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The Info List - Marian Persecutions


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Protestants were executed under heresy laws during persecutions against Protestant
Protestant
religious reformers for their religious denomination during the reigns of Henry VIII
Henry VIII
(1509–1547) and Mary I of England (1553–1558). Radical Christians also were executed, though in much smaller numbers, during the reigns of Edward VI (1547–1553), Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
(during whose reign, 1558–1603, some Roman Catholics also were executed, charged with treason), and James I (1603–1625). The excesses of this period were recorded in Foxe's Book of Martyrs. Protestants in England and Wales were executed under legislation that punished anyone judged guilty of heresy against Catholicism. Although the standard penalty for those convicted of treason in England at the time was execution by being hanged, drawn and quartered, this legislation adopted the punishment of burning the condemned. At least 300 people were recognised as burned over the five years of Mary I's reign by contemporary sources.

Contents

1 List of martyrs 2 Also mentioned by Foxe 3 Posthumous proceedings 4 Those who sickened or died in prison 5 Historical context

5.1 Troubles for Protestants 5.2 English Inquisition and the judicial process 5.3 Cathedrals in operation

6 John Rogers's execution 7 Observations 8 Legacy 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References

List of martyrs[edit]

No. Name Residence Description Date of execution Place of execution References

Protestants executed under Henry VIII

1. Thomas Hitton Martham, Norfolk clergyman – priest burnt 23 February 1530 Maidstone, Kent [1]

2. Thomas Benet Exeter, Devon teacher burnt 15 January 1531 Exeter, Devon [2]

3. Thomas Bilney Taken at Norwich, Norfolk clergyman – priest burnt 19 August 1531 Norwich, Norfolk [3]

4. Richard Bayfield Taken at Mark Lane, London monk – Benedictine
Benedictine
(former) and chamberlain of Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds
Abbey burnt 27 November 1531 Smithfield, London [4]

5. John Tewkesbury St Michael-le-Querne
St Michael-le-Querne
Parish, Paternoster Row, London leatherseller burnt December 1531 Smithfield, London [5]

6. 'An old man' Buckinghamshire

burnt 1531

[6][n 1]

7. Davy Foster Yorkshire poor artificer burnt 1531

[7][8]

8. James Bainham Middle Temple, London lawyer burnt 30 April 1532 Smithfield, London [9]

9. John Bent Urchfont, Wiltshire

burnt in or before April 1532 Devizes, Wiltshire [10]

10. ... Trapnel

burnt in or before April 1532 Bradford, Wiltshire [10]

11. Thomas Harding Chesham, Buckinghamshire 'aged father' his brains were dashed out with a billet of wood while he was being burnt at the stake, May 1532 Chesham, Buckinghamshire [11]

12. John Frith Westerham, then Sevenoaks, Kent[12] – Taken after he had been preaching at Bow Lane, London clergyman – canon at Cardinal College, Oxford burnt 4 July 1533 Smithfield, London [13]

13. Andrew Hewet Watling Street, London
London
(born in Faversham, Kent) apprentice to a tailor burnt 4 July 1533 Smithfield, London [13]

14.–23. Ten Dutchmen counted for Anabaptists – Segor, Derycke, Symon, Runa, Derycke, Dominicke, Dauid, Cornelius, Elken and Milo

burnt 1535 'sundry places of the realm' [14][15]

24. Robert Pakington Cheapside, London mercer murdered 13 November 1536 Cheapside, London [16]

25. William Cowbridge Wantage, Berkshire clergyman (purported) – 'exercised the office of a priest, in teaching and administering of the sacraments, but being no priest indeed' burnt after – probably shortly after – 22 July 1538 Oxford, Oxfordshire [16][17][n 2]

26. John Lambert The Stocks – a market for meat and fish in the City of London clergyman – priest, and teacher of Greek and Latin burnt 22 November 1538 Smithfield, London [18]

27. ... Puttedew Suffolk

burnt in or before 1538 Suffolk [16]

28. William Leiton or Leyton Eye Priory, Eye, Suffolk monk – Benedictine burnt in or before 1538 Norwich, Norfolk [16]

29. -30 Two Anabaptists, a man and a woman Dutch

burnt 29 November 1538 Smithfield, London [19]

31. Giles Germane

burnt 1539 St Giles in the Fields, outside London [20]

32. Launcelot ...

servant of the king burnt 1539 St Giles in the Fields, outside London [20]

33. John ...

painter burnt 1539 St Giles in the Fields, outside London [20]

34.–36. Three Anabaptists – ... Mandeville, ... Collins and another

burnt 29 April 1539 Newington Causeway, outside London [21]

37. William Collins London lawyer and gentleman burnt 7 July 1540 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London
or Southwark [16][17][n 3]

38. Robert Barnes Austin Friary, Cambridge (until 1528) monk – Augustinian burnt 30 July 1540 Smithfield, London [22]

39. Thomas Gerrard (or Gerard, Garret or Garrard) All Hallows Honey Lane
All Hallows Honey Lane
Parish, London clergyman – rector of All Hallows Honey Lane burnt 30 July 1540 Smithfield, London [22]

40. William Jerome Stepney, London clergyman – vicar of St Dunstan's, Stepney burnt 30 July 1540 Smithfield, London [22]

41.–42. Valentine Freese and his wife

burnt 1540 York, Yorkshire [23][24]

43. Richard Mekins

'a child that passed not the age of fifteen years' burnt 30 July 1541

[25][26]

44. Richard Spenser

clergyman (former) – 'a ... Priest ... who leaving his papistry, had married a wife, and became a player in interludes' Burnt about 1541/2 Salisbury, Wiltshire [25][27]

45. John Ramsey

player in interludes burnt about 1541/2 Salisbury, Wiltshire [25][27]

46. Thomas Bernard

burnt about 1541 Lincoln Diocese [28][29]

47. James Morton

burnt about 1541 Lincoln Diocese [28][30]

48. Adam Damlip (also known as George Bucker) Calais clergyman – former chaplain to Bishop John Fisher hanged, drawn and quartered 22 May 1543 [31] Calais [32]

Windsor Martyrs

49. Robert Testwood City of London
London
(originally) musician in the college at Windsor burnt 28 July 1543 Windsor, Berkshire [33][34]

50. Anthony Pearson

clergyman – priest of Windsor; popular preacher burnt 28 July 1543 Windsor, Berkshire [33][35]

51. Henry Filmer

churchwarden of St John the Baptist Church, Windsor burnt 28 July 1543 Windsor, Berkshire [33][36]

52. Unknown man Calais poor labouring man burnt 1540[n 4] Calais [32]

53. ... Dodd Calais
Calais
– a Scotsman

burnt 1541[n 5] Calais [32]

54. [Forename unknown] ... Henry

burnt 1545 or 1546 Colchester, Essex [37]

55. Unknown man

servant of ... Henry burnt 1545 or 1546 Colchester, Essex [37]

56. [Forename unknown] ... Kerby

burnt 1546 Ipswich, Suffolk [37]

57. Roger Clarke Mendlesham, Suffolk

burnt 1546 Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [37]

58. Anne Askew Stallingborough, Lincolnshire[38] wife of Master Thomas Kyme, a farmer and landowner of Friskney, Lincolnshire[38] burnt 16 July 1546 Smithfield, London [39]

59. Nicholas Belenian Shropshire clergyman – priest burnt 16 July 1546 Smithfield, London [40]

60. John Adams Colchester, Essex[41] tailor burnt 16 July 1546 Smithfield, London [40]

61. John Lassells Gateford, Nottinghamshire courtier burnt 16 July 1546 Smithfield, London [40]

62. ... Rogers Norfolk

burnt 1546 Norfolk [42]

63. Oliver Richardine Whitchurch parish

burnt 1546 Hartford West [43]

Radical Protestants executed under Edward VI

1. Joan Bocher (or Butcher, or as Joan Knell) Kent
Kent
(perhaps Romney Marsh)

2 May 1550 Smithfield, London [44]

2. George van Parris Dutchman

1551

[45][46]

Protestants executed under Mary I

1. John Rogers City of London clergyman – preacher, biblical translator, lecturer at St. Paul’s Cathedral burnt 4 February 1555 Smithfield, London [47]:p.113[48]

2. Lawrence Saunders City of London clergyman – preacher, Rector of All Hallows Bread Street, London burnt 8 February 1555 Coventry, Warwickshire [47]:p.98[49]

3. John Hooper Gloucester
Gloucester
and Worcester clergyman – Bishop of Gloucester
Gloucester
and Worcester
Worcester
under Edward VI burnt 9 February 1555 Gloucester, Gloucestershire [47]:p.98[50]

4. Rowland Taylor Hadleigh, Suffolk clergyman – Rector of Hadleigh, Suffolk burnt 9 February 1555 Aldham Common, Nr Hadleigh, Suffolk [47]:p.98[51]

5. Rawlins White Cardiff, Glamorgan fisherman burnt March 1555 Cardiff, Glamorgan [52]

6. Thomas Tomkins Shoreditch, London weaver burnt 16 March 1555 Smithfield, London [53]

7. Thomas Causton Horndon on the Hill
Horndon on the Hill
or Thundersby, Essex gentleman burnt 26 March 1555 Rayleigh, Essex [54]

8. Thomas Higbed Horndon on the Hill
Horndon on the Hill
or Thundersby, Essex gentleman burnt 26 March 1555 Horndon-on-the-Hill, Essex [54]

