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MARCO POLO (/ˈmɑːrkoʊ ˈpoʊloʊ/ (_ listen ); Italian: ; 1254 – January 8–9, 1324) was a Venetian merchant traveller. His travels are recorded in Livres des merveilles du monde _ (_Book of the Marvels of the World_, also known as _The Travels of Marco Polo_, c. 1300), a book that described to Europeans the wealth and great size of China, its capital Peking, and other Asian cities and countries.

He learned the mercantile trade from his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo , who travelled through Asia and met Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
. In 1269, they returned to Venice
Venice
to meet Marco for the first time. The three of them embarked on an epic journey to Asia, returning after 24 years to find Venice
Venice
at war with Genoa
Genoa
; Marco was imprisoned and dictated his stories to a cellmate. He was released in 1299, became a wealthy merchant , married, and had three children. He died in 1324 and was buried in the church of San Lorenzo in Venice
Venice
.

Marco Polo
Marco Polo
was not the first European to reach China
China
(see Europeans in Medieval China
China
), but he was the first to leave a detailed chronicle of his experience. This book inspired Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
and many other travellers. There is a substantial literature based on Polo's writings; he also influenced European cartography, leading to the introduction of the Fra Mauro map .

CONTENTS

* 1 Life

* 1.1 Family origin * 1.2 Early life and Asian travel * 1.3 Genoese captivity and later life * 1.4 Death

* 2 _Travels of Marco Polo_

* 2.1 Narrative * 2.2 Role of Rustichello * 2.3 Authenticity and veracity

* 3 Debate

* 3.1 Omissions * 3.2 Exaggerations * 3.3 Errors * 3.4 Appropriation * 3.5 Assessments

* 4 Legacy

* 4.1 Further exploration * 4.2 Cartography

* 4.3 Commemoration

* 4.3.1 Arts, entertainment, and media

* 4.3.1.1 Film * 4.3.1.2 Games * 4.3.1.3 Literature * 4.3.1.4 Television

* 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

LIFE

FAMILY ORIGIN

_ Corte del Milion_ is still named after the nickname of Polo, "Il Milione".

Marco Polo
Marco Polo
was born in 1254 in the Republic of Venice . His exact date and place of birth are archivally unknown. Some historians mentioned that he was born on September 15 but that date is not endorsed by mainstream scholarship. Marco Polo's birthplace is generally considered Venice
Venice
, but also varies between Constantinople and the island of Korčula . There is dispute as to whether the Polo family is of Venetian origin, as Venetian historical sources considered them to be of Dalmatian origin. The lack of evidence makes the Korčula theory (probably under Ramusio influence ) as a specific birthplace strongly disputed, and even some Croatian scholars consider it justly invented.

EARLY LIFE AND ASIAN TRAVEL

See also: Niccolò and Maffeo Polo and Europeans in Medieval China
Europeans in Medieval China
Mosaic of Marco Polo
Marco Polo
displayed in the Palazzo Doria-Tursi, in Genoa , Italy
Italy

In 1168, his great-uncle, Marco Polo, borrowed money and commanded a ship in Constantinople. His grandfather, Andrea Polo of the parish of San Felice, had three sons, Maffeo, yet another Marco, and the traveller's father Niccolò. This genealogy, described by Ramusio, is not universally accepted as there is no additional evidence to support it.

His father, Niccolò Polo , a merchant, traded with the Near East
Near East
, becoming wealthy and achieving great prestige. Niccolò and his brother Maffeo set off on a trading voyage before Marco's birth. In 1260, Niccolò and Maffeo, while residing in Constantinople, then the capital of the Latin Empire , foresaw a political change; they liquidated their assets into jewels and moved away. According to _The Travels of Marco Polo_, they passed through much of Asia, and met with Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
, a Mongol ruler and founder of the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
. Their decision to leave Constantinople
Constantinople
proved timely. In 1261 Michael VIII Palaiologos , the ruler of the Empire of Nicaea , took Constantinople, promptly burned the Venetian quarter and re-established the Eastern Roman Empire . Captured Venetian citizens were blinded, while many of those who managed to escape perished aboard overloaded refugee ships fleeing to other Venetian colonies in the Aegean Sea.

Almost nothing is known about the childhood of Marco Polo
Marco Polo
until he was fifteen years old, excepting that he probably spent part of his childhood in Venice. Meanwhile, Marco Polo's mother died, and an aunt and uncle raised him. He received a good education, learning mercantile subjects including foreign currency, appraising, and the handling of cargo ships; he learned little or no Latin
Latin
. His father later married Floradise Polo (née Trevisan).

In 1269, Niccolò and Maffeo returned to their families in Venice, meeting young Marco for the first time. In 1271, during the rule of Doge
Doge
Lorenzo Tiepolo , Marco Polo
Marco Polo
(at seventeen years of age), his father, and his uncle set off for Asia on the series of adventures that Marco later documented in his book. They returned to Venice
Venice
in 1295, 24 years later, with many riches and treasures. They had travelled almost 15,000 miles (24,000 km).

GENOESE CAPTIVITY AND LATER LIFE

_ San Lorenzo _ church in the sestiere of Castello ( Venice
Venice
), where Polo was buried. The photo shows the church as is today, after the 1592 rebuilding.

Marco Polo
Marco Polo
returned to Venice
Venice
in 1295 with his fortune converted into gemstones . At this time, Venice
Venice
was at war with the Republic of Genoa . Polo armed a galley equipped with a trebuchet to join the war. He was probably caught by Genoans in a skirmish in 1296, off the Anatolian coast between Adana and the Gulf of Alexandretta and not during the battle of Curzola (September 1298), off the Dalmatian coast. The latter claim is due to a later tradition (16th Century) recorded by Giovanni Battista Ramusio .

He spent several months of his imprisonment dictating a detailed account of his travels to a fellow inmate, Rustichello da Pisa , who incorporated tales of his own as well as other collected anecdotes and current affairs from China. The book soon spread throughout Europe in manuscript form, and became known as _ The Travels of Marco Polo
The Travels of Marco Polo
_. It depicts the Polos' journeys throughout Asia, giving Europeans their first comprehensive look into the inner workings of the Far East, including China, India, and Japan.

