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Protestants were executed under heresy laws during persecutions against Protestant
Protestant
religious reformers for their religious denomination during the reigns of Henry VIII
Henry VIII
(1509–1547) and Mary I of England (1553–1558). Radical Protestants were also executed during the reigns of Edward VI
Edward VI
(1547–1553), Elizabeth I (1558–1603) and James I
James I
(1603–1625). The excesses of this period were recorded in Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs .

Protestants in England and Wales were executed under legislation that punished anyone judged guilty of heresy against Catholicism
Catholicism
. Although the standard penalty for those convicted of treason in England at the time was execution by being hanged, drawn and quartered , this legislation adopted the punishment of burning the condemned. At least 300 people were recognised as burned over the five years of Mary I's reign by contemporary sources.

Catholics were also executed (under charge of treason) during the reign of Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
. See List of Catholic martyrs of the English Reformation .

CONTENTS

* 1 Protestants executed under Henry VIII
Henry VIII

* 1.1 Posthumous proceedings * 1.2 Those who sickened or died in prison

* 2 Radical Protestants executed under Edward VI
Edward VI

* 3 Protestants executed under Mary I

* 3.1 Also mentioned by Foxe * 3.2 Posthumous proceedings * 3.3 Those who sickened or died in prison

* 4 Radical Protestants executed under Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
* 5 Radical Protestants executed under James I
James I

* 6 Historical context

* 6.1 Troubles for Protestants * 6.2 English Inquisition and the judicial process * 6.3 Cathedrals in operation

* 7 John Rogers\'s execution * 8 Observations * 9 Legacy * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References

PROTESTANTS EXECUTED UNDER HENRY VIII

NO. NAME RESIDENCE DESCRIPTION DATE OF EXECUTION PLACE OF EXECUTION REFERENCES

1. Thomas Hitton Martham , Norfolk clergyman – priest burnt 23 February 1530 Maidstone
Maidstone
, Kent

2. Thomas Benet Exeter
Exeter
, Devon teacher burnt 15 January 1531 Exeter
Exeter
, Devon

3. Thomas Bilney
Thomas Bilney
Taken at Norwich
Norwich
, Norfolk clergyman – priest burnt 19 August 1531 Norwich
Norwich
, Norfolk

4. Richard Bayfield Taken at Mark Lane, London monk – Benedictine
Benedictine
(former) and chamberlain of Bury St Edmunds Abbey burnt 27 November 1531 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

5. John Tewkesbury St Michael-le-Querne Parish, Paternoster Row, London leatherseller burnt December 1531 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

6. 'An old man' Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire

burnt 1531

7. Davy Foster Yorkshire
Yorkshire
poor artificer burnt 1531

8. James Bainham Middle Temple
Middle Temple
, London lawyer burnt 30 April 1532 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

9. John Bent Urchfont , Wiltshire

burnt in or before April 1532 Devizes
Devizes
, Wiltshire

10. ... Trapnel

burnt in or before April 1532 Bradford , Wiltshire

11. Thomas Harding
Thomas Harding
Chesham
Chesham
, Buckinghamshire 'aged father' his brains were dashed out with a billet of wood while he was being burnt at the stake, May 1532 Chesham
Chesham
, Buckinghamshire

12. John Frith Westerham , then Sevenoaks
Sevenoaks
, Kent
Kent
– Taken after he had been preaching at Bow Lane, London clergyman – canon at Cardinal College, Oxford
Oxford
burnt 4 July 1533 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

13. Andrew Hewet Watling Street
Watling Street
, London
London
(born in Feversham , Kent) apprentice to a tailor burnt 4 July 1533 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

14.–23. Ten Dutchmen counted for Anabaptists – Segor, Derycke, Symon, Runa, Derycke, Dominicke, Dauid, Cornelius, Elken and Milo

burnt 1535 'sundry places of the realm'

24. Robert Pakington Cheapside , London mercer murdered 13 November 1536 Cheapside , London

25. William Cowbridge Wantage
Wantage
, Berkshire clergyman (purported) – 'exercised the office of a priest, in teaching and administering of the sacraments, but being no priest indeed' burnt after – probably shortly after – 22 July 1538 Oxford
Oxford
, Oxfordshire

26. John Lambert The Stocks – a market for meat and fish in the City of London clergyman – priest, and teacher of Greek and Latin burnt 22 November 1538 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

27. ... Puttedew Suffolk
Suffolk

burnt in or before 1538 Suffolk
Suffolk

28. William Leiton or Leyton Eye Priory , Eye, Suffolk
Suffolk
monk – Benedictine
Benedictine
burnt in or before 1538 Norwich
Norwich
, Norfolk

29. -30 Two Anabaptists, a man and a woman Dutch

burnt 29 November 1538 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

31. Giles Germane

burnt 1539 St Giles in the Fields , outside London

32. Launcelot ...

servant of the king burnt 1539 St Giles in the Fields , outside London

33. John ...

painter burnt 1539 St Giles in the Fields , outside London

34.–36. Three Anabaptists – ... Mandeville, ... Collins and another

burnt 29 April 1539 Newington Causeway
Newington Causeway
, outside London

37. William Collins London
London
lawyer and gentleman burnt 7 July 1540 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London
or Southwark
Southwark

38. Robert Barnes Austin Friary, Cambridge (until 1528) monk – Augustinian burnt 30 July 1540 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

39. Thomas Gerrard (or Gerard, Garret or Garrard) All Hallows Honey Lane Parish, London clergyman – rector of All Hallows Honey Lane burnt 30 July 1540 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

40. William Jerome Stepney , London clergyman – vicar of St Dunstan\'s, Stepney burnt 30 July 1540 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

41.–42. Valentine Freese and his wife

burnt 1540 York, Yorkshire

43. Richard Mekins

'a child that passed not the age of fifteen years' burnt 30 July 1541

44. Richard Spenser

clergyman (former) – 'a ... Priest ... who leaving his papistry, had married a wife, and became a player in interludes' Burnt about 1541/2 Salisbury
Salisbury
, Wiltshire

45. John Ramsey

player in interludes burnt about 1541/2 Salisbury
Salisbury
, Wiltshire

46. Thomas Bernard

burnt about 1541 Lincoln Diocese

47. James Morton

burnt about 1541 Lincoln Diocese

48. Adam Damlip (also known as George Bucker) Calais
Calais
clergyman – former chaplain to Bishop John Fisher hanged, drawn and quartered 22 May 1543 Calais
Calais

The Windsor Martyrs

49. Robert Testwood City of London
London
(originally) musician in the college at Windsor burnt 28 July 1543 Windsor, Berkshire
Windsor, Berkshire

