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MARAYUR or MARAYOOR is a town in Idukki district
Idukki district
of Kerala
Kerala
, India
India
. It is located 42 kilometers north of Munnar
Munnar
on SH 17 connecting Munnar with Udumalpet , Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
. Marayur
Marayur
is the only place in Kerala
Kerala
that has natural sandalwood forests. Ancient dolmens and rock paintings in Marayur
Marayur
date back to the Stone Age. In 1991 Marayur
Marayur
had a population of 9,590.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Megalithic Dolmens * 1.2 Rock paintings

* 2 Topography and Climate * 3 Flora and fauna * 4 References

HISTORY

Marayur
Marayur
claims to be a part of a Stone Age civilization that is as old as 10,000 B.C. It is also home to a later period of large-scale dolmen-building. People migrated from Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
to this area when the Madurai
Madurai
king Thirumalainaicker was defeated by Tippu Sultan
Tippu Sultan
, in the eighteenth century CE. The migrants created five villages, being Kanthalloor, Keezhanthur, Karayur, Marayur
Marayur
and Kottakudi. These villages were called the "Anju nadu", literally meaning “five lands”.

MEGALITHIC DOLMENS

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Part of a series on the

HISTORY OF KERALA

Main Megalithic culture

Maritime contacts Sangam period Tamilakam Cheras Ays Ezhil Malai Confluence of religions Venad - Kingdom of Quilon Calicut Kolattunadu Cochin Minor principalities Portuguese period Dutch period Rise of Travancore
Travancore
Mysorean interlude British Period Battle of Quilon Communism in Kerala
Kerala
Unification of Kerala
Kerala

Other topics Geography

Economy Architecture Forts

* v * t * e

Dolmens of Marayur
Marayur

Also called Muniyaras, these dolmens belong to the Iron Age . These dolmenoids were burial chambers made of four stones placed on edge and covered by a fifth stone called the cap stone. Some of these Dolmenoids contain several burial chambers, while others have a quadrangle scooped out in laterite and lined on the sides with granite slabs. These are also covered with cap stones. Dozens of Dolmens around the area of old Siva temple (Thenkasinathan Temple) at Kovilkadavu on the banks of the River Pambar, and rock paintings on the south-western slope of the plateau overlooking the river have attracted visitors. Apart from the dolmens of Stone Age, several dolmens of Iron Age exist in this region especially on the left side of river Pambar as is evident from the usage of neatly dressed granite slabs for the dolmens. At least one of them has a perfectly circular hole of 28 cm diameter inside the underground chamber. This region has several types of dolmens. Large number of them are overground with about 70–90 cm height. Another type has a height 140–170 cm. There is an overground dolmen with double length up to 350 cm. Fragments of burial urns are also available in the region near the dolmens. This indicates that the dolmens with 70–90 cm height were used for burial of the remains of people of high social status. Burial urns were used for the burial of the remains of commoners. The dolmens with raised roofs might have been used for habitation of people. Why some people lived in the cemeteries has not been satisfactorily explained.

ROCK PAINTINGS

A rock painting at Marayoor

Ancient rock paintings are part of Marayur
Marayur
heritage at Attala, Ezhuthu Guha (literally means “cave of writing”), Kovilkadavu and Manala in Marayur
Marayur
panchayat. Attala is situated in the west part of Marayur
Marayur
Township and more than 90 painted motifs can be seen here. The rock paintings of Attala are situated in a colossal east facing rock shelter 1500 meters above mean sea level. Most of the paintings at Attala are abstract designs except for a few human and animal figures. Ezhuthu Guha rock paintings are sited in the Koodakavu Sandalwood Reserve Forest at Marayur
Marayur
in the Marayur
Marayur
Panchayat at an elevation of 1000 meters above mean sea level. More or less 90 painted motifs can be seen here. However, as the place is the most famous rock art site in Kerala, it attracts a large number of visitors and has been extensively vandalized since it was brought to wide public attention. Kovilkadavu is less than five kilometers from Marayur
Marayur
town and the place is famous for Neolithic dolmens and rock paintings. Ten 10 painted motifs are located on the south-western slope of the plateau overlooking the Pambar river. There is a rock painting at Manala in Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary
Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary
of Marayur
Marayur
near the Alampetty tribal settlement. Here, a picture of a deer and a man can be seen. In close proximity to this art site, a new rock painting has been newly discovered.

TOPOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

Karimutty waterfalls near Marayoor

The terrain is highly undulating with altitudes ranging from 500 m at Chinnar to over 2300 m at Nandala malai, and the same varying topography of Marayur
Marayur
can be observed in Marayur
Marayur
with mountains, rain forests, deciduous forests, riparian forests, scrub forests, brooks, Paddy Fields, river, waterfalls, rocky hills, sholas and hamlets. Natural vegetation includes tropical evergreen forests and grasslands. Soil type is forest loam with a high organic matter content. The climate in Marayur
Marayur
is characterized by mild wet winters and hot dry summers. Temperature in winter (November to January) may go down to 20 degrees Celsius and in summer it may go up to 36.2 degrees Celsius. Marayur
Marayur
winter is not frigid cold as considerable sunshine is also characteristic to this region even during rainy winter. Summer is humid and hot with blazing sun. Generally Marayur
Marayur
experience a moderate climate, temperatures varying 21 °C to 27 °C with minimum seasonal variation except in winter. The plains are generally warm but the higher altitudes are cool. The annual rainfall in Idukki district varies from 250 to 425 cm. However, it is also recorded that the annual rainfall had gone up to 700 cm in certain years. The Eastern and North-Eastern regions of the district get very low rainfall in contrast to other areas. This may go up to 150 cm at Marayur, Kanthalloor
Kanthalloor
, Vattavada and Thalayar regions. Marayur
Marayur
and Kanthalloor are virtually rain shadow areas, lying in the eastern side of the Western Ghats.

FLORA AND FAUNA

Walkway through the sandalwood forest

Marayur
Marayur
has more than 1000 species of flowering plants and is a well known repository of medicinal plants. There are 114 endemic species and the sighting of Aibizia lathamii, a critically endangered tree, was recently reported from the dry forests. Chinnar - the wildlife sanctuary in Marayur
Marayur
- has recorded the largest number of reptilian species, including the mugger crocodile, in Kerala. With 225 recorded species of birds, it is one of the richest areas of south India
India
in avian diversity. The forests in Marayur
Marayur
preserve a population of the endangered Grizzled Giant Squirrel. The rare white bison has been recently reported in Chinnar wildlife sanctuary. Other important mammals found are elephant, tiger, leopard, guar, sambar, spotted deer, Nilgiri thar, common langur, bonnet macaque etc. The phenomenon of butterfly migration occurs in between the monsoons.

Maryoor contains a number of sandalwood forests, and is the only place in Kerala
Kerala
where natural sandalwood forest is present. Processing of sandalwood and its associated oil forms part of local economy, a depot near Marayur
Marayur
town supporting this industry. Sandal wood or Santalum album is a parasitic tree having a fragrant and close-grained yellowish heartwood. Sandalwood oil, also known as ‘liquid gold,’ is extracted from the roots and wood of sandalwood. This oil is a costly item marketed at a few choosy outlets all over the state. A climate with low rainfall is suitable for the growth of choice sandalwood trees from which good quality oil can be extracted. The 93 km² Marayur
Marayur
reserve forest is believed to have about sixty thousand naturally grown sandalwood trees, of which nearly 2,000 trees had been allegedly plundered in just one year since January 2004, when the last survey was conducted. The auction rate for first quality Marayur sandal is quoted at ₹1,100 per kg, according to forest department sources (2004).

REFERENCES

Wikimedia Commons has media related to MARAYOOR .

