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The March of Verona
Verona
and Aquileia
Aquileia
was a vast march (frontier district) of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in northeastern Italy during the Middle Ages, centered on the cities of Verona
Verona
and Aquileia. Seized by King Otto I of Germany in 952, it was held by the Dukes of Bavaria; from 976 in personal union with the Duchy of Carinthia. The margravial regime ended with the advent of the Lombard League
Lombard League
in 1167.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History 3 Margraves

3.1 Dukes of Bavaria 3.2 Dukes of Carinthia 3.3 Margraves of Baden

4 Notes 5 Sources

Geography[edit] The march roughly comprised the historic Friuli
Friuli
and Veneto
Veneto
regions from the border with Lombardy
Lombardy
and the Chiese
Chiese
River in the west to the Tagliamento
Tagliamento
and the Isonzo (Soča) in the east, the upper Soča
Soča
valley within the Julian Alps
Julian Alps
is today part of the Slovenian Goriška
Goriška
region. Initially it also included present-day Trentino
Trentino
uphill to the Adige river in the northwest. Except for the lagoons controlled by Venice, it stretched from the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
to the crest of the Dolomites
Dolomites
and the Carnic Alps
Carnic Alps
in the north, where the mountainous Carnia
Carnia
region borders with Carinthia. The western lands around Verona
Verona
comprised the Po Valley, the Euganean and Berici Hills, the Venetian Prealps
Venetian Prealps
and Lake Garda. Beside the capital Verona
Verona
near the southwestern border with Tuscany, the march included the episcopal seat of Aquileia, the historic Friulian capital Udine
Udine
with nearby Cividale and the port of Grado in the east, as well as the major cities of Vicenza, Treviso, and Padua, which played a vital role in forming the Lombard League. The March of Verona
Verona
was a strategically important province, which governed the southern approaches to the Alpine passes leading to Germany, and significant in the—ultimatively failed—attempts of the Holy Roman Emperors to maintain the rule over Italy. History[edit] The Marca Veronensis et Aquileiensis was created by King Berengar I of Italy about 890 as part of a general restructuring of his realm, when it replaced the former Carolingian March of Friuli
Friuli
last held by Berengar's liensman Walfred. It was separated from the Italian kingdom after the German king Otto I had campaigned against King Berengar II of Italy in 951. At the Reichstag meeting at Augsburg
Augsburg
in the next year, Berengar II retained Italy, but had to renounce the Veronese march, which was attached to the stem duchy of Bavaria under Otto's brother Duke Henry I. At that time the March of Istria
March of Istria
was attached to Verona
Verona
as a county. From 952 to 975, both Carinthia and Verona
Verona
were under the control of the dukes of Bavaria, forming a massive Italian, German, and Slavic fief ruled by relatives of the Saxon Ottonian dynasty.[1] After several revolts led by his Bavarian cousins, Emperor Otto II in 976 deposed Duke Henry II of Bavaria and established the Duchy of Carinthia under the loyal Luitpolding liensman Henry the Younger on the southeastern territories. He also received Verona
Verona
as a Carinthian march and from that time on, it was under the control of the Carinthian dukes and at other times not. Already in 975, a commune had been chartered in the capital city, when Otto II ceded to Verona
Verona
the powers of the marquisate. From this time Verona
Verona
and several other cities in the march gradually developed into independent city-states, and in turn the title Margrave
Margrave
of Verona
Verona
became an essentially empty hereditary honour in the ducal houses of Bavaria and Carinthia. Henceforth the Holy Roman Emperors began to appoint vicars to represent them, instead of margraves, in Verona. From 1004 King Henry II of Germany, having prevailed as King of Italy against Arduin of Ivrea, allotted several Veronese territories in the Adige
Adige
Valley around Trento
Trento
(Trient) to the Bishops of Trent. His Salian successor Emperor Conrad II upon his coronation in 1027 separated these lands from the Italian kingdom and gave the Trent bishops immediate authority, elevating them to the rank of Imperial Prince-Bishops. Trentino
Trentino
remained under episcopal rule—contested by the Counts of Tyrol—until its secularisation in 1803. In 1061 Dowager Empress Agnes of Poitou, widow of Emperor Henry III, enfeoffed the Swabian count Berthold from the House of Zähringen
House of Zähringen
with Carinthia and Verona. Though he could not prevail, neither as Carinthian duke nor as Veronese margrave, he bequested the title to his descendants from the House of Baden, who went on to rule their Swabian territories as a "Margraviate". At that time in 1070, Istria was resurrected into a march again and detached from Verona, while in the course of the Investiture Controversy
Investiture Controversy
in 1077 the territories of Friuli
Friuli
in the east, around the episcopal city of Aquileia
Aquileia
were separated from the March to provide an ecclesiastical Patriarchate of Aquileia, like Trent an immediate vassal of King Henry IV of Germany. In 1151 the Hohenstaufen king Conrad III of Germany
Conrad III of Germany
finally divested Duke Henry V of Carinthia of the remaining Veronese march and enfeoffed Margrave
Margrave
Herman III of Baden. However, in 1164, the most important cities formed the Veronese League, a Städtebund association aimed at protecting their independence against the Italian policies of Conrad's nephew Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. The League was led by Venice; other members were Verona, Padua, Vicenza, and Treviso. In 1167, the Veronese cities joined the Lombard League; this constituted the de facto end of the march, confirmed by the Lombard victory at the 1176 Battle of Legnano. The Emperors continued to name vicars, though by then the office was purely nominal, as from the 13th century onwards the actual Lords of Verona
Verona
were the podestàs from the Scaliger
Scaliger
(della Scala) dynasty. In 1405 the Veronese citizens submitted to Venice, which until about 1420 conquered most of the territory of the former march and incorporated it into the Domini di Terraferma. Margraves[edit] Dukes of Bavaria[edit]

951 – 955 Henry I, also margrave of Friuli
Friuli
and Istria

953 – 955 Milo, count from 930 or 931, ruled as margrave under Henry

955 – 975 Henry II the Wrangler, son, deposed

Dukes of Carinthia[edit]

976 – 978 Henry III the Younger, deposed 978 – 985 Otto I 985 – 989 Henry III the Younger, again 989 – 995 Henry II the Wrangler, again 995 – 1004 Otto I, again 1004 – 1011 Conrad I 1011 – 1035 Adalbero of Eppenstein 1035 – 1039 Conrad II, son of Conrad I

1039 – 1047 vacant, directly ruled by King Henry III

1047 – 1055 Welf 1056 – 1061 Conrad III 1061 – 1077 Berthold I 1077 – 1090 Liutold of Eppenstein 1090 – 1122 Henry IV 1122 – 1123 Henry V 1123 – 1135 Engelbert 1135 – 1144 Ulrich I 1144 – 1151 Henry VI

Margraves of Baden[edit]

1151 – 1160 Herman III, son 1160 – 1190 Herman IV, son 1190 – 1243 Herman V, son

1223 – 1233 Ezzelino

1243 – 1250 Herman VI, son of Herman V 1250 – 1268 Frederick I, son, beheaded

Notes[edit]

^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Tirol Archived 2007-02-19 at the Wayback Machine., gives dates of 951 and 962.

Sources[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

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