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Margamkali
Margamkali
is an Indian group dance originating from Kerala, practiced by the Saint Thomas Christians
Saint Thomas Christians
who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle
Thomas the Apostle
in the 1st century.[1]

Contents

1 History 2 Performance 3 Today 4 See also 5 Notes

History[edit]

Part of a series on

Saint Thomas Christians

History

Saint Thomas · Thomas of Cana · Mar Sabor and Mar Proth · Tharisapalli plates · Synod of Diamper · Coonan Cross Oath

Religion

Crosses · Denominations · Churches · Syriac language · Music

Prominent persons

Abraham Malpan · Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar · Kayamkulam Philipose Ramban · Kuriakose Elias Chavara · Varghese Payyappilly Palakkappilly · Mar Thoma I · Saint Alphonsa · Sadhu Kochoonju Upadesi · Kariattil Mar Ousep · Geevarghese Dionysius of Vattasseril · Geevarghese Mar Gregorios of Parumala · Geevarghese Ivanios · Saint Alphonsa · Euphrasia Eluvathingal · Thoma of Villarvattom

Culture

Margamkali · Parichamuttukali · Cuisine · Suriyani Malayalam

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There are several opinions on the origin of Margamkali. They are:

It is traced back to Jewish wedding songs and dance from the diaspora.[2] Scholars have found common origin among Malabar Jewish dance and songs and the Saint Thomas Christian
Saint Thomas Christian
dance form of Margamkali.[2][3] It is derived from Sangam kali, a performance dance form of Brahmins.[4][5] It is derived from the Yathra Kali, a performance art of Nambuthiri Brahmins
Brahmins
in Kerala.[6]

"Margam" means path or way or solution in Malayalam, but in the religious context it is known as the path to attain salvation. The process of conversion to Christianity was known as "Margam Koodal" until recently in Kerala.Much of this folk art is woven around the mission of St. Thomas, the Apostle. The original Margam Kali
Margam Kali
describes the arrival of St. Thomas in Malabar, the miracles he performed, the friendship as well as the hostility of the people among whom he worked, the persecution he suffered, the churches and crosses he put up in various places, etc. These details are incorporated in the various stanzas of the Margam Kali
Margam Kali
songs. Kerala's Margam Kali
Margam Kali
is an important element in the age-old and hallowed tradition of St Thomas among the Syrian Christians of Malabar Coast.[7] The disparity between the present condition of this form and the early days leads one to assume three important phases in the history of Margamkali. The first phase was the pre-colonization one in which this semi-theatrical form was performed by the Saint Thomas Christians during special occasions. Parichamuttukali
Parichamuttukali
(The sword and shield dance) was also a part of it. Later Synod of Diamper
Synod of Diamper
curbed and suppressed this native form. During the seventeenth century, due to the efforts of a Knanaya
Knanaya
priest Itti Thomman Kathanar, the textual part of this form got certain upliftment and care. The Margamkali might have been edited and refashioned into the present fourteen stanza structure during this period. However, until the end of the nineteenth century the art form was not in common practice even though it did exist in some places. But at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century, the form became popular once again, and some structural changes took place then. Masters such as Kalarikal Unni ashan, Indumoottil Kocheppu ashan, Indumoottil Kutto ashan were some of them who were responsible for this change and upheaval. By this time the Knanaya
Knanaya
scholar Puttanpurikkal Uthuppu Lukose compiled and published Margamkali
Margamkali
Pattukal in 1910. In the late 1900s the art form was heavily in decline among the entire St. Thomas Christian Community but the Knanaya
Knanaya
community took upon the initiative to promote and further expand the art form. In the 1970s and 1980s the Knanaya
Knanaya
priest Fr. George Karukaparambil and the revered scholar of folk culture Dr. Chummar Choondal undertook years of heavy research and study with the help of 33 Knanaya
Knanaya
ashans or teachers of Margam Kali
Margam Kali
to revitalize the ancient art form. Through critical historical, musicological, and ethnochoreology evaluation this team of researchers systematized Margam Kali
Margam Kali
and promoted it among schools and cultural organizations as an item of competition in youth festivals and eventually presented it to Kerala's Minister of Education who inaugurated a 14 minute long documentary created by the team. In order to make sure Margam Kali
Margam Kali
would be an art form set in stone, the team looked for a formal center for the furthering or Margam Kali
Margam Kali
and allied Christian art forms. Mar Kuriakose Kunnasserry the bishop of the Knanaya
Knanaya
Diocese of Kottayam came to the aide of the team in 1995 and established Hadusa (Syriac for Dancing/Rejoicing), as an All India Institute of Christian Performing Arts which in part has forever aided the existence and prominence of Margam Kali
Margam Kali
today. [8] Performance[edit] A dozen dancers sing and dance clapping around a Nilavilakku
Nilavilakku
wearing the traditional white dhoti ("mundu") and blouse ("chatta"). The lamp represents Christ and the performers his disciples. The performance is usually held in two parts ("padham") and begins with songs and dances narrating the life of Saint Thomas, the apostle. It then takes a striking turn with a martial play of artificial swords and shields. Margamkali
Margamkali
does not use any instruments other than two small palm size cymbals played by the same person who sings the song. It was originally played by men and afterwards by boys, but nowadays women also perform the dance.[9] Today[edit] Currently both Margamkali
Margamkali
and Parichamuttukali
Parichamuttukali
are included in the State Youth Festival of Kerala. This makes these art forms a competitive item in the Four-tier system (i.e. School, Sub District, Revenue and State level) Youth festival.[10] Margam Kali
Margam Kali
is performed mainly by women in cultural shows and by school children in a variety of competitions.[1] Angel Rose Abi and her team have the current title of attaining the most prizes in Margamkali
Margamkali
at the school and college level in Kerala. See also[edit]