* ^ Government of Kerala, Panchayat statistics, 1991 Archived 2009-02-06 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Welcome to Marayoor Online". Marayoor.com. Retrieved 2016-07-18. * ^ "Unlocking the secrets of history". The Hindu. 2004-12-06. Retrieved 2016-07-18. * ^ "News Archives". The Hindu. 2013-09-13. Retrieved 2016-07-18.

* v * t * e

Travancore
Travancore
region

DISTRICTS

* Kanyakumari
Kanyakumari
(Part) * Thiruvananthapuram * Kollam
Kollam
* Pathanamthitta
Pathanamthitta
* Alappuzha * Kottayam * Idukki * Ernakulam (Part)

Towns and Cities

* Nagarcoil
Nagarcoil
* Kanyakumari
Kanyakumari
* Thovala * Suchindram
Suchindram
* Manavalakurichy * Kaliyakkavilai
Kaliyakkavilai
* Mandaikadu
Mandaikadu
* Marthandam * Neyyoor * Thiruvithancode * Kolachal
Kolachal
* Thiruvananthapuram * Parassala
Parassala
* Neyyattinkara * Nedumangadu
Nedumangadu
* Venjaramoodu
Venjaramoodu
* Aryanad * Vembayam
Vembayam
* Chirayinkeezhu * Attingal * Varkala
Varkala
* Avanavancherry
Avanavancherry
* Kallambalam
Kallambalam
* Kilimanoor * Kottarakara * Neduvathoor * Ayoor * Anchal * Edamulackal
Edamulackal
* Chadayamangalam * Chathannoor * Kalluvathukkal * Kottiyam * Kollam
Kollam
* Paravur * Parippally * Munroethuruth
Munroethuruth
* Mayyanad
Mayyanad
* Punalur * Pathanapuram
Pathanapuram
* Kottarakkara * Adoor * Konni * Pathanamthitta
Pathanamthitta
* Kozhencherry * Aranmula * Kumbanad * Ranni
Ranni
* Vadasserikkara * Mallapally * Tiruvalla * Parumala
Parumala
* Mannar * Edathua * Chengannur * Mavelikkara * Padanilam
Padanilam
* Nilakkal * Chettikulangara * Kayamkulam * Haripad * Ambalappuzha * Alappuzha * Mankombu
Mankombu
* Mararikulam * Cherthala * Aroor * Changanacherry
Changanacherry
* Vazhoor * Karukachal * Kottayam * Kumarakam
Kumarakam
* Pambadi
Pambadi
* Ettumanoor * Vaikom * Kaduthuruthy * Thalayolaparambu * Kuravilangad * Palai
Palai
* Uzhavoor * Poonjar
Poonjar
* Erattupetta * Kanjirappally * Ponkunnam * Erumely * Mundakayam
Mundakayam
* Vagamon * Peermade * Kumily * Kattappana
Kattappana
* Adimali
Adimali
* Vechoor
Vechoor
* North Paravur
North Paravur
* Alengad
Alengad
* Angamaly * Kalady * Aluva
Aluva
* Perumbavoor * Muvattupuzha
Muvattupuzha
* Kothamangalam * Arakuzha
Arakuzha
* Koothattukulam * Piravom * Kolenchery * Kizhakkambalam * Idukki * Thodupuzha * Painavu
Painavu
* Munnar
Munnar
* Devikulam * Kannan Devan Hills
Kannan Devan Hills
* Marayur * Adimali
Adimali
* Udumbanchola * Nedumkandam
Nedumkandam
* Kattappana
Kattappana
* Rajakkad

* v * t * e

Kerala
Kerala
topics

HISTORY

* Sangam period * Edakkal Caves
Edakkal Caves
* Ariyannur Umbrellas * Kudakkallu Parambu * Chovvanur burial cave * Chera * Venad Swaroopam * Kerala
Kerala
school * Battle of Kulachal * Anglo-Mysore Wars * Battle of Quilon * Vaikom Satyagraham * Perumpadapu Swaroopam * Malabar Migration

