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MARATHI (English: /məˈrɑːti/ ; मराठी Marāṭhī; Marathi: ( listen )) is an Indian language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people
Marathi people
of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
. It is the official language and co-official language in the Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Goa
Goa
states of Western India
India
, respectively, and is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India
India
. There were 73 million speakers in 2007; Marathi ranks 19th in the list of most spoken languages in the world . Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India, after Hindi
Hindi
, Bengali and Telugu in that order. Marathi has some of the oldest literature of all modern Indo-Aryan languages, dating from about 900 AD. The major dialects of Marathi are Standard Marathi and the Varhadi dialect . Malvani Konkani has been heavily influenced by Marathi varieties. The earliest example of the existence of Marathi as an independent language dates back to more than 2,000 years

Marathi distinguishes inclusive and exclusive forms of 'we' and possesses a three-way gender system that features the neuter in addition to the masculine and the feminine. In its phonology it contrasts apico-alveolar with alveopalatal affricates and, in common with Gujarati , alveolar with retroflex laterals ( and , Marathi letters ल and ळ respectively).

CONTENTS

* 1 Geographic distribution * 2 Status

* 3 History

* 3.1 Marathi literature, 12th–17th centuries * 3.2 Yadava * 3.3 Mahanubhava * 3.4 Medieval and Deccan Sultanate period * 3.5 Maratha
Maratha
Empire * 3.6 British colonial period * 3.7 Marathi since Indian independence

* 4 Dialects

* 4.1 Jhadi Boli * 4.2 Southern Indian Marathi * 4.3 Varhadi * 4.4 Others

* 5 Phonology

* 6 Writing

* 6.1 Devanagari
Devanagari
* 6.2 The Modi alphabet * 6.3 Consonant clusters in Devanagari
Devanagari

* 7 Grammar

* 8 Vocabulary

* 8.1 Sharing of linguistic resources with other languages * 8.2 Morphology and etymology * 8.3 Compounds * 8.4 Counting

* 9 Marathi on computers and the Internet
Internet
* 10 Marathi Language Day

* 11 Marathi organisations

* 11.1 Outside Maharashtra
Maharashtra
state

* 12 See also

* 13 References

* 13.1 Bibliography

* 14 External links

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

Marathi is primarily spoken in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
(India) and parts of neighbouring states of Gujarat
Gujarat
, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
, Goa
Goa
, Karnataka (Particularly the bordering districts of Belgaum
Belgaum
, Bidar
Bidar
and Uttara Kannada
Kannada
), Telangana
Telangana
, Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
, union-territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
. The former Maratha
Maratha
ruled cities of Baroda
Baroda
, Indore , Gwalior
Gwalior
, and Tanjore have had sizable Marathi speaking populations for centuries. Marathi is also spoken by Maharashtrian emigrants to other parts of India
India
and overseras.

STATUS

Marathi is the official language of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and co-official language in the union territories of Daman and Diu
Daman and Diu
and Dadra and Nagar Haveli . In Goa
Goa
, Konkani is the sole official language; however, Marathi may also be used for some official purposes in some case. Marathi is included among the languages which stand a part of the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India
India
, thus granting it the status of a "scheduled language". The Government of Maharashtra has submitted an application to the Ministry of Culture to grant classical language status to Marathi. Rajya Marathi Vikas Sanstha is the main regulator of Marathi

The contemporary grammatical rules described by Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Sahitya Parishad and endorsed by the Government of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
are supposed to take precedence in standard written Marathi. Traditions of Marathi Linguistics and the above-mentioned rules give special status to tatsamas , words adapted from Sanskrit. This special status expects the rules for tatsamas to be followed as in Sanskrit. This practice provides Marathi with a large treasure of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words to cope with demands of new technical words whenever needed.

In addition to all universities in Maharashtra, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda
Baroda
in Vadodara
Vadodara
, Osmania University in Hyderabad
Hyderabad
, Karnataka
Karnataka
University in Dharwar
Dharwar
, Gulbarga University in Gulbarga , Devi Ahilya University in Indore and Goa
Goa
University in Goa
Goa
have special departments for higher studies in Marathi linguistics. Jawaharlal Nehru University (New Delhi) has announced plans to establish a special department for Marathi.