Polo was finally released from captivity in August 1299, and returned home to Venice, where his father and uncle in the meantime had purchased a large palazzo in the zone named _contrada San Giovanni Crisostomo_ (Corte del Milion). For such a venture, the Polo family probably invested profits from trading, and even many gemstones they brought from the East. The company continued its activities and Marco soon became a wealthy merchant. Marco and his uncle Maffeo financed other expeditions, but likely never left Venetian provinces, nor returned to the Silk Road and Asia. Sometime before 1300, his father Niccolò died. In 1300, he married Donata Badoèr, the daughter of Vitale Badoèr, a merchant. They had three daughters, Fantina (married Marco Bragadin), Bellela (married Bertuccio Querini), and Moreta.

In 1305 he is mentioned in a Venetian document among local sea captains regarding the payment of taxes. His relation with a certain Marco Polo, who in 1300 was mentioned with riots against the aristocratic government, and escaped the death penalty, as well as riots from 1310 led by Bajamonte Tiepolo (by mother side grandson of Trogir count Stjepko Šubić ) and Marco Querini, among whose rebels were Jacobello and Francesco Polo from another family branch, is unclear. Polo is clearly mentioned again after 1305 in Maffeo's testament from 1309–1310, in a 1319 document according to which he became owner of some estates of his deceased father, and in 1321, when he bought part of the family property of his wife Donata.

DEATH

In 1323, Polo was confined to bed, due to illness. On January 8, 1324, despite physicians' efforts to treat him, Polo was on his deathbed. To write and certify the will, his family requested Giovanni Giustiniani, a priest of San Procolo. His wife, Donata, and his three daughters were appointed by him as co-executrices . The church was entitled by law to a portion of his estate; he approved of this and ordered that a further sum be paid to the convent of San Lorenzo , the place where he wished to be buried. He also set free Peter, a Tartar servant , who may have accompanied him from Asia, and to whom Polo bequeathed 100 lire of Venetian denari.

He divided up the rest of his assets, including several properties, among individuals, religious institutions, and every guild and fraternity to which he belonged. He also wrote-off multiple debts including 300 lire that his sister-in-law owed him, and others for the convent of San Giovanni , San Paolo of the Order of Preachers , and a cleric named Friar
Friar
Benvenuto. He ordered 220 soldi be paid to Giovanni Giustiniani for his work as a notary and his prayers.

The will was not signed by Polo, but was validated by the then-relevant "signum manus " rule, by which the testator only had to touch the document to make it legally valid. Due to the Venetian law stating that the day ends at sunset, the exact date of Marco Polo's death cannot be determined, but according to some scholars it was between the sunsets of January 8 and 9, 1324. Biblioteca Marciana
Biblioteca Marciana
, which holds the original copy of his testament, dates the testament in January 9, 1323, and gives the date of his death at some time in June 1324.

_TRAVELS OF MARCO POLO_

Main article: The Travels of Marco Polo
The Travels of Marco Polo
Further information: Franco-Mongol alliance , Byzantine-Mongol alliance
Byzantine-Mongol alliance
, and John of Montecorvino _ Map of Marco Polo's travels A miniature from Il Milione_.

An authoritative version of Marco Polo's book does not and cannot exist, for the early manuscripts differ significantly. The published editions of his book either rely on single manuscripts, blend multiple versions together, or add notes to clarify, for example in the English translation by Henry Yule . The 1938 English translation by A.C. Moule and Paul Pelliot is based on a Latin
Latin
manuscript found in the library of the Cathedral of Toledo
Cathedral of Toledo
in 1932, and is 50% longer than other versions. Approximately 150 manuscript copies in various languages are known to exist, and before availability of the printing press discrepancies were inevitably introduced during copying and translation. The popular translation published by Penguin Books in 1958 by R.E. Latham works several texts together to make a readable whole. _ A page from Il Milione_, from a manuscript believed to date between 1298–1299.

Polo related his memoirs orally to Rustichello da Pisa while both were prisoners of the Genova Republic . Rustichello wrote _Devisement du Monde _ in Langues d\'Oil , a lingua franca of crusaders and western merchants in the Orient. The idea probably was to create a handbook for merchants , essentially a text on weights, measures and distances.

NARRATIVE

The book opens with a preface describing his father and uncle traveling to Bolghar where Prince Berke Khan lived. A year later, they went to Ukek and continued to Bukhara
Bukhara
. There, an envoy from the Levant
Levant
invited them to meet Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
, who had never met Europeans. In 1266, they reached the seat of Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
at Dadu , present day Beijing
Beijing
, China
China
. Kublai received the brothers with hospitality and asked them many questions regarding the European legal and political system. He also inquired about the Pope and Church in Rome. After the brothers answered the questions he tasked them with delivering a letter to the Pope, requesting 100 Christians acquainted with the Seven Arts (grammar, rhetoric, logic, geometry, arithmetic, music and astronomy). Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
requested that an envoy bring him back oil of the lamp in Jerusalem . The long _sede vacante _ between the death of Pope Clement IV in 1268 and the election of his successor delayed the Polos in fulfilling Kublai's request. They followed the suggestion of Theobald Visconti, then papal legate for the realm of Egypt
Egypt
, and returned to Venice
Venice
in 1269 or 1270 to await the nomination of the new Pope, which allowed Marco to see his father for the first time, at the age of fifteen or sixteen.

In 1271, Niccolò, Maffeo and Marco Polo
Marco Polo
embarked on their voyage to fulfil Kublai's request. They sailed to Acre , and then rode on camels to the Persian port of Hormuz . The Polos wanted to sail straight into China, but the ships there were not seaworthy, so they continued overland through the Silk Road , until reaching Kublai's summer palace in Shangdu , near present-day Zhangjiakou . In one instance during their trip, the Polos joined a caravan of travelling merchants whom they crossed paths with. Unfortunately, the party was soon attacked by bandits , who used the cover of a sandstorm to ambush them. The Polos managed to fight and escape through a nearby town, but many members of the caravan were killed or enslaved. Three and a half years after leaving Venice, when Marco was about 21 years old, the Polos were welcomed by Kublai into his palace. The exact date of their arrival is unknown, but scholars estimate it to be between 1271 and 1275. On reaching the Yuan court, the Polos presented the sacred oil from Jerusalem and the papal letters to their patron.