50. Anthony Pearson

clergyman – priest of Windsor; popular preacher burnt 28 July 1543 Windsor, Berkshire
Windsor, Berkshire

51. Henry Filmer

churchwarden of St John the Baptist Church, Windsor burnt 28 July 1543 Windsor, Berkshire
Windsor, Berkshire

52. Unknown man Calais
Calais
poor labouring man burnt 1540 Calais
Calais

53. ... Dodd Calais
Calais
– a Scotsman

burnt 1541 Calais
Calais

54. ... Henry

burnt 1545 or 1546 Colchester
Colchester
, Essex

55. Unknown man

servant of ... Henry burnt 1545 or 1546 Colchester
Colchester
, Essex

56. ... Kerby

burnt 1546 Ipswich
Ipswich
, Suffolk

57. Roger Clarke Mendlesham
Mendlesham
, Suffolk

burnt 1546 Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds
, Suffolk

58. Anne Askew
Anne Askew
Stallingborough , Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
wife of Master Thomas Kyme, a farmer and landowner of Friskney , Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
burnt 16 July 1546 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

59. Nicholas Belenian Shropshire
Shropshire
clergyman – priest burnt 16 July 1546 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

60. John Adams Colchester
Colchester
, Essex
Essex
tailor burnt 16 July 1546 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

61. John Lascelles Gateford , Nottinghamshire courtier burnt 16 July 1546 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

62. ... Rogers Norfolk
Norfolk

burnt 1546 Norfolk
Norfolk

63. Oliver Richardine Whitchurch parish

burnt 1546 Hartford West

POSTHUMOUS PROCEEDINGS

* William Tracy of Toddington, Gloucestershire , 'worshipful esquire', exhumed and burnt, 1532

THOSE WHO SICKENED OR DIED IN PRISON

NO. NAME RESIDENCE DESCRIPTION DATE OF DEATH PLACE OF DEATH REFERENCES

1. Christopher, a Dutchman Antwerp
Antwerp
, Flanders

1531 died in prison at Westminster
Westminster

2. John Porter Chipping Campden , Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
and St Sepulchre\'s, London
London
tailor 1542 Newgate Prison
Newgate Prison
, London

3. Thomas Sommers London
London
merchant About 1542 Tower of London
London
,

RADICAL PROTESTANTS EXECUTED UNDER EDWARD VI

NO. NAME RESIDENCE DESCRIPTION DATE OF EXECUTION PLACE OF EXECUTION REFERENCES

1. Joan Bocher (or Butcher, or as Joan Knell) Kent
Kent
(perhaps Romney Marsh
Romney Marsh
)

2 May 1550 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

2. George van Paris Dutchman

1551

PROTESTANTS EXECUTED UNDER MARY I

NO. NAME RESIDENCE DESCRIPTION DATE OF EXECUTION PLACE OF EXECUTION REFERENCES

1. John Rogers City of London
London
clergyman – preacher, biblical translator, lecturer at St. Paul’s Cathedral burnt 4 February 1555 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London
:p.113

2. Lawrence Saunders City of London
London
clergyman – preacher, Rector of All Hallows Bread Street , London burnt 8 February 1555 Coventry
Coventry
, Warwickshire
Warwickshire
:p.98

3. John Hooper Gloucester
Gloucester
and Worcester
Worcester
clergyman – Bishop of Gloucester
Gloucester
and Worcester
Worcester
under Edward VI burnt 9 February 1555 Gloucester
Gloucester
, Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
:p.98

4. Rowland Taylor Hadleigh, Suffolk
Suffolk
clergyman – Rector of Hadleigh, Suffolk
Suffolk
burnt 9 February 1555 Aldham Common , Nr Hadleigh, Suffolk
Suffolk
:p.98

5. Rawlins White Cardiff
Cardiff
, Glamorgan
Glamorgan
fisherman burnt March 1555 Cardiff
Cardiff
, Glamorgan
Glamorgan

6. Thomas Tomkins Shoreditch
Shoreditch
, London weaver burnt 16 March 1555 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

7. Thomas Causton Horndon on the Hill or Thundersby , Essex gentleman burnt 26 March 1555 Rayleigh, Essex

8. Thomas Higbed Horndon on the Hill or Thundersby , Essex gentleman burnt 26 March 1555 Horndon-on-the-Hill , Essex
Essex

9. William Hunter Coleman Street
Coleman Street
Parish, London apprentice burnt 27 March 1555 (or 26 according to Foxe) Brentwood, Essex
Essex

10. Stephen Knight

barber burnt 28 March 1555 Maldon, Essex
Essex

11. William Pigot (or Pygot)

butcher burnt 28 March 1555 Braintree, Essex
Essex

12. William Dighel

burnt 28 March 1555 Banbury
Banbury
, Oxfordshire

13. John Laurence (or Lawrence)

clergyman – priest and former Blackfriar at Sudbury, Suffolk
Suffolk
burnt 29 March 1555 Colchester, Essex
Essex

14. Robert Ferrar St David\'s , Pembrokeshire clergyman – Bishop of St David\'s under Edward VI burnt 30 March 1555 Carmarthen
Carmarthen
, Carmarthenshire
Carmarthenshire

15. George Marsh Dean , Lancashire clergyman – curate to Laurence Saunders and minister at Dean, Lancashire burnt 24 April 1555 Boughton, Cheshire

16. William Flower Lambeth
Lambeth
, London surgeon and teacher burnt 24 April 1555 Westminster
Westminster

17. John Cardmaker Wells , Somerset clergyman – prebendary of Wells Cathedral
Wells Cathedral
burnt 30 May 1555 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

18. John Warne Walbrook
Walbrook
, London upholsterer burnt 30 May 1555 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

19. Thomas Haukes (or Hawkes) Essex
Essex
gentleman burnt 10 June 1555 Coggeshall
Coggeshall
, Essex
Essex

20. Thomas Watts (or Wattes) Billericay , Essex linen draper burnt 10 June 1555 Chelmsford
Chelmsford
, Essex
Essex

21. John Ardeley (or Ardite) Wigborough , Essex husbandman burnt 30 May 1555 (or 'about 10 June', according to Foxe) Rayleigh, Essex

22. John Simson Wigborough , Essex husbandman burnt 30 May 1555 (or 'about 10 June', according to Foxe) Rochford , Essex
Essex

23. Nicholas Chamberlain (or Chamberlaine) Coggeshall
Coggeshall
, Essex
Essex
weaver burnt 14 June 1555 Colchester
Colchester
, Essex
Essex