Marathi Day is celebrated on 27 February, the birthday of poet Vishnu Vaman Shirwadkar .

HISTORY

Indian languages, including Marathi, that belong to the Indo-Aryan language family are derived from early forms of Prakrit
Prakrit
. Marathi is one of several languages that further descend from Maharashtri Prakrit . Further change led to the Apabhraṃśa languages like Old Marathi, however this is challenged by Bloch (1970), who states that Apabhraṃśa was formed after Marathi had already separated from the Middle Indian dialect.

MARATHI LITERATURE, 12TH–17TH CENTURIES

Main article: Marathi literature
Marathi literature

YADAVA

Marathi literature
Marathi literature
began and grew owing to the rise of the Seuna dynasty of Devgiri , who adopted Marathi as the court language and patronised Marathi scholars. Further growth and usage of the language was because of two religious sects – the Mahanubhava and Varkari panthan s – who adopted Marathi as the medium for preaching their doctrines of devotion. Marathi had attained a venerable place in court life by the time of the Seuna kings. During the reign of the last three Seuna kings, a great deal of literature in verse and prose, on astrology, medicine, Puranas
Puranas
, Vedanta , kings and courtiers were created. Nalopakhyan, Rukmini swayamvar and Shripati's Jyotishratnamala (1039) are a few examples.

The oldest book in prose form in Marathi, Vivēkasindhu (विवेकसिंधु), was written by Mukundaraja, a Nath yogi and arch-poet of Marathi. Mukundaraja bases his exposition of the basic tenets of the Hindu philosophy and the yoga marga on the utterances or teachings of Shankaracharya
Shankaracharya
. Mukundaraja's other work, Paramamrta, is considered the first systematic attempt to explain the Vedanta in the Marathi language
Marathi language

MAHANUBHAVA

Notable examples of Marathi prose are "Līḷācarītra" (लीळाचरीत्र), events and anecdotes from the miracle filled life of Chakradhar Swami of the Mahanubhava sect compiled by his close disciple, Mahimbhatta, in 1238. The Līḷācarītra is thought to be the first biography written in the Marathi language. Mahimbhatta's second important literary work is the Shri Govindaprabhucharitra or Rudhipurcharitra, a biography of Shri Chakradhar Swami's guru, Shri Govind Prabhu. This was probably written in 1288.

The Mahanubhava sect made Marathi a vehicle for the propagation of religion and culture. Mahanubhava literature generally comprises works that describe the incarnations of gods, the history of the sect, commentaries on the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
, poetical works narrating the stories of life of Krishna
Krishna
and grammatical and etymological works that are deemed useful to explain the philosophy of sect.

MEDIEVAL AND DECCAN SULTANATE PERIOD

The 13th century varkari saint Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
(1275–1296) wrote a treatise in Marathi on Bhagawat Gita popularly called Dnyaneshwari and Amritanubhava . His contemporary, Namdev composed verses or abhang in Marathi as well as Hindi.The 16th century saint-poet Eknath (1528–1599) is well known for composing the Eknāthī Bhāgavat, a commentary on Bhagavat Purana and the devotional songs called Bharud. Mukteshwar translated the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
into Marathi; Tukaram (1608–49) transformed Marathi into a rich literary language. His poetry contained his inspirations. Tukaram
Tukaram
wrote over 3000 abhangs or devotional songs.

Marathi was widely used during the Sultanate period. Although the rulers were Muslims, the local feudal landlords and the revenue collectors were Hindus and so was the majority of the population. Political expediency made it important for the sultans to make use of Marathi. Nevertheless, Marathi in official documents from the era is totally persianised in its vocabulary. Marathi also became language of administration during the Ahmadnagar Sultanate . Adilshahi of Bijapur also used Marathi for administration and record keeping.