Marco knew four languages, and the family had accumulated a great deal of knowledge and experience that was useful to Kublai. It is possible that he became a government official; he wrote about many imperial visits to China's southern and eastern provinces, the far south and Burma
Burma
. Highly respected and sought after in the Mongolian court, Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
decided to decline the Polos' requests to leave China. They became worried about returning home safely, believing that if Kublai died, his enemies might turn against them because of their close involvement with the ruler. In 1292, Kublai's great-nephew, then ruler of Persia , sent representatives to China
China
in search of a potential wife, and they asked the Polos to accompany them, so they were permitted to return to Persia with the wedding party—which left that same year from Zaitun in southern China
China
on a fleet of 14 junks . The party sailed to the port of Singapore
Singapore
, travelled north to Sumatra
Sumatra
, sailed west to the Point Pedro port of Jaffna under Savakanmaindan and to Pandyan of Tamilakkam . Eventually Polo crossed the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
to Hormuz . The two-year voyage was a perilous one—of the six hundred people (not including the crew) in the convoy only eighteen had survived (including all three Polos). The Polos left the wedding party after reaching Hormuz and travelled overland to the port of Trebizond on the Black Sea
Black Sea
, the present day Trabzon .

ROLE OF RUSTICHELLO

The British scholar Ronald Latham has pointed out that _The Book of Marvels_ was in fact a collaboration written in 1298–1299 between Polo and a professional writer of romances, Rustichello of Pisa. Latham also argued that Rustichello may have glamorised Polo's accounts, and added fantastic and romantic elements that made the book a bestseller. The Italian scholar Luigi Foscolo Benedetto had previously demonstrated that the book was written in the same "leisurely, conversational style" that characterised Rustichello's other works, and that some passages in the book were taken verbatim or with minimal modifications from other writings by Rustichello. For example, the opening introduction in _The Book of Marvels_ to "emperors and kings, dukes and marquises" was lifted straight out of an Arthurian romance Rustichello had written several years earlier, and the account of the second meeting between Polo and Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
at the latter's court is almost the same as that of the arrival of Tristan
Tristan
at the court of King Arthur
King Arthur
at Camelot
Camelot
in that same book. Latham believed that many elements of the book, such as legends of the Middle East and mentions of exotic marvels may have been the work of Rustichello who was giving what medieval European readers expected to find in a travel book.

AUTHENTICITY AND VERACITY

Since the book publication, some have viewed the book with skepticism. Some in the Middle Ages regarded the book simply as a romance or fable, due largely to the sharp difference of its descriptions of a sophisticated civilisation in China
China
to other early accounts by Giovanni da Pian del Carpine and William of Rubruck who portrayed the Mongols as 'barbarians' who appeared to belong to 'some other world'. Doubts have also been raised in later centuries about Marco Polo's narrative of his travels in China, for example for his failure to mention the Great Wall of China, and in particular the difficulties in identifying many of the place names he used (the great majority however have since been identified). Many have questioned if he had visited the places he mentioned in his itinerary, if he had appropriated the accounts of his father and uncle or other travelers, and some doubted if he even reached China, or that if he did, perhaps never went beyond Khanbaliq (Beijing).

It has however been pointed out that Polo's accounts of China
China
are more accurate and detailed than other travelers' accounts of the periods. Polo had at times refuted the 'marvelous' fables and legends given in other European accounts, and despite some exaggerations and errors, Polo's accounts have relatively few of the descriptions of irrational marvels. In many cases where present (mostly given in the first part before he reached China, such as mentions of Christian miracles), he made a clear distinction that they are what he had heard rather than what he had seen. It is also largely free of the gross errors found in other accounts such as those given by the Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
who had confused the Yellow River
Yellow River
with the Grand Canal and other waterways, and believed that porcelain was made from coal.

Modern studies have further shown that details given in Marco Polo's book, such as the currencies used, salt productions and revenues, are accurate and unique. Such detailed descriptions are not found in other non-Chinese sources, and their accuracy is supported by archaeological evidence as well as Chinese records compiled after Polo had left China, his accounts are therefore unlikely to have been obtained second hand. Other accounts have also been verified; for example, when visiting Zhenjiang in Jiangsu
Jiangsu
, China, Marco Polo
Marco Polo
noted that a large number of Christian churches had been built there. His claim is confirmed by a Chinese text of the 14th century explaining how a Sogdian named Mar-Sargis from Samarkand
Samarkand
founded six Nestorian Christian churches there in addition to one in Hangzhou
Hangzhou
during the second half of the 13th century. His story of the princess Kököchin sent from China
China
to Persia to marry the Īl-khān is also confirmed by independent sources in both Persia and China.

DEBATE

Text of the letter of Pope Innocent IV "to the ruler and people of the Tartars", brought to Güyüg Khan by John de Carpini , 1245 Seal of Güyük Khan using the classical Mongolian script , as found in a letter sent to the Roman Pope Innocent IV in 1246. Letter from Arghun , Khan of the Mongol Ilkhanate , to Pope Nicholas IV , 1290. Seal of the Mongol ruler Ghazan
Ghazan
in a 1302 letter to Pope Boniface VIII , with an inscription in Chinese seal script

OMISSIONS

Skeptics have long wondered if Marco Polo
Marco Polo
wrote his book based on hearsay, with some pointing to omissions about noteworthy practices and structures of China
China
as well as the lack of details on some places in his book. While Polo describes paper money and the burning of coal, he fails to mention the Great Wall of China
China
, tea , Chinese characters , chopsticks , or footbinding . His failure to note the presence of the Great Wall of China
China
was first raised in the middle of seventeenth century, and in the middle of eighteenth century, it was suggested that he might have never reached China. Later scholars such as John W. Haeger argued the Marco Polo
Marco Polo
might not have visited Southern China due to the lack of details in his description of southern Chinese cities compared to northern ones, while Herbert Franke also raised the possibility that Marco Polo
Marco Polo
might not have been to China
China
at all, and wondered if he might have based his accounts on Persian sources due to his use of Persian expressions. This is taken further by Dr. Frances Wood who claimed in her 1995 book _ Did Marco Polo Go to China? _ that at best Polo never went farther east than Persia (modern Iran), and that there is nothing in _The Book of Marvels_ about China
China
that could not be obtained via reading Persian books. Wood maintains that it is more probable that Polo only went to Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern Istanbul, Turkey) and some of the Italian merchant colonies around the Black Sea, picking hearsay from those travellers who had been farther east.

