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Marcel Pagnol
Marcel Pagnol
(French: [maʁsɛl paɲɔl]; 28 February 1895 – 18 April 1974) was a French novelist, playwright, and filmmaker. Regarded as an auteur,[1] in 1946, he became the first filmmaker elected to the Académie française. Although his work is less fashionable than it once was, Pagnol is still generally regarded as one of France's greatest 20th-century writers and is notable for the fact that he excelled in almost every medium—memoir, novel, drama and film.

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 School years

2 Career

2.1 Time in Paris 2.2 Filmmaking career 2.3 Themes of Pagnol's films 2.4 As a novelist

3 Death 4 Translations 5 Film adaptions 6 Awards 7 Filmography 8 Bibliography 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Sources 13 External links

Early life[edit] Marcel Pagnol
Marcel Pagnol
was born on 28 February 1895 in Aubagne, Bouches-du-Rhône
Bouches-du-Rhône
département, in southern France near Marseille, the eldest son of schoolteacher Joseph PagnolA and seamstress Augustine Lansot.B[2] Marcel Pagnol
Marcel Pagnol
grew up in Marseille
Marseille
with his younger brothers Paul and René, and younger sister Germaine. School years[edit] In July 1904, the family rented the Bastide Neuve,[2] – a house in the sleepy Provençal village of La Treille
La Treille
– for the summer holidays, the first of many spent in the hilly countryside between Aubagne
Aubagne
and Marseille.[3] About the same time, Augustine's health, which had never been robust, began to noticeably decline and on 16 June 1910 she succumbed to a chest infection ("mal de poitrine") and died, aged 36.[4] Joseph remarried in 1912.[2] In 1913, at the age of 18, Marcel passed his baccalaureate in philosophy[2] and started studying literature at the University in Aix-en-Provence. When World War I
World War I
broke out, he was called up into the infantry at Nice
Nice
but in January 1915 he was discharged because of his poor constitution ("faiblesse de constitution'').[2] On 2 March 1916, he married Simone Colin in Marseille
Marseille
and in November graduated in English.[2] He became an English teacher, teaching in various local colleges and at a lycée in Marseille.[2] Career[edit] Time in Paris[edit] In 1922, he moved to Paris, where he taught English until 1927,[2] when he decided instead to devote his life to playwriting. During this time, he belonged to a group of young writers, in collaboration with one of whom, Paul Nivoix, he wrote the play, Merchants of Glory, which was produced in 1924. This was followed, in 1928, by Topaze, a satire based on ambition.[2] Exiled in Paris, he returned nostalgically to his Provençal roots, taking this as his setting for his play Marius, which later became the first of his works to be adapted into a film in 1931. Separated from Simone Collin since 1926 (though not divorced until 1941), he formed a relationship with the young English dancer Kitty Murphy. Their son Jacques Pagnol was born on 24 September 1930.[2] (Jacques later became his father's assistant and subsequently a cameraman for France 3
France 3
Marseille.) Filmmaking career[edit] In 1926, on a visit to London, Pagnol attended a screening of one of the first talking films and he was so impressed that he decided to devote his efforts to cinema. He contacted Paramount Picture studios and suggested adapting his play Marius for cinema. This was directed by Alexander Korda
Alexander Korda
and released on 10 October 1931.[2] It became one of the first successful French-language talking films. In 1932 Pagnol founded his own film production studios in the countryside near Marseille.[2] Over the next decade Pagnol produced his own films, taking many different roles in the production – financier, director, script writer, studio head, and foreign-language script translator – and employing the greatest French actors of the period. On 4 April 1946, Pagnol was elected to the Académie française, taking his seat in March 1947, the first filmmaker to receive this honour.[2] Themes of Pagnol's films[edit] In his films, Pagnol transfers his playwriting talents onto the big screen. His editing style is somberly reserved, placing emphasis on the content of an image. As a pictorial naturalist, Pagnol relies on film as art to convey a deeper meaning rather than solely as a tool to tell a story. Pagnol also took great care in the type of actors he employed, hiring local actors to appear in his films to highlight their unique accents and culture. Like his plays, Pagnol's films emphasize dialogue and musicality. The themes of many of Pagnol's films revolve around the acute observation of social rituals. Using interchangeable symbols and recurring character roles, such as proud fathers and rebellious children, Pagnol illuminates the provincial life of the lower class. Notably, Pagnol also frequently compares women and land, showing both can be barren or fertile. Above all, Pagnol uses all this to illustrate the importance of human bonds and their renewal.[5] As a novelist[edit] In 1945, Pagnol remarried, to actress Jacqueline Pagnol.[2] They had two children together, Frédéric (born 1946) and Estelle (born 1949).[2] Estelle died at the age of two. Pagnol was so devastated that he fled the south and returned to live in Paris. He went back to writing plays, but after his next piece was badly received he decided to change his job once more and began writing a series of autobiographical novels – Souvenirs d'enfance – based on his childhood experiences. In 1957, the first two novels in the series, La Gloire de mon père and Le château de ma mère
Le château de ma mère
were published to instant acclaim.[2] The third Le Temps des secrets was published in 1959,[2] though the fourth Le Temps des Amours was to remain unfinished and was not published until 1977, after his death. In the meantime, Pagnol turned to a second series, L'Eau des Collines – Jean de Florette
Jean de Florette
and Manon des Sources – which focused on the machinations of Provençal peasant life at the beginning of the twentieth century and were published in 1962.[2] Pagnol adapted his own film Manon des Sources, with his wife Jacqueline in the title role, into two novels, Jean de Florette
Jean de Florette
and Manon des Sources, collectively titled L'Eau des Collines. Death[edit] Marcel Pagnol
Marcel Pagnol
died in Paris
Paris
on 18 April 1974.[2] He is buried in Marseille
Marseille
at the cemetery La Treille, along with his mother, father, brothers, and wife. His boyhood friend, David Magnan (Lili des Bellons in the autographies), died at the Second Battle of the Marne
Second Battle of the Marne
in July 1918, and is buried nearby. Translations[edit] Pagnol was also known for his translations of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
(from the English) and Virgil
Virgil
(from the Latin):