24. William Bamford (or Butler) Coggeshall
Coggeshall
, Essex
Essex
weaver burnt 15 June 1555 Harwich , Essex
Essex

25. Thomas Ormond (or Osmande) Coggeshall
Coggeshall
, Essex
Essex
fuller burnt 15 June 1555 Manningtree
Manningtree
, Essex
Essex

26. John Bradford City of London
London
clergyman – prebendary of St Paul\'s Cathedral burnt 1 July 1555 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

27. John Leaf (or Jhon Least) Christ Church Greyfriars
Christ Church Greyfriars
, London
London
(born in Kirkby Moorside , Yorkshire) apprentice tallow chandler burnt 1 July 1555 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

The Canterbury Martyrs of July 1555

28. John Bland (or Blande) Rolvenden , Kent clergyman – vicar of Rolvenden , Kent burnt 12 July 1555 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

29. Nicholas Shetterden (or Shitterdun)

burnt 12 July 1555 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

30. John Frankesh Adisham , Kent clergyman – parson of Adisham , Kent burnt 12 July 1555 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

31. Humphrey Middleton Ashford, Kent
Kent

burnt 12 July 1555 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

32. Nicholas Hall Dartford
Dartford
, Kent bricklayer burnt 19 July 1555 Rochester, Kent
Kent

33. Christopher Wade Dartford
Dartford
, Kent linen-weaver burnt July 1555 Dartford
Dartford
, Kent

34. Margaret (or Margery) Polley Pepeling, Calais
Calais
widow burnt 17 July 1555 Royal Tunbridge Wells, Kent
Kent

35. Dirick Carver (also spelt Deryk; also known as Dirick Harman) Brighthelmstone (now Brighton), Sussex beer-brewer burnt 22 July 1555, Lewes
Lewes
, East Sussex
East Sussex

36. John Launder Godstone , Surrey
Surrey
husbandman burnt 23 July 1555 Stenning , West Sussex

37. Thomas Euerson (or Iueson, Iverson or Iveson) Godstone , Surrey carpenter burnt (day unknown) July 1555 Chichester
Chichester
, West Sussex

38. Richard Hook (or Hooke)

lame man burnt unknown date in July 1555 Chichester
Chichester
, West Sussex

39. James Abbess Stoke-by-Nayland , Suffolk shoemaker burnt 2 August 1555 Thetford, Norfolk
Norfolk
(or Bury , according to Foxe)

40. John Denley Maidstone
Maidstone
, Kent gentleman burnt 8 August 1555 Uxbridge
Uxbridge
, Middlesex

41. Robert Smith Windsor, Berkshire
Windsor, Berkshire
clerk at the college in Windsor, Berkshire
Windsor, Berkshire
and painter burnt 8 August 1555 Uxbridge
Uxbridge
, Middlesex

The Canterbury Martyrs of August 1555

42. William Coker

burnt 23 August 1555 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

43. William Hopper Cranbrook, Kent
Kent

burnt 23 August 1555 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

44. Henry Laurence

burnt 23 August 1555 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

45. Richard Collier (or Colliar)

burnt 23 August 1555 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

46. Richard Wright Ashford, Kent
Kent

burnt 23 August 1555 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

47. William Stere Ashford, Kent
Kent

burnt 23 August 1555 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

48. Elizabeth Warne (or Warren) Walbrook
Walbrook
, London widow of John Warne, upholsterer burnt 23 August 1555 Stratford-atte-Bow , London

49. Roger Hues (aliases: Curryer, Corier) St Mary's, Taunton
Taunton
, Somerset

burnt 24 August 1555 Taunton
Taunton
, Somerset

50. George Tankerfield London
London
(born in York
York
) cook burnt 26 August 1555 St Albans
St Albans

51. Patrick Pakingham (aliases: Packingham, Pachingham, Patchingham or Pattenham)

burnt 28 August 1555 Uxbridge
Uxbridge
, Middlesex

52. John Newman Maidstone
Maidstone
, Kent pewterer burnt 31 August 1555 Saffron Walden
Saffron Walden
, Essex

53. Robert Samuel (or Samuell) Barfold , Suffolk clergyman – minister at Barfold, Suffolk
Suffolk
burnt 31 August 1555 Thetford, Norfolk
Norfolk

54. Stephen Harwood Ware, Hertfordshire brewer burnt 30 August 1555 Stratford in Essex
Essex

55. Thomas Fust
Thomas Fust
(or Fusse)

hosier, August 1555 In the environs of London
London
or Ware

56. William Hale (or Hailes) Thorpe , Essex,

late August 1555 In the environs of Barnet, London
London

57. William Allen Somerton, Norfolk
Norfolk
labourer burnt early September 1555 Walsingham , Norfolk

58. Roger Coe (or Coo or Cooe) Melford , Suffolk shearman burnt date unknown September 1555 Yoxford , Suffolk

59. Thomas Cob Haverhill, Suffolk
Suffolk
butcher burnt date unknown September 1555 Thetford, Norfolk
Norfolk

The Canterbury Martyrs of September 1555

60. George Catmer (or Painter) Hythe, Kent
Kent

burnt about 6 September 1555, according to Foxe (or 12 July 1555) Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

61. Robert Streater (or Streter) Hythe, Kent
Kent

burnt about 6 September 1555, according to Foxe (or 12 July 1555) Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

62. Anthony Burward Calete (possibly Calais)

burnt about 6 September 1555, according to Foxe (or 12 July 1555) Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

63. George Brodbridge (or Bradbridge) Bromfield , Kent

burnt about 6 September 1555, according to Foxe (or 12 July 1555) Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

64. James Tutty (or Tuttey) Brenchley , Kent

burnt about 6 September 1555, according to Foxe (or 12 July 1555) Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

65. Robert Glover (or Glouer) Mancetter
Mancetter
, Warwickshire gentleman burnt 14 September 1555 Coventry
Coventry
, Warwickshire

66. Cornelius Bongey (or Bungey)

capper burnt 20 September 1555 Coventry
Coventry
, Warwickshire

67. Thomas Hayward (or Heywarde)

burnt mid September 1555 Lichfield
Lichfield
, Staffordshire

68. John Goreway Holy Trinity Parish, Coventry
Coventry
, Warwickshire
Warwickshire

burnt mid-September 1555 Lichfield
Lichfield
, Staffordshire

69. William Wolsey

constable, one of the Wisbech
Wisbech
Martyrs, burnt 16 October 1555 Cathedral Green, Ely, Cambridgeshire
Ely, Cambridgeshire

70. Robert Pygot (or Pigot) Wisbech
Wisbech
, Cambridgeshire painter burnt 16 October 1555 Cathedral Green, Ely, Cambridgeshire
Ely, Cambridgeshire