Supporters of the book's basic accuracy countered on the points raised by skeptics such as footbinding and the Great Wall of China. Historian Stephen G. Haw argued that the Great Walls were built to keep out northern invaders, whereas the ruling dynasty during Marco Polo's visit were those very northern invaders. They note that the Great Wall familiar to us today is a Ming structure built some two centuries after Marco Polo's travels; and that the Mongol rulers whom Polo served controlled territories both north and south of today's wall, and would have no reasons to maintain any fortifications that may have remained there from the earlier dynasties. Other Europeans who travelled to Khanbaliq during the Yuan Dynasty, such as Giovanni de\' Marignolli and Odoric of Pordenone , said nothing about the wall either. The Muslim traveler Ibn Batutta , who asked about the wall when he visited China
China
during the Yuan Dynasty, could find no one who had either seen it or knew of anyone who had seen it, suggesting that while ruins of the wall constructed in the earlier periods might have existed, they were not significant or noteworthy at that time.

Haw also argued that footbinding was not common even among Chinese during Polo's time and almost unknown among the Mongols. While the Italian missionary Odoric of Pordenone who visited Yuan China mentioned footbinding (it is however unclear whether he was merely relaying something he had heard as his description is inaccurate), no other foreign visitors to Yuan China
China
mentioned the practice, perhaps an indication that the footbinding was not widespread or was not practiced in an extreme form at that time. Marco Polo
Marco Polo
himself noted (in the Toledo manuscript) the dainty walk of Chinese women who took very short steps. It has also been noted by other scholars that many of the things not mentioned by Marco Polo
Marco Polo
such as tea and chopsticks weren't mentioned by other travelers as well. Haw also pointed out that despite the few omissions, Marco Polo's account is more extensive, more accurate and more detailed than those of other foreign travelers to China
China
in this period.

EXAGGERATIONS

Many scholars believe that Marco Polo
Marco Polo
exaggerated his importance in China. The British historian David Morgan thought that Polo had likely exaggerated and lied about his status in China, while Ronald Latham believed that such exaggerations were embellishments by his ghost writer Rustichello da Pisa . In _The Book of Marvels_, Polo claimed that he was a close friend and advisor to Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
and that he was the governor of the city of Yangzhou
Yangzhou
for three years – yet no Chinese source mentions him as either a friend of the Emperor or as the governor of Yangzhou
Yangzhou
– indeed no Chinese source mentions Marco Polo at all. Herbert Franke noted that all occurrences of Po-lo or Bolod (an Altaic word meaning "steel") in Yuan texts were names of people of Mongol or Turkic extraction. The sinologist Paul Pelliot thought that Polo might have served as an officer of the government salt monopoly in Yangzhou, which was a position of some significance that could explain the exaggeration. Polo also claimed to have provided the Mongols with technical advice on building mangonels during the Siege of Xiangyang , a claim that cannot possibly be true as the siege was over before Polo had arrived in China. The Mongol army that besieged Xiangyang did have foreign military engineers, but they were mentioned in Chinese sources as being from Baghdad
Baghdad
and had Arabic names.

Stephen G. Haw , however, challenges this idea that Polo exaggerated his own importance, writing that, "contrary to what has often been said...Marco does not claim any very exalted position for himself in the Yuan empire." He points out that Marco never claimed to be a minister of high rank, a _darughachi _, a leader of a tumen (i.e. 10,000 men), not even the leader of 1,000 men, only that he was an emissary for the khan and held a position of some honor. Haw sees this as a reasonable claim if Marco was a _keshig _, who numbered some fourteen thousand at the time. Haw explains how the earliest manuscripts of Polo's accounts provide contradicting information about his role in Yangzhou, with some stating he was just a simple resident, others stating he was a governor, and Ramusio\'s manuscript claiming he was simply holding that office as a temporary substitute for someone else, yet all the manuscripts concur that he worked as an esteemed emissary for the khan. Haw also objected to the approach to finding mention of Marco Polo
Marco Polo
in Chinese texts, contending that contemporaneous Europeans had little regard for using surnames , and a direct Chinese transcription of the name "Marco" ignores the possibility of him taking on a Chinese or even Mongol name that had no bearing or similarity with his Latin
Latin
name .

ERRORS

A number of errors in Marco Polo's account have been noted: for example, he described the bridge later known as Marco Polo Bridge as having twenty-four arches instead of eleven or thirteen. He also said that city wall of Khanbaliq had twelve gates when it had only eleven. Archaeologists have also pointed out that Polo may have mixed up the details from the two attempted invasions of Japan
Japan
by Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
in 1274 and 1281. Polo wrote of five-masted ships, when archaeological excavations found that the ships in fact had only three masts.

APPROPRIATION

Wood accused Marco Polo
Marco Polo
of taking other people's accounts in his book, retelling other stories as his own, or based his accounts on Persian guidebooks or other lost sources. For example, Sinologist Francis Woodman Cleaves noted that Polo's account of the voyage of the princess Kököchin from China
China
to Persia to marry the Īl-khān in 1293 has been confirmed by a passage in the 15th-century Chinese work _ Yongle Encyclopedia _ and by the Persian historian Rashid-al-Din Hamadani in his work _Jami\' al-tawarikh _. However neither of these accounts mentions Polo or indeed any European as part of the bridal party, and Wood used the lack of mention of Polo in these works as an example of Polo's "retelling of a well-known tale". Morgan, in Polo's defence, noted that even the princess herself was not mentioned in the Chinese source, and that it would have been surprising if Polo had been mentioned by Rashid-al-Din. Historian Igor de Rachewiltz argued that Marco Polo's account in fact allows the Persian and Chinese sources to be reconciled – by relaying the information that two of the three envoys sent (mentioned in the Chinese source and whose names accord with those given by Polo) had died during the voyage, it explains why only the third who survived, Coja/Khoja, was mentioned by Rashìd al-Dìn. Polo had therefore completed the story by providing information not found in either source. He also noted that the only Persian source that mentions the princess was not completed until 1310-11, therefore Marco Polo
Marco Polo
could not have learned the information from any Persian book. According to de Rachewiltz, the concordance of Polo's detailed account of the princess with other independent sources that gave only incomplete information is proof of the veracity of Polo's story and his presence in China.