Government Politics

* Agencies * Chief Ministers * Governors * Legislative Assembly * Panchayat elections * Left Democratic Front * United Democratic Front * Politicians

GEOGRAPHY

* Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve * Ashtamudi Lake
Ashtamudi Lake
* Backwaters * Districts * Eravikulam National Park
Eravikulam National Park
* Flora and fauna * Malabar Coast * Marayoor * Nelliampathi Mountains * Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve * Nilgiri Hills * Palakkad Gap * Protected areas * Vembanad Lake

Demographics Economy Religion

* Malayalis * Namboothiris * Ambalavasis * Samanthas * Nairs * Saint Thomas Christians * Kerala
Kerala
Iyers * Ezhavas * Cochin Jews
Cochin Jews
* Jainism in Kerala
Kerala
* Pulayar * Dravidians * Mappilas * Adivasis * Scheduled Tribes * Kerala
Kerala
model * Tourism

* Education

* colleges and universities

CULTURE

* Arts * Architecture * Cuisine * Kalarippayattu
Kalarippayattu
* Literature * Sarpam Thullal * Triumvirate poets * Vallamkali

DANCE / DRAMA / CINEMA

* Kathakali
Kathakali
* Kolkali * Koodiyattam * Mohiniyattam
Mohiniyattam
* Margamkali * Ottamthullal
Ottamthullal
* Theyyam * Cinema of Kerala
Kerala

FESTIVALS

* Vishu
Vishu
* Onam
Onam
* Pooram

LANGUAGES

* Malayalam
Malayalam
* Malayalam
Malayalam
calendar * Mappila dialect * Suriyani Malayalam
Malayalam
* Judeo- Malayalam
Malayalam
* Irula language

MUSIC

* Chenda ( Thayambaka ) * Kolkali * Panchari melam * Panchavadyam * Sopanam

ORGANISATIONS/AGENCIES

* NSS * SNDP

TOURISM

* Alappuzha * Athirappilly Falls * Beaches in Kerala
Kerala
* Bekal * Kerala
Kerala
Backwaters * Kollam
Kollam
* Islands of Kollam
Kollam
* Kovalam * Munnar
Munnar
* Estuaries of Paravur * Visitor attractions in Thrissur
Visitor attractions in Thrissur
* Tourism in Thiruvananthapuram * Vallamkali * Wayanad
Wayanad

* PORTAL

* v * t * e

Tourism in Kerala
Kerala

ORGANIZATIONS

* Kerala
Kerala
Tourism Development Corporation * Department of Tourism (Kerala) * Gandhi Seva Sadan

INFORMATIVE ARTICLES

* Chinese fishing nets * God\'s Own Country * Chundan Vallam * Kerala
Kerala
backwaters * Pooram * Puli Kali * Temple Festivals of Kerala
Kerala
* Tourist Resorts (Kerala) * Vallam Kali
Vallam Kali
* Wildlife of Kerala
Kerala

AIRPORTS

* Aranmula International Airport * Sabarigiri International Airport
Sabarigiri International Airport
* Calicut International Airport * Cochin Duty Free * Cochin International Airport
Cochin International Airport
* Kannur International Airport * Kollam
Kollam
Airport(Defunct) * Trivandrum International Airport

AMUSEMENT PARKS

* Fantasy Park * Kottakkunnu
Kottakkunnu
* Vismaya * Wonderla
Wonderla

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES

* Anchuthengu * Ariyannur Umbrellas * Cheraman Parambu * Kadavallur
Kadavallur
* Kandanissery * Kudakkallu Parambu * Pattanam * Tangasseri * Thovarimala Ezhuthupara

