Maravijaya
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Māravijaya attitude or ''mara vichai'' ( th, ปางมารวิชัย, ; Khmer language, Khmer: ព្រះពុទ្ធផ្ចាញ់មារ, ''preah pud (buddha) p'chanh mea'') is an Iconography of Gautama Buddha in Laos and Thailand, attitude of Buddha in Thai art of which the seated Buddha is putting his hand in the relax posture towards to the ground, loosely holding his knee. The other hand is on his lap. His eyes, sometimes closed, look down to the ground. The gesture of the hand reaching the ground is called ''bhumisparshamudra'', which also refers to the attitude as well. The gesture refers to the episode which the Buddha calling the Phra Mae Thorani, earth to witness. In Cambodian art, Khmer art, this attitude of Buddha is called ''preah pud (buddha) p'chanh mea'' which means the sacred buddha defeating the enemy (māra). The attitude refers to the episode that he was reaching the Enlightenment in Buddhism, enlightenment and being disturbed by mara (demon), maras. Learning that the maras asked him to give up, he touched the ground and called the Phra Mae Thorani to help him fight with the maras. Thoranee called tonnes of water and flooded away the maras. The episode results in the name ''Mara Vichai'' which means the "Victory (vichai) over the Mara". Other Thai names are ''Chana Mara'' (ชนะมาร; victory over the Mara) and ''Sadoung Mara'' (สะดุ้งมาร; making the Mara feared) The ''Maravijaya'' seated Buddha is considered the most-built attitude for principle Buddha in of Burmese, Khmer, Lao and Thai Wats.


Notable examples

As mentioned, the ''Maravijaya'' Buddha is the most commonly-built Buddha, some of the notable Buddharupas in Thailand that are built depicting the ''Maravijaya'' are; *Great Buddha of Thailand *Phuket Big Buddha *Golden Buddha (statue), Golden Buddha of Wat Traimit *Phra Achana in Sukhothai Historical Park


Gallery

File:Preah Pithu25.JPG, Double row of sculpted Buddhas in sanctuary chamber of temple "X" of Preah Pithu, Angkor, Cambodia. File:Phra Buddha Shinnasee (I).jpg, in Phitsanulok province File:Phra Putta Trilokachet.jpg, at Wat Suthat, Bangkok File:Phra Buddha Maha Nawamin Sakayamuni Sri Wisetchaichan 2.jpg, Great Buddha of Thailand File:Big Buddha - Phuket, Thailand.JPG, Phuket Big Buddha File:Laos - Luang Prabang 105 - Buddha statue at Wat Xieng Thong (6582771709).jpg, at Wat Xieng Thong, Luang Prabang, Laos File:Wat Traimitr Golden Buddha.png, Golden Buddha (statue), Golden Buddha of Wat Traimit


References


Thai Buddha Attitudes translations
*translated from :th:ปางมารวิชัย on Thai Wikipedia


External links

*{{commons inline, Bhumisparshamudra Buddhist art Buddhist iconography Laotian art Thai Buddhist art and architecture Buddhism in Laos Cultural depictions of Gautama Buddha