ASSESSMENTS

Morgan writes that since much of what _The Book of Marvels_ has to say about China
China
is "demonstrably correct" that to claim that Polo did not go to China
China
"creates far more problems than it solves" and so that the "balance of probabilities" strongly suggests that Polo really did go to China, even if he exaggerated somewhat his importance in China. Haw dismisses the various anachronistic criticisms of Polo's accounts that started in the 17th century, and highlights Polo's accuracy in great part of his accounts, for example on the lay of the land such as the Grand Canal of China
China
. "If Marco was a liar," Haw writes, "then he must have been an implausibly meticulous one."

In 2012, the University of Tübingen Sinologist and historian Hans Ulrich Vogel released a detailed analysis of Polo's description of currencies, salt production and revenues, and argued that the evidence supports his presence in China
China
because he included details which he could not have otherwise known. Vogel noted that no other Western, Arab, or Persian sources have given such accurate and unique details about the currencies of China, for example, the shape and size of the paper, the use of seals, the various denominations of paper money as well as variations in currency usage in different regions of China, such as the use of cowry shells in Yunnan, details supported by archaeological evidence and Chinese sources compiled long after Polo's had left China. His accounts of salt production and revenues from the salt monopoly are also accurate, and accord with Chinese documents of the Yuan era. Economic historian Mark Elvin , in his preface to Vogel's 2013 monograph, concludes that Vogel "demonstrates by specific example after specific example the ultimately overwhelming probability of the broad authenticity" of Polo's account. Many problems were caused by the oral transmission of the original text and the proliferation of significantly different hand-copied manuscripts. For instance, did Polo exert "political authority" (_seignora_) in Yangzhou
Yangzhou
or merely "sojourn" (_sejourna_) there. Elvin concludes that "those who doubted, although mistaken, were not always being casual or foolish," but "the case as a whole had now been closed": the book is, "in essence, authentic, and, when used with care, in broad terms to be trusted as a serious though obviously not always final, witness."

LEGACY

FURTHER EXPLORATION

_ Handwritten notes by Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
on a Latin
Latin
edition of Polo's book. The Fra Mauro map , published c._ 1450 by the Venetian monk Fra Mauro
Fra Mauro
. See also: Age of Discovery , Europeans in Medieval China
China
, Chronology of European exploration of Asia , Jorge Alvares , and Rafael Perestrello

Other lesser-known European explorers had already travelled to China, such as Giovanni da Pian del Carpine , but Polo's book meant that his journey was the first to be widely known. Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
was inspired enough by Polo's description of the Far East to want to visit those lands for himself; a copy of the book was among his belongings, with handwritten annotations. Bento de Góis , inspired by Polo's writings of a Christian kingdom in the east, travelled 4,000 miles (6,400 km) in three years across Central Asia. He never found the kingdom but ended his travels at the Great Wall of China
China
in 1605, proving that Cathay
Cathay
was what Matteo Ricci (1552–1610) called "China".

CARTOGRAPHY

Marco Polo's travels may have had some influence on the development of European cartography, ultimately leading to the European voyages of exploration a century later. The 1453 Fra Mauro map was said by Giovanni Battista Ramusio (disputed by historian/cartographer Piero Falchetta, in whose work the quote appears) to have been partially based on the one brought from Cathay
Cathay
by Marco Polo:

That fine illuminated world map on parchment, which can still be seen in a large cabinet alongside the choir of their monastery (the Camaldolese monastery of San Michele di Murano) was by one of the brothers of the monastery, who took great delight in the study of cosmography, diligently drawn and copied from a most beautiful and very old nautical map and a world map that had been brought from Cathay
Cathay
by the most honourable Messer Marco Polo
Marco Polo
and his father. —  Giovanni Battista Ramusio

Though Marco Polo
Marco Polo
never produced a map that illustrated his journey, his family drew several maps to the Far East based on the wayward's accounts. These collection of maps were signed by Polo's three daughters: Fantina, Bellela and Moreta. Not only did it contain maps of his journey, but also sea routes to Japan
Japan
, Siberia's Kamchatka Peninsula , the Bering Strait and even to the coastlines of Alaska
Alaska
, centuries before the rediscovery of the Americas by Europeans.

COMMEMORATION

Italian banknote, issued in 1982, portraying Marco Polo.

The MARCO POLO SHEEP , a subspecies of _Ovis ammon _, is named after the explorer, who described it during his crossing of Pamir (ancient Mount Imeon ) in 1271.

In 1851, a three-masted Clipper
Clipper
built in Saint John, New Brunswick also took his name; THE _MARCO POLO_ was the first ship to sail around the world in under six months.

The airport in Venice
Venice
is named VENICE MARCO POLO AIRPORT .

The frequent flyer programme of Hong Kong flag carrier Cathay
Cathay
Pacific is known as the "MARCO POLO CLUB".

Arts, Entertainment, And Media

Film

* _ The Adventures of Marco Polo _ (1938) * _ Marco Polo (1961 film) _

Games

* The game " Marco Polo
Marco Polo
" is a form of tag played in a swimming pool or on land, with slightly modified rules. * Polo appears as a Great Explorer in the strategy video game _ Civilization Revolution _ (2008).

Literature

The travels of Marco Polo
Marco Polo
are fictionalised in a number works, such as:

* Brian Oswald Donn-Byrne 's _Messer Marco Polo_ (1921) * Italo Calvino 's novel _ Invisible Cities _ (1972), in which Polo appears as a pivotal character. * Gary Jennings ' novel _ The Journeyer _ (1984) * James Rollins ' SIGMA Force Book 4: _The Judas Strain_ (2007), in which facts about Polo's travels and conjecture about secrets he kept are interleaved with modern-day action.

Television

* The television miniseries, _ Marco Polo
Marco Polo
_ (1982), featuring Ken Marshall and Ruocheng Ying , and directed by Giuliano Montaldo , depicts Polo's travels. It won two Emmy Awards , and was nominated for six more. * The television film, _ Marco Polo
Marco Polo
_ (2007), starring Brian Dennehy as Kublai Khan, and Ian Somerhalder as Marco, portrays Marco Polo being left alone in China
China
while his uncle and father return to Venice, to be reunited with him many years later. * _ In the Footsteps of Marco Polo _ (2009) is a PBS documentary about two friends ( Denis Belliveau and Francis O'Donnell) who conceived of the ultimate road trip to retrace Marco Polo's journey from Venice
Venice
to China
China
via land and sea. * _ Marco Polo
Marco Polo
_ is a television drama series about Marco Polo's early years in the court of Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
which premiered on Netflix in December 2014.

