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This article lists the Margraves and Electors of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
during the period of time that Brandenburg
Brandenburg
was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
.

The Mark, or March, of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
was one of the primary constituent states of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
. It was created in 1157 as the Margraviate of Brandenburg
Margraviate of Brandenburg
by Albert the Bear
Albert the Bear
, Margrave of the Northern March
Northern March
. In 1356, by the terms of the Golden Bull of Charles IV , the Margrave of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
was given the permanent right to participate in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
with the title of Elector (German : Kurfürst).

The early rulers came from several different dynasties, but from 1415 Brandenburg
Brandenburg
and its successor states were ruled by the House of Hohenzollern for over 500 years. From 1618 onward, Brandenburg
Brandenburg
was ruled in personal union with the Duchy of Prussia
Duchy of Prussia
. The Hohenzollerns raised Prussia to a kingdom as the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
in 1701, and from then on Brandenburg
Brandenburg
was de facto treated as part of the kingdom even though it was legally still part of the Holy Roman Empire. The titles of Margrave of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
and Elector of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
were abolished along with the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in 1806, and Brandenburg was formally integrated into Prussia. Despite this, the Prussian kings still included the title "Margrave of Brandenburg" in their royal style. From 1871 to 1918 the Hohenzollerns were also German Emperors .

CONTENTS

* 1 Margraves of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
* 2 Electors of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
* 3 Titular Margraves of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
after 1806 * 4 Upper Presidents of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
* 5 Land Directors of Brandenburg
Brandenburg

* 6 Post-monarchy

* 6.1 Prime Minister of Brandenburg, 1945–1952 * 6.2 Ministers President of Brandenburg, 1990 to date

* 7 Notes * 8 See also

MARGRAVES OF BRANDENBURG

ASCANIAN DYNASTY

NAME REIGN COMMENTS

Albert I 1157–1170 Ruler of the Nordmark from 1134. Called "Albert the Bear".

Otto I 1170–1184 Son of Albert I. Ruled together with his father from 1144.

Otto II 1184–1205 Son of preceding.

Albert II 1205–1220 Brother.

* John I * Otto III

* 1220–1266 * 1220-1267

Co-rulers, sons of Albert II.

From 1266 to 1319, Brandenburg
Brandenburg
was held by the two lines of Brandenburg-Stendal and Brandenburg-Salzwedel, all of whom jointly shared the title of Margrave.

BRANDENBURG-STENDAL BRANDENBURG-SALZWEDEL

Co-rulers, sons of John I:

* John II , 1266–1282 * Conrad , 1266–1304 * Otto IV , 1266–1308 * Henry I , 1266–1318

Co-rulers, sons of Otto III:

* John III , 1267–1268 * Otto V , 1267–1298 * Otto VI , 1267–1291 * Albert III , 1267–1300

Co-rulers:

* Waldemar , 1308–1319, son of Conrad * Henry II , 1319–1320, son of Henry I

Co-rulers:

* Herman , 1298–1308 (alone from 1300) * John V , 1308–1317

After the extinction of the Ascanian dynasty in 1320, Brandenburg came under the control of the Emperor Louis IV of the House of Wittelsbach , who granted Brandenburg
Brandenburg
to his eldest son, Louis V of Bavaria.

WITTELSBACH DYNASTY

NAME REIGN COMMENTS

Louis I "the Brandenburger" 1323–51 Cousin of Henry II, Son of Emperor Louis IV .

Louis II "the Roman". 1351–56 Half-brother of preceding; named Elector in 1356.

ELECTORS OF BRANDENBURG

WITTELSBACH DYNASTY

IMAGE NAME BEGAN ENDED COMMENTS

LOUIS II Ludwig II 10 January 1356 17 May 1365 First Elector of Brandenburg. Called "the Roman"

OTTO VII 17 May 1365 18 August 1373 Brother of preceding. Co-ruler of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
with his brother from 1351, but as a minor (b. 1346) took no part in administration until his brother's death. Abdicated 1373 but retained Electoral title. Died 1379.

LUXEMBURG DYNASTY

IMAGE NAME BEGAN ENDED COMMENTS

WENCESLAUS Wenzel 2 October 1373 29 November 1378 Emperor Charles IV forced the last Wittelsbach Elector to abdicate, and then installed his own son, Wenceslaus. As Wenceslaus was still a minor (b. 1361), the Emperor administered the margraviate for him.

SIGISMUND 29 November 1378 1388 Younger brother of Wenceslaus; took control of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
on his brother's ascension as King of Germany and Bohemia. Gave up Brandenburg
Brandenburg
to his cousin Jobst as security for a substantial loan.

JOBST 1388 16 January 1411 Sigismund's first cousin, nephew of Charles IV. Elected as German King in 1410 in opposition to Sigismund, but died very shortly afterwards.