9. William Hunter Coleman Street
Coleman Street
Parish, London apprentice burnt 27 March 1555 (or 26 according to Foxe) Brentwood, Essex [55]

10. Stephen Knight

barber burnt 28 March 1555 Maldon, Essex [56]

11. William Pygot (or Pigot)

butcher burnt 28 March 1555 Braintree, Essex [56]

12. [n 6] William Dighel

burnt 28 March 1555 Banbury, Oxfordshire [57][58]

13. John Lawrence (or Laurence)

clergyman – priest and former Blackfriar
Blackfriar
at Sudbury, Suffolk
Suffolk
[41] burnt 29 March 1555 Colchester, Essex [56]

14. Robert Ferrar St David's, Pembrokeshire clergyman – Bishop of St David's
St David's
under Edward VI burnt 30 March 1555 Carmarthen, Carmarthenshire [59]

15. George Marsh Dean, Lancashire clergyman – curate to Laurence Saunders and minister at Dean, Lancashire burnt 24 April 1555 Boughton, Cheshire [60]

16. William Flower Lambeth, London surgeon and teacher burnt 24 April 1555 Westminster [61]

17. John Cardmaker Wells, Somerset clergyman – prebendary of Wells Cathedral burnt 30 May 1555 Smithfield, London [62]

18. John Warne[n 7] Walbrook, London upholsterer burnt 30 May 1555 Smithfield, London [62]

19. Thomas Hawkes
Thomas Hawkes
(or Haukes) Essex gentleman burnt 10 June 1555 Coggeshall, Essex [63][64]

20. Thomas Watts (or Wattes) Billericay, Essex linen draper burnt 10 June 1555 Chelmsford, Essex [63][65]

21. John Ardeley (or Ardite) Wigborough, Essex husbandman burnt 30 May 1555 (or 'about 10 June', according to Foxe) Rayleigh, Essex [63][66]

22. John Simson Wigborough, Essex husbandman burnt 30 May 1555 (or 'about 10 June', according to Foxe) Rochford, Essex [63][66]

23. Nicholas Chamberlain (or Chamberlaine) Coggeshall, Essex weaver burnt 14 June 1555 Colchester, Essex [63][67]

24. William Bamford (or Butler)[n 8] Coggeshall, Essex weaver burnt 15 June 1555 Harwich, Essex [63][67]

25. Thomas Ormond (or Osmande)[n 9] Coggeshall, Essex fuller burnt 15 June 1555 Manningtree, Essex [63][67]

26. John Bradford City of London clergyman – prebendary of St Paul's Cathedral burnt 1 July 1555 Smithfield, London [63][68][69]

27. John Leaf
John Leaf
(or Jhon Least) Christ Church Greyfriars, London
London
(born in Kirkby Moorside, Yorkshire) apprentice tallow chandler burnt 1 July 1555 Smithfield, London [63][69][70]

Canterbury
Canterbury
Martyrs of July 1555

28. John Bland (or Blande) Rolvenden, Kent clergyman – vicar of Rolvenden, Kent burnt 12 July 1555 Canterbury, Kent [63][71]

29. Nicholas Shetterden (or Shitterdun)

burnt 12 July 1555 Canterbury, Kent [63][72]

30. John Frankesh Adisham, Kent clergyman – parson of Adisham, Kent burnt 12 July 1555 Canterbury, Kent [63][n 10][72]

31. Humphrey Middleton Ashford, Kent

burnt 12 July 1555 Canterbury, Kent [63][72]

32. Nicholas Hall Dartford, Kent bricklayer burnt 19 July 1555 Rochester, Kent [63][73]

33. Christopher Wade Dartford, Kent linen-weaver burnt July 1555 Dartford, Kent [63][73]

34. Margaret (or Margery) Polley[n 11][74] Pepeling, Calais[n 12][30] widow burnt 17 July 1555 Royal Tunbridge Wells, Kent [73]

35. Dirick Carver (also spelt Deryk; also known as Dirick Harman) Brighthelmstone
Brighthelmstone
(now Brighton), Sussex beer-brewer burnt 22 July 1555, Lewes, East Sussex [63][75][76]

36. John Launder Godstone, Surrey husbandman burnt 23 July 1555 Steyning, West Sussex [63][76]

37. Thomas Euerson (or Iueson, Iverson or Iveson) Godstone, Surrey carpenter burnt (day unknown) July 1555 Chichester, West Sussex [63][75][77]

38. Richard Hook (or Hooke)[78][79]

lame man [58] burnt unknown date in July 1555 Chichester, West Sussex [63][80]

39. James Abbess Stoke-by-Nayland, Suffolk shoemaker burnt 2 August 1555 Thetford, Norfolk
Norfolk
(or Bury, according to Foxe) [63][77]

40. John Denley Maidstone, Kent gentleman burnt 8 August 1555 Uxbridge, Middlesex [63][80]

41. Robert Smith Windsor, Berkshire clerk at the college in Windsor, Berkshire
Windsor, Berkshire
and painter burnt 8 August 1555 Uxbridge, Middlesex [63][81]

Canterbury
Canterbury
Martyrs of August 1555

42. William Coker

burnt 23 August 1555 Canterbury, Kent [63][82]

43. William Hopper Cranbrook, Kent[72]

burnt 23 August 1555 Canterbury, Kent [63][82]

44. Henry Laurence

burnt 23 August 1555 Canterbury, Kent [63][82]

45. Richard Collier (or Colliar)

burnt 23 August 1555 Canterbury, Kent [63][82]

46. Richard Wright Ashford, Kent[72]

burnt 23 August 1555 Canterbury, Kent [63][82]

47. William Stere Ashford, Kent[72]

burnt 23 August 1555 Canterbury, Kent [63][82]

48. Elizabeth Warne
Elizabeth Warne
(or Warren)[n 13] Walbrook, London widow of John Warne, upholsterer burnt 23 August 1555 Stratford-atte-Bow, London [63][83]

49. Roger Hues (aliases: Curryer, Corier) St Mary's, Taunton, Somerset

burnt 24 August 1555 Taunton, Somerset [58][63][84]

50. George Tankerfield London
London
(born in York) cook burnt 26 August 1555 St Albans [63][85]

51. Patrick Pakingham (aliases: Packingham, Pachingham, Patchingham or Pattenham)

burnt 28 August 1555 Uxbridge, Middlesex [63][80]

52. John Newman Maidstone, Kent pewterer burnt 31 August 1555 Saffron Walden, Essex [63][80]

53. Robert Samuel (or Samuell) Barfold, Suffolk clergyman – minister at Barfold, Suffolk burnt 31 August 1555 Thetford, Norfolk [63][86]

54. Stephen Harwood Ware, Hertfordshire brewer burnt 30 August 1555 Stratford in Essex [63][87]

55. Thomas Fust
Thomas Fust
(or Fusse)

hosier, August 1555 In the environs of London
London
or Ware [63][87]

56. William Hale (or Hailes) Thorpe, Essex,

late August 1555 In the environs of Barnet, London [63][87]

57. William Allen Somerton, Norfolk labourer burnt early September 1555 Walsingham, Norfolk [63][88]

58. Roger Coe (or Coo or Cooe) Melford, Suffolk shearman burnt date unknown September 1555 Yoxford, Suffolk [63][88]

59. Thomas Cob Haverhill, Suffolk butcher burnt date unknown September 1555 Thetford, Norfolk [63][88]

Canterbury
Canterbury
Martyrs of September 1555

60. George Catmer (or Painter) Hythe, Kent

burnt about 6 September 1555, according to Foxe (or 12 July 1555) Canterbury, Kent [43][63][89][90]

61. Robert Streater (or Streter) Hythe, Kent

burnt about 6 September 1555, according to Foxe (or 12 July 1555) Canterbury, Kent [43][63][89][90]

62. Anthony Burward Calete (possibly Calais) [91]

burnt about 6 September 1555, according to Foxe (or 12 July 1555) Canterbury, Kent [43][63][89][90]

63. George Brodbridge (or Bradbridge) Bromfield, Kent

burnt about 6 September 1555, according to Foxe (or 12 July 1555) Canterbury, Kent [43][63][89][90]

64. James Tutty (or Tuttey) Brenchley, Kent

burnt about 6 September 1555, according to Foxe (or 12 July 1555) Canterbury, Kent [43][63][89][90]

65. Robert Glover (or Glouer) Mancetter, Warwickshire gentleman burnt 14 September 1555 Coventry, Warwickshire [63][92]

66. Cornelius Bongey (or Bungey)

capper burnt 20 September 1555 Coventry, Warwickshire [63][93]

67. Thomas Hayward (or Heywarde)

burnt mid September 1555 Lichfield, Staffordshire [43][63]

68. John Goreway Holy Trinity Parish, Coventry, Warwickshire
Warwickshire
[41]

burnt mid-September 1555 Lichfield, Staffordshire [43][63]

69. William Wolsey Upwell, Norfolk[94] constable, one of the Ely Martyrs burnt 16 October 1555 Cathedral Green, Ely, Cambridgeshire [63][95]

70. Robert Pygot (or Pigot) Wisbech, Cambridgeshire painter, also an Ely Martyr[94] burnt 16 October 1555 Cathedral Green, Ely, Cambridgeshire [63][95]

71. Hugh Latimer
Hugh Latimer
(or Latymer) Baxterley, Warwickshire
Warwickshire
[96] clergyman – chaplain to King Edward VI burnt 16 October 1555 outside Balliol College, Oxford [63][97]