SEE ALSO

* Venice
Venice
portal

* Chinese expeditions to the Sinhala Kingdom * Chronology of European exploration of Asia * Rabban Bar Sauma , Uyghur Nestorian Christian monk from Zhongdu ( Khanbaliq , modern Beijing) who led a Mongol diplomatic mission to medieval European monarchs and the pope, visiting Greece, Italy, and France * Silk Road , which Marco Polo
Marco Polo
travelled * Katarina Vilioni (d. 1342), an Italian woman whose tombstone was found in Yangzhou
Yangzhou
, China

NOTES

* ^ Many sources state "around 1254"; Britannica 2002 , p. 571 states, "born in or around 1254". Some historians mentioned that he was born on September 15, 1254, but that date is not supported by primary sources, nor is it endorsed by mainstream scholarship. * ^ Drogön Chögyal Phagpa
Drogön Chögyal Phagpa
, a Tibetan monk and confidant of Kublai Khan, mentions in his diaries that in 1271 a foreign friend of Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
visits—quite possibly one of the elder Polos or even Marco Polo
Marco Polo
himself, although, no name was given. If this is not the case, a more likely date for their arrival is 1275 (or 1274, according to the research of Japanese scholar Matsuo Otagi).(Britannica 2002 , p. 571) * ^ Yule and their tails are so large and fat, that one tail shall weigh some 30 lb. They are fine fat beasts, and afford capital mutton."

