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Mardin Province ( tr|Mardin ili, ku|Parêzgeha Mêrdînê, ar|محافظة ماردين), is a province of Turkey with a population of 809,719 in 2017, slightly down from the population of 835,173 in 2000. Kurds form the majority of the population followed closely by Arabs who represent 40% of the province's population.Ayse Guc Isik, 201
The Intercultural Engagement in Mardin
Australian Catholic University. pp. 46-48.



Demographics


Mardin Province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan and is predominantly populated by Kurds and Arabs who both adhere to the Shafiʽi school of Islam. There is also a small Assyrian Christian population left. A recent study from 2013 has shown that 40% of Mardin Province's population identify as Arabs, and this proportion increases to 49% in the city of Mardin and 48% in Midyat, where Arabs form the majority.


Social relations


Social relations between Arabs and Kurds have historically been difficult with hostility, prejudice and stereotypes but have in recent years improved. Arabs with Assyrians did not take part in the Kurdish–Turkish conflict and the position of the two groups have been described as being 'submissive' to the Turkish state, creating distrust between them and the Kurds. Kurds perceived Arabs as spies for the state and local Arabs in Mardin city tended to exclude and dominate local politics in the city. Arabs started losing their grip on Mardin city in the 2010s and the Kurdish BDP won the city in the local elections in 2014. Mardin city had previously been governed by pro-state parties supported by local Arabs. Despite the difficult relations, Arab families have since the 1980s joined the Kurdish cause, and Arab and Assyrian politicians from Mardin are found in Peoples' Democratic Party including Mithat Sancar and Februniye Akyol.


Language


In the first Turkish census in 1927, Kurdish and Arabic were the first language for and of the population, respectively. Turkish stood as the third largest language at . In the 1935 census, Kurdish and Arabic remained the two most spoken languages for and of the population, respectively. Turkish remained as the third largest language at . In the 1945 census, Kurdish stood at , Arabic at and Turkish at . In 1950, the numbers were , and for Kurdish, Arabic and Turkish, respectively. The same numbers were , and in 1955, and , and in 1960. In the last Turkish census in 1965, Kurdish remained the largest language spoken by of the population, while Arabic remained the second largest language at and Turkish stood at .


Religion


In the Ottoman yearbook of 1894-1895, Mardin Sanjak had a population of 34,361 and adhered to Islam. The largest religious minority was Orthodox Assyrians who comprised of the population, followed by Catholic Armenians at , Catholic Assyrians at , Protestants at and Chaldeans at . Muslims comprised of the population in 1927, while Christians of various denominations stood at and Jews at . In 1935, Muslims comprised of the population, while Christians remained the second largest minority at . The Jewish population declined to 72 individuals from 490 in 1927. In 1945, of the population was Muslim, while Christians were of the population. The same numbers were and in 1955. In 1960, Muslims constituted and Christians remained at . Same numbers were and in 1965. It was estimated that 25,000 Assyrian members of the Oriental Orthodox Church still lived in the province in 1979. Only 4,000 Assyrians remained in the province in 2020, most having migrated to Europe or Istanbul since the 1980s.

History

Mardin comes from the Syriac word (ܡܪܕܐ) and means "fortresses". The first known civilization were the Subarian-Hurrians who were then succeeded in 3000 BCE by the Hurrians. The Elamites gained control around 2230 BCE and were followed by the Babylonians, Hittites, Assyrians, Romans and Byzantines. The local Assyrians/Syriacs, while reduced due to the Assyrian Genocide and conflicts between the Kurds and Turks, hold on to two of the oldest monasteries in the world, Dayro d-Mor Hananyo (Turkish ''Deyrülzafaran'', English ''Saffron Monastery'') and Deyrulumur Monastery. The Christian community is concentrated on the Tur Abdin plateau and in the town of Midyat, with a smaller community (approximately 200) in the provincial capital. After the foundation of Turkey, the province has been a target of a Turkification policy, removing most traces of a non-turkish heritage.


Inspectorate General


In 1927 the office of the Inspector General was created, which governed with martial law. The province was included in the First Inspectorate-General () over which the Inspector General ruled. The Inspectorate-General span over the provinces of Hakkâri, Siirt, Van, Mardin, Bitlis, Sanlıurfa, Elaziğ and Diyarbakır. The Inspectorate General were dissolved in 1952 during the Government of the Democrat Party. The Mardin province was also included in a wider military zone in 1928, in which the entrance to the zone was forbidden for foreigners until 1965.


State of Emergency


In 1987 the province was included in the OHAL region governed in a state of emergency. In November 1996 the state of emergency regulation was removed.


Districts


Mardin province is divided into 10 districts (capital district in bold): * Mardin (Central district, renamed Artuklu in 2014) * Dargeçit * Derik * Kızıltepe * Mazıdağı * Midyat * Nusaybin * Ömerli * Savur * Yeşilli


Gallery


File:View from Mardin to the Mesopotamian plains.jpg|Minaret of the Grand Mosque of Mardin (12th century) and the view of the Mesopotamian plains. File:Mardin P1050254 20080426114925.JPG|Kasimiye Madrasa (14th century) File:MardinSultanIsaDomes.jpg|Zinciriye Madrasa (14th century) File:Savur P1040131 20080424144611.JPG|View of Savur and the grand mosque in the center File:Mardin P1030527 20080423132754.JPG|Abdullatif Mosque (14th century) Image:Mor Gabriel Monastery 1310581 nevit.jpg|Mor Gabriel Monastery File:Killit Mor Yuhanun ici P1030894.jpg|Mor Yuhanun Church File:Mar Jacob Church, Nisibis.jpg|Mar Jacob Church in Nusaybin File:Zafaran1.JPG| Dayro d-Mor Hananyo monastery

Bibliography

*


References





External links



Mardin Weather Forecast Information

Pictures of the capital of this province

Articles about the Syriacs and photos of Midyat



Tourism information is available in English at the Southeastern Anatolian Promotion Project site.

Mardin Travel Guide
* https://twitter.com/MardinBuyukshr {{Authority control Category:Provinces of Turkey Category:Upper Mesopotamia Category:Assyrian geography Category:Geography of Kurdistan Category:Turkish Kurdistan