MARATHA EMPIRE

Marathi gained prominence with the rise of the Maratha
Maratha
empire beginning with the reign of Chhatrapati Shivaji
Shivaji
( ruled 1674`–1680). Under Shivaji, the language used administrative documents became less persianised. Whereas in 1630, 80% of the vocabulary was Persian, it dropped to 37% by 1677 Samarth Ramdas was a contemporary of Shivaji.He advocated the unity of Marathas to propagate Maharashtra dharma. Unlike varkari saints, his writing has a strong militant expression to it.Subsequent Maratha
Maratha
rulers extended the empire northwards to Attock
Attock
, eastwards to Odisha
Odisha
, and southwards to Thanjavur
Thanjavur
in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
. These excursions by the Marathas helped to spread Marathi over broader geographical regions. This period also saw the use of Marathi in transactions involving land and other business. Documents from this period, therefore, give a better picture of life of common people. There are lot of Bakharis written in Marathi and Modi script from this period. But by the late 18th century, the Maratha
Maratha
Empire's influence over a large part of the country was on the decline

In the 18th century, some well-known works such as Yatharthadeepika by Vaman Pandit , Naladamayanti Swayamvara by Raghunath Pandit , Pandava Pratap, Harivijay, Ramvijay by Shridhar Pandit and Mahabharata by Moropanta were produced. Krishnadayarnava and Sridhar were poets during the Peshwa period. New literary forms were successfully experimented with during the period and classical styles were revived, especially the Mahakavya and Prabandha forms. The most important hagiographies of Varkari
Varkari
Bhakti saints was written by Mahipati
Mahipati
in the 18th Century.

BRITISH COLONIAL PERIOD

The British colonial period starting in early 1800s saw standardisation of Marathi grammar through the efforts of the Christian missionary William Carey . Carey's dictionary had fewer entries and Marathi words were in Devanagari
Devanagari
. Translations of the bible were first books to be printed in Marathi.These translations by William Carey, the American Marathi mission and the scottish missionaries led to the development of a peculiar pidginized marathi called the "Missionary Marathi in early 1800s The most comprehensive Marathi-English dictionary was compiled by Captain James Thomas Molesworth and Major Thomas Candy in 1831. The book is still in print nearly two centuries after its publication. The colonial authorities also worked on standardizing Marathi under the leadership of James Thomas Molesworth and Candy.They used Brahmins of Pune
Pune
for this task and adopted the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
dominated dialect spoken by elite in the city as the standard dialect for Marathi .,

The first Marathi translation of an English book was published in 1817, and the first Marathi newspaper was started in 1832. Newspapers provided a platform for sharing literary views, and many books on social reforms were written. The Marathi language
Marathi language
flourished as Marathi drama gained popularity. Musicals known as Sangeet Natak also evolved. Keshavasut , the father of modern Marathi poetry published his first poem in 1885. First Marathi periodical Dirghadarshan was started in 1840 while first Marathi newspaper Durpan was started by Balshastri Jambhekar in 1832.

The late-19th century in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
saw the rise of essayist Vishnushastri Chiplunkar with his periodical, Nibandhmala that had essays that criticized social reformers like Phule and Gopal Hari Deshmukh . Phule and Deshmukh also started their own periodicals, Deenbandhu and Prabhakar, that criticised the prevailing Hindu culture of the day.

The first half of the 20th century was marked by new enthusiasm in literary pursuits, and socio-political activism helped achieve major milestones in Marathi literature
Marathi literature
, drama, music and film. Modern Marathi prose flourished through various new literary forms like the essay, the biographies, the novels, prose, drama etc. N.C.Kelkar 's biographical writings, novels of Hari Narayan Apte , Narayan Sitaram Phadke and V. S. Khandekar , Vinayak Damodar Savarkar 's nationalist literature and plays of Mama Varerkar and Kirloskar's are particularly worth noting.