REFERENCES

* ^ Bergreen 2007 , p. 340–342. * ^ " Marco Polo
Marco Polo
- Exploration - HISTORY.com". Retrieved January 9, 2017. * ^ " Marco Polo
Marco Polo
- New World Encyclopedia". Retrieved January 9, 2017. * ^ "BBC - History - Historic Figures: Marco Polo
Marco Polo
(c.1254 - 1324)". Retrieved January 9, 2017. * ^ William Tait , Christian Isobel Johnstone (1843), _Tait\'s Edinburgh magazine , Volume 10_, Edinburgh * ^ Hinds, Kathryn (2002), _ Venice
Venice
and Its Merchant
Merchant
Empire_, New York * ^ _A_ _B_ Landström 1967 , p. 27 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Italiani nel sistema solare di Michele T. Mazzucato * ^ _A_ _B_ Puljiz-Šostik 2015 , p. 5. * ^ Puljiz-Šostik 2015 , p. 5–6: have not yet been determined where (nor exactly when) the Traveler was born. His birth was not recorded in the Venetian registers of births (and not only that: the first document that connects Venice
Venice
and his family is the same testament of his uncle Marco made yr. 1280), and Korčula's registers of births began to take a lot after his birth (only from 1583 yr.). Yet the Italian historiography considers that he was born in Venice and calls for the alleged Marco's paternal grandfather - Andrea Polo of San Felice (whose, as we said, first mention is by G. B. Ramusio), while our historical science claims the place of his birth island Korčula. Italian historians often, due to lack of archives of the birth of Marco Polo
Marco Polo
in Venice, stress that certainly was born in the Venetian Republic since Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was then in its composition. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Peklić, Ivan (2011). "Marko Polo - Svjetski Putnik" . _Metodički ogledi_ (in Croatian). Križevci: Ivan Zakmardi Dijankovečki Gymnasium. 17 (1-2): 50. Birthplace of Marco Polo is archivally undetermined, but it is assumed that his ancestors came from Dalmatia. There are many scientific discussions on the subject in which as the birthplace mention Korčula, Venice
Venice
or Constantinople... * ^ _Marco Polo: The Connection with Greek Spirit, Gregory Zorzos - 2009_. * ^ _Marco Polo, Jim Ollhoff, 2014_. * ^ Bergreen 2007 , p. 25 (online copy pp. 24–25) * ^ Puljiz-Šostik 2015 , p. 14. * ^ Bergreen 2007 , p. 24. * ^ _ Marco Polo
Marco Polo
and the Silk Road to China_ by Michael Burgan, Compass Point Books, ISBN 0756501806 , p. 7 * ^ Timothy Brook, _The Troubled Empire: China
China
in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties_, 2010, ISBN 9780674046023 , p. 24 * ^ Puljiz-Šostik 2015 , p. 5–16. * ^ Bettinelli, Giuseppe (1780). _Dizionario Storico-Portatile Di Tutte Le Venete Patrizie Famiglie_ (in Italian). Venice. p. 126. _Vennero dalla Dalmazia_ * ^ Puljiz-Šostik 2015 , p. 8. * ^ Olga Orlić (Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb, Croatia), _The curious case of Marco Polo
Marco Polo
from Korčula: An example of invented tradition_, Journal of Marine and Island Cultures, Volume 2, Issue 1, June 2013, Pages 20–28 * ^ _A_ _B_ Bergreen 2007 , p. 25. * ^ _A_ _B_ Cite error: The named reference Rugoff was invoked but never defined (see the help page ). * ^ Noule&Pelliot 1938 , pp. 15–16. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Cite error: The named reference Poljica was invoked but never defined (see the help page ). * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Britannica 2002 , p. 571 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ Parker 2004 , pp. 648–649 * ^ Yule Latham, Ronald (translator) (1958). _The Travels of Marco Polo_, p. 16. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-044057-7 . * ^ Puljiz-Šostik 2015 , p. 8, 12, 28–36. * ^ Bram 1983 * ^ _A_ _B_ Bergreen 2007 , p. 332. * ^ _A_ _B_ Bergreen 2007 , p. 333. * ^ Bergreen 2007 , p. 332–333. * ^ Bergreen 2007 , p. 333, 338. * ^ Power 2007 , p. 87 * ^ Bergreen 2007 , p. 339. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Bergreen 2007 , p. 340. * ^ Britannica 2002 , p. 573 * ^ _A_ _B_ Bergreen 2007 , p. 341. * ^ Bergreen 2007 , p. 340–341. * ^ _A_ _B_ Biblioteca Marciana, the institute that holds Polo's original copy of his testament. Venezia.sbn.it * ^ Bergreen 2007 , p. 342. * ^ Bergreen 2007 , pp. 367–368 * ^ Edwards , p. 1 * ^ _The Travels of Marco Polo._ (Harmondsworth, Middlesex; New York: Penguin Books, Penguin Classics, 1958; rpr. 1982 etc.) ISBN 0140440577 . * ^ ^ Marco Polo, Il Milione, Adelphi 2001, ISBN 88-459-1032-6 , Prefazione di Bertolucci Pizzorusso Valeria, pp. X–XXI. * ^ ^ Larner John, Marco Polo
Marco Polo
and the discovery of the world, Yale University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-300-07971-0 pp. 68–87. * ^ Yule & Cordier 1923 , ch. 2 * ^ Yule & Cordier 1923 , ch. 3 * ^ Yule & Cordier 1923 , ch. 5 * ^ Yule & Cordier 1923 , ch. 6 * ^ Yule & Cordier 1923 , ch. 7 * ^ Yule ">(PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on February 19, 2009, retrieved February 21, 2013 * ^ Yule & Cordier 1923 , p. 281, vol. 3 ch. 8 * ^ Yule & Cordier 1923 , p. 286, vol. 3 ch. 9 * ^ Yule & Cordier 1923 , p. 373, vol. 3 ch. 21 * ^ Boyle, J. A. (1971). Marco Polo
Marco Polo
and his Description of the World. _History Today_. Vol. 21, No. 11. Historyoftoday.com * ^ _A_ _B_ Latham, Ronald "Introduction" pages 7–20 from _The Travels of Marco Polo_, London: Folio Society, 1958 page 11. * ^ Latham, Ronald "Introduction" pages 7–20 from _The Travels of Marco Polo_, London: Folio Society, 1958 pages 11–12. * ^ _A_ _B_ Latham, Ronald "Introduction" pages 7–20 from _The Travels of Marco Polo,_ London: Folio Society, 1958 page 12. * ^ _A_ _B_ Na Chang. " Marco Polo
Marco Polo
Was in China: New Evidence from Currencies, Salts and Revenues". _Reviews in History_. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Haw, Stephen G. _Marco Polo\'s China: A Venetian in the Realm of Khubilai Khan_. Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 9781134275427 . * ^ Haw, Stephen G. _Marco Polo\'s China: A Venetian in the Realm of Khubilai Khan_. Routledge. pp. 83–123. ISBN 9781134275427 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Haeger, John W. (1978). " Marco Polo
Marco Polo
in China? Problems with Internal Evidence". _Bulletin of Sung and Yüan Studies_. 14: 22–30. JSTOR 23497510 . * ^ Haw, Stephen G. _Marco Polo\'s China: A Venetian in the Realm of Khubilai Khan_. Routledge. pp. 66–67. ISBN 9781134275427 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Hans Ulrich Vogel (21 November 2012). _ Marco Polo
Marco Polo
Was in China: New Evidence from Currencies, Salts and Revenues_. BRILL. ISBN 978-9004231931 . * ^ Emmerick, R. E. (2003) "Iranian Settlement East of the Pamirs", in Ehsan Yarshater, _The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol III: The Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian Periods_, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp 275. * ^ _A_ _B_ Francis Woodman Cleaves (1976). "A Chinese Source Bearing on Marco Polo's Departure from China
China
and a Persian Source on his Arrival in Persia". _Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies_. 36: 181–203. JSTOR 2718743 . * ^ Frances Wood, _ Did Marco Polo Go to China? _ (London: Secker Boulder, Colorado: Westview, 1995). * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Franke, Herbert (1966). "Sino-Western Contacts Under the Mongol Empire". _Journal of the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society_. 6: 49–72. JSTOR 23881433 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Morgan, D.O " Marco Polo
Marco Polo
in China-Or Not" 221-225 from _The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society_, Volume 6, Issue # 2 July 1996 page 222. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Haw, Stephen G. (2006), _Marco Polo\'s China: a Venetian in the realm of Khubilai Khan_, Volume 3 of Routledge studies in the early history of Asia, Psychology Press, pp. 52–57, ISBN 0-415-34850-1 * ^ Ebrey, Patricia. _Women and the Family in Chinese History_. Routledge. p. 196. ISBN 9781134442935 . * ^ Haw, Stephen G. _Marco Polo\'s China: A Venetian in the Realm of Khubilai Khan_. Routledge. pp. 55–56. ISBN 9781134275427 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Igor de Rachewiltz. "F. Wood\'s Did Marco Polo
Marco Polo
Go To China? A Critical Appraisal by I. de Rachewiltz". * ^ Haw, Stephen G. _Marco Polo\'s China: A Venetian in the Realm of Khubilai Khan_. Routledge. pp. 65–66. ISBN 9781134275427 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Morgan, D.O " Marco Polo
Marco Polo
in China-Or Not" 221-225 from _The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society_, Volume 6, Issue # 2 July 1996 page 223. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Stephen G. Haw (2006), _Marco Polo's China: a Venetian in the Realm of Kublai Khan_, London & New York: Routledge, p. 173, ISBN 0-415-34850-1 . * ^ Stephen G. Haw (2006), _Marco Polo's China: a Venetian in the Realm of Kublai Khan_, London & New York: Routledge, pp 3-4, ISBN 0-415-34850-1 . * ^ Stephen G. Haw (2006), _Marco Polo's China: a Venetian in the Realm of Kublai Khan_, London & New York: Routledge, p 73, ISBN 0-415-34850-1 . * ^ "Explorer Marco Polo
Marco Polo
\'never actually went to China". _The Daily Telegraph _. 9 August 2011. * ^ Morgan, D.O (July 1996). " Marco Polo
Marco Polo
in China-Or Not" 221-225". _The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society_. 6 (2): 224. JSTOR 25183182 . * ^ Morgan, D.O " Marco Polo
Marco Polo
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Marco Polo
was not a swindler – he really did go to China". _ University of Tübingen _. Alpha Galileo. 16 April 2012. * ^ " Marco Polo
Marco Polo
Did Go to China, New Research Shows (and the History of Paper)". _The New Observer_. July 31, 2013. * ^ " Marco Polo
Marco Polo
was not a swindler: He really did go to China". _Science Daily_. * ^ Hans Ulrich Vogel (21 November 2012). _ Marco Polo
Marco Polo
Was in China: New Evidence from Currencies, Salts and Revenues_. BRILL. p. xix. ISBN 978-9004231931 . * ^ Winchester 2008 , p. 264 * ^ _A_ _B_ Falchetta 2006 , p. 592 * ^ Klein, Christopher (September 30, 2014). "Did Marco Polo
Marco Polo
Visit Alaska?". _History_. * ^ Bergreen 2007 , p. 74 * ^ Lubbock 2008 , p. 86 * ^ Brennan, D. (February 1, 2009), _Lost in Venice_, WalesOnline, archived from the original on August 30, 2009, retrieved July 15, 2009

