it
was damaged by fire. It was restored, but did not open again as a
restaurant. It was the office of the
Cobourg Chamber of Commerce until
its conversion to its current use as a museum about Dressler and as a
visitor information office for Cobourg. Each year, the Marie
Dressler Foundation Vintage Film Festival is held, with screenings in
Cobourg and in Port Hope, Ontario.
For her contribution to the motion picture industry, Dressler has a
star on the
Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1731 Vine Street, added in
1960. After Min and Bill, Dressler and Beery added their
footprints to the cement forecourt of
Grauman's Chinese Theatre
Grauman's Chinese Theatre in
Hollywood, with the inscription "America's New Sweethearts, Min and
Canada Post, as part of its "Canada in Hollywood" series, issued a
postage stamp on June 30, 2008, to honour Marie Dressler.
Dressler is beloved in Seattle. She played in two films based on
historical Seattle characters.
Tugboat Annie was based on Thea Foss of
Seattle. Her character in Politics (1931) was based on Bertha Knight
Landes, the first woman mayor of Seattle.
Actors' Fund Field Day
Tillie's Punctured Romance
Tillie Banks, Country Girl
Tillie's Tomato Surprise
Writer and director
The Scrub Lady
Tillie Wakes Up
Red Cross Nurse, TheThe Red Cross Nurse
The Agonies of Agnes
Producer and writer
Joy Girl, TheThe Joy Girl
The Callahans and the Murphys
Breakfast at Sunrise
Patsy, TheThe Patsy
Bringing Up Father
Voice of Hollywood
The Vagabond Lover
Mrs. Ethel Bertha Whitehall
Hollywood Revue of 1929
Divine Lady, TheThe Divine Lady
Voice of Hollywood No. 14, TheThe Voice of Hollywood No. 14
Screen Snapshots Series 9, No. 14
Herself, at Premiere
The March of Time
Herself, "Old Timer" sequence
Unfinished film, never released
Let Us Be Gay
Mrs. 'Bouccy' Bouccicault
One Romantic Night
Girl Said No, TheThe Girl Said No
Min and Bill
Min Divot, Innkeeper
Won- Academy Award for Best Actress
Jackie Cooper's Birthday Party
Emma Thatcher Smith
Nominated—Academy Award for Best Actress
Herself, Premiere Clip
Dinner at Eight
Final Film Before Her Death
"If ants are such busy workers, how come they find time to go to all
"You're only as good as your last picture"
Silent film portal
List of actors with Academy Award nominations
List of oldest and youngest Academy Award winners and nominees
Other Canadian pioneers in early Hollywood
Kennedy, Matthew (2006). Marie Dressler: A Biography, With a Listing
of Major Stage Performances, a Filmography And a Discography.
McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0520-1.
Lee, Betty (1997). Marie Dressler: The Unlikeliest Star. University of
Kentucky Press. ISBN 0-8131-2036-5.
Silverman, Steven M. (1999). Funny Ladies. Harry N. Abrams, Inc.
^ a b "Actress Saw Two Marriages Fail in 14 years". Calgary Daily
Herald. August 11, 1934. p. 5. Retrieved September 6, 2011.
^ Dressler and Dalton married in 1904 according to Dressler's U.S.
passport application (1924), ancestry.com; accessed July 27, 2016.
^ Obituary Variety, July 31, 1934, page 54.
^ Marie Dressler: North American Theatre Online, alexanderstreet.com;
accessed July 27, 2016.
^ a b c d e "Famous Star Is Dead at 62". Montreal Gazette. July 30,
1934. pp. 1, 9. Retrieved September 6, 2011.
Cobourg Mourning Marie Dressler". Montreal Gazette. July 31, 1934.
p. 5. Retrieved September 6, 2011.
^ a b Lee 1997, p. 9.
^ Lee 1997, p. 10.
^ Lee 1997, pp. 11–12.
^ Lee 1997, p. 14.
^ a b Lee 1997, p. 13.
^ Lee 1997, pp. 15-16.
^ Lee 1997, p. 17.
^ a b Lee 1997, p. 18.
^ Lee 1997, p. 20.
^ Lee 1997, pp. 20-21.
^ Lee 1997, pp. 21-22.
^ a b Lee 1997, p. 24.
^ Lee 1997, pp. 24-25.
^ Lee 1997, pp. 26-28.
^ Lee 1997, p. 28.
^ Lee 1997, p. 29.
^ Lee 1997, pp. 30-31.
^ Lee 1997, pp. 31-32.
^ Lee 1997, pp. 33-37.
^ ""MISS PRINNT" AT ALBANY;
Marie Dressler Scores a Success in G.V.
Hobart's New Play". New York Times. November 5, 1900. p. 5.
^ Lee 1997, p. 39.
^ Kennedy 2006, p. 2.
^ Lee 1997, p. 69.
^ Lee 1997, p. 78.
^ a b c Silverman 1999, p. 23.
^ Lee 1997, p. 145.
^ Lee 1997, pp. 153-54.
^ Lee 1997, p. 156.
^ Lee 1997, p. 173.
^ a b Lee 1997, p. 103.
^ Lee 1997, p. 105.
^ Lee 1997, p. 150.
^ Lee 1997, p. 155.
^ a b Lee 1997, p. 159.
^ a b Lee 1997, p. 165.
^ Lee 1997, p. 166.
^ Lee 1997, p. 167.
^ Silverman 1999, p. 24.
^ Lee 1997, p. 70.
^ Lee 1997, p. 64.