MARATHI SINCE INDIAN INDEPENDENCE

The popular Marathi language
Marathi language
newspapers at a newsstand in Mumbai, 2006

After Indian independence , Marathi was accorded the status of a scheduled language on the national level. On 1 May 1960, Maharashtra was re-organised along linguistic lines; this added Vidarbha
Vidarbha
and Marathwada
Marathwada
regions to its fold and thus brought major portions of Marathi population socio-politically together. With state and cultural protection, Marathi made great strides by the 1990s. A literary event called Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Sahitya Sammelan (All- India
India
Marathi Literature Meet) is held every year. In addition, the Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Natya Sammelan (All- India
India
Marathi Theatre Convention) is also held annually. Both events are very popular among Marathi speakers.

Notable works in Marathi in the latter half of 20th century includes Khandekar's Yayati
Yayati
, which won him the Jnanpith Award . Also Vijay Tendulkar 's plays in Marathi have earned him a reputation beyond Maharashtra
Maharashtra
. P.L.Deshpande (PuLa), Vishnu Vaman Shirwadkar P.K.Atre "> Modi script was used to write Marathi Main articles: Devanagari
Devanagari
, Balbodh , and Modi script An effort to conserve the "Modi Script" under India
India
Post 's My Stamp scheme. Here, the word 'Marathi' is printed in the "Modi Script ".

Written Marathi first appeared during the 11th century in the form of inscriptions on stones and copper plates. The Marathi version of Devanagari
Devanagari
, called Balbodh, is similar to the Hindi
Hindi
Devanagari alphabet. From the 13th century until the mid-20th century, Marathi was written in the Modi script . Since 1950 it has been written in the Balbodh style of Devanagari. Except for Father Stephen's Christ Puran in the Latin script
Latin script
in the 1600s, Marathi has mainly been printed in Devanagari
Devanagari
because William Carey , the pioneer of printing in Indian languages, was only able to print in Devanagari. He later tried printing in Modi but by that time, Balbodh Devanagari
Devanagari
had been accepted for printing.

DEVANAGARI

Marathi is usually written in the Balbodh version of Devanagari script, an abugida consisting of 36 consonant letters and 16 initial-vowel letters. It is written from left to right. The Devanagari
Devanagari
alphabet used to write Marathi is slightly different from the Devanagari
Devanagari
alphabets of Hindi
Hindi
and other languages: there are a couple of additional letters in the Marathi alphabet, and Western punctuation is used.

As with a large part of India, a traditional duality existed in script usage between Devanagari
Devanagari
by religiously educated people (most notably Brahmins) and Modi for common usage among administrators, businesspeople, and others. As observed in 1807,

Although in the Mahratta country the Devanagari
Devanagari
character is well known to men of education, yet a character is current among the men of business which is much smaller, and varies considerably in form from the Nagari, though the number and power of the letters nearly correspond.

THE MODI ALPHABET

See also: Modi alphabet

From the thirteenth century until 1950, Marathi, especially for business use, was written in the Modi alphabet — a cursive script designed for minimising the lifting of pen from paper while writing.

CONSONANT CLUSTERS IN DEVANAGARI

In Devanagari, consonant letters by default come with an inherent schwa . Therefore, तयाचे will be 'təyāche', not 'tyāche'. To form 'tyāche', you will have to add त् + याचे, giving त्याचे.

When two or more consecutive consonants are followed by a vowel then a jodakshar (consonant cluster) is formed. Some examples of consonant clusters are shown below:

* त्याचे - tyāche - "his" * प्रस्ताव - prastāv - "proposal" * विद्या - vidyā - "knowledge" * म्यान - myān "Sheath/scabbard" * त्वरा - tvarā "immediate/Quick" * महत्त्व - mahatva - "importance" * फक्त - phakta - "only" * बाहुल्या - bāhulyā - "dolls"

In writing, Marathi has a few digraphs that are rarely seen in the world's languages, including those denoting the so-called "nasal aspirates" (ṇh, nh, and mh) and liquid aspirates (rh, ṟh, lh, and vh). Some examples are given below.