72. Nicholas Ridley Fulham Palace clergyman – Bishop of London
London
under Edward VI burnt 16 October 1555 outside Balliol College, Oxford [63][97]

Canterbury
Canterbury
Martyrs of November 1555

73. John Webbe (or Web)

gentleman burnt 30 November 1555 Canterbury, Kent [63][98]

74. George Roper

burnt 30 November 1555 Canterbury, Kent [63][98]

75. Gregory Parke (or Paynter)[citation needed]

burnt 30 November 1555 Canterbury, Kent [63][98]

76. John Philpot Winchester, Hampshire clergyman – Archdeacon of Winchester burnt 18 December 1555 Smithfield, London [63][99]

77. Thomas Whittle (or Whitwell) Essex clergyman – priest or minister burnt 27 January 1556 Smithfield, London [63][100]

78. Bartlett (or Bartholomew) Green Temple, London
London
– born in Basinghall, London gentleman and lawyer burnt 27 January 1556 Smithfield, London [63][100]

79. Thomas Brown St Bride's parish, Fleet Street, London
London
– born in Histon, Cambridgeshire

burnt 27 January 1556 Smithfield, London [63][100]

80. John Tudson St Mary Botolph parish, London
London
– born in Ipswich, Suffolk artificer burnt 27 January 1556 Smithfield, London [63][100]

81. John Went (or Winter or Hunt) Langham, Essex artificer burnt 27 January 1556 Smithfield, London [63][100]

82. Isobella Forster (or Annis Foster) St Bride's parish, Fleet Street, London
London
– Born in Greystoke, Cumberland wife of John Foster, cutler burnt 27 January 1556 Smithfield, London [63][100]

83. Joan Lushford (or Jone Lashforde, or Warne) Little Allhallows parish, Thames Street, London maid burnt 27 January 1556 Smithfield, London [63][100] [n 14]

Canterbury
Canterbury
Martyrs of 1556

84. John Lomas (or Jhon Lowmas) Tenterden, Kent

burnt 31 January 1556 Wincheap, Canterbury [63][101]

85. Annes Snoth (or Annis Snod) Smarden, Kent widow burnt 31 January 1556 Wincheap, Canterbury [63][101]

86. Anne Wright (or Albright); alias Champnes

burnt 31 January 1556 Wincheap,Canterbury [63][101]

87. Joan (or Jone) Soale Horton, Kent wife burnt 31 January 1556 Wincheap, Canterbury [63][101]

88. Joan Catmer Hythe, Kent 'wife (as it should seem) of George Catmer', burnt in 1555 burnt 31 January 1556 Wincheap, Canterbury [101][n 15][63]

89. Agnes Potten Ipswich, Suffolk wife of Robert Potten burnt 19 February 1556 Ipswich, Cornhill [63][n 16][102]

90. Joan Trunchfield Ipswich, Suffolk wife of Michael Trunchfield, a shoemaker burnt 19 February 1556 Ipswich, Cornhill [63][n 16][102]

91. Thomas Cranmer Lambeth
Lambeth
Palace clergyman – Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
(former) burnt 21 March 1556 outside Balliol College, Oxford [63][103]

92. John Maundrel Beckhampton, Wiltshire
Wiltshire
– brought up in Rowde, Wiltshire husbandman burnt 24 March 1556 outside Salisbury, Wiltshire [63][n 17][104]

93. William Coberly Wiltshire tailor burnt 24 March 1556 outside Salisbury, Wiltshire [63][n 17][104]

94. John Spicer (or Spencer) Winston, Suffolk
Suffolk
[41] freemason or bricklayer burnt 24 March 1556 outside Salisbury, Wiltshire [63][104]

95. John Harpole (or Hartpoole) St Nicholas Parish, Rochester, Kent

burnt 1 April 1556 Rochester, Kent [63][105]

96. Joan Beach Tunbridge Wells, Kent widow burnt 1 April 1556 Rochester, Kent [63][105]

97. John Hullier (or Hulliarde) Babraham, Cambridgeshire clergyman – curate of Babraham, Cambridgeshire burnt 16 April 1556 Cambridge, Cambridgeshire [63][106][107]

98. William Tyms (or Timmes) Hockley, Essex clergyman – curate of Hockley, Essex burnt 24 April 1556 Smithfield, London [63][108]

99. Robert Drake Thundersley, Essex clergyman – minister or parson of Thundersley, Essex burnt 24 April 1556 Smithfield, London [63][108]

100. Richard Spurge Bocking, Essex shearman burnt 24 April 1556 Smithfield, London [63][108]

101. Thomas Spurge Bocking, Essex fuller burnt 24 April 1556 Smithfield, London [63][108]

102. George Ambrose Bocking, Essex fuller burnt 24 April 1555 Smithfield, London [63][108]

103. John Cavel (or Cauell) Bocking, Essex weaver burnt 24 April 1556 Smithfield, London [63][108]

Colchester
Colchester
martyrs of April 1556

104. Christopher Lister Dagenham, Essex husbandman burnt 28 April 1556 Colchester, Essex [63][109]

105. John Mace Colchester, Essex apothecary burnt 28 April 1556 Colchester, Essex [63][109]

106. John Spencer Colchester, Essex weaver burnt 28 April 1556 Colchester, Essex [63][109]

107. Simon Joyne

sawyer burnt 28 April 1556 Colchester, Essex [109]

108. Richard Nicol Colchester, Essex weaver burnt 28 April 1556 Colchester, Essex [63][109]

109. John Hamond Colchester, Essex tanner burnt 28 April 1556 Colchester, Essex [63][109]

110. Hugh Laverock (or Lauarocke) Barking, Essex painter, (a lame man) burnt 15 May 1556 Stratford in Essex [63][110]

111. John Apprice (or Aprice)

blind man burnt 15 May 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow or Stratford in Essex [63][110]

112. Thomas Drowry

blind boy burnt about 15 May 1556 Gloucester, Gloucestershire [63][n 18][111]

113. Thomas Croker

bricklayer burnt about 15 May 1556 Gloucester, Gloucestershire [63][n 18][111]

114. Katherine Hut Bocking, Essex widow burnt 16 May 1556 Smithfield, London [63][110]

115. Elizabeth Thackvel Great Burstead, Essex maid burnt 16 May 1556 Smithfield, London [63][110]

116. Joan (or Jone) Horns Billericay, Essex maid burnt 16 May 1556 Smithfield, London [63][110]

117. Thomas Spicer Winston, Suffolk labourer burnt 21 May 1556 Beccles, Suffolk [63][n 19][112]

118. John Deny (or Denny) (possibly a female Joan or Jone) Beccles, Suffolk

burnt 21 May 1556 Beccles, Suffolk [63][n 19][112]

119. Edmund Poole Beccles, Suffolk

burnt 21 May 1556 Beccles, Suffolk [63][n 19][112]

120. Thomas Harland Woodmancote, Sussex carpenter burnt 6 June 1556 Lewes, Sussex [63][75][113][114][115]

121. John Oswald (or Oseward) Woodmancote, Sussex husbandman burnt 6 June 1556 Lewes, Sussex [63][75][113][114][115]

122. Thomas Reed Ardingly, Sussex

burnt about 6 June 1556 Lewes, Sussex [63][75][114]

123.[n 20][116] Thomas Avington (or Euington) Ardingly, Sussex turner burnt about 6 June 1556 Lewes, Sussex [63][75][114][115]

124. Adam Forster (or Foster) Mendlesham, Suffolk husbandman burnt 17 June 1556 Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [117][118]

125. Robert Lawson Mendlesham, Suffolk linen weaver burnt 17 June 1556 Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [117][118]

126. Thomas Wood

clergyman – pastor burnt about 20 June 1556 Lewes, Sussex [63][75][114]

127. Thomas Milles Hellingly, Sussex

burnt about 20 June 1556 Lewes, Sussex [63][75][114][n 21][115]

128. Thomas Moor

servant and husbandman burnt 26 June 1556 Leicester, Leicestershire [78][n 22][63][114][29]

Stratford Martyrs, 11 men and 2 women.

129. Henry Adlington
Henry Adlington
(or Addlinton) Grinstead, Sussex sawyer burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [63][119]

130. Lawrence (or Laurence) Parnam Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire smith burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [63][119]

131. Henry Wye Stanford-le-Hope, Essex brewer burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [63][119]

132. William Holywell
William Holywell
(or Hallywell) Waltham Holy Cross, Essex, smith burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [63][119]

133. Thomas Bowyer (or Bowier) Great Dunmow, Essex weaver burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [63][119]

134. George Searle White Notley, Essex tailor burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [63][119]

135. Edmond Hurst St James's Parish, Colchester labourer burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [63][119]

136. Lion/Lyon Cawch City of London merchant/broker burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [63][119]

137. Ralph Jackson Chipping Ongar, Essex, serving-man burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [63][119]

138. John Derifall
John Derifall
(or Dorifall) Rettendon, Essex labourer burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [63][119]

139. John Routh/Roth Wickes, Essex labourer burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [63][119]

140. Elizabeth Pepper St James's parish, Colchester wife of Thomas Pepper, weaver burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [63][n 23][119]

141. Agnes George West Barefold, Essex wife of Richard George, husbandman burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [63][n 23][119][n 24][120]

142. Roger Bernard Framsden, Suffolk labourer burnt 30 June 1556 Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [117][118]

143. Julins Palmer Reading, Berkshire schoolmaster burnt about 15 July 1556 'The Sand-pits', Nr Newbury, Berkshire [63][121]

