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The MARCH OF VERONA AND AQUILEIA was a vast march (frontier district) of the Holy Roman Empire in northeastern Italy during the Middle Ages , centered on the cities of Verona
Verona
and Aquileia
Aquileia
. Seized by King Otto I of Germany in 952, it was held by the Dukes of Bavaria ; from 976 in personal union with the Duchy of Carinthia
Duchy of Carinthia
. The margravial regime ended with the advent of the Lombard League in 1167.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography * 2 History

* 3 Margraves

* 3.1 Dukes of Bavaria * 3.2 Dukes of Carinthia * 3.3 Margraves of Baden
Baden

* 4 Notes * 5 Sources

GEOGRAPHY

The march roughly comprised the historic Friuli
Friuli
and Veneto
Veneto
regions from the border with Lombardy and the Chiese River in the west to the Tagliamento and the Isonzo (Soča) in the east, the upper Soča
Soča
valley within the Julian Alps is today part of the Slovenian Goriška
Goriška
region. Initially it also included present-day Trentino
Trentino
uphill to the Adige river in the northwest. Except for the lagoons controlled by Venice , it stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the crest of the Dolomites
Dolomites
and the Carnic Alps in the north, where the mountainous Carnia region borders with Carinthia. The western lands around Verona
Verona
comprised the Po Valley , the Euganean and Berici Hills , the Venetian Prealps
Venetian Prealps
and Lake Garda
Lake Garda
.

Beside the capital Verona
Verona
near the southwestern border with Tuscany , the march included the episcopal seat of Aquileia, the historic Friulian capital Udine
Udine
with nearby Cividale and the port of Grado in the east, as well as the major cities of Vicenza
Vicenza
, Treviso , and Padua , which played a vital role in forming the Lombard League. The March of Verona
Verona
was a strategically important province, which governed the southern approaches to the Alpine passes leading to Germany , and significant in the—ultimatively failed—attempts of the Holy Roman Emperors to maintain the rule over Italy.

HISTORY

The Marca Veronensis et Aquileiensis was created by King Berengar I of Italy about 890 as part of a general restructuring of his realm, when it replaced the former Carolingian March of Friuli
Friuli
last held by Berengar's liensman Walfred . It was separated from the Italian kingdom after the German king Otto I had campaigned against King Berengar II of Italy
Berengar II of Italy
in 951. At the Reichstag meeting at Augsburg
Augsburg
in the next year, Berengar II retained Italy, but had to renounce the Veronese march, which was attached to the stem duchy of Bavaria under Otto's brother Duke Henry I . At that time the March of Istria was attached to Verona
Verona
as a county. From 952 to 975, both Carinthia and Verona
Verona
were under the control of the dukes of Bavaria, forming a massive Italian, German, and Slavic fief ruled by relatives of the Saxon Ottonian dynasty .

After several revolts led by his Bavarian cousins, Emperor Otto II in 976 deposed Duke Henry II of Bavaria and established the Duchy of Carinthia under the loyal Luitpolding liensman Henry the Younger on the southeastern territories. He also received Verona
Verona
as a Carinthian march and from that time on, it was under the control of the Carinthian dukes and at other times not. Already in 975, a commune had been chartered in the capital city, when Otto II ceded to Verona
Verona
the powers of the marquisate. From this time Verona
Verona
and several other cities in the march gradually developed into independent city-states , and in turn the title MARGRAVE OF VERONA became an essentially empty hereditary honour in the ducal houses of Bavaria and Carinthia. Henceforth the Holy Roman Emperors began to appoint vicars to represent them, instead of margraves , in Verona.

From 1004 King Henry II of Germany , having prevailed as King of Italy against Arduin of Ivrea
Arduin of Ivrea
, allotted several Veronese territories in the Adige Valley around Trento
Trento
(Trient) to the Bishops of Trent . His Salian successor Emperor Conrad II upon his coronation in 1027 separated these lands from the Italian kingdom and gave the Trent bishops immediate authority, elevating them to the rank of Imperial Prince-Bishops . Trentino
Trentino
remained under episcopal rule—contested by the Counts of Tyrol —until its secularisation in 1803.