* कण्हेरी - kaṇherī - "a shrub known for flowers"/ Oleander * न्हाणे - nhāṇe - "bath" * म्हणून - mhaṇūn - "therefore" * तऱ्हा - taṟhā - "different way of behaving" * कोल्हा - kolhā - "fox" * केंव्हा - keṃvhā "when"

GRAMMAR

Main article: Marathi grammar

Marathi grammar shares similarities with other modern Indo-Aryan languages such as Hindi
Hindi
, Gujarati , and Punjabi . The first modern book exclusively concerning Marathi Grammar was printed in 1805 by William Carey .

Marathi employs agglutinative , inflectional and analytical forms. Unlike most other Indo-Aryan languages, Marathi preserves all three grammatical genders from Sanskrit: masculine, feminine and neuter. The primary word order of Marathi is subject–object–verb Marathi follows a split-ergative pattern of verb agreement and case marking : it is ergative in constructions with either perfective transitive verbs or with the obligative ("should", "have to") and it is nominative elsewhere. An unusual feature of Marathi, as compared to other Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
, is that it displays inclusive and exclusive we also found in Rajasthani and Gujarati and common to the Austronesian and Dravidian languages . Other similarities to Dravidian include the extensive use of participial constructions and also to a certain extent the use of the two anaphoric pronouns swətah and apəṇ. It has been noted by numerous scholars about the existence of Dravidian linguistic patterns in Marathi language.

VOCABULARY

SHARING OF LINGUISTIC RESOURCES WITH OTHER LANGUAGES

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Marathi neon signboard at Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Police headquarters in Mumbai.

Over a period of many centuries the Marathi language
Marathi language
and people came into contact with many other languages and dialects. The primary influence of Prakrit
Prakrit
, Maharashtri , Apabhraṃśa and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
is understandable. Marathi borrows a lot of its vocabulary from Sanskrit .

While recent genome studies suggest some amount of political and trade relations between the Indian subcontinent and East Africa, Middle East, Central Asia over a millennium, these studies are still not conclusive about the exact effect on linguistics.

Noted freedom fighter and revolutionary, social emanicipator and Hindutva Ideologue Vinayak Damodar Savarkar , has contributed immensely to the language, by coining new marathi equivalents for words from other languages, mostly English. Prior to these marathi equivalents, words from other languages were used commonly which was unacceptable to Savarkar. He opined that intrusion of foreign words, polluted the marathi language, while also rendering the original marathi words, of the same meanings, obsolete. Following are some of the words coined and popularised by him for safeguarding cultural integrity:

Marathi has also shared directions, vocabulary and grammar with languages such as Indian Dravidian languages , and foreign languages such as Persian , Arabic
Arabic
, English and a little from Portuguese .

School: शाळा, College: महाविद्यालय, Academy: प्रबोधिका, Headmaster: मुख्याध्यापक, Superintendent of highschool: आचार्य, Principal: प्राचार्य, Professor: प्राध्यापक, Dispensary: औषधालय, Consulting room: चिकित्सालय, Vakil(an Urdu
Urdu
word): विधिज्ञ, Fauj, Lashkar(Urdu): सेना, सैन्य, Skirmish: चकमक, Camp: शिबीर, छावणी, Submarine: पाणबुडी, Telephone: दूरध्वनी, Television: दूरदर्शन, Circular: परिपत्रक, Report: अहवाल, प्रतिवृत्त, इतिवृत्त, Jindabad: की जय, जय हो, अमर हो, Legislature: विधी मंडळ, Parliamentarian: संसदपटू, Ahmedabad: कर्णावती, Arabian sea: पश्चिम समुद्र, सिंधुसागर, Hyderabad(south): भाग्यनगर, Cinema hall:चित्रपटगृह, Cinema: चित्रपट, Film: चित्रावली, चित्रपट्टिका, Interval: मध्यंतर, Studio: कलागृह, कलामंदिर, Shooting: चित्रण, Three dimension: त्रिमितीपट, Green groom: नेपथ्य, Photograph: छायाचित्र, Camera: छायिक, Portrait: व्यक्तिचित्र, Tape recorder: ध्वनिमुद्रा, Scenario: पटकथा, चित्रकथा, Trailer: परिचयपट, Music director: संगीत नियोजक, Director: दिग्दर्शक, Editor: संकलक,