* ^ Cathay
Cathay
Pacific Airways (2009), _The Marco Polo
Marco Polo
Club_, Cathay Pacific Airways Limited , retrieved July 13, 2009 * ^ Bittarello, Maria Beatrice (2009). "Marco Polo". In Rodney P. Carlisle. _Encyclopedia of Play in Today\'s Society_. SAGE. ISBN 1-4129-6670-1 . * ^ Jeffrey, Phillip; Mike Blackstock; Matthias Finke; Anthony Tang; Rodger Lea; Meghan Deutscher; Kento Miyaoku. "Chasing the Fugitive on Campus: Designing a Location-based Game for Collaborative Play". _Proceedings of CGSA 2006 Symposium_. Canadian Games Study Association. * ^ "Civilization Revolution: Great People". _CivFanatics_. Archived from the original on March 17, 2011. Retrieved September 4, 2009. * ^ Donn-Byrne, Brian Oswald (1921). _Messer Marco Polo_. * ^ _Academy of Television Arts & Sciences_, archived from the original on March 30, 2008, retrieved July 6, 2009 (Searching for "Marco Polo", and year 1982) * ^ "Marco Polo". _ IMDb TV miniseries_. 1982. * ^ "Marco Polo". _ IMDb TV miniseries_. 2007. * ^ "In the footsteps of Marco Polo
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(PBS)". _WLIW.org_. 2009.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Marco Polo, _Marci Poli Veneti de Regionibus Orientalibus_, Simon Grynaeus Johannes Huttichius, _Novus Orbis Regionum ac Insularum Veteribus Incognitarum,_ Basel, 1532, pp.350–418. * _ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Marco Polo". Catholic Encyclopedia _. New York: Robert Appleton Company. * "Marco Polo", _ Nordisk familjebok _ (in Swedish) (Uggleupplagan ed.), 1915 * Yule, Henry ; Cordier, Henri (1923), _The Travels Of Marco Polo_, Mineola: Dover Publications, ISBN 978-0-486-27586-4 * Moule, Arthur Christopher; Pelliot, Paul (1938). _Marco Polo: The Description of the World_. 1. London: George Routledge & Sons Limited . * Landström, Björn (1967), _Columbus: the story of Don Cristóbal Colón, Admiral of the Ocean_, New York City: Macmillan * Bram, Leon L.; Robert S., Phillips; Dickey, Norma H. (1983), _Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia_, New York: Funk & Wagnalls , ISBN 978-0-8343-0051-4 (Article republished in 2006 World Almanac Books, available online from History.com) * Nicol, Donald M. (1992), _Byzantium and Venice: a study in diplomatic and cultural relations_, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-42894-7 * Wood, Frances (1998), _Did Marco Polo
Marco Polo
Go To China?_, Westview Press, ISBN 0-8133-8999-2 * Burgan, Michael (2002), _Marco Polo: Marco Polo
Marco Polo
and the silk road to China_, Mankato: Compass Point Books, ISBN 978-0-7565-0180-8 * "Marco Polo", _The New Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Macropedia_, 9 (15 ed.), Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc , 2002, ISBN 978-0-85229-787-2 * Parker, John (2004), "Marco Polo", _The World Book Encyclopedia _, 15 (illustrated ed.), United States: World Book, Inc., ISBN 978-0-7166-0104-3 * Olivier Weber , _Le grand festin de l'Orient_; Robert Laffont, 2004 * Edwards, Mike (2005), _Marco Polo, Part 1_, Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society
National Geographic Society
* Falchetta, Piero (2006), _Fra Mauro's World Map_, Turnhout : Brepols , ISBN 2-503-51726-9 * McKay, John; Hill, Bennet; Buckler, John (2006), _A History of Western Society_ (Eighth ed.), Houghton Mifflin Company , p. 506, ISBN 0-618-52266-2 * Bergreen, Laurence (2007), _Marco Polo: From Venice
Venice
to Xanadu_, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, ISBN 9780307267696 * Power, Eileen Edna (2007), _Medieval People_, BiblioBazaar, ISBN 978-1-4264-6777-6 * Winchester, Simon (May 6, 2008), _The Man Who Loved China: Joseph Needham and the Making of a Masterpiece_, New York: HarperCollins
HarperCollins
, ISBN 978-0-06-088459-8 * Basil, Lubbock (2008), _The Colonial Clippers_, Read Books, ISBN 978-1-4437-7119-1 * Brook, Timothy (2010), _The Troubled Empire: China
China
in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties_, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-04602-1 * Marco Polo. (2010). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2010-08-28, from Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/468139/Marco-Polo * Puljiz-Šostik, Željana (2015), _ Marco Polo
Marco Polo
i njegov Le Divisiment dou monde (Opis svijeta): fikcija i fakcija u književnoj historiografiji_ (in Croatian), Zagreb: Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb

FURTHER READING

* Marco Polo
Marco Polo
(1918). Marsden, William, ed. _The Travels of Marco Polo_. London: J.M. Dent & Sons. p. 461. * Hart, H. Henry (1948). _Marco Polo, Venetian Adventurer_. Kessinger Publishing. * Dalrymple, William (1989). _In Xanadu_. * Daftary, Farhad (1994). _The Assassin legends: myths of the Ismaʻilis_ (2 ed.). I.B. Tauris . p. 213. ISBN 978-1-85043-705-5 . * Otfinoski, Steven (2003). _Marco Polo: to China
China
and back_. New York: Benchmark Books. ISBN 0-7614-1480-0 . * Polo, Marco & Rustichello of Pisa (January 1, 2004). _The Travels of Marco Polo
Marco Polo
– Volume 1_. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved April 2, 2011. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * Polo, Marco & Rustichello of Pisa (May 1, 2004). _The Travels of Marco Polo
Marco Polo
– Volume 2_. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved April 2, 2011. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * Olivier Weber , _Sur les routes de la soie_ (On the Silk Roads) (with Reza , Hoëbeke,2007 * Yang, Dori Jones (January 11, 2011). _Daughter of Xanadu_. Delacorte Press Books for Young Readers. ISBN 978-0-385-73923-8 . (Young Adult novel)

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