1944 : Le Songe d'une nuit d'été (A Midsummer Night's Dream) by William Shakespeare, first presented in 1947, at the Grand Théâtre de Monaco; Paris, Œuvres complètes, Club de l'Honnête Homme, 1971 1947 : Hamlet
Hamlet
by William Shakespeare, Paris, Nagel 1958 : Bucoliques (The Eclogues) by Virgil, Paris, Grasset

Pagnol's Hamlet
Hamlet
is still performed in France, although some have criticized his portrayal of Hamlet
Hamlet
as somewhat effeminate.[6] Film adaptions[edit] In 1986, Jean de Florette
Jean de Florette
and Manon des Sources were remade by filmmaker Claude Berri. In 1990, La Gloire de mon père
La Gloire de mon père
and Le château de ma mère, Pagnol's affectionate reminiscences of childhood, were filmed by Yves Robert. In 2000, Jacques Nahum produced Marius, Fanny, and César for French television. In 2011, La Fille du puisatier was filmed by Daniel Auteuil. In 2013, Marius and Fanny were remade by Daniel Auteuil. Awards[edit]

1939: Best foreign film for Harvest - New York Film Critics Circle Awards 1940: Best foreign film for The Baker's Wife - New York Film Critics Circle Awards 1950: Best foreign film for Jofroi - New York Film Critics Circle Awards

Filmography[edit]

Marius (1931)[7] Fanny (1932) Jofroi (1934) Angèle (1934) Merlusse (1935) Cigalon (1935) Topaze (1936), first version César (1936) Regain (1937) Le Schpountz (1938) La Femme du boulanger (1938) Monsieur Brotonneau
Monsieur Brotonneau
(1939) La Fille du puisatier (1940); remade in 2011 La Prière aux étoiles (1941, unfinished) Naïs
Naïs
(1945) La Belle Meunière (1948, in colour) The Ways of Love (1950) The Prize (1950) Topaze (1951, starring Fernandel), second version Manon des Sources (1952) (later novelized as L'eau des collines;[8] remade in 1986 in two parts as Jean de Florette
Jean de Florette
and Manon des Sources) Letters from My Windmill (Les Lettres de mon moulin) (1954)

Bibliography[edit]

Merchants of Glory (1925, theatre play) Jazz (1926, theatre play) Topaze (1928, theatre play) Marius (1929, theatre play) Fanny (1932, theatre play) César (1936, theatre play) La Gloire de mon père
La Gloire de mon père
and Le Château de ma mère
Le Château de ma mère
(1957, autobiographies) Le Temps des secrets (1959, autobiography) L'Eau des collines ( Jean de Florette
Jean de Florette
and Manon des Sources) (1964, novels) Le Temps des amours (1977, autobiography) Le Secret du masque de fer
Le Secret du masque de fer
(1965, essay)

See also[edit]

Lycée
Lycée
Français International Marcel Pagnol

Notes[edit]

^A Born 25 October 1869. Died 8 November 1951, age 82. ^B Born 11 September 1873. Died 16 June 1910, age 36.