BEACHES

* Alappuzha Beach * Azheekal beach
Azheekal beach
* Chavakkad Beach * Cherai Beach
Cherai Beach
* Fort Kochi beach
Fort Kochi beach
* Kappad * Kappil, Thiruvananthapuram * Kappkadavu * Kollam
Kollam
Beach * Kovalam * Mappila Bay
Mappila Bay
* Marari Beach * Meenkunnu Beach * Munakkal Beach * Mundakkal Beach
Mundakkal Beach
* Muzhappilangad Beach * Muziris beach * Payyambalam Beach * Poovar
Poovar
* Shankumugham Beach * Snehatheeram Beach * Paravur Thekkumbhagam
Thekkumbhagam
* Thirumullavaram Beach
Thirumullavaram Beach
* Thottada Beach
Thottada Beach
* Varkala
Varkala
Beach

BOAT RACES

* Aranmula Boat Race * Champakulam Moolam Boat Race * Indira Gandhi Boat Race * Kallada Boat Race * Kandassankadavu Boat Race * Nehru Trophy Boat Race * Payippadu Vallam Kali
Vallam Kali
* President\'s Trophy Boat Race * Sree Narayana Jayanthi Boat Race * Triprayar Boat Race
Triprayar Boat Race

CAVES

* Chovvanur burial cave * Edakkal Caves
Edakkal Caves
* Kottukal cave temple * Nedumala caves, Piralimattam * Vizhinjam rock caves

DAMS

* Banasura Sagar Dam * Bhoothathankettu
Bhoothathankettu
* Cheruthoni Dam * Chimmony Dam * Idamalayar Dam * Idukki Dam
Idukki Dam
* Kakki Reservoir * Karapuzha Dam * Malampuzha Dam * Mangalam Dam (dam) * Mattupetty Dam * Mullaperiyar Dam * Neyyar Dam
Neyyar Dam
* Parambikulam Dam * Pazhassi Dam * Peechi Dam
Peechi Dam
* Peringalkuthu Dam * Peruvaripallam Dam * Ponmudi Dam * Poomala Dam * Pothundi Dam
Pothundi Dam
* Sholayar Dam * Siruvani Dam * Thanneermukkom Bund
Thanneermukkom Bund
* Thenmala Dam
Thenmala Dam
* Thunakkadavu Dam * Vazhani Dam
Vazhani Dam
* Walayar Dam
Walayar Dam

FESTIVALS

* Aanayoottu
Aanayoottu
* Aaraattu * Aluva
Aluva
Sivarathri festival * Arattupuzha Pooram * Edakkunni Uthram Vilakku * Feast of Saint Raphael, Ollur * Gandharvanpattu * Ilanjithara Melam * India
India
International Boat Show * International Film Festival of Kerala
Kerala
* Kadavallur
Kadavallur
Anyonyam * Kanyarkali * Karivela * Kerala
Kerala
Adventure Carnival * Keralotsavam * Kollam
Kollam
Pooram * Kottakkal pooram * Kottankulangara Festival * Machad Mamangam
Machad Mamangam
* Nalukulangara Pooram * Kalpathi Ratholsavam
Kalpathi Ratholsavam
* Nenmara Vallanghy Vela
Nenmara Vallanghy Vela
* Onam
Onam
* Onathallu or Avittathallu * Peruvanam Pooram * Tattamangalam Kuthira Vela
Tattamangalam Kuthira Vela
* Thirumandhamkunnu Pooram * Thrissur Pooram * Uthralikavu Pooram

FORTS

* Anchuthengu Fort * Bekal Fort * Chandragiri Fort, Kerala
Kerala
* Cranganore Fort * East Fort
East Fort
* Fort Emmanuel
Fort Emmanuel
* Hosdurg Fort * Nedumkotta
Nedumkotta
* Overbury\'s Folly * Palakkad Fort
Palakkad Fort
* Pallipuram Fort * St Thomas Fort, Tangasseri * St. Angelo Fort * Tellicherry Fort
Tellicherry Fort
* William Fort

