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Pedro Álvarez de Toledo y Zúñiga, jure uxoris Marquis of Villafranca del Bierzo (Spanish: Pedro Álvarez de Toledo y Zúñiga, Marqués de Villafranca del Bierzo; July 13, 1484 – February 21, 1553) was a Spanish politician. The first effective Spanish viceroy of Naples, in 1532–1552, he was responsible for considerable social, economic and urban change in the city and southern Italian kingdom, in general.

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early life 1.2 Viceroy of Naples

2 Family

2.1 Ancestry 2.2 Descendants

3 References

3.1 Citations 3.2 Other sources

Biography[edit] Early life[edit] He was born in 1484 near Salamanca
Salamanca
in Spain, the second son of Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo, 2nd Duke of Alba.[1] His paternal grandmother was Maria Enriquez, the sister of Juana Enríquez, Queen Consort of Aragon through her marriage to widower king of Aragon Juan II of Aragon, and the mother of Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon
and ancestress of Habsburgs. Through this relation, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
and King of Spain
Spain
was a second cousin of Don Pedro. Viceroy of Naples[edit] Spain
Spain
took over the Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Naples
in 1503 and solidified her grasp after the final, failed attempt by France
France
in 1529 to retake the kingdom. For the first three decades of the century, a succession of inconsequential viceroys ruled the vicerealm. Don Pedro arrived as viceroy in September 1532. Don Pedro’s rebuilding of the city went on for years. Old city walls were expanded and an entirely new wall was built along the sea front. Fortresses along those walls and further up and down the coast from the city were modernized, and the Arsenale—the naval shipyards—were expanded considerably. Don Pedro also built the viceregal palace as well as a dozen blocks of barracks nearby, a square grid of streets lined with multi-storied buildings—unique in Europe for its time. Today, that section of Naples
Naples
is still called the “Spanish Quarter”. The goal was to make not just the city of Naples, but the Gulf of Naples
Gulf of Naples
and eventually, the entire vice-realm invulnerable—that is, the entire southern Italian peninsula.

Eleanor of Toledo, daughter of marquis Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, Viceroy of Naples, 1532- 1553, was the wife, since 1539, of Cosimo I de' Medici, Duke of Florence. Portrait by Angelo Bronzino, oil on wood, 115x96 cm. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

Don Pedro ruled harshly. In 1542 he closed the Accademia Pontaniana. He instituted summary execution for petty theft on public streets and made it a capital crime to go armed at night in the city. He was ruthless in dealing with feudal barons in the countryside and encouraged their moving into the city within reach of a central authority. This breaking-up of land holdings began a trend to urbanization as both the landed class and the landless peasant class poured into Naples. By 1550, the population of 200,000 was second only to Paris
Paris
in all of Europe. Within the city, he centralized administration, moving all courts onto the same premises, the Castel Capuano, also known as the "Vicaria". Don Pedro is remembered as the viceroy who tried without success to institute the Spanish Inquisition
Spanish Inquisition
in Naples, in 1547. When the announcement of the Inquisition finally came in May 1547, the protest was immediate, turning violent very quickly. It was not a "popular" revolution, but rather a revolt by many of the landed nobility in and around Naples
Naples
and Salerno, property owners who knew that the Inquisition had a reputation for confiscating the wealth and property of those whom it questioned. Don Pedro, upon the order of the emperor Charles V, backed down and the Inquisition was called off. In 1552, Charles V calmed the populace further by sending Toledo off to Siena
Siena
to handle a local problem. The viceroy died in Florence, where one of his daughters, Eleanor of Toledo was duchess consort of Medici
Medici
the following year. Don Pedro's reputation as a city-builder has stood the test of time. The city of Naples
Naples
still bears his stamp in countless places. He was supposed to be entombed in the church of San Giacomo degli Spagnoli in Naples, but his sudden death in Florence
Florence
meant he was buried in the Cathedral of Florence
Florence
then.[2] Family[edit] Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, Marquis of Villafranca

Fernán Álvarez de Toledo, Count of Alba de Tormes

García Álvarez de Toledo 1st Duke of Alba

Mencia Carrillo, Lady of Bercimuelle

Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo 2nd Duke of Alba

Fadrique Enríquez de Mendoza, Admiral of Castile

María Enriquez

Teresa Fernández de Quiñones

Pedro Álvarez de Toledo

Pedro de Zúñiga, Count of Ledesma

Álvaro de Zuñiga Duke of Plasencia

Isabel de Guzmán

Isabel de Zuñiga y Pimentel

Juan Alfonso Pimentel, Count of Mayorga

Leonor de Pimentel

Elvira de Zuñiga

Descendants[edit] Don Pedro Álvarez de Toledo married in 1508 Maria Osorio Pimentel, 2nd Marquise of Villafranca del Bierzo. They had seven children:

Eleanor of Toledo, married in 1539 Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. With issue. Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo y Osorio, 3rd Marquis of Villafranca del Bierzo; (1510 - 1569). 3rd Marquis on the death of his mother in 1539. He married Inés Pimentel, but no issue. García Álvarez de Toledo, 4th Marquis of Villafranca, a.k.a. García Álvarez de Toledo y Osorio (1514–1577, in Naples, Italy) became the 4th Marquis of Villafranca del Bierzo in 1569, when his brother Fadrique died without issue, albeit being married. He married Vittoria Colonna, having issue, Pedro, who survived till 1627. Ana de Toledo, married Lopo de Moscoso Osório, 4th count of Altamira. Juana Álvarez de Toledo, married Fernando Ximenez de Urrea, 2nd Count of Aranda Isabel de Toledo, married Gian Battista Spinelli, 2nd Prince of Cariati Luis Álvarez de Toledo y Osorio, interim Viceroy of Naples
Viceroy of Naples
for 2 months in 1552, commander in the Order of Santiago.

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Domínguez Ortiz, Antonio. Los judeoconversos en España y América (in Spanish). As with many Castilian noble families of the time, converso ancestry has been attributed. However, detailed genealogical analysis has suggested a mozarab origin  ^ (in Italian)Via Toledo in Naples, information[permanent dead link]

Other sources[edit]

Amabile, Luigi (1892). Il santo Officio della Inquisizione in Napoli (in Italian). Città di Castello, Italy: S. Lapi.  Croce, Benedetto (1915). Storia del Regno di Napoli (in Italian). Bari, Italy.  De Seta, Cesare (1981). Le Città nella Storia d'Italia: Napoli, 'Il Viceregno' (in Italian). Bari, Italy: Laterza. pp. 106–128.  Domínguez Ortiz, Antonio (1971). Los judeoconversos en España y América (in Spanish). Madrid, Spain.  "Don Pedro de Toledo". Around Naples
Naples
Encyclopedia. September 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-05-09. Retrieved 20 January 2009.  Cawley, Charles (September 2008), Table 15: Ancestors of Leonora Alvarez de Toledo (1522-1562), Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy ,[self-published source][better source needed] Tejada, Francisco Elías (1958). Nàpoles hispanico (in Spanish). Madrid, Spain. 

Spanish nobility

Preceded by Luis Pimentel, 1st Marquis of Villafrancal Marquis of Villafranca 1497–1553 Succeeded by Fadrique de Toledo, 3rd Marquis of Villafranca

Government offices

Preceded by Pompeo Cardinal Colonna Viceroy of Naples 1532–1552 Succeeded by Luis Álvarez de Toledo y Osorio, interim, 2 months, in 1552, on his father illness

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 59893520 LCCN: n85191905 ISNI: 0000 0000 6634 9441 GND: 119405628 SUDOC: 028074890 BNF: cb11998255g (data) SN

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