In 1061 Dowager Empress Agnes of Poitou
Agnes of Poitou
, widow of Emperor Henry III , enfeoffed the Swabian count Berthold from the House of Zähringen with Carinthia and Verona. Though he could not prevail, neither as Carinthian duke nor as Veronese margrave, he bequested the title to his descendants from the House of Baden
Baden
, who went on to rule their Swabian territories as a "Margraviate ". At that time in 1070, Istria was resurrected into a march again and detached from Verona, while in the course of the Investiture Controversy in 1077 the territories of Friuli
Friuli
in the east, around the episcopal city of Aquileia
Aquileia
were separated from the March to provide an ecclesiastical Patriarchate of Aquileia
Aquileia
, like Trent an immediate vassal of King Henry IV of Germany .

In 1151 the Hohenstaufen king Conrad III of Germany finally divested Duke Henry V of Carinthia of the remaining Veronese march and enfeoffed Margrave Herman III of Baden
Baden
. However, in 1164, the most important cities formed the Veronese League, a Städtebund association aimed at protecting their independence against the Italian policies of Conrad's nephew Emperor Frederick Barbarossa . The League was led by Venice; other members were Verona, Padua, Vicenza, and Treviso. In 1167, the Veronese cities joined the Lombard League ; this constituted the de facto end of the march, confirmed by the Lombard victory at the 1176 Battle of Legnano
Battle of Legnano
. The Emperors continued to name vicars, though by then the office was purely nominal, as from the 13th century onwards the actual Lords of Verona
Verona
were the podestàs from the Scaliger (della Scala) dynasty. In 1405 the Veronese citizens submitted to Venice, which until about 1420 conquered most of the territory of the former march and incorporated it into the Domini di Terraferma .

MARGRAVES

DUKES OF BAVARIA

* 951 – 955 Henry I , also margrave of Friuli
Friuli
and Istria

* 953 – 955 Milo , count from 930 or 931, ruled as margrave under Henry

* 955 – 975 Henry II the Wrangler , son, deposed

DUKES OF CARINTHIA

* 976 – 978 Henry III the Younger , deposed * 978 – 985 Otto I * 985 – 989 Henry III the Younger, again * 989 – 995 Henry II the Wrangler, again * 995 – 1004 Otto I, again * 1004 – 1011 Conrad I * 1011 – 1035 Adalbero of Eppenstein

* 1035 – 1039 Conrad II , son of Conrad I

* 1039 – 1047 vacant, directly ruled by King Henry III

* 1047 – 1055 Welf * 1056 – 1061 Conrad III * 1061 – 1077 Berthold I * 1077 – 1090 Liutold of Eppenstein * 1090 – 1122 Henry IV * 1122 – 1123 Henry V * 1123 – 1135 Engelbert * 1135 – 1144 Ulrich I * 1144 – 1151 Henry VI

MARGRAVES OF BADEN

* 1151 – 1160 Herman III , son * 1160 – 1190 Herman IV , son

* 1190 – 1243 Herman V , son

* 1223 – 1233 Ezzelino

* 1243 – 1250 Herman VI , son of Herman V * 1250 – 1268 Frederick I , son, beheaded

NOTES

* ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Tirol Archived 2007-02-19 at the Wayback Machine ., gives dates of 951 and 962.

SOURCES

* This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

* v * t * e

Former states of the Italian Peninsula, Savoy, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and Malta

Etruscan civilization

* Lega dei popoli

* Etruscan dodecapolis
Etruscan dodecapolis

Ancient Rome

* Roman Kingdom (753 BC–509 BC)

* Roman Republic (509 BC–27 BC)

* Roman Italy
Roman Italy
* Sicilia (241 BC–476 AD) * Corsica and Sardinia (238 BC–455 AD)

* Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(27 BC–395 AD)

* Praetorian prefecture of Italy
Praetorian prefecture of Italy
(337 AD–584 AD) * Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(285 AD–476 AD)

Medieval and Early Modern states

Early Italian Kingdom (476-774)

* Odoacer\'s rule (476–493) * Ostrogothic rule (493–553) * Vandal rule (435–534)

* Lombard rule (568–774)

* Duchy of Benevento * Duchy of Friuli
Friuli
* Duchy of Ivrea * Duchy of Spoleto * Duchy of Tridentum

Holy Roman Kingdom of Italy (774/962–1806), Papal States
Papal States
and other independent states