71. Hugh Latimer (or Latymer) Baxterley , Warwickshire
Warwickshire
clergyman – chaplain to King Edward VI burnt 16 October 1555 outside Balliol College, Oxford
Oxford

72. Nicholas Ridley Fulham Palace clergyman – Bishop of London
London
under Edward VI burnt 16 October 1555 outside Balliol College, Oxford
Oxford

The Canterbury Martyrs of November 1555

73. John Webbe (or Web)

gentleman burnt 30 November 1555 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

74. George Roper

burnt 30 November 1555 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

75. Gregory Parke (or Paynter)

burnt 30 November 1555 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

76. John Philpot Winchester, Hampshire
Winchester, Hampshire
clergyman – Archdeacon of Winchester burnt 18 December 1555 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

77. Thomas Whittle (or Whitwell) Essex
Essex
clergyman – priest or minister burnt 27 January 1556 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

78. Bartlett (or Bartholomew) Green Temple, London
London
– born in Basinghall , London gentleman and lawyer burnt 27 January 1556 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

79. Thomas Brown St Bride\'s parish, Fleet Street, London
London
– born in Histon , Cambridgeshire

burnt 27 January 1556 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

80. John Tudson St Mary Botolph parish, London
London
– born in Ipswich
Ipswich
, Suffolk artificer burnt 27 January 1556 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

81. John Went (or Winter or Hunt) Langham, Essex
Essex
artificer burnt 27 January 1556 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

82. Isobella Forster (or Annis Foster) St Bride\'s parish, Fleet Street, London
London
– Born in Greystoke , Cumberland wife of John Foster, cutler burnt 27 January 1556 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

83. Joan Lushford (or Jone Lashforde, or Warne) Little Allhallows parish, Thames Street, London maid burnt 27 January 1556 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

The Canterbury Martyrs of 1556

84. John Lomas (or Jhon Lowmas) Tenterden
Tenterden
, Kent

burnt 31 January 1556 Wincheap , Canterbury

85. Annes Snoth (or Annis Snod) Smarden
Smarden
, Kent widow burnt 31 January 1556 Wincheap , Canterbury

86. Anne Wright (or Albright); alias Champnes

burnt 31 January 1556 Wincheap ,Canterbury

87. Joan (or Jone) Soale Horton , Kent wife burnt 31 January 1556 Wincheap , Canterbury

88. Joan Catmer Hythe, Kent
Kent
'wife (as it should seem) of George Catmer', burnt in 1555 burnt 31 January 1556 Wincheap , Canterbury

89. Agnes Potten Ipswich
Ipswich
, Suffolk wife of Robert Potten burnt 19 February 1556 Ipswich
Ipswich
, Cornhill

90. Joan Trunchfield Ipswich
Ipswich
, Suffolk wife of Michael Trunchfield, a shoemaker burnt 19 February 1556 Ipswich
Ipswich
, Cornhill

91. Thomas Cranmer
Thomas Cranmer
Lambeth
Lambeth
Palace clergyman – Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
(former) burnt 21 March 1556 outside Balliol College, Oxford
Oxford

92. John Maundrel Beckhampton , Wiltshire
Wiltshire
– brought up in Rowde , Wiltshire husbandman burnt 24 March 1556 outside Salisbury
Salisbury
, Wiltshire

93. William Coberly Wiltshire
Wiltshire
tailor burnt 24 March 1556 outside Salisbury
Salisbury
, Wiltshire

94. John Spicer (or Spencer) Winston, Suffolk
Suffolk
freemason or bricklayer burnt 24 March 1556 outside Salisbury
Salisbury
, Wiltshire

95. John Harpole (or Hartpoole) St Nicholas Parish , Rochester, Kent
Kent

burnt 1 April 1556 Rochester, Kent
Kent

96. Joan Beach Tunbridge Wells , Kent widow burnt 1 April 1556 Rochester, Kent
Kent

97. John Hullier (or Hulliarde) Babraham , Cambridgeshire clergyman – curate of Babraham , Cambridgeshire burnt 16 April 1556 Cambridge
Cambridge
, Cambridgeshire

98. William Tyms (or Timmes) Hockley
Hockley
, Essex clergyman – curate of Hockley
Hockley
, Essex burnt 24 April 1556 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

99. Robert Drake Thundersley , Essex clergyman – minister or parson of Thundersley , Essex burnt 24 April 1556 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

100. Richard Spurge Bocking, Essex
Essex
shearman burnt 24 April 1556 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

101. Thomas Spurge Bocking, Essex
Essex
fuller burnt 24 April 1556 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

102. George Ambrose Bocking, Essex
Essex
fuller burnt 24 April 1555 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

103. John Cavel (or Cauell) Bocking, Essex
Essex
weaver burnt 24 April 1556 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

The Colchester
Colchester
martyrs of April 1556

104. Christopher Lister Dagenham
Dagenham
, Essex husbandman burnt 28 April 1556 Colchester
Colchester
, Essex

105. John Mace Colchester
Colchester
, Essex apothecary burnt 28 April 1556 Colchester
Colchester
, Essex

106. John Spencer Colchester
Colchester
, Essex weaver burnt 28 April 1556 Colchester
Colchester
, Essex

107. Simon Joyne

sawyer burnt 28 April 1556 Colchester
Colchester
, Essex

108. Richard Nicol Colchester
Colchester
, Essex weaver burnt 28 April 1556 Colchester
Colchester
, Essex

109. John Hamond Colchester
Colchester
, Essex tanner burnt 28 April 1556 Colchester
Colchester
, Essex

110. Hugh Laverock (or Lauarocke) Barking
Barking
, Essex painter, (a lame man) burnt 15 May 1556 Stratford in Essex
Essex

111. John Apprice (or Aprice)

blind man burnt 15 May 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow or Stratford in Essex
Essex

112. Thomas Drowry

blind boy burnt about 15 May 1556 Gloucester
Gloucester
, Gloucestershire

113. Thomas Croker

bricklayer burnt about 15 May 1556 Gloucester
Gloucester
, Gloucestershire

114. Katherine Hut Bocking , Essex widow burnt 16 May 1556 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

115. Elizabeth Thackvel Great Burstead , Essex maid burnt 16 May 1556 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

116. Joan (or Jone) Horns Billericay , Essex maid burnt 16 May 1556 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