144. John Guin/Jhon Gwin

shoemaker [58] burnt about 15 July 1556 'The Sand-pits', Nr Newbury, Berkshire [63][121]

145. Thomas Askin/Askue

burnt about 15 July 1556 'The Sand-pits', Nr Newbury, Berkshire [63][121]

Guernsey Martyrs
Guernsey Martyrs
– (Three women and one unborn male foetus)

146. Catherine Cauchés
Catherine Cauchés
(sometimes spelt Katherine Cawches) St Peter Port, Guernsey, Channel Islands

burnt 18 July 1556 St Peter Port, Guernsey, Channel Islands [122]

147. Perotine Massey
Perotine Massey
(pregnant) St Peter Port, Guernsey, Channel Islands

burnt 18 July 1556 St Peter Port, Guernsey, Channel Islands [122]

148. Guillemine Gilbert St Peter Port, Guernsey, Channel Islands

burnt 18 July 1556 St Peter Port, Guernsey, Channel Islands [122]

149. Thomas Dungate (or Dougate) East Grinstead, Sussex

burnt 18 July 1556 Grinstead, Sussex [63][78][115][123]

150. John Forman (or Foreman) East Grinstead, Sussex

burnt 18 July 1556 Grinstead, Sussex [63][78][115][123]

151. Anne Tree (or Try) East Grinstead, Sussex

burnt 18 July 1556 Grinstead, Sussex [63][78][115][123]

152. Joan Waste All Hallows', Derby, Derbyshire blind woman burnt 1 August 1556 Derby, Derbyshire [78]

153. Edward Sharp

glover (possibly)[58] burnt early September 1556 Bristol, Gloucestershire/Somerset [78]

154. Rose Pencell

burnt 17 October 1555 Bristol [124]

155. William Shapton

weaver burnt 17 October 1555 Bristol [124]

156. John Kurde Syresham, Northamptonshire shoemaker burnt October 1556 or 20 September 1557 Northampton, Northamptonshire [78][125]

157. John Noyes Laxfield, Suffolk shoemaker burnt 22 September 1556 or 1557

[126]

158. Thomas Ravensdale

burnt 24 September 1556 Mayfield, Sussex [78][115]

159. John Hart

burnt 24 September 1556 Mayfield, Sussex [78][115]

160. Unknown man

shoemaker burnt 24 September 1556 Mayfield, Sussex [78]

161. Unknown man

currier burnt 24 September 1556 Mayfield, Sussex [78]

162. Nicholas Holden Withyham, Sussex weaver burnt 24 September 1556 Mayfield, Sussex [58][115]

163. Unknown man

carpenter burnt 25 September 1556 Bristol, Gloucestershire/Somerset [78]

164. John Horn

burnt late September 1556 Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire [78][127][n 25][128]

165. John Phillpott Tenterden, Kent

burnt 16 January 1557 Wye, Ashford, Kent [63][n 26][129]

166. Thomas Stephens Biddenden, Kent

burnt 16 January 1557 Wye, Ashford, Kent [63][n 26][129]

Canterbury
Canterbury
Martyrs of January 1557

167. Stephen Kempe Norgate, Kent

burnt 15 January 1557 Canterbury, Kent [129]

168. William Waterer Biddenden, Kent

burnt 15 January 1557 Canterbury, Kent [129]

169. William Prowting Thurnham, Kent

burnt 15 January 1557 Canterbury, Kent [129]

170. William Lowick Cranbrook, Kent

burnt 15 January 1557 Canterbury, Kent [129]

171. Thomas Hudson Selling, Kent

burnt 15 January 1557 Canterbury, Kent [129]

172. William Hay Hythe, Kent

burnt 15 January 1557 Canterbury, Kent [129]

173. Nicholas Final Tenterden, Kent

burnt 16 January 1557 Ashford, Kent [63][n 27][129]

174. Martin Bradbridge Tenterden, Kent

burnt 16 January 1557 Ashford, Kent [63][n 27][130]

175. William Carman (or Carmen)[n 28]

burnt day and month unknown 1557

[131]

176. Thomas Loseby

burnt 12 April 1557 Smithfield, London [63][132][n 29]

177. Henry Ramsey

burnt 12 April 1557 Smithfield, London [63][132]

178. Thomas Thyrtell (or Sturtle)

burnt 12 April 1557 Smithfield, London [63][132]

179. Margaret Hyde

burnt 12 April 1557 Smithfield, London [63][132][n 30]

180. Agnes Stanley (or Stanlye)

burnt 12 April 1557 Smithfield, London [63][132][133]

181. Richard Sharpe

weaver burnt 7 May 1557 Cotham, Bristol [134]

182. Thomas Hale

shoemaker burnt 7 May 1557 Cotham, Bristol [134]

183. Stephen Gratwick (or Steuen Grathwick) Brighthelmstone
Brighthelmstone
(now Brighton), Sussex

burnt at end of May 1557 St. George's Fields, Southwark, Surrey [63][135]:p.272[136]

184. William Morant

burnt at end of May 1557 St. George's Fields, Southwark, Surrey [63][135]:p. 272[136]

185. Thomas King[58]

burnt at end of May 1557 St. George's Fields, Southwark, Surrey [63][n 31][135]:p.272[136]

Maidstone
Maidstone
martyrs

186. Joan (or Jone) Bradbridge Staplehurst, Kent Presumably a relative of Widow Bradbridge, burnt 19 June 1557[137] burnt 18 June 1557 Maidstone, Kent [63][138]

187. Walter Appleby Maidstone, Kent

burnt 18 June 1557 Maidstone, Kent [63][138]

188. Petronil Appleby Maidstone, Kent wife of Walter Appleby burnt 18 June 1557 Maidstone, Kent [63][138]

189. Edmund Allin (or Allen) Maplehurst Mill, Frittenden, Kent miller burnt 18 June 1557 Maidstone, Kent [63][138]

190. Katherine Allin (or Allen) Maplehurst Mill, Frittenden, Kent Wife of Edmund Allin/Allen, miller burnt 18 June 1557 Maidstone, Kent [63][138]

191. Joan (or Jone) Manning Maidstone, Kent

burnt 18 June 1557 Maidstone, Kent [63][138]

192. Elizabeth (surname possibly 'Lewis')

blind maid burnt 18 June 1557 Maidstone, Kent [63][138]

Canterbury
Canterbury
martyrs of June 1557

193. John Fishcock/Jhon Fiscoke

burnt 19 June 1557 Canterbury, Kent [63][138]

194. Nicholas White

burnt 19 June 1557 Canterbury, Kent [63][138]

195. Nicholas Pardue/Perdue

burnt 19 June 1557 Canterbury, Kent [63][138]

196. Barbara Final

burnt 19 June 1557 Canterbury, Kent [63][138]

197. Bradbridge's Widow (Bradbridge's Wife) Probably Tenterden, Kent Probably the widow of Martin Bradbridge, burnt 16 January 1557 burnt 19 June 1557 Canterbury, Kent [138]

198. Mistress Wilson (also referred to as 'Wilson's Wife')

burnt 19 June 1557 Canterbury, Kent [63][138]

199. Alice Benden, possibly also referred to as 'Benson's Wife' Staplehurst
Staplehurst
(or possibly Cranbrook), Kent[139]

burnt 19 June 1557 Canterbury, Kent [63][138]

Lewes
Lewes
Martyrs

200. Richard Woodman Warbleton, Sussex iron-maker burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes, Sussex [63][75][140]

201. George Stevens (or Steuens) Warbleton, Sussex

burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes, Sussex [63][75][140]

202. William Mainard Mayfield, Sussex

burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes, Sussex [63][75][140]

203. Alexander Hosman Mayfield, Sussex servant of William Mainard burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes, Sussex [63][75][140]

204. Thomasina Wood Mayfield, Sussex maidservant of William Mainard burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes, Sussex [63][75][140]

205. Margery Morris
Margery Morris
(or Morice) Heathfield, Sussex

burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes, Sussex [63][75][115][140]

206. James Morris (or Morice) – son of Margery Heathfield, Sussex

burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes, Sussex [63][115][140]

207. Denis Burcis
Denis Burcis
(or Burgis) Buxted, Sussex

burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes, Sussex [63][75][115][140]

208. Ann Ashdon
Ann Ashdon
(or Ashdown; also referred to as 'Ashdon's Wife') Rotherfield, Sussex

burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes, Sussex [63][75][140]

209. Mary Groves (also referred to as 'Gloue's Wife') Lewes, Sussex

burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes, Sussex [63][75][140][n 32][115][141]

210. Simon Miller (or Milner) Lynn, Norfolk

burnt 13 July 1557 Norwich, Norfolk [63][142]

211. Elizabeth Cooper St Andrew's Church, Norwich, Norfolk wife of a pewterer burnt 13 July 1557 Norwich, Norfolk [63](which calls her 'a woman')[142]

212. George Egles/Eagles

hung, drawn & quartered, August 1557 Chelmsford, Essex [63][143]

Colchester
Colchester
Martyrs of August 1557

213. William Bongeor St Nicholas Parish, Colchester, Essex glazier burnt 2 August 1557 Colchester, Essex [144]

214. William Purchase
William Purchase
(or Purcas) Bocking, Essex fuller burnt 2 August 1557 Colchester, Essex [144]

215. Thomas Benhote
Thomas Benhote
(or Benold) Colchester, Essex tallow-chandler burnt 2 August 1557 Colchester, Essex [144]