Arts of Kerala Kerala
Kerala
Folklore Academy

Notes[edit]

^ a b http://nasrani.net/2009/05/04/margam-kali-history-theme-early-reference-and-modern-developments/ ^ a b Neumann K (1998) "Mond, Gott Siva und heiliger Thomas: Die religiöse Gemeinschaft der Knanaya
Knanaya
in Kerala" Universität Marburg p 150 ^ Vellian, J (1990) 'Crown, veil, cross : marriage rites' in Syrian churches series, vol 15 p 30 ^ http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-kerala/article1821007.ece?css=print ^ Ulloor Parameswara Iyer - Kerala
Kerala
Sahithya Charithram ^ M.V. Vishnu Namboothiri, Dictionary of folklore, page 529 ^ K.C. Zacharia - THE SYRIAN CHRISTIANS OF KERALA: DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIOECONOMIC TRANSITION IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY ^ Karukaparambil 2005, pp. 497. ^ The Hosten pictures of 1924 published by Prof. George Menachery may be referred to ^ The efforts of Prof. George Menachery was met with the approval of Minister T. M. Jacob in introducing this item in the State Youth Festival

Karukaparambil, George (2005). Marganitha Kynanaitha: Knanaya
Knanaya
Pearl. Deepika Book House. ASIN B076GCH274. 

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Culture of Kerala

Arts Promotion Bodies

Kerala
Kerala
Kalamandalam Kerala
Kerala
Lalitakala Academy Kerala
Kerala
Sangeetha Nadaka Academy, Thrissur Kerala
Kerala
Folklore Academy

Performing arts

Chakyar Koothu Kathakali Kerala
Kerala
Natanam Koodiyattam Mohiniyattam Nangiar Koothu Ottamthullal

Music

Kshetram vadyam Kuzhal Pattu Mappila Paattu Panchari melam Panchavadyam Pandi Melam Parisha Vadyam Pulluvan Paattu Sopanam Thayambaka

Folk arts

Arabana muttu Charadupinnikkali Chavittu Nadakam Duff Muttu Garudan Thookkam Kolam Thullal Kolkali Kothammuriyattam Kummattikali Kuthiyottam Malayikuthu Mangalamkali Marathukali Margam Kali Mudiyett Oppana Padayani Parichamuttukali Poorakkali Poothan Sarpam Thullal Slamakali Thacholikali Theyyam Thiriyuzhichil Thiyyattu Tholpavakoothu

Fine arts

Kerala
Kerala
mural painting

Festivals

Aanayoottu Aaraattu Aluva Sivarathri festival Arattupuzha Pooram Edakkunni Uthram Vilakku Gandharvanpattu Ilanjithara Melam Kadavallur Anyonyam Kanyarkali Karivela Keralotsavam Kollam Pooram Kottakkal pooram Kottankulangara Festival Machad Mamangam Makaravilakku Nalukulangara Pooram Kalpathi Ratholsavam Nenmara Vallanghy Vela Onam Onathallu or Avittathallu Peruvanam Pooram Puli Kali Tattamangalam Kuthira Vela Thirumandhamkunnu Pooram Thiruvathira Thrissur Pooram Uthralikavu Pooram Vishu

Martial arts

Kalaripayattu

Musical instruments

Chenda Idakka Kombu (instrument) Mizhavu Timila

Society

Sarpa Kavu Tharavad

Templates Portal Cat

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