* March of Ancona * Duchy of Aosta * Patria del Friuli
Friuli
(Patriarchate of Aquileia) * Bishopric of Bressanone * Duchy of Castro
Duchy of Castro
* Commune of Rome * Marquisate of Ceva * Republic of Cospaia * Duchy of Ferrara * Marquisate of Finale
Marquisate of Finale
* City of Fiume and its District * Republic of Florence * Duchy of Florence * March of Friuli
Friuli
* Republic of Genoa * Republic of Noli * County of Gorizia * Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca * County of Guastalla * Duchy of Guastalla * Kingdom of Illyria * March of Istria * Duchy of Ivrea * Republic of Lucca * Margravate of Mantua * Duchy of Mantua
Duchy of Mantua
* Duchy of Massa and Carrara * Duchy of Merania * Duchy of Milan * Duchy of Mirandola * Duchy of Modena and Reggio
Duchy of Modena and Reggio
* March of Montferrat * Duchy of Montferrat * County of Nizza * Duchy of Parma * Principality of Piedmont
Principality of Piedmont
* Principality of Piombino * Republic of Pisa * Duchy of Reggio * Marquisate of Saluzzo
Marquisate of Saluzzo
* County of Savoy
County of Savoy
* Duchy of Savoy * Republic of Siena * Duchy of Spoleto * Terra Sancti Benedicti
Terra Sancti Benedicti
* Bishopric of Trento
Trento
* March of Turin * March of Tuscany * Grand Duchy of Tuscany * County of Tirolo * Duchy of Urbino * March of Verona * Imperial Free City of Trieste
Imperial Free City of Trieste

Byzantine Empire (584-751)

* Exarchate of Ravenna (584–751)

* Duchy of Rome (533–751) * Duchy of Perugia (554–752) * Duchy of the Pentapolis (554–752)

* Exarchate of Africa
Exarchate of Africa
(585–698)

Republic of Venice (697–1797)

* Dogado
Dogado
* Stato da Màr
Stato da Màr
* Domini di Terraferma

Southern Italy (774–1139)

BYZANTINE

* Duchy of Amalfi * Duchy of Gaeta * Catepanate of Italy * Longobardia * Theme of Lucania * Duchy of Naples * Sicily (theme) and Byzantine Sicily
Byzantine Sicily
* Duchy of Sorrento

ARAB

* Emirate of Bari
Emirate of Bari
* Emirate of Sicily

LOMBARD

* Principality of Benevento * Principality of Salerno * Principality of Capua
Principality of Capua

NORMAN

* County of Apulia and Calabria * County of Aversa * County of Sicily * Principality of Taranto

Sardinia and Corsica (9th century–1420)

* Giudicati

* Giudicato of Agugliastra * Giudicato of Arborea * Giudicato of Cagliari
Giudicato of Cagliari
* Giudicato of Gallura * Giudicato of Logudoro

* Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica * Corsican Republic (1755–1769)

Kingdom of Sicily (1130–1816) and Kingdom of Naples (1282–1816)

* State of the Presidi * Duke of San Donato
Duke of San Donato
* Duchy of Sora
Duchy of Sora
* Principality of Taranto * Neapolitan Republic (1647–1648) * Malta under the Order * Gozo * Malta Protectorate * Crown Colony of Malta

French Revolutionary and Napoleonic era (1792–1815)

REPUBLICS

* Alba * Ancona * Bergamo * Bologna * Brescia * Cisalpinia * Cispadania * Crema * Italy * Liguria * Lucca * Parthenopea * Piedmont * Rome * Subalpinia * Tiberinia * Transpadania

MONARCHIES

* Benevento * Etruria * Guastalla * Italy * Lucca and Piombino * Massa and Carrara * Naples * Pontecorvo * Tuscany * Elba * Corsica

Post-Napoleonic states

* Duchy of Genoa (1815–1848) * Duchy of Lucca
Duchy of Lucca
(1815–1847) * Duchy of Massa and Carrara (1814–1829) * Duchy of Modena and Reggio
Duchy of Modena and Reggio
(1814–1859) * Duchy of Parma (1814–1859) * Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1815–1859) * Italian United Provinces (1831) * Provisional Government of Milan (1848) * Republic of San Marco (1848–1849) * Roman Republic (1849) * United Provinces of Central Italy
United Provinces of Central Italy
(1859–1860) * Kingdom of Sardinia (1814–1860) * Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1816–1861) * Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
(1815–1866) * Papal States
Papal States
(1814–1870)

POST-UNIFICATION

* Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)

* Italian Empire (1869–1946)

* Free State of Fiume (1920–1924) * Italian Social Republic (1943–1945) * Free Territory of Trieste (1947-1954)

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Verona
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