^ Lee 1997, p. 65.
^ Lee 1997, p. 102.
^ Lee 1997, p. 148.
^ Lee 1997, p. 152.
^ Lee 1997, p. 168.
^ a b Lee 1997, p. 169.
^ Coons, R. (September 2, 1931). "Marathons Common To Movies". The
^ Kennedy 2006, pp. 143-144.
Marie Dressler Loses Long Battle For Life". The Portsmouth Times.
July 29, 1934. p. 1. Retrieved February 6, 2013.
^ "Marie Dressler's Will Is Probated". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
Associated Press. August 15, 1934. p. 3. Retrieved September 22,
^ a b "Marie Dressler's Old Servants Open Night Club for Negros With
Money Actress Left Them". The Evening Independent. Associated Press.
April 10, 1936. p. 5A. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
^ "Southward", Chas. A. R. McDowell, The Negro Motorist Green Book,
Marie Dressler House". Vintage Film Festival. Retrieved March 15,
^ "About the
Marie Dressler Foundation".
Marie Dressler Foundation.
Retrieved September 6, 2011.
^ "Marie Dressler: Hollywood Walk of Fame". Hollywood Walk of Fame.
Retrieved September 22, 2011.
^ Lee 1997, p. 182.
^ "Westmount schoolgirl went on to win an Oscar". canada.com. April 7,
2008. Archived from the original on November 10, 2012. Retrieved
September 22, 2011.
^ a b "Biography for Marie Dressler". IMDB. Retrieved September 15,
Sturtevant, Victoria (2009). A Great Big Girl Like Me: The Films of
Marie Dressler. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Marie Dressler.
Marie Dressler at the
Internet Broadway Database
Internet Broadway Database
Marie Dressler on IMDb
Marie Dressler at Women Film Pioneers Project
portrait gallery(NY Public Library, Billy Rose collection)
Marie Dressler cylinder recordings, from the Cylinder Preservation and
Digitization Project at the University of California, Santa Barbara
Web site dedicated to Marie Dressler
Photographs and literature
Marie Dressler dressed in Edwardian style and fashion, 1908 (Univ. of
Washington, Sayre collection)
Marie Dressler reading newspaper in 1911 play Tillie's Nightmare
(Univ. of Washington, Sayre collection)
Marie Dressler in a still of scene from Tillie the Scrub Lady 1917
(Univ. of Washington, Sayre collection)
1922 passport photo; Marie Dressler
Marie Dressler interviewed in Vanity Fair Magazine Marie Dressler
Tells How She Amuses Herself, October 11, 1902
Academy Award for Best Actress
Janet Gaynor (1928)
Mary Pickford (1929)
Norma Shearer (1930)
Marie Dressler (1931)
Helen Hayes (1932)
Katharine Hepburn (1933)
Claudette Colbert (1934)
Bette Davis (1935)
Luise Rainer (1936)
Luise Rainer (1937)
Bette Davis (1938)
Vivien Leigh (1939)
Ginger Rogers (1940)
Joan Fontaine (1941)
Greer Garson (1942)
Jennifer Jones (1943)
Ingrid Bergman (1944)
Joan Crawford (1945)
Olivia de Havilland
Olivia de Havilland (1946)
Loretta Young (1947)
Jane Wyman (1948)
Olivia de Havilland
Olivia de Havilland (1949)
Judy Holliday (1950)
Vivien Leigh (1951)
Shirley Booth (1952)
Audrey Hepburn (1953)
Grace Kelly (1954)
Anna Magnani (1955)
Ingrid Bergman (1956)
Joanne Woodward (1957)
Susan Hayward (1958)
Simone Signoret (1959)
Elizabeth Taylor (1960)
Sophia Loren (1961)
Anne Bancroft (1962)
Patricia Neal (1963)
Julie Andrews (1964)
Julie Christie (1965)
Elizabeth Taylor (1966)
Katharine Hepburn (1967)
Katharine Hepburn /
Barbra Streisand (1968)
Maggie Smith (1969)
Glenda Jackson (1970)
Jane Fonda (1971)
Liza Minnelli (1972)
Glenda Jackson (1973)
Ellen Burstyn (1974)
Louise Fletcher (1975)
Faye Dunaway (1976)
Diane Keaton (1977)
Jane Fonda (1978)
Sally Field (1979)
Sissy Spacek (1980)
Katharine Hepburn (1981)
Meryl Streep (1982)
Shirley MacLaine (1983)
Sally Field (1984)
Geraldine Page (1985)
Marlee Matlin (1986)
Jodie Foster (1988)
Jessica Tandy (1989)
Kathy Bates (1990)
Jodie Foster (1991)
Emma Thompson (1992)
Holly Hunter (1993)
Jessica Lange (1994)
Susan Sarandon (1995)
Frances McDormand (1996)
Helen Hunt (1997)
Gwyneth Paltrow (1998)
Hilary Swank (1999)
Julia Roberts (2000)
Halle Berry (2001)
Nicole Kidman (2002)
Charlize Theron (2003)
Hilary Swank (2004)
Reese Witherspoon (2005)
Helen Mirren (2006)
Marion Cotillard (2007)
Kate Winslet (2008)
Sandra Bullock (2009)
Natalie Portman (2010)
Meryl Streep (2011)
Jennifer Lawrence (2012)
Cate Blanchett (2013)
Julianne Moore (2014)
Brie Larson (2015)
Emma Stone (2016)
Frances McDormand (2017)
ISNI: 0000 0000 8359 3438
BNF: cb141732040 (data)