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LAKE MARIOUT (Arabic : بحيرة مريوط‎ Boḥēret Maryūṭ , IPA: , Coptic : ⲡⲓⲗⲓⲙⲛⲏ ⲙⲁⲣⲓⲱⲧⲏⲥ), also spelled MARYUT or MARIUT, is a brackish lake in northern Egypt
Egypt
. The lake area covered 200 km² and had a navigable canal at the beginning of the 20th century, but at the beginning of the 21st century, it covers only about 50 km².

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Overview

* 3 Ecclesiastical history

* 3.1 Titular see

* 4 Ancient findings * 5 Fish species * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Sources and external links

ETYMOLOGY

The name derives from MAREOTIS or MAREA, the name of the lake in ancient times.

OVERVIEW

Salt refining- Lake Mariout
Lake Mariout

At least 250 years ago, the lake was fresh water, and much of it would dry up during the period just before the Nile
Nile
flooded again. A storm in 1770 breached the sea wall at Abu Qir , creating a sea-water lake known as Lake Abu Qir. The salt waters were kept separate from Lake Mariout
Lake Mariout
by the canal that allowed fresh water to travel from the Nile
Nile
to Alexandria
Alexandria
. As part of the Siege of Alexandria
Alexandria
, on 13 March 1801, the British cut the canal, allowing a great rush of sea water from Lake Abu Qir into Lake Mariout. Lake Abu Qir ceased to exist, and Lake Mariout
Lake Mariout
became brackish instead of fresh.

It is separated from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
by the narrow isthmus on which the city of Alexandria
Alexandria
was built. The lake shore is home to fisheries and saltworks . As far back as the early 1900s, it was documented that salt was being refined from the western part of the lake.

According to some records, a homonymous nome (ANCIENT NAME: MAREOTIS) was located on the shores of this lake.

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY

There was a bishopric of MAREOTES, in the Roman province
Roman province
of Aegyptus Primus , which was a suffragan of the Metropolitan Archbishop of the Patriarchate of Alexandria
Alexandria
, but it faded like most in Roman Egypt
Egypt
, plausibly at the advent of Islam.

Two bishops are historically documented :

* Ischiras (mentioned circa 335) * Pistos (mentioned in 337)

TITULAR SEE

The diocese was nominally restored in 1933 as Titular bishopric
Titular bishopric
of Mareotes (Latin = Curiate Italian) / Mareoten(sis) (Latin adjective). Although technically a Latin titular bishopric , it has had several Eastern Catholic
Eastern Catholic
incumbents, notably of Egypt's native Coptic Catholic Church sui iuris ( Alexandrian Rite ).

It has had the following incumbents, so far of the fitting Episcopal (lowest) rank:

* Antonios Aziz Mina (2002.12.21 – 2006.01.03) as Bishop of Curia of the Coptic Catholic Patriarchate ( Egypt
Egypt
) ( 2002.12.21 – 2006.01.03), next Eparch (Bishop) of Guizeh of the Copts (Egypt) (2006.01.03 – 2017.01.23) * Botros Fahim Awad Hanna (2006.09.06 – 2013.04.08) as Bishop of Curia of Egypt
Egypt
of the Copts ( 2006.09.06 – 2013.04.08), next Eparch (Bishop) of Minya of the Copts (Egypt) ( 2013.04.08 – ...) * Cesar Essayan, Conventual Franciscans
Conventual Franciscans
(O.F.M. Conv.) (2016.08.02 – ...) as ( Apostolic Vicar
Apostolic Vicar
of Beirut ( Lebanon
Lebanon
).

ANCIENT FINDINGS

In 2015 a stele , resembling the Rosetta Stone
Rosetta Stone
and dating back some 2,200 years, was discovered in ancient ruins called Taposiris Magna Temple site at Lake Mariout. Measuring 41 inches (105 cm) by 25.6 inches (65 cm) by 7 inches (18 cm), its message commemorates two Ptolemaic pharaohs and Cleopatra I . There are ancient tombs located on the shores of the lake.

FISH SPECIES

The fish species Nile
Nile
perch lives in the lake although its principal habitat is fresh water, and the lake contains some salt. In 1939, a small lake, called the Nozha Hydrodrome was "isolated from Lake Mar