216. Agnes Silverside
Agnes Silverside
(or Smith) Colchester, Essex widow burnt 2 August 1557 Colchester, Essex [144]

217. Helen (or Ellen) Ewring Colchester, Essex wife of John Ewring, miller burnt 2 August 1557 Colchester, Essex [144]

218. Elizabeth Folk Colchester, Essex 'young maiden' and servant burnt 2 August 1557 Colchester, Essex [144]

219. William Munt (or Mount) Much Bentley, Essex

burnt 2 August 1557 Colchester, Essex [144]

220. Alice Munt
Alice Munt
(or Mount) Much Bentley, Essex wife of William Munt (or Mount) burnt 2 August 1557 Colchester, Essex [144]

221. Rose Allen
Rose Allen
(or Allin) Much Bentley, Essex spinster, daughter of Alice Mount burnt 2 August 1557 Colchester, Essex [144]

222. John Johnson Thorpe, Essex labourer burnt 2 August 1557 Colchester, Essex [144]

223. Richard Crashfield Wymondham, Norfolk

burnt 5 August 1557 Norwich, Norfolk [63] which records 'one at Norwich' in July[145]

224. Father Fruier

burnt August 1557 Rochester, Kent [63][143]

225. Robert Stevenson

burnt August 1557 Rochester, Kent [146]

226. Sister of George Eagles

burnt August 1557 Rochester, Kent [63][143]

227. Unknown Woman

burnt August 1557 Rochester, Kent [63]

228. Agnes Prest Boyton, Cornwall Spinner burnt 15 August 1557 Southernhay, Exeter [147]

229. Thomas Benion

weaver burnt 27 August 1557 Bristol [134]

230. Joyce Lewis Mancetter, Warwickshire gentlewoman burnt September 1557 Lichfield, Staffordshire [148][149] – may be the same as Joyce Bowes, August 1557 (the Regester)

231. Ralph Allerton/Rafe Glaiton Much Bentley, Essex

burnt 17 September 1557 Islington [63][150]

232. James Austoo (or Auscoo)

burnt 17 September 1557 Islington [63][150]

233. Margery Austoo (or Auscoo)

burnt 17 September 1557 Islington [63][150]

234. Richard Roth (or Rooth)

burnt 17 September 1557 Islington [63][150]

235. Agnes Bongeor
Agnes Bongeor
(also known as Bowmer's Wife), wife of Richard Bongeor (similar name but different death date)

burnt 17 September (or unknown date July) Colchester, Essex [125] (or March 1558, Colchester)[63]

236. Margaret Thurston/Widow Thurston-similar name but different death date)

burnt 17 September (or unknown date July) Colchester, Essex [125](or March 1558, Colchester) [63]

237. Cicely Ormes St Edmund's Parish, Norwich, Norfolk wife of Edmund Ormes, worsted-weaver burnt 23 September 1557 Norwich, Norfolk [151][152][153]

238. Thomas Spurdance

servant of the Queen burnt November 1557 Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [152][154]

239. John Halingdale/Hallingdale/Hollingday

carpenter[58] burnt, 18 November/or day unknown October 1557, Smithfield, London [63][152][155]

240. William Sparrow

burnt, 18 November/or day unknown October 1557 Smithfield, London [63][152][155]

241. Richard Gibson

gentleman[58] burnt, 18 November/or day unknown October 1557 Smithfield, London [63][152][155]

242. John Rough/Jhon Roughe London/Islington, Middlesex clergyman – minister at London/Islington, Middlesex burnt 22 December 1557 Smithfield, London [63][156]

243. Margaret Maring (or Mering)

burnt 22 December 1557 Smithfield, London [63][156]

244. [Unknown forename ...] Lawton

burnt March 1558 Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire [58]

245.[n 33] Cuthbert Symson/Symion London/Islington, Middlesex clergyman – deacon of the church in London/Islington, Middlesex died 28 March 1558 Smithfield, London [63][157]

246. Hugh Foxe

hosier[58] died 28 March 1558 Smithfield, London [63][157]

247. John Devinish/Jhon Denneshe

wool winder[58] died 28 March 1558 Smithfield, London [63][157]

248. William Nichol

burnt 9 April 1558 SM9515 Haverfordwest/Hwlffordd, Pembrokeshire/Sir Benfro [63][158][159]

249. William Seaman (or Symon) Mendlesham, Suffolk husbandman burnt 19 May 1558 Norwich, Norfolk [63][160]

250. Thomas Hudson Aylsham, Norfolk glover burnt 19 May 1558 Norwich, Norfolk [160] described as 'Glouer' in [63]

251. Thomas Carman[n 28]

burnt 19 May 1558 Norwich, Norfolk [63][160]

252. William Harris

burnt 26 May 1558 Colchester [63][120]

253. Richard Day

burnt 26 May 1558 Colchester, Essex [63][120]

254. Christian George
Christian George
(female)

burnt 26 May 1558 Colchester, Essex her husband had previously been married to Agnes George, mentioned above[63][120]

Islington
Islington
Martyrs[161]

255. Henry Pond (or Houde)

burnt 27 June 1558 Smithfield, London [63][161]

256. Reinald Eastland (or Launder)

burnt 27 June 1558 Smithfield, London [63][161]

257. Robert Southain (or Southam)

burnt 27 June 1558 Smithfield, London [63][161]

258. Matthew Ricarby (or Ricarbie)

burnt 27 June 1558 Smithfield, London [63][161]

259. John Floyd (or Flood)

burnt 27 June 1558 Smithfield, London [63][161]

260. John Holiday (or Hollyday)

burnt 27 June 1558 Smithfield, London [63][161]

261. Roger Holland London
London
(taken in or near St John's Wood) merchant tailor burnt 27 June 1558 Smithfield, London [63][161]

262. Sir Richard Yeoman (or Yeman) Hadleigh, Suffolk clergyman – curate of Hadleigh, Suffolk burnt 10 July 1558 Norwich, Norfolk [63][162][163]

Islington
Islington
Martyrs (second group)[161]

263. Robert Mills

burnt 14 July 1558 Brentford, Middlesex [161]

264. Stephen Cotton

burnt 14 July 1558 Brentford, Middlesex [63][161]

265. Robert Dynes

burnt 14 July 1558 Brentford, Middlesex [161]

266. Stephen Wight (or Wreight)

burnt 14 July 1558 Brentford, Middlesex [63][161]

267. John Slade

burnt 14 July 1558 Brentford, Middlesex [63][161]

268. William Pikes (aliases: Pikas, Peckes)

tanner burnt 14 July 1558 Brentford, Middlesex [63][161]

269. John Cooke

sawyer burnt about 25 July 1558 Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [164]

270. Robert Milles (or Plummer)

shearman burnt about 25 July 1558 Bury St Edmunds [164]

271. Alexander Lane

wheelwright burnt about 25 July 1558 Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [164]

272. James Ashley

bachelor burnt about 25 July 1558 Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [164]

273. Thomas Benbrike/Benbridge

gentleman burnt unknown day in July 1558 Winchester, Hampshire [63][165]

274. John (or Richard) Snell Bedale, Yorkshire

burnt 9 September 1558 Richmond, Yorkshire [166]

275. Alexander Gooch (or Geche, or Gouch) Woodbridge or Melton, Suffolk weaver of shredding-coverlets burnt 4 November 1558 Ipswich
Ipswich
Cornhill [63][167]

276.[n 34] Alice Driver Grundisburgh, Suffolk wife of a husbandman burnt 4 November 1558 Ipswich
Ipswich
Cornhill [167]

277. Philip Humphrey (or Humfrey)

burnt November 1558 Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [168]

278. John David/Jhon Dauy (brother of Henry David)

burnt November 1558 Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [168]

279. Henry David/H. Dauy (brother of John David)

burnt November 1558 Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [168]

Canterbury
Canterbury
Martyrs of 1558

280. John Corneford Wrotham, Kent

burnt 15 November 1558 Canterbury, Kent [169]

281. Christopher Brown Maidstone, Kent

burnt 15 November 1558 Canterbury [169]

282. John Herst Ashford, Kent

burnt 15 November 1558 Canterbury, Kent [169]

283. Alice Snoth

burnt 15 November 1558 Canterbury, Kent [169]

284. Katherine Knight/Tynley

an aged woman burnt 15 November 1558 Canterbury [169]

Note: Mary I died on 17 November 1558.