References[edit]

^ Oscherwitz, Dayna; Higgins, Mary Ellen (2009). The A to Z of French Cinema. Scarecrow Press. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-8108-7038-3.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Castans (1987), pp. 363–368 ^ Castans (1987), p. 22. ^ Castans (1987), pp. 27, 32. ^ Williams, Alan (1992). Republic of Images. London, England: Harvard University Press. pp. 200–206. ISBN 0-674-76267-3.  ^ Maurois, André. Pagnol et Shakespeare, Opéra, 1948 ^ Marius and its sequels, Fanny and César, formed the basis for the libretto of Vladimir Cosma's 2007 opera Marius et Fanny. ^ Manon des Sources (1952 film) on IMDb

Sources[edit]

Castans, Raymond (1987). Marcel Pagnol. Éditions Jean-Claude Lattès. ISBN 978-2-7096-0622-6

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Marcel Pagnol.

(in French) (in English) Official website Marcel Pagnol
Marcel Pagnol
on IMDb Marcel Pagnol
Marcel Pagnol
at the Internet Broadway Database

v t e

Marcel Pagnol

Literature

Topaze Souvenirs d'enfance

My Father's Glory My Mother's Castle

Le Secret du Masque de fer The Water of the Hills

Films directed

Jofroi Angèle César Topaze Harvest The Baker's Wife Heartbeat The Well-Digger's Daughter La Belle Meunière Topaze Letters from My Windmill

v t e

Académie française
Académie française
seat 25

Claude de L'Estoile (1634) Armand de Camboust, duc de Coislin
Armand de Camboust, duc de Coislin
(1652) Pierre de Camboust, duc de Coislin (1702) Henri Charles du Cambout de Coislin
Henri Charles du Cambout de Coislin
(1710) Jean-Baptiste Surian (1733) Jean Le Rond, dit d'Alembert (1754) Marie-Gabriel-Florent-Auguste de Choiseul-Gouffier (1783) Jean-Étienne-Marie Portalis
Jean-Étienne-Marie Portalis
(1803) Pierre Laujon
Pierre Laujon
(1807) Charles-Guillaume Étienne
Charles-Guillaume Étienne
(1811) Marie-Gabriel-Florent-Auguste de Choiseul-Gouffier (1816) Jean-Louis Laya (1817) Charles Nodier
Charles Nodier
(1833) Prosper Mérimée
Prosper Mérimée
(1844) Louis de Loménie (1871) Hippolyte Taine
Hippolyte Taine
(1878) Albert Sorel
Albert Sorel
(1894) Charles Maurice Donnay
Charles Maurice Donnay
(1907) Marcel Pagnol
Marcel Pagnol
(1946) Jean Bernard (1976) Dominique Fernandez
Dominique Fernandez
(2007)

v t e

Cannes Film Festival jury presidents

1946–1975

Georges Huisman (1946) Georges Huisman (1947) Georges Huisman (1949) André Maurois
André Maurois
(1951) Maurice Genevoix
Maurice Genevoix
(1952) Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
(1953) Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
(1954) Marcel Pagnol
Marcel Pagnol
(1955) Maurice Lehmann
Maurice Lehmann
(1956) André Maurois
André Maurois
(1957) Marcel Achard (1958) Marcel Achard (1959) Georges Simenon
Georges Simenon
(1960) Jean Giono (1961) Tetsurō Furukaki (1962) Armand Salacrou (1963) Fritz Lang
Fritz Lang
(1964) Olivia de Havilland
Olivia de Havilland
(1965) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
(1966) Alessandro Blasetti (1967) André Chamson
André Chamson
(1968) Luchino Visconti
Luchino Visconti
(1969) Miguel Ángel Asturias
Miguel Ángel Asturias
(1970) Michèle Morgan
Michèle Morgan
(1971) Joseph Losey
Joseph Losey
(1972) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1973) René Clair
René Clair
(1974) Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(1975)

1975–2000

Tennessee Williams
Tennessee Williams
(1976) Roberto Rossellini
Roberto Rossellini
(1977) Alan J. Pakula
Alan J. Pakula
(1978) Françoise Sagan
Françoise Sagan
(1979) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
(1980) Jacques Deray (1981) Giorgio Strehler (1982) William Styron
William Styron
(1983) Dirk Bogarde
Dirk Bogarde
(1984) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1985) Sydney Pollack
Sydney Pollack
(1986) Yves Montand
Yves Montand
(1987) Ettore Scola
Ettore Scola
(1988) Wim Wenders
Wim Wenders
(1989) Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(1990) Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
(1991) Gérard Depardieu
Gérard Depardieu
(1992) Louis Malle
Louis Malle
(1993) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1994) Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(1995) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(1996) Isabelle Adjani
Isabelle Adjani
(1997) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(1998) David Cronenberg
David Cronenberg
(1999) Luc Besson
Luc Besson
(2000)