SIGISMUND 16 January 1411 30 April 1415 Following Jobst's death, Sigismund regained control of Brandenburg and was elected undisputed King of Germany.

HOHENZOLLERN DYNASTY

IMAGE NAME BEGAN ENDED COMMENTS

FREDERICK I Friedrich I 30 April 1415 20 September 1440 Originally Burgrave of Nuremberg. Appointed by King Sigismund in 1415 and enfeoffed in 1417. His eldest son John the Alchemist administered Brandenburg
Brandenburg
as Margrave from 1425 to 1437, but Frederick retained the Electorship.

FREDERICK II Friedrich II 20 September 1440 10 February 1471 Son of Frederick I. Called "Irontooth" (German : Eisenzahn). Administered Brandenburg
Brandenburg
from 1437 and became Elector on his father's death in 1440.

ALBERT III ACHILLES Albrecht III Achilles 10 February 1471 11 March 1486 Brother.

JOHN CICERO Johann Cicero 11 March 1486 9 January 1499 Son.

JOACHIM I NESTOR 9 January 1499 11 July 1535 Son. His younger brother, Albert was co-Margrave 1499–1513, but only Joachim was Elector.

JOACHIM II HECTOR 11 July 1535 3 January 1571 Son. First Protestant Elector of Brandenburg.

JOHN GEORGE Johann Georg 3 January 1571 8 January 1598 Son.

JOACHIM FREDERICK Joachim Friedrich 8 January 1598 28 July 1608 Son.

JOHN SIGISMUND Johann Sigismund 28 July 1608 3 November 1619 Son. Duke of Prussia from 1618.

GEORGE WILLIAM Georg Wilhelm 3 November 1619 1 December 1640 Son. Ruled during the Thirty Years\' War . Also Duke of Prussia.

FREDERICK WILLIAM Friedrich Wilhelm 1 December 1640 9 May 1688 Son. Called "the Great Elector". Also Duke of Prussia.

FREDERICK III Friedrich III 9 May 1688 25 February 1713 Son. " King in Prussia
King in Prussia
" as Frederick I from 1701; from here the ordinals reset

FREDERICK WILLIAM I Friedrich Wilhelm I 25 February 1713 31 May 1740 Son. King in Prussia. Called "the Soldier-King".

FREDERICK II Friedrich II 31 May 1740 17 August 1786 Son. King in Prussia
King in Prussia
to 1772; after annexations of Polish Prussian territory, "King of Prussia". Called "Frederick the Great".

FREDERICK WILLIAM II Friedrich Wilhelm II 17 August 1786 16 November 1797 Nephew. King of Prussia.

FREDERICK WILLIAM III Friedrich Wilhelm III 16 November 1797 6 August 1806 Son. King of Prussia and last Elector of Brandenburg. The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved in 1806, after which Frederick William ruled as independent King of Prussia (including Brandenburg) to his death in 1840.

* v * t * e

Electors of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
from 1356 to 1806

SPIRITUAL Mainz Trier Cologne SECULAR Bohemia Palatine Saxony Brandenburg
Brandenburg
ADDED IN THE 17TH CENTURY Bavaria (1623) Brunswick-Lüneburg (1692) ADDED IN THE 19TH CENTURY Regensburg Salzburg (1803–1805) Würzburg (1805–1806) Württemberg Baden Hesse

TITULAR MARGRAVES OF BRANDENBURG AFTER 1806

This includes Kings of Prussia with the title of Margrave of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
(1806–1918) and pretenders to the throne of Prussia (1918–present)

MARGRAVE PORTRAIT LIFESPAN REIGN START REIGN END

FREDERICK WILLIAM III Friedrich Wilhelm III 3 August 1770 – 7 June 1840 6 August 1806 7 June 1840

FREDERICK WILLIAM IV Friedrich Wilhelm IV 15 October 1795 – 2 January 1861 7 June 1840 2 January 1861

WILLIAM I Wilhelm I 22 March 1797 – 9 March 1888 2 January 1861 9 March 1888

FREDERICK III Friedrich III 18 October 1831 – 15 June 1888 9 March 1888 15 June 1888

WILLIAM II Wilhelm II 27 January 1859 – 4 June 1941 15 June 1888 Prussian monarchy abolished on 28 November 1918 4 June 1941

WILLIAM III Wilhelm III 6 May 1882 – 20 July 1951 4 June 1941 20 July 1951

LOUIS FERDINAND I Ludwig Ferdinand I 9 November 1907 – 26 September 1994 20 July 1951 26 September 1994

GEORGE FREDERICK I Georg Friedrich I 10 June 1976 – present 26 September 1994 Incumbent

UPPER PRESIDENTS OF BRANDENBURG

In 1815 Brandenburg
Brandenburg
was constituted as the Prussian Province of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
without a sovereign ruler, but with Upper Presidents appointed by the central Prussian government. The upper president carried out central prerogatives on the provincial level and supervised the implementation of central policy on the lower levels of administration.