117. Thomas Spicer Winston, Suffolk
Suffolk
labourer burnt 21 May 1556 Beccles
Beccles
, Suffolk

118. John Deny (or Denny) (possibly a female Joan or Jone) Beccles
Beccles
, Suffolk

burnt 21 May 1556 Beccles
Beccles
, Suffolk

119. Edmund Poole Beccles
Beccles
, Suffolk

burnt 21 May 1556 Beccles
Beccles
, Suffolk

120. Thomas Harland Woodmancote, Sussex carpenter burnt 6 June 1556 Lewes
Lewes
, Sussex

121. John Oswald (or Oseward) Woodmancote , Sussex husbandman burnt 6 June 1556 Lewes
Lewes
, Sussex

122. Thomas Reed Ardingly
Ardingly
, Sussex

burnt about 6 June 1556 Lewes
Lewes
, Sussex

123. Thomas Avington (or Euington) Ardingly
Ardingly
, Sussex turner burnt about 6 June 1556 Lewes
Lewes
, Sussex

124. Adam Forster (or Foster) Mendlesham
Mendlesham
, Suffolk husbandman burnt 17 June 1556 Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds
, Suffolk

125. Robert Lawson Mendlesham
Mendlesham
, Suffolk linen weaver burnt 17 June 1556 Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds
, Suffolk

126. Thomas Wood

clergyman – pastor burnt about 20 June 1556 Lewes
Lewes
, Sussex

127. Thomas Milles Hellingly , Sussex

burnt about 20 June 1556 Lewes
Lewes
, Sussex

128. Thomas Moor

servant and husbandman burnt 26 June 1556 Leicester
Leicester
, Leicestershire

The Stratford Martyrs
Stratford Martyrs
, 11 men and 2 women.

129. Henry Adlington (or Addlinton) Grinstead, Sussex sawyer burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow

130. Lawrence (or Laurence) Parnam Hoddesdon , Hertfordshire smith burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow

131. Henry Wye Stanford-le-Hope , Essex brewer burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow

132. William Holywell (or Hallywell) Waltham Holy Cross , Essex, smith burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow

133. Thomas Bowyer (or Bowier) Great Dunmow
Great Dunmow
, Essex weaver burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow

134. George Searle White Notley , Essex tailor burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow

135. Edmond Hurst St James\'s Parish, Colchester
Colchester
labourer burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow

136. Lion/ Lyon Cawch City of London
London
merchant/broker burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow

137. Ralph Jackson Chipping Ongar
Chipping Ongar
, Essex, serving-man burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow

138. John Derifall (or Dorifall) Rettendon , Essex labourer burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow

139. John Routh /Roth Wickes, Essex
Essex
labourer burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow

140. Elizabeth Pepper St James\'s parish, Colchester
Colchester
wife of Thomas Pepper, weaver burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow

141. Agnes George West Barefold , Essex wife of Richard George, husbandman burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow

142. Roger Bernard Framsden , Suffolk labourer burnt 30 June 1556 Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds
, Suffolk

143. Julian Palmer Reading, Berkshire
Reading, Berkshire
schoolmaster burnt about 15 July 1556 'The Sand-pits', Nr Newbury, Berkshire
Newbury, Berkshire

144. John Guin/Jhon Gwin

shoemaker burnt about 15 July 1556 'The Sand-pits', Nr Newbury, Berkshire
Newbury, Berkshire

145. Thomas Askin/Askue

burnt about 15 July 1556 'The Sand-pits', Nr Newbury, Berkshire
Newbury, Berkshire

The Guernsey Martyrs – (Three women and one unborn male foetus)

146. Catherine Cauchés (sometimes spelt Katherine Cawches) St Peter Port
St Peter Port
, Guernsey
Guernsey
, Channel Islands
Channel Islands

burnt 18 July 1556 St Peter Port
St Peter Port
, Guernsey
Guernsey
, Channel Islands
Channel Islands

147. Perotine Massey (pregnant) St Peter Port
St Peter Port
, Guernsey
Guernsey
, Channel Islands
Channel Islands

burnt 18 July 1556 St Peter Port
St Peter Port
, Guernsey
Guernsey
, Channel Islands
Channel Islands

148. Guillemine Gilbert St Peter Port
St Peter Port
, Guernsey
Guernsey
, Channel Islands
Channel Islands

burnt 18 July 1556 St Peter Port
St Peter Port
, Guernsey
Guernsey
, Channel Islands
Channel Islands

149. Thomas Dungate (or Dougate) East Grinstead
East Grinstead
, Sussex

burnt 18 July 1556 Grinstead, Sussex

150. John Forman (or Foreman) East Grinstead
East Grinstead
, Sussex

burnt 18 July 1556 Grinstead, Sussex

151. Anne Tree (or Try) East Grinstead
East Grinstead
, Sussex

burnt 18 July 1556 Grinstead, Sussex

152. Joan Waste All Hallows\', Derby
Derby
, Derbyshire blind woman burnt 1 August 1556 Derby
Derby
, Derbyshire

153. Edward Sharp

glover (possibly) burnt early September 1556 Bristol
Bristol
, Gloucestershire/Somerset

154. Rose Pencell

burnt 17 October 1555 Bristol
Bristol

155. William Shapton

weaver burnt 17 October 1555 Bristol
Bristol

156. John Kurde Syresham , Northamptonshire shoemaker burnt October 1556 or 20 September 1557 Northampton
Northampton
, Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire

157. John Noyes Laxfield
Laxfield
, Suffolk
Suffolk
shoemaker burnt 22 September 1556 or 1557

158. Thomas Ravensdale

burnt 24 September 1556 Mayfield, Sussex

159. John Hart

burnt 24 September 1556 Mayfield , Sussex

160. Unknown man

shoemaker burnt 24 September 1556 Mayfield , Sussex

161. Unknown man

currier burnt 24 September 1556 Mayfield , Sussex

162. Nicholas Holden Withyham
Withyham
, Sussex weaver burnt 24 September 1556 Mayfield , Sussex

163. Unknown man

carpenter burnt 25 September 1556 Bristol
Bristol
, Gloucestershire/Somerset

164. John Horn

burnt late September 1556 Wotton-under-Edge
Wotton-under-Edge
, Gloucestershire

165. John Phillpott Tenterden
Tenterden
, Kent

burnt 16 January 1557 Wye, Ashford, Kent
Kent

166. Thomas Stephens Biddenden
Biddenden
, Kent

burnt 16 January 1557 Wye , Ashford, Kent

The Canterbury Martyrs of January 1557

167. Stephen Kempe Norgate, Kent
Kent

burnt 15 January 1557 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

168. William Waterer Biddenden
Biddenden
, Kent

burnt 15 January 1557 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

169. William Prowting Thurnham, Kent
Kent

burnt 15 January 1557 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

170. William Lowick Cranbrook, Kent
Kent

burnt 15 January 1557 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

171. Thomas Hudson Selling, Kent
Kent

burnt 15 January 1557 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

172. William Hay Hythe, Kent
Kent

burnt 15 January 1557 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

173. Nicholas Final Tenterden
Tenterden
, Kent

burnt 16 January 1557 Ashford, Kent
Kent

174. Martin Bradbridge Tenterden
Tenterden
, Kent

burnt 16 January 1557 Ashford, Kent
Kent

175. William Carman (or Carmen)

burnt day and month unknown 1557

176. Thomas Loseby

burnt 12 April 1557 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

177. Henry Ramsey

burnt 12 April 1557 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

178. Thomas Thyrtell (or Sturtle)

burnt 12 April 1557 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

179. Margaret Hyde

burnt 12 April 1557 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

180. Agnes Stanley (or Stanlye)

burnt 12 April 1557 Smithfield, London
Smithfield, London

181. Richard Sharpe

weaver burnt 7 May 1557 Cotham, Bristol
Bristol

182. Thomas Hale

shoemaker burnt 7 May 1557 Cotham, Bristol
Bristol

183. Stephen Gratwick (or Steuen Grathwick) Brighthelmstone (now Brighton), Sussex

burnt at end of May 1557 St. George\'s Fields , Southwark
Southwark
, Surrey :p.272

184. William Morant

burnt at end of May 1557 St. George\'s Fields , Southwark
Southwark
, Surrey :p. 272

185. Thomas King

burnt at end of May 1557 St. George\'s Fields , Southwark
Southwark
, Surrey :p.272

The Maidstone
Maidstone
martyrs

186. Joan (or Jone) Bradbridge Staplehurst , Kent Presumably a relative of Widow Bradbridge, burnt 19 June 1557 burnt 18 June 1557 Maidstone
Maidstone
, Kent

187. Walter Appleby Maidstone
Maidstone
, Kent

burnt 18 June 1557 Maidstone
Maidstone
, Kent

188. Petronil Appleby Maidstone
Maidstone
, Kent wife of Walter Appleby burnt 18 June 1557 Maidstone
Maidstone
, Kent

189. Edmund Allin (or Allen) Maplehurst Mill, Frittenden , Kent miller burnt 18 June 1557 Maidstone
Maidstone
, Kent

190. Katherine Allin (or Allen) Maplehurst Mill, Frittenden , Kent Wife of Edmund Allin/Allen, miller burnt 18 June 1557 Maidstone
Maidstone
, Kent

191. Joan (or Jone) Manning Maidstone
Maidstone
, Kent

burnt 18 June 1557 Maidstone
Maidstone
, Kent

192. Elizabeth (surname possibly 'Lewis')

blind maid burnt 18 June 1557 Maidstone
Maidstone
, Kent

The Canterbury
Canterbury
martyrs of June 1557

193. John Fishcock /Jhon Fiscoke

burnt 19 June 1557 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

194. Nicholas White

burnt 19 June 1557 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

195. Nicholas Pardue /Perdue

burnt 19 June 1557 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

196. Barbara Final

burnt 19 June 1557 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

197. Bradbridge\'s Widow (Bradbridge's Wife) Probably Tenterden
Tenterden
, Kent Probably the widow of Martin Bradbridge, burnt 16 January 1557 burnt 19 June 1557 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

198. Mistress Wilson (also referred to as 'Wilson's Wife')

burnt 19 June 1557 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

199. Alice Benden , possibly also referred to as 'Benson's Wife' Staplehurst (or possibly Cranbrook ), Kent
Kent

burnt 19 June 1557 Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent

The Lewes
Lewes
Martyrs

200. Richard Woodman Warbleton , Sussex iron-maker burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes
Lewes
, Sussex

201. George Stevens (or Steuens) Warbleton , Sussex

burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes
Lewes
, Sussex

202. William Mainard Mayfield , Sussex

burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes
Lewes
, Sussex

203. Alexander Hosman Mayfield , Sussex servant of William Mainard burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes
Lewes
, Sussex

204. Thomasina Wood Mayfield , Sussex maidservant of William Mainard burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes
Lewes
, Sussex

205. Margery Morris (or Morice) Heathfield , Sussex

burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes
Lewes
, Sussex

206. James Morris (or Morice) – son of Margery Heathfield , Sussex

burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes
Lewes
, Sussex

207. Denis Burcis (or Burgis) Buxted , Sussex

burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes
Lewes
, Sussex

208. Ann Ashdon (or Ashdown; also referred to as 'Ashdon's Wife') Rotherfield , Sussex

burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes
Lewes
, Sussex

209. Mary Groves (also referred to as 'Gloue's Wife') Lewes
Lewes
, Sussex

burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes
Lewes
, Sussex

210. Simon Miller (or Milner) Lynn , Norfolk

burnt 13 July 1557 Norwich
Norwich
, Norfolk

211. Elizabeth Cooper St Andrew\'s Church, Norwich
Norwich
, Norfolk wife of a pewterer burnt 13 July 1557 Norwich
Norwich
, Norfolk (which calls her 'a woman')

212. George Egles/Eagles

hung, drawn ">:p62

The relationship between the English church and Rome was restored under Mary in 1553. She went on to reign for five years (1553–1558) until her death. Protestants opposed Mary's actions. Many people were exiled, and hundreds of dissenters were burned at the stake, earning her the nickname "Bloody Mary". The number of people executed for their faith during the persecutions is thought to be at least 287.

TROUBLES FOR PROTESTANTS

After the accession of Queen Mary I to the English throne in 1553, and her repeal of all religious legislation passed under Edward VI, Protestants faced a choice: exile, reconciliation/conversion, or punishment. :p.186 Mary had some 284 Protestants burned at the stake (including 56 women). Thirty others died in prison. :p.79 While the so-called "Marian Persecutions" began with four clergymen, :p.196 relics of Edwardian England’s Protestantism, Foxe’s Book of Martyrs offers an account of the executions, which branched well beyond the anticipated targets – high-level clergy. Tradesmen were also burned, as well as married men and women, sometimes in unison, "youths" and at least one couple was burned alive with their daughter. :p.196