Radical Protestants executed under Elizabeth I

1. Jan Wielmacker[n 35] Dutchman – member of a conventicle in Aldgate, London

22 July 1575 Smithfield, London [170]

2. Hendrik Ter Woort[n 35] Dutchman – member of a conventicle in Aldgate, London

22 July 1575 Smithfield, London [170]

3. Matthew Hamont[n 36] Hethersett, Norfolk ploughwright 20 May 1579 Norwich
Norwich
Castle [171]

4. John Lewes[n 36]

18 September 1583 Norwich, Norfolk [171]

5. Peter Cole[n 36] Ipswich, Suffolk tanner 1587 Norwich [171]

6. Francis Kett[n 36] Wymondham, Norfolk clergyman and physician 14 January 1589 Norwich
Norwich
Castle [172]-

7. John Greenwood London Puritan divine: Separatist 6 April 1593 London [173]-

8. Henry Barrowe
Henry Barrowe
(or Barrow) London lawyer : Separatist 6 April 1593 London [174]-

9. John Penry born Llangammarch, Powys, arrested Ratcliffe, London writer and preacher 29 May 1593 St Thomas a Watering, Old Kent
Kent
Road, London [175]

Radical Protestants executed under James I

1. Bartholomew Legate[n 37] Hornchurch, Essex cloth trader 18 March 1612 Smithfield, London [176]

2. Edward Wightman[n 35] Burton-upon-Trent, Staffordshire mercer and minister 11 April 1612 Lichfield, Staffordshire [177]

Also mentioned by Foxe[edit]

John Fortune (or Cutler) (of Hintlesham, Suffolk, blacksmith, either burnt or died in prison) [178] John Warner of Bourne[41][115] Thomas Athoth, priest [115]'he may have died in prison, escaped or – less likely – been pardoned.'[179] John Ashedon of Catsfield[115][180]

Posthumous proceedings[edit]

William Tracy of Toddington, Gloucestershire, 'worshipful esquire', exhumed and burnt, 1532 [181] John Tooley, poulterer, exhumed and burnt, 4 June 1555 [182] James Trevisam, died 3 July 1555 and summoned posthumously to appear before the bishop[183] Catherine, wife of Peter Martyr Vermigli, exhumed 1556, Cambridge[184] Martin Bucer, Professor of Divinity, exhumed and burnt 6 February 1557, Cambridge[184][185] Paul Fagius, Lecturer in Hebrew, exhumed and burnt 6 February 1557, Cambridge[184][185] Joan Seaman, early 1558, refused burial at Mendlesham[156] John Glover, gentleman, 'about the latter end of Queen Mary', ordered to be exhumed[92] William Glover, September 1558, refused burial at Wem, Shropshire[92] Edward Burton, 15 January 1559, refused burial at Shrewsbury[92]

Those who sickened or died in prison[edit]

No. Name Residence Description Date of death Place of death References

Henry VIII

1. Christopher, a Dutchman Antwerp, Flanders

1531 died in prison at Westminster [181]

2. John Porter Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
and St Sepulchre's, London tailor 1542 Newgate Prison, London [28][41]

3. Thomas Sommers London merchant About 1542 Tower of London, [28][29]

Mary I

1C. John Alcock (or Awcock) Hadleigh, Suffolk shearman 2 April 1555 Newgate Prison, London [186][187]

2. William Minge

clergyman – priest 2 July 1555 Maidstone
Maidstone
Prison, Kent [63][183]

3. John Aleworth

July 1555 Reading Prison, Berkshire [n 38][77]

4. ... Tingle

September 1555 Newgate Prison, London [63][188]

5.[n 39][189] George Kyng (or King)

September 1555 sickened in Lollard's Tower [63][87][189]

6. Jhon Lesse

September 1555 Newgate Prison, London [63][n 40][87]

7. John Wade

September 1555 sickened in Lollard's Tower [87]

8. William Androwes (or Andrew, or Andrews) Horsley, Essex carpenter September 1555 Newgate Prison, London [63][87]

9. James Gore

7 December 1555 Colchester
Colchester
Prison, Essex [63][98]

10. William Wiseman

clothworker 13 December 1555, Lowlar's Tower/Lollard's Tower, Lambeth
Lambeth
Palace, London [63][98]

11. Margaret Eliot (or Ellis) Billericay, Essex maid May 1556 Newgate Prison, London [63][110]

12. William Sleeke (or Slech)

31 May 1556 'King's Bench' Southwark, Surrey [63][114]

13. William Adheral

minister 24 June 1556 'King's Bench' Southwark, Surrey [63][114]

14. John Clemente

wheelwright 26 June 1556 'King's Bench', Southwark, Surrey [63][114]

15. Thomas Parret

27 June 1556 'King's Bench', Southwark, Surrey [63][118]

16. Martyne Hunte

29 June 1556 'King's Bench', Southwark, Surrey [63][118]

17. John Morris (or Morice)

29 June 1556 'King's Bench', Southwark, Surrey [117][118]

18. John Careless Coventry, Warwickshire weaver 1 July 1556 'King's Bench', Southwark, Surrey [63][190]

19.–21. William Dangerfield, his wife Joan and their infant child

sickened in prison [78]

22.–24. Three people

October 1556 Chichester
Chichester
Castle, Sussex (or Canterbury
Canterbury
Castle, Kent, according to Knox) [58][78]

25. John Clark

in or after November 1556 Canterbury
Canterbury
Castle, Kent [78]

26. Dunston Chittenden

in or after November 1556 Canterbury
Canterbury
Castle, Kent [78]

27. William Foster Stone, Kent

in or after November 1556 Canterbury
Canterbury
Castle, Kent [78]

28. Alice Potkins Staplehurst, Kent

in or after November 1556 Canterbury
Canterbury
Castle, Kent [78]

29. John Archer Cranbrook, Kent

in or after November 1556 Canterbury
Canterbury
Castle [78]

30. John Thurston taken at Much Bentley, Essex

May 1557 Colchester
Colchester
Castle, Essex [144]

31. N. Ambrose

about June 1557 (according to Foxe), or July 1557 (according to Farr) Maidstone
Maidstone
Prison, Kent [63][117][191]

32. John Dale Hadleigh, Suffolk weaver

Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds
Prison [63][163]

33. Matthew Withers (or Wythers)

June 1558 Newgate Prison, London [63][161]

34. Thomas Tyler

June 1558 Newgate Prison, London [63][161]

Historical context[edit]

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The English Reformation
English Reformation
had put a stop to Catholic ecclesiastical governance in England, asserted royal supremacy over the English Church and dissolved some church institutions, such as monasteries and chantries. An important year in the English Reformation
English Reformation
was 1547, when Protestantism became a new force under the child-king Edward VI, England's first Protestant
Protestant
ruler. Edward died at age 15 in 1553. Lady Jane Grey tried to succeed as Queen for nine days before Edward's Catholic half-sister Mary deposed her and assumed the crown, as was stipulated by Henry VIII
Henry VIII
in his Third Succession Act
Third Succession Act
but revoked by Edward VI.[192]:p62 The relationship between the English church and Rome was restored under Mary in 1553. She went on to reign for five years (1553–1558) until her death. Protestants opposed Mary's actions. Many people were exiled, and hundreds of dissenters were burned at the stake, earning her the nickname "Bloody Mary".[193] The number of people executed for their faith during the persecutions is thought to be at least 287.[194] Troubles for Protestants[edit] After the accession of Queen Mary I to the English throne in 1553, and her repeal of all religious legislation passed under Edward VI, Protestants faced a choice: exile, reconciliation/conversion, or punishment.[195]:p.186 Mary had some 284 Protestants burned at the stake (including 56 women). Thirty others died in prison.[47]:p.79 While the so-called "Marian Persecutions" began with four clergymen,[195]:p.196 relics of Edwardian England’s Protestantism, Foxe’s Book of Martyrs
Foxe’s Book of Martyrs
offers an account of the executions, which branched well beyond the anticipated targets – high-level clergy. Tradesmen were also burned, as well as married men and women, sometimes in unison, "youths" and at least one couple was burned alive with their daughter.[195]:p.196 English Inquisition and the judicial process[edit] However bloody the end, the trials of Protestant
Protestant
heretics were judicial affairs, presided by Bishops (most notably Bishop Bonner) adhering to a strict legal protocol under the privy council, with Parliament's blessing.[195]:p.195 Mary had difficulty forming an efficient Privy Council, which eventually numbered over 40 and never worked as a source of political advice, though it effectively pursued police work and enforcement of religious uniformity.[192]:p62-65 During the session that restored the realm to papal obedience parliament reinstated the heresy laws.[195]:p.196 From 20 January 1555, England could legally punish those judged guilty of heresy against the Catholic faith.[47]:p.91 Thus it became a matter of establishing the guilt or innocence of an accused heretic in open court – a process which the lay authorities employed to reclaim "straying sheep" and to set a precedent for authentic Catholic teaching.[47]:p.102 If found guilty, the accused were first excommunicated, then handed over to the secular authorities for execution.[47]:p.102 The official records of the trials are limited to formal accusations, sentences, and so forth; the documents to which historians look for context and detail are those written by the accused or their supporters.[47]:p.102 Cathedrals in operation[edit] England

Canterbury
Canterbury
Cathedral c.600 AD Carlisle Cathedral (in various forms) 1092 AD Chester Cathedral (in various forms) 875 AD Chichester
Chichester
Cathedral 1080 AD Durham Cathedral 997 AD Ely Cathedral 1109 AD Exeter
Exeter
Cathedral 1050 AD Gloucester
Gloucester
Cathedral 1541 AD Hereford Cathedral 676 AD Lichfield
Lichfield
Cathedral 669-803, 1048 AD Lincoln Cathedral 1070 AD Norwich
Norwich
Cathedral 1094 AD (31 victims of Michael Dunning, the "bloody chancellor" of Norwich
Norwich
died from 1555 to 1558) Oxford
Oxford
Cathedral (in various forms) 727 AD Rochester Cathedral (in various forms) 604 AD Salisbury
Salisbury
Cathedral 1227 AD Southwark
Southwark
Cathedral (in various forms) 1106 AD Wells Cathedral
Wells Cathedral
1239 AD Westminster
Westminster
Abbey (The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster) 1080 AD Winchester Cathedral 650 AD Worcester
Worcester
Cathedral 743 AD York
York
Minster 300 AD

Wales

Bangor Cathedral – Church of St Deiniol, (in various forms) 1092 AD Brecon Cathedral – Cathedral Church of St John the Evangelist, (in various forms) 1093/1110-1538 AD Llandaff Cathedral – Cathedral Church of St Peter and St Paul (in various forms) 550 AD St Asaph Cathedral (in various forms) 553 AD St Davids Cathedral (in various forms) 580 AD

John Rogers's execution[edit] Before Mary's ascent to the throne, John Foxe, one of the few clerics of his day who was against the burning of even obstinate heretics, had approached John Rogers to intervene on behalf of Joan of Kent, a female Anabaptist who was sentenced to burning in 1550.[195]:p.193 Rogers, a Protestant
Protestant
preacher and royal chaplain, refused to help, as he supported the burning of heretics. Rogers claimed that the method of execution was "sufficiently mild" for a crime as grave as heresy.[47]:p.87 Later, after Mary I came to power and converted England to Catholicism, John Rogers spoke quite vehemently against the new order and was burnt as a heretic.[47]:p.97 Observations[edit] The figure of 300 victims of the Marian Persecutions was given by Foxe[157] and later by Thomas Brice in his poem, "The Regester".[63] Legacy[edit] Throughout the course of the persecutions, Foxe lists 312 individuals who were burnt or hanged for their faith, or died or sickened in prison. Lists of these names are available here [n 41] and here.[n 42] Three of these people are commemorated with a gothic memorial in Oxford, England but there are many other memorials across England.[196] They are known locally as the "Marian Martyrs". See also[edit]

Anglicanism portal

Marian exiles Martyrs' Memorial Foxe's Book of Martyrs Religion in the United Kingdom Oxford
Oxford
Martyrs List of people executed in Smithfield Coventry
Coventry
Martyrs

Notes[edit]

^ 'Foxe has a terse report in the Rerum of an old man of Buckingham- shire being executed in 1531 for eating pork during Lent (Rerum, p. 126). Foxe's source for this episode is unknown; Bale does not mention this old man in any of his works. Perhaps Laurence Humphrey, who was Foxe's friend, a native of Buckinghamshire, and who was with Foxe in Basel, was the source for this story. In any case, the Rerum account was translated word-for-word in the 1563 edition. The story was dropped from all subsequent editions, possibly because Foxe grew unsure of this individual's existence or at least of his ability to prove it.' Foxe's Book of Martyrs, Critical Apparatus ^ Foxe describes him as being 'mad and beside his right senses ... and destitute of sense and reason'. The Critical Apparatus to Foxe's Book of Martyrs lists a number of unorthodox beliefs which he held. ^ Foxe describes him as being 'mad ... ravished of his wits ... beside his wits'. ^ Six months before the execution of Robert Harvey for treason in Spring 1541 Harvey#C241.56 Foxe's Book of Martyrs, Critical Apparatus ^ 'within the space of a year, or thereabout, after' the previous man ^ The 1563 edition of Foxe's Book of Martyrs
Foxe's Book of Martyrs
records that William Dighel was burned at about the same time as Nicholas Sheterden. However, this information is not repeated in subsequent editions of Foxe's work. "Was his omission in subsequent editions due to an accident in the print shop or did Foxe come to doubt his information on Dighel?" ^ husband of Elizabeth Warne, burnt in August 1555 ^ May be the same as ... Butter, burnt (day unknown) June 1555, Location unknown (the Regester) ^ Buried in St. Michaels & All Angels Marble placed in 1748 ^ which calls him 'Sir Franke' ^ The same as Jone Polley, burnt (day unknown) July 1555, Location unknown (the Regester) ^ Foxe erred in stating that Polley came from Pepenbury; see PRO C/85/144/33r. ^ widow of John Warne, burnt in May 1555 ^ which says that 'Joan Lashford ... was the daughter of one Robert Lashford ..., and of ... Elizabeth, who afterward was married to John Warne' ^ may be the same as Jone Painter (the Regester) ^ a b which refers to 'two women in Ippeswiche towne' ^ a b which refers to 'two brethren more' ^ a b which refers to 'two at Glocester' ^ a b c which refers to 'two men and a syster dere' ^ 'The Regester' states that a person called 'Milwright' was burnt along with Harland, Oswald, Reed and Avington. However, this person is not mentioned in Foxe's Book of Martyrs, although he does appear in ^ may be the same as John Milles ^ the same as 'A merchant's servant burned at Leicester' and the same as 'the yong man at Leicester' ^ a b which refers to "two women" ^ her husband then married Christian George, mentioned below ^ May be an error for Edward Horne, burnt at Newent, Gloucestershire in September 1558. Foxe states that a woman was burnt with Horne. However, the Critical Apparatus quotes a letter from Foxe's papers stating that 'Edward Horne's wife was condemned with him but she recanted and her life was spared' ^ a b which refers to 'two at Wye' ^ a b which refers to 'two at Asheforde'. A number of Kentish people of Ashford Area are recorded as having been burnt 16 January 1556 at Ashford, Kent
Kent
in Ashford Borough Council – Parks and Open Spaces. However, at this time the civil or legal year in England began on 25 March, so the date now known as 16 January 1557 would then have been recorded as 16 January 1556. ^ a b William Carman burnt unknown month 1557 and Thomas Carman burnt 19 May 1558 were brothers ^ may be the same as Jhon Lothesby, burnt at Smithfield, April 1557 (the Regester) ^ may be the same as Annis Hide, burnt at Smithfield, April 1557 (the Regester) ^ which records an 'other' burnt with Morant and Grathwick ^ May be the same as Christian Grover of the archdeaconry of Lewes ^ 'The Regester' states that a person called 'Hayne' was burnt along with Cuthbert Symion. However, this person is not mentioned in Foxe's Book of Martyrs. ^ 'The Regester' gives the name of the woman burnt with Alexander Gooch as Elizabeth Launson. ^ a b c An Anabaptist ^ a b c d A Unitarian ^ An Arian ^ may be the same as William Ailewarde (the Regester) ^ Richard Smith is said to have died in prison (day unknown) September, Lowlar's Tower/Lollard's Tower, Lambeth
Lambeth
Palace, London
London
in 'the Regester', but is described as 'non-existent' in ^ may be the same as Thomas Leyes of Thorpe, Essex, sickened in Lollard's Tower, died (day unknown) September, Location unknown ^ That list does not include John Wade, the three members of the Dangerfield family or the three who died in Chichester
Chichester
Castle – numbers 7 and 19 to 24 in the list of prisoners above. It appears to conflate Thomas Ravensdale and the shoemaker who was burnt with him – numbers 158 and 160 in the list of prisoners above. In other words, eight people appear above, but not in that list. On the other hand, numbers 212 and 213 in that list (two people burned in Suffolk on 18 June 1557) do not seem to appear elsewhere, and are not shown above. As a result, there are six fewer names in that list of 312 people than the totals above of those executed (284) and those who sickened or died in prison (34) – a grand total of 318. ^ That list does not include the following eight people mentioned above – (34) Margery Polley, (49) Roger Hues, (154) Rose Pencell, (175) William Carman, (212) George Egles – as he was hanged, drawn and quartered, as opposed to being burnt, (225) Robert Stevenson, (227) the woman at Rochester, (243) ... Lawton. On the other hand, that list duplicates (38) Richard Hook, (127) Thomas Milles/John Milles (128) Thomas Moor and (209) Mary Groves/Christian Grover. It counts (147) Perotine Massey's infant son separately. It includes John Warner and Thomas Athoth who are shown above as 'Also mentioned by Foxe'. It includes a woman said to have been burnt with (164) John Horne of Wotton-under-Edge. In other words, eight people appear in that list but not above. As a result, that list contains the same number of people as the list of martyrs above – 284.

References[edit]