* 1815–1824: Georg Friedrich Christian von Heydebreck (1765–1828) * 1825–1840: Friedrich Magnus von Bassewitz (1773–1858) * 1840–1842: vacancy * 1842–1848: August Werner von Meding (1792–1871) * 1848–1849: Robert von Patow (1804–1890), per pro * 1849–1850: vacancy * 1849–1850: August Hermann Klemens Freiherr Wolff von Metternich (1803–1872), per pro * 1850–1858: Eduard Heinrich von Flottwell (1786–1865) * 1859–1862: Eduard Heinrich von Flottwell (1786–1865) * 1862: Werner Ludolph Erdmann von Selchow (1806–1884) * 1862–1879: Gustav Wilhelm von Jagow (1813–1879) * 1879–1899: Heinrich von Achenbach (1829–1899) * 1899–1905: Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg (1856–1921) * 1905–1909: August von Trott zu Solz
August von Trott zu Solz
(1855–1938) * 1909–1910: Friedrich Wilhelm von Loebell (1855–1931) * 1910–1914: Alfred von Conrad (1852–1914) * 1914–1917: Rudolf von der Schulenburg (1860–1930) * 1917–1919: Friedrich Wilhelm von Loebell (1855–1931) * 1919–1933: Adolf Maier (1871–1963) * 1933–1936: Wilhelm Kube (1887–1943) * 1937–1945: Emil Stürtz (1892–1945), since 1936 per pro

LAND DIRECTORS OF BRANDENBURG

Since 1875, with the strengthening of self-rule within the provinces, the urban and rural counties elected representatives for the provincial diets (Provinziallandtage ). These parliaments legislated within the competences transferred to the provinces. The provincial diet of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
elected a provincial executive body (government), the provincial committee (Provinzialausschuss), and a head of province, the land director ( Landesdirektor ). Self-rule was abolished under the Nazi dictatorship.

* 1876–1896: Albert Erdmann Karl Gerhard von Levetzow (1827–1903), German Conservative Party
German Conservative Party
* 1896–1912: Otto Karl Gottlob von Manteuffel (1844–1913), German Conservative Party * 1912–1930: Joachim von Winterfeldt-Menkin (1865–1945) * 1930–1933: Hugo Swart (1885–1952)

POST-MONARCHY

Main article: Brandenburg
Brandenburg

HISTORY OF BRANDENBURG AND PRUSSIA

NORTHERN MARCH pre–12th century OLD PRUSSIANS pre–13th century

MARGRAVIATE OF BRANDENBURG 1157–1618 (1806) TEUTONIC ORDER 1224–1525

DUCHY OF PRUSSIA 1525–1618 ROYAL (POLISH) PRUSSIA 1466–1772

BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA 1618–1701

KINGDOM IN PRUSSIA 1701–1772

KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA 1772–1918

FREE STATE OF PRUSSIA 1918–1947 KLAIPėDA REGION (Lithuania) 1920–1939 / 1945–present

BRANDENBURG (Germany) 1947–1952 / 1990–present RECOVERED TERRITORIES (Poland) 1918/1945–present KALININGRAD OBLAST (Russia) 1945–present

After the defeat of Nazi Germany in the Second World War , Brandenburg, which had previously been merely a province of Prussia , re-emerged as a German Land .

PRIME MINISTER OF BRANDENBURG, 1945–1952

* Karl Steinhoff
Karl Steinhoff
(SPD/SED), 1945–1949. * Rudolf Jahn (SED), 1949–1952.

After being abolished in a reorganization of the territories administered by the German Democratic Republic
German Democratic Republic
(East Germany), the Land Brandenburg
Brandenburg
was restored in the prelude to German unification in 1990.

MINISTERS PRESIDENT OF BRANDENBURG, 1990 TO DATE

* Manfred Stolpe (SPD), 1990–2002. * Matthias Platzeck
Matthias Platzeck
(SPD), 2002–2013 * Dietmar Woidke
Dietmar Woidke
(SPD), since 2013.

NOTES

* ^ In other Prussian provinces the same office used to be called Landeshauptmann (about in English: land captain). Cf. article: "Landesdirektor", in: Der Große Brockhaus: Handbuch des Wissens in zwanzig Bänden: 21 vols.; Leipzig: Brockhaus, 151928–1935; Bd. 11 (1932), p. 71.

SEE ALSO

* List of rulers of Prussia
List of rulers of Prussia

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