ENGLISH INQUISITION AND THE JUDICIAL PROCESS

However bloody the end, the trials of Protestant
Protestant
heretics were judicial affairs, presided by Bishops (most notably Bishop Bonner ) adhering to a strict legal protocol under the privy council , with Parliament's blessing. :p.195 Mary had difficulty forming an efficient Privy Council, which eventually numbered over 40 and never worked as a source of political advice, though it effectively pursued police work and enforcement of religious uniformity. :p62-65 During the session that restored the realm to papal obedience parliament reinstated the heresy laws. :p.196 From 20 January 1555, England could legally punish those judged guilty of heresy against the Catholic faith. :p.91

Thus it became a matter of establishing the guilt or innocence of an accused heretic in open court – a process which the lay authorities employed to reclaim "straying sheep" and to set a precedent for authentic Catholic teaching. :p.102 If found guilty, the accused were first excommunicated, then handed over to the secular authorities for execution. :p.102 The official records of the trials are limited to formal accusations, sentences, and so forth; the documents to which historians look for context and detail are those written by the accused or their supporters. :p.102

CATHEDRALS IN OPERATION

ENGLAND

* Canterbury
Canterbury
Cathedral c.600 AD * Carlisle Cathedral (in various forms) 1092 AD * Chester Cathedral (in various forms) 875 AD * Chichester
Chichester
Cathedral 1080 AD * Durham Cathedral 997 AD * Ely Cathedral 1109 AD * Exeter
Exeter
Cathedral 1050 AD * Gloucester
Gloucester
Cathedral 1541 AD * Hereford Cathedral 676 AD * Lichfield
Lichfield
Cathedral 669-803, 1048 AD * Lincoln Cathedral 1070 AD * Norwich
Norwich
Cathedral 1094 AD (31 victims of Michael Dunning , the "bloody chancellor" of Norwich
Norwich
died from 1555 to 1558) * Oxford
Oxford
Cathedral (in various forms) 727 AD * Rochester Cathedral (in various forms) 604 AD * Salisbury
Salisbury
Cathedral 1227 AD * Southwark
Southwark
Cathedral (in various forms) 1106 AD * Wells Cathedral
Wells Cathedral
1239 AD * Westminster
Westminster
Abbey (The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster) 1080 AD * Winchester Cathedral 650 AD * Worcester
Worcester
Cathedral 743 AD * York
York
Minster 300 AD

WALES

* Bangor Cathedral – Church of St Deiniol, (in various forms) 1092 AD * Brecon Cathedral – Cathedral Church of St John the Evangelist, (in various forms) 1093/1110-1538 AD * Llandaff Cathedral – Cathedral Church of St Peter and St Paul (in various forms) 550 AD * St Asaph Cathedral (in various forms) 553 AD * St Davids Cathedral (in various forms) 580 AD

JOHN ROGERS\'S EXECUTION

Before Mary's ascent to the throne, John Foxe , one of the few clerics of his day who was against the burning of even obstinate heretics, had approached John Rogers to intervene on behalf of Joan of Kent
Kent
, a female Anabaptist who was sentenced to burning in 1550. :p.193 Rogers, a Protestant
Protestant
preacher and royal chaplain, refused to help, as he supported the burning of heretics. Rogers claimed that the method of execution was "sufficiently mild" for a crime as grave as heresy. :p.87 Later, after Mary I came to power and converted England to Catholicism, John Rogers spoke quite vehemently against the new order and was burnt as a heretic. :p.97

OBSERVATIONS

The figure of 300 victims of the Marian Persecutions was given by Foxe and later by Thomas Brice in his poem, "The Regester".

LEGACY

Throughout the course of the persecutions, Foxe lists 312 individuals who were burnt or hanged for their faith, or died or sickened in prison. Lists of these names are available here and here. Three of these people are commemorated with a gothic memorial in Oxford, England but there are many other memorials across England. They are known locally as the "Marian Martyrs".

SEE ALSO

* Anglicanism portal

* Marian exiles * Martyrs\' Memorial * Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs * Religion in the United Kingdom
Religion in the United Kingdom
* Oxford
Oxford
Martyrs * List of people executed in Smithfield
List of people executed in Smithfield
* Coventry
Coventry
Martyrs