ISLANDS

* Dharmadam Island * Ezhumanthuruthu * Gundu Island * Islands of Kollam
Kollam
* Kavvayi
Kavvayi
* Kuruvadweep * Munroe Island
Munroe Island
* Parumala
Parumala
* Pizhala
Pizhala
* Pulinkunnoo * Ramanthuruthu
Ramanthuruthu
* Valiyaparamba
Valiyaparamba
* Vallarpadam
Vallarpadam
* Vypin * Willingdon Island

LAKES

* Ashtamudi Lake
Ashtamudi Lake
* Enamakkal Lake * Mananchira * Oranju Poika * Padinjarechira * Paravur Lake
Paravur Lake
* Pookode Lake
Pookode Lake
* Sasthamcotta Lake
Sasthamcotta Lake
* Veeranpuzha
Veeranpuzha
* Vellayani Lake
Vellayani Lake
* Vadakkechira * Vanchikulam * Vembanad

LIGHTHOUSES

* Vizhinjam * Tangasseri * Kovilthottam * Alappuzha * Manakkodam * Vypin * Azhikode * Chetwai * Ponnani * Beypore * Kozhikode * Kannur

MOUNTAINS

* Aathanad * Agastya Mala
Agastya Mala
* Ambanad Hills
Ambanad Hills
* Ambukuthi mala
Ambukuthi mala
* Anamudi
Anamudi
* Anginda peak * Banasura Hill
Banasura Hill
* Chembra Peak * Elivai Malai
Elivai Malai
* Ilaveezha Poonchira * Illickal Kallu * Kunnathoor Padi * Marayur * Meenuliyan Para * Nelliampathi * Paithalmala * Ponmudi * Poomala * Urakam Hill * Vagamon * Vagavurrai * Vellarimala

MUSEUMS

* 8 Point Gallery Cafe, Kollam
Kollam
* Arakkal Museum * Archaeological Museum, Thrissur * Indian Business Museum * Indo-Portuguese Museum
Indo-Portuguese Museum
* Kerala
Kerala
Science and Technology Museum * Kerala
Kerala
Soil Museum * Munnar
Munnar
Tea Museum * Napier Museum
Napier Museum
* Pazhassi Raja Archaeological Museum * Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Police Museum, Kollam
Kollam
* Teak Museum
Teak Museum
* Wayanad
Wayanad
Heritage Museum

PALACES

* Aranmula Kottaram * Bolgatty Palace
Bolgatty Palace
* British Residency
British Residency
* Cheena Kottaram * Halcyon Castle * Hill Palace, Tripunithura * Kanakakkunnu Palace
Kanakakkunnu Palace
* Kilimanoor Palace * Kodungallur Kovilakam * Kollengode Palace * Kowdiar Palace * Koyikkal Palace
Koyikkal Palace
* Krishnapuram Palace * Kuthira Malika * Laxmipuram Palace * Mattancherry Palace * Merry Lodge Palace * Pandalam Palace * Punnathurkotta * Puthen Kovilakam * Shakthan Thampuran Palace
Shakthan Thampuran Palace
* Sri Moolam Thirunal Palace * Thevally Palace

WATERFALLS

* Adyanpara Falls * Aripara Falls * Aruvikkuzhi Waterfalls * Athirappilly Falls * Charpa Falls * Cheeyappara
Cheeyappara
* Kumbhavurutty Waterfalls * Lakkom Water Falls * Manalar Waterfalls * Marmala waterfall * Meenmutty Falls, Thiruvananthapuram * Meenmutty Falls, Wayanad
Wayanad
* Oliyarik Waterfalls * Palaruvi Falls * Panieli Poru waterfalls * Pattathippara Falls * Perunthenaruvi * Perunthenaruvi Falls * Soochipara Falls * Thommankuthu * Thusharagiri Falls * Thuvanam Waterfalls * Vazhachal Falls * Vazhvanthol waterfalls
Vazhvanthol waterfalls

WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES

* Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary * Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary * Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary