The MARGRAVIATE OF BADEN (German : Markgrafschaft Baden) was a
historical territory of the
Holy Roman Empire . Spread along the east
side of the
* 1 History
* 1.1 Growth * 1.2 Consolidation * 1.3 Tribulations * 1.4 Reunification * 1.5 List of margraves
* 2 References
During the 11th century, the
Duchy of Swabia lacked a powerful
central authority and was under the control of various comital
dynasties, the strongest of them being the
House of Hohenstaufen
Herman II , son of Herman I and grandson of Berthold II, had concluded an agreement with the rivalling Hohenstaufen dynasty, and about 1098 was enfeoffed with immediate territory by Emperor Henry IV. Like his father, Herman II insisted on his margravial title. He chose to establish his residence in Germany, as he had been born and raised there. His lordship of choice was Baden (present-day Baden-Baden), where his father had gained the right to rule by marrying the heiress, Judit von Backnang-Sulichgau, Countess of Eberstein - Calw . In Baden, Herman II had Hohenbaden Castle built. Construction began about 1100, and when completed in 1112, he marked the occasion by adopting the title of a Margrave of Baden.
Because Baden was the capital, the new Margraviate was also known as Baden. Herman II would continue to be Margrave until his death in 1130. His son and grandson, Hermann III (reigned 1130-1160) and Herman IV (reigned 1160-1190), added to their territories. Around 1200, these lands were divided for the first time. Two lines, Baden-Baden and Baden-Hochberg , were founded. The latter was divided about a hundred years later to create the third line – Baden-Sausenberg .
In the 12th and 13th centuries Baden was a loyal and steadfast
supporter of the
House of Hohenstaufen
Christopher I of Baden, by
Hans Baldung Grien
Margrave Bernard I, Margrave of Baden-Baden (reigned 1391-1431) united all of the acquisitions in 1391. A soldier of some renown, Bernard continued the mission of his predecessors, and gained several more districts, including Baden- Pforzheim and Baden-Hochberg. Since 1291, Baden- Pforzheim had its own Margraviate, but in 1361 it ran out of heirs, falling back to the House of Baden-Baden. Baden-Hochberg fared little better. Founded in 1190, it lasted until 1418, when it too died with no male heirs. Bernard, being the closest heir, claimed Baden-Hochberg. Baden-Sausenberg, continued its own Margraviate until 1503, when the lack of its own heirs sent it back to the House of Baden-Baden.
The consolidation of the Margraviate came in 1442. In that year,
one-half of the dominions of
In 1462 the dispute over the election of the new Archbishop of Mainz sent Charles I (reigned 1453-1475) to fight the war against Frederick I, the Count Palatine of the Rhine . Known as the “Mainz Archbishops’ Feud,” it was brief, lasting only a few months, but the effects were ruinous for the loser – Charles. He had to surrender several of his territories to the Palatinate and its allies. These territories were recovered by his son and successor, Christopher I (reigned 1475-1515). In 1503, the Baden-Sausenberg died without male heirs and all the Badener lands were united by Christopher. He tried to keep them united under one of his sons, Philip , but his efforts were foiled by the King of France. Before his death, Christopher divided the Margraviate between his three sons. Philip succeeded him in 1515 but died childless in 1533, and his share went to his brothers, Bernard and Ernest . In 1535, they made a fresh division of their inheritance. It would be the first of several partitions, establishing the two main lines of the House of Baden – Baden-Baden and Baden-Durlach (Baden- Pforzheim until 1565) – which would last until 1771. However, the relations between the two lines were not peaceful, and the constant fragmentation did not help.
During the Reformation, several branches, led by Baden-Baden,
remained on the side of the Catholics , the others joining with
Baden-Durlach on the Protestant side. The
Thirty Years War made
matters worse for all the branches. Many of them were exiled to other
countries. Baden suffered severely during the war. The 1648 Treaty of
Westphalia restored the branches and their churches to their own
lands. Gradually the rivalry subsided. During the wars of
In 1771, Augustus George became the last Margrave of Baden-Baden when he died without sons. All his territories passed to his nearest heir – the Margrave of Baden-Durlach, Charles Frederick (reigned 1738-1811). For the third and last time, all the Badener lands became united under a single ruler.
Although Baden was finally united, its domains were fragmented and
widespread on both sides of the
Ruins of Hohenbaden Castle in Baden-Baden *
The New Castle in Baden-Baden *
Schloss Rastatt , from 1705 residence of the Margraves of Baden-Baden *
LIST OF MARGRAVES
See the complete list of the rulers for all the branches of the
Margraviate of Baden
* ^ "Germany, the German Confederation". Friesian.com. Retrieved 2012-10-19.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
* v * t * e
NOBILITY St George's Shield (Gesellschaft von Sanktjörgenschild)
* Brandenburg-Ansbach * Baden * Bavaria * Bayreuth * Palatinate * Hesse * Mainz * Trier * Württemberg
* v * t * e
* Scheer * Trauchburg * Waldsee * Wolfegg * Wurzach * Zeil
* Baindt * Buchau * Elchingen * Gengenbach * Gutenzell * Heggbach * Irsee * Kaisheim * Mainau * Marchtal * Neresheim * Ochsenhausen * Petershausen * Roggenburg * Rot * Rottenmünster * Salmanweiler * St. George\'s in Isny * Schussenried * Söflingen * Ursberg * Weingarten * Weißenau * Wettenhausen * Zwiefalten
* Jakob * Johann * Markus
* Baldern * Öttingen * Wallerstein