NOTES

* ^ 'Foxe has a terse report in the Rerum of an old man of Buckingham- shire being executed in 1531 for eating pork during Lent (Rerum, p. 126). Foxe's source for this episode is unknown; Bale does not mention this old man in any of his works. Perhaps Laurence Humphrey, who was Foxe's friend, a native of Buckinghamshire, and who was with Foxe in Basel, was the source for this story. In any case, the Rerum account was translated word-for-word in the 1563 edition. The story was dropped from all subsequent editions, possibly because Foxe grew unsure of this individual's existence or at least of his ability to prove it.' Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs, Critical Apparatus * ^ Foxe describes him as being 'mad and beside his right senses ... and destitute of sense and reason'. The Critical Apparatus to Foxe's Book of Martyrs
Foxe's Book of Martyrs
lists a number of unorthodox beliefs which he held. * ^ Foxe describes him as being 'mad ... ravished of his wits ... beside his wits'. * ^ Six months before the execution of Robert Harvey for treason in Spring 1541 Harvey#C241.56 Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs, Critical Apparatus * ^ 'within the space of a year, or thereabout, after' the previous man * ^ The 1563 edition of Foxe's Book of Martyrs
Foxe's Book of Martyrs
records that William Dighel was burned at about the same time as Nicholas Sheterden. However, this information is not repeated in subsequent editions of Foxe's work. "Was his omission in subsequent editions due to an accident in the print shop or did Foxe come to doubt his information on Dighel?" * ^ husband of Elizabeth Warne, burnt in August 1555 * ^ May be the same as ... Butter, burnt (day unknown) June 1555, Location unknown (the Regester) * ^ Buried in St. Michaels see PRO C/85/144/33r. * ^ widow of John Warne, burnt in May 1555 * ^ which says that 'Joan Lashford ... was the daughter of one Robert Lashford ..., and of ... Elizabeth, who afterward was married to John Warne' * ^ may be the same as Jone Painter (the Regester) * ^ A B which refers to 'two women in Ippeswiche towne' * ^ A B which refers to 'two brethren more' * ^ A B which refers to 'two at Glocester' * ^ A B C which refers to 'two men and a syster dere' * ^ 'The Regester' states that a person called 'Milwright' was burnt along with Harland, Oswald, Reed and Avington. However, this person is not mentioned in Foxe's Book of Martyrs, although he does appear in * ^ may be the same as John Milles * ^ the same as 'A merchant's servant burned at Leicester' and the same as 'the yong man at Leicester' * ^ A B which refers to "two women" * ^ her husband then married Christian George, mentioned below * ^ May be an error for Edward Horne, burnt at Newent , Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
in September 1558. Foxe states that a woman was burnt with Horne. However, the Critical Apparatus quotes a letter from Foxe's papers stating that 'Edward Horne's wife was condemned with him but she recanted and her life was spared' * ^ A B which refers to 'two at Wye' * ^ A B which refers to 'two at Asheforde'. A number of Kentish people of Ashford Area are recorded as having been burnt 16 January 1556 at Ashford, Kent
Kent
in Ashford Borough Council – Parks and Open Spaces. However, at this time the civil or legal year in England began on 25 March, so the date now known as 16 January 1557 would then have been recorded as 16 January 1556. * ^ A B William Carman burnt unknown month 1557 and Thomas Carman burnt 19 May 1558 were brothers * ^ may be the same as Jhon Lothesby, burnt at Smithfield, April 1557 (the Regester) * ^ may be the same as Annis Hide, burnt at Smithfield, April 1557 (the Regester) * ^ which records an 'other' burnt with Morant and Grathwick * ^ May be the same as Christian Grover of the archdeaconry of Lewes
Lewes
* ^ 'The Regester' states that a person called 'Hayne' was burnt along with Cuthbert Symion. However, this person is not mentioned in Foxe's Book of Martyrs. * ^ 'The Regester' gives the name of the woman burnt with Alexander Gooch as Elizabeth Launson. * ^ may be the same as William Ailewarde (the Regester) * ^ Richard Smith is said to have died in prison (day unknown) September, Lowlar's Tower/Lollard's Tower, Lambeth
Lambeth
Palace, London
London
in 'the Regester', but is described as 'non-existent' in * ^ may be the same as Thomas Leyes of Thorpe , Essex, sickened in Lollard's Tower, died (day unknown) September, Location unknown * ^ A B C An Anabaptist * ^ A B C D A Unitarian * ^ An Arian * ^ That list does not include John Wade, the three members of the Dangerfield family or the three who died in Chichester
Chichester
Castle – numbers 7 and 19 to 24 in the list of prisoners above. It appears to conflate Thomas Ravensdale and the shoemaker who was burnt with him – numbers 158 and 160 in the list of prisoners above. In other words, eight people appear above, but not in that list. On the other hand, numbers 212 and 213 in that list (two people burned in Suffolk on 18 June 1557) do not seem to appear elsewhere, and are not shown above. As a result, there are six fewer names in that list of 312 people than the totals above of those executed (284) and those who sickened or died in prison (34) – a grand total of 318. * ^ That list does not include the following eight people mentioned above – (34) Margery Polley, (49) Roger Hues, (154) Rose Pencell, (175) William Carman, (212) George Egles – as he was hanged, drawn and quartered, as opposed to being burnt, (225) Robert Stevenson, (227) the woman at Rochester, (243) ... Lawton. On the other hand, that list duplicates (38) Richard Hook, (127) Thomas Milles/John Milles (128) Thomas Moor and (209) Mary Groves/Christian Grover. It counts (147) Perotine Massey's infant son separately. It includes John Warner and Thomas Athoth who are shown above as 'Also mentioned by Foxe'. It includes a woman said to have been burnt with (164) John Horne of Wotton-under-Edge. In other words, eight people appear in that list but not above. As a result, that list contains the same number of people as the list of martyrs above – 284.

REFERENCES

* ^ Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs: 170. Mummuth and Hitton * ^ Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs: 179. Thomas Benet * ^ Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs: 171. Thomas Bilney * ^ Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs: 173. Richard Bayfield, martyr * ^ Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs: 174. John Tewkesbury, leatherseller, of London, martyr * ^ Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs: 1563 Edition Book 3 Page 546 * ^ Gairdner, James Lollardy and the Reformation in England: An Historical Survey London, Macmillan and Co, 1908, Vol 1, P 392, Note 1 * ^ Review of Fox\'s Book of Martyrs, Page 119 – William Eusebius Andrews – Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-11-08. * ^ Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs: 176. James Bainham, lawyer and martyr * ^ A B Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs: 177. John Bent and others * ^ Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs: 166. Martyrs in Scotland and England, 1525-32 * ^ David Daniell, ‘Frith, John (1503–1533)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford
Oxford
University Press, 2004; online edn, Oct 2006 accessed 21 Sept 2014 * ^ A B Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs: 178. John Frith and Andrew Hewet * ^ Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs: 181. King Henry\'s breach with Rome. See Susan Brigden, London
London
and the Reformation , pp. 270-71 for the background to these executions. * ^ Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs, 1583 edition, Book 8, page 1073 * ^ A B C D E Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs: 192. Other martyrs, 1538. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-21. * ^ A B Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs, Critical Apparatus * ^ Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs: 191. John Lambert. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-25. * ^ Stow\'s Annals of England to 1603, P971 * ^ A B C Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs: 222. Three divers sorts of judgments amongst the papists, against heretics as they call them. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2014-08-10. * ^ Stow\'s Annals of England to 1603, p. 974 * ^ A B C Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs: 197. The history of Robert Barnes, Thomas Garret, and William Jerome, divines. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-09-1. * ^ Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs: 175. John Randall and Edward Freese. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-09-08. * ^ Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs, Critical Apparatus * ^ A B C Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs: 199. Further persecution arising from the Six Articles. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-09-8. * ^ Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs, Critical Apparatus * ^ A B Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs, Critical Apparatus * ^ A B C D 200. John Porter, Thomas Sommers, and others. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-09-08. * ^ A B C Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs – Glossary of People * ^ A B Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs – Glossary of People * ^ Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs, Critical Apparatus * ^ A B C Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs: 204. Persecution in Calais. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2014-08-12. * ^ A B C Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs: 203. Four Windsor Martyrs. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2014-08-09. * ^ Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs – Glossary of People * ^ Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs – Glossary of People * ^ Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs – Glossary of People * ^ A B C D Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs: 207. John Athy, John Heywood, Kerby, and Roger Clarke * ^ A B Diane Watt, ‘Askew , Anne (c. 1521–1546)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford
Oxford
University Press, 2004 accessed 24 Aug 2014 * ^ Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs: 209. Anne Askew * ^ A B C Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs: 210. The Martyrdom of John Lacels, John Adams, and Nicholas Belenian * ^ A B C D E F Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs, Glossary of People * ^ Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs: 211. One Rogers, a martyr, burned in Norfolk * ^ A B C D E F G H Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs – 311. GEORGE CATMER, ROBERT STREATER, .ANTHONY BURWARD, GEORGE BRODBRIDGE, AND JAMES TUTTY; THOMAS HAYWARD AND JOHN GOREWAY. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2012-08-16. * ^ A B Foxe\'s Book of Martyrs: 180. Persons abjured in London. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-18. * ^ Andrew Hope, ‘Bocher, Joan (d. 1550)’, Oxford
Oxford
Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford
Oxford
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