^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 170. Mummuth and Hitton ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 179. Thomas Benet ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 171. Thomas Bilney ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 173. Richard Bayfield, martyr ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 174. John Tewkesbury, leatherseller, of London, martyr ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 1563 Edition Book 3 Page 546 ^ Gairdner, James Lollardy and the Reformation in England: An Historical Survey London, Macmillan and Co, 1908, Vol 1, P 392, Note 1 ^ Review of Fox's Book of Martyrs, Page 119 – William Eusebius Andrews – Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-11-08.  ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 176. James Bainham, lawyer and martyr ^ a b Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 177. John Bent and others ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 166. Martyrs in Scotland and England, 1525-32 ^ David Daniell, ‘Frith, John (1503–1533)’, Oxford
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Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford
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University Press, 2004; online edn, Oct 2006 accessed 21 Sept 2014 ^ a b Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 178. John Frith and Andrew Hewet ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 181. King Henry's breach with Rome. See Susan Brigden, London
London
and the Reformation [Oxford,1989], pp. 270-71 for the background to these executions. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs, 1583 edition, Book 8, page 1073 ^ a b c d e Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 192. Other martyrs, 1538. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-21. ^ a b Foxe's Book of Martyrs, Critical Apparatus ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 191. John Lambert. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-25. ^ Stow's Annals of England to 1603, P971 ^ a b c Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 222. Three divers sorts of judgments amongst the papists, against heretics as they call them. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2014-08-10. ^ Stow's Annals of England to 1603, p. 974 ^ a b c Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 197. The history of Robert Barnes, Thomas Garret, and William Jerome, divines. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-09-1. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 175. John Randall and Edward Freese. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-09-08. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs, Critical Apparatus ^ a b c Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 199. Further persecution arising from the Six Articles. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-09-8. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs, Critical Apparatus ^ a b Foxe's Book of Martyrs, Critical Apparatus ^ a b c d 200. John Porter, Thomas Sommers, and others. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-09-08. ^ a b c Foxe's Book of Martyrs
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– Glossary of People ^ a b Foxe's Book of Martyrs
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– Glossary of People ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs, Critical Apparatus ^ a b c Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 204. Persecution in Calais. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2014-08-12. ^ a b c Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 203. Four Windsor Martyrs. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2014-08-09. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs
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– Glossary of People ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs
Foxe's Book of Martyrs
– Glossary of People ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs
Foxe's Book of Martyrs
– Glossary of People ^ a b c d Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 207. John Athy, John Heywood, Kerby, and Roger Clarke ^ a b Diane Watt, ‘Askew , Anne (c. 1521–1546)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford
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University Press, 2004 accessed 24 Aug 2014 ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 209. Anne Askew ^ a b c Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 210. The Martyrdom of John Lacels, John Adams, and Nicholas Belenian ^ a b c d e f Foxe's Book of Martyrs, Glossary of People ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 211. One Rogers, a martyr, burned in Norfolk ^ a b c d e f g h Foxe's Book of Martyrs
Foxe's Book of Martyrs
– 311. GEORGE CATMER, ROBERT STREATER, .ANTHONY BURWARD, GEORGE BRODBRIDGE, AND JAMES TUTTY; THOMAS HAYWARD AND JOHN GOREWAY. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2012-08-16. ^ Andrew Hope, ‘Bocher, Joan (d. 1550)’, Oxford
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Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford
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University Press, 2004 accessed 24 Aug 2014 ^ Strype's Memorials of Cranmer, P 332 ^ David Hume, The History of England, vol. 3 Chapter XXXIV ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Duffy, Eamon Fires of Faith: Catholic England Under Mary Tudor, New Haven, Yale 2008 ISBN 0300152167 ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 264. John Rogers. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-17. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 265. Laurence Saunders. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-17. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 266. John Hooper. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-17. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 267. Rowland Taylor. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-17. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 277. Rawlins White. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-17. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 272. Thomas Tomkins. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2012-08-16. ^ a b Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 274. Thomas Causton and Thomas Higbed. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2012-08-16. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 273. William Hunter. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-17. ^ a b c Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 275. William Pygot, Stephen Knight, and John Laurence. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-17. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs, Critical Apparatus ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Brief Exhortation to England, John Knox, 1559 ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 276. Robert Ferrar. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-17. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 279. George Marsh. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-17. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 280. William Flower. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-17. ^ a b Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 282. John Cardmaker and John Warne. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm Thomas Bryce, "The Regester" in Edward Farr, ed., Select Poetry of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth. 1845. ^ " Foxe's Book of Martyrs
Foxe's Book of Martyrs
– 286. Thomas Haukes". Exclassics.com. Retrieved 2012-09-01.  ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 287. Thomas Wats. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-17. ^ a b Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 284. John Ardeley and John Simson. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-17. ^ a b c Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 291. Thomas Osmond, William Bamford, Thomas Osborne and others.Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-17. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 292. John Bradford. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-17. ^ a b Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 294. The execution of Leaf and Bradford. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-17. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 293. John Leaf, burnt with Bradford. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-17. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 297. John Bland Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-18. ^ a b c d e f Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 298. Nicholas Shetterden, John Frankesh and Humphrey Middleton. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-18. ^ a b c Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 299. Nicholas Hall and Christopher Wade. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-18. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs, Critical Apparatus ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Lewes
Lewes
Sussex Protestant
Protestant
Martyrs Reformation 6. Lewes
Lewes
Bonfire Celebrations. Retrieved on 2012-08-16. ^ a b Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 300. Dirick Carver and John Launder. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-18. ^ a b c Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 301. Thomas Iveson, John Aleworth and James Abbes. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 351. Other martyrs in 1556. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-26 ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs, 1583 edition ^ a b c d Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 302. John Denley, Gentleman, John Newman and Patrick Packingham. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-19. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 307. Robert Smith. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-19. ^ a b c d e f Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 303. William Coker, William Hopper, Henry Laurence, Richard Colliar, Richard Wright, and William Stere. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-19. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 305. Elizabeth Warne. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-19. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs, Critical Apparatus ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 306. George Tankerfield. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-19. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 309. Robert Samuel. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-19. ^ a b c d e f g Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 308. Stephen Harwood, Thomas Fust, William Hale, George King, Thomas Leyes, John Wade, and William Andrew. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-19. ^ a b c " Foxe's Book of Martyrs
Foxe's Book of Martyrs
– 310. William Allen, Roger Coo, and Thomas Cobb". Exclassics.com. Retrieved 2012-09-01.  ^ a b c d e Image of FOXE: BOOK OF MARTYRS. – The Burning Of George Catmer, Robert Streater, Anthony Burward And George Broadbridge At Canterbury, England, 12 July 1555. Line Engraving, From A Late 18th Century English Edition Of John Foxe's 'The Book Of Martyrs,' First Published In 1563. From The Granger Collection. Granger.com. Retrieved on 2012-08-16. ^ a b c d e The Martyrs Memorial, Canterbury. Machadoink.com (1907-10-16). Retrieved on 2012-08-16. ^ Transactions of the Congregational Historical Society, Vol 2, p. 366 (1969) ^ a b c d " Foxe's Book of Martyrs
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– 312. Robert Glover, Gentleman, and John and William Glover, his brothers". Exclassics.com. Retrieved 2012-09-01.  ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 313. Cornelius Bungey Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-18. ^ a b Spencer-Thomas, Owen (2018). "The Ely Martyrs: William Wolsey & Robert Pygot". Owen Spencer-Thomas. Retrieved 2018-02-11.  ^ a b Foxe's Book of Martyrs
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– 314. William Wolsey and Robert Pygot. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-19. ^ Susan Wabuda, ‘Latimer, Hugh (c. 1485–1555)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford
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University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2009 accessed 27 June 2013 ^ a b Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 321. The execution of Ridley and Latimer Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-18. ^ a b c d e Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 325. John Webbe, George Roper, Gregory Parke, William Wiseman, and James Gore. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-19. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 326. John Philpot. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-19. ^ a b c d e f g Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 329. Thomas Whittle, Bartlet Green, John Tudson, John Went, Thomas Browne; Isabel Foster, and Joan Warne, Alias Lashford. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-22. ^ a b c d e Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 330. John Lomas, Anne Albright, Joan Catmer, Agnes Snoth, and Joan Sole. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-22. ^ a b Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 332. Agnes Porter and Joan Trunchfield. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-22. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 331. Thomas Cranmer. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-19. ^ a b c Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 333. John Maundrel, William Coberley, and John Spicer. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-22. ^ a b Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 336. John Harpole and Joan Beach. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-22. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 337: John Hullier. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-19. ^ Babraham
Babraham
History Archived 4 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c d e f Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 334. Robert Drakes, William Tyms, Richard Spurge, Thomas Spurge, John Cavel, George Ambrose. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-22. ^ a b c d e f Foxe's Book of Martyrs
Foxe's Book of Martyrs
338. Christopher Lyster, John Mace, John Spencer, Simon Joyne, Richard Nichols and John Hamond. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-22. ^ a b c d e f Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 339. Hugh Laverock, John Apprice, Katharine Hut, Elizabeth Thackvel, and Joan Horns. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-22. ^ a b Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 340. Thomas Drowry and Thomas Croker. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-24 ^ a b c Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 341. Persecution in Suffolk. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-24 ^ a b "Woodmancote Martyrs". Acutting.co.uk. 2010-06-06. Retrieved 2012-09-01.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 343: Other Martyrs, June 1556. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-24 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 370: Persecution in Lichfield
Lichfield
and Chichester. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-24 ^ 'Christ's victory over Satan's tyranny', Thomas Mason, 1615 ^ a b c d e Review of Fox's Book of Martyrs – William Eusebius Andrews – Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-09-01.  ^ a b c d e f Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 345. Trouble and business in the diocese of Lichfield
Lichfield
and elsewhere, June-July 1556. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 344. Thirteen Martyrs Burned at Stratford-Le-Bow. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-24 ^ a b c d Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 378. Three Colchester
Colchester
Martyrs. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-30 ^ a b c Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 348. Julius (sic) Palmer, John Gwin and Thomas Askin. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-26 ^ a b c Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 350. Katharine Cawches, Guillemine Gilbert, Perotine Massey, and an infant, the son of Perotine Massey. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-26 ^ a b c Martyrdom in East Grinstead
East Grinstead
« Tudor stuff: Tudor history from the heart of England. Tudorstuff.wordpress.com. Retrieved on 2012-08-16. ^ a b James Fawckner Nicholls Bristol
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– 371. THOMAS SPURDANCE. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2012-08-16. ^ a b c Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 372. John Hallingdale, William Sparrow, and Richard Gibson. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-29 ^ a b c Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 373. John Rough and Margaret Mearing. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-29 ^ a b c d "Fox's Book of Martyrs". Ccel.org. Retrieved 2012-09-01.  ^ Memorial to William Nichol, martyr:: OS grid SM9515 :: Geograph Britain and Ireland – photograph every grid square!. Geograph.org.uk (2007-06-18). Retrieved on 2012-08-16. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 375. William Nichol. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-30 ^ a b c Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 376. William Seaman, Thomas Carman, and Thomas Hudson. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-30 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Foxe's Book of Martyrs
Foxe's Book of Martyrs
– 380. THIRTEEN ISLINGTON MARTYRS. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2012-08-16. ^ K-State Libraries – Rare Books – Illustrations List from Foxe's Book of Martyrs (1684). Webcache.googleusercontent.com. Retrieved on 2012-08-16. ^ a b Foxe's Book of Martyrs
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Foxe's Book of Martyrs
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