2001–present

Liv Ullmann
Liv Ullmann
(2001) David Lynch
David Lynch
(2002) Patrice Chéreau
Patrice Chéreau
(2003) Quentin Tarantino
Quentin Tarantino
(2004) Emir Kusturica
Emir Kusturica
(2005) Wong Kar-wai
Wong Kar-wai
(2006) Stephen Frears
Stephen Frears
(2007) Sean Penn
Sean Penn
(2008) Isabelle Huppert
Isabelle Huppert
(2009) Tim Burton
Tim Burton
(2010) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(2011) Nanni Moretti
Nanni Moretti
(2012) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(2013) Jane Campion
Jane Campion
(2014) Joel and Ethan Coen (2015) George Miller (2016) Pedro Almodóvar
Pedro Almodóvar
(2017) Cate Blanchett
Cate Blanchett
(2018)

v t e

Honorary César

1976–2000

Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1976) Diana Ross
Diana Ross
(1976) Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois
(1977) Jacques Tati
Jacques Tati
(1977) Robert Dorfmann (1978) René Goscinny
René Goscinny
(1978) Marcel Carné
Marcel Carné
(1979) Charles Vanel
Charles Vanel
(1979) Walt Disney
Walt Disney
(1979) Pierre Braunberger (1980) Louis de Funès
Louis de Funès
(1980) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
(1980) Marcel Pagnol
Marcel Pagnol
(1981) Alain Resnais (1981) Georges Dancigers (1982) Alexandre Mnouchkine (1982) Jean Nény (1982) Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1982) Raimu
Raimu
(1983) René Clément
René Clément
(1984) Georges de Beauregard (1984) Edwige Feuillère
Edwige Feuillère
(1984) Christian-Jaque (1985) Danielle Darrieux
Danielle Darrieux
(1985) Christine Gouze-Rénal (1985) Alain Poiré (1985) Maurice Jarre
Maurice Jarre
(1986) Bette Davis
Bette Davis
(1986) Jean Delannoy
Jean Delannoy
(1986) René Ferracci (1986) Claude Lanzmann
Claude Lanzmann
(1986) Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
(1987) Serge Silberman (1988) Bernard Blier
Bernard Blier
(1989) Paul Grimault
Paul Grimault
(1989) Gérard Philipe
Gérard Philipe
(1990) Jean-Pierre Aumont
Jean-Pierre Aumont
(1991) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
(1991) Michèle Morgan
Michèle Morgan
(1992) Sylvester Stallone
Sylvester Stallone
(1992) Jean Marais
Jean Marais
(1993) Marcello Mastroianni
Marcello Mastroianni
(1993) Gérard Oury
Gérard Oury
(1993) Jean Carmet
Jean Carmet
(1994) Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(1995) Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
(1995) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1995) Lauren Bacall
Lauren Bacall
(1996) Henri Verneuil
Henri Verneuil
(1996) Charles Aznavour
Charles Aznavour
(1997) Andie MacDowell
Andie MacDowell
(1997) Michael Douglas
Michael Douglas
(1998) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1998) Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
(1998) Pedro Almodóvar
Pedro Almodóvar
(1999) Johnny Depp
Johnny Depp
(1999) Jean Rochefort
Jean Rochefort
(1999) Josiane Balasko
Josiane Balasko
(2000) Georges Cravenne
Georges Cravenne
(2000) Jean-Pierre Léaud
Jean-Pierre Léaud
(2000) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2000)

2001–present

Darry Cowl (2001) Charlotte Rampling
Charlotte Rampling
(2001) Agnès Varda
Agnès Varda
(2001) Anouk Aimée
Anouk Aimée
(2002) Jeremy Irons
Jeremy Irons
(2002) Claude Rich
Claude Rich
(2002) Bernadette Lafont
Bernadette Lafont
(2003) Spike Lee
Spike Lee
(2003) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2003) Micheline Presle
Micheline Presle
(2004) Jacques Dutronc
Jacques Dutronc
(2005) Will Smith
Will Smith
(2005) Hugh Grant
Hugh Grant
(2006) Pierre Richard
Pierre Richard
(2006) Marlène Jobert
Marlène Jobert
(2007) Jude Law
Jude Law
(2007) Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(2008) Roberto Benigni
Roberto Benigni
(2008) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(2009) Harrison Ford
Harrison Ford
(2010) Quentin Tarantino
Quentin Tarantino
(2011) Kate Winslet
Kate Winslet
(2012) Kevin Costner
Kevin Costner
(2013) Scarlett Johansson
Scarlett Johansson
(2014) Sean Penn
Sean Penn
(2015) Michael Douglas
Michael Douglas
(2016) George Clooney
George Clooney
(2017) Penélope Cruz
Penélope Cruz
(2018)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 9851452 LCCN: n79093040 ISNI: 0000 0001 2120 1141 GND: 118591207 SELIBR: 208636 SUDOC: 027055752 BNF: cb119184123 (data) BIBSYS: 90072423 MusicBrainz: 698fd393-689f-456b-8813-69a23eea6296 NDL: 00452014 NKC: jn19990006329 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV77698 BNE: XX1057889 SN

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