MORPHOLOGY AND ETYMOLOGY

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Spoken Marathi contains a high number of Sanskrit-derived (tatsama ) words. Such words are for example nantar (from nantara or after), purṇa (purṇa or complete, full, or full measure of something), ola (ola or damp), karaṇ (karaṇa or cause), puṣkaḷ (puṣkala or much, many), satat (satata or always), vichitra (vichitra or strange), svatah (svatah or himself/herself), prayatna (prayatna or effort, attempt), bhīti (from bhīti, or fear) and bhāṇḍa (bhāṇḍa or vessel for cooking or storing food). Other words ("tadbhavas ") have undergone phonological changes from their Sanskrit
Sanskrit
roots, for example dār (dwāra or door), ghar (gṛha or house), vāgh (vyāghra or tiger), paḷaṇe (palāyate or to run away), kiti (kati or how many) have undergone more modification. Examples of words borrowed from other Indian and foreign languages include:

* Aḍakittā "nutcracker" directly borrowed from Kannada
Kannada
* Aathya "aunt" borrowed from Tamil * Akkā "elder sister" borrowed from Tamil * Hajērī Attendance from Haziri Urdu * Jāhirāta "advertisement" is derived from Arabic
Arabic
zaahiraat * Marjī "wish" is derived from Persian "marzi" * Shiphārasa "recommendation" is derived from Persian sefaresh

A lot of English words are commonly used in conversation, and are considered to be assimilated into the Marathi vocabulary. These include "pen" (native Marathi lekhaṇii) and "shirt" (sadaraa).

COMPOUNDS

Marathi uses many morphological processes to join words together, forming compounds . For example, ati + uttam gives the word atyuttam, miith-bhaakar ("salt-bread"), udyog-patii ("businessman"), ashṭa-bhujaa ("eight-hands", name of a Hindu goddess).

COUNTING

Like many other languages, Marathi uses distinct names for the numbers 1 to 20 and each multiple of 10, and composite ones for those greater than 20.

As with other Indic languages, there are distinct names for the fractions  1⁄4,  1⁄2, and  3⁄4. They are paava, ardhaa, and pauṇa, respectively. For most fractions greater than 1, the prefixes savvaa-, saaḍe-, paavaṇe- are used. There are special names for  3⁄2 (diiḍ) and  5⁄2 (aḍich).

Powers of ten are denoted by separate specific words as depicted in below table.

NUMBER POWER TO 10 MARATHI NUMBER NAME IN DEVANAGARI

100 Ek एक

101 dahaa दहा

102 Shambhar शंभर

103 Hazaar (Sahasra, Ayut) सहस्र/हजार

104 Daha Hazaar (dash-sahasra) दशसहस्र/दशहजार

105 Laakh (laksha) लाख/लक्ष

106 DahaaLaakh (Dasha-Laksha) दशलक्ष

107 Koti (Karoda) कोटी

108 dasha-koti दशकोटी

109 Abja (Arbud, Arab) अब्ज

1010 dasha-Abja दशअब्ज

1011 Vrunda वृंद

1012 Kharva (Kharab) खर्व

1013 Nikharva (Neela) निखर्व

1014 - -

1015 Mahaapadma (padma) महापद्म

1016 - -

1017 Shanku (shankha) शंकू

1018 - -

1019 jaladhi (samudra) जलधी

1020 - -

1021 Antya अंत्य

1022 - -

1023 Madhya मध्य

1024 - -

1025 paraardha परार्ध

A positive integer is read by breaking it up from the tens digit leftwards, into parts each containing two digits, the only exception being the hundreds place containing only one digit instead of two. For example, 1,234,567 is written as 12,34,567 and read as 12 laakha 34 hazaara 5 she 67.

Every two-digit number after 18 (11 to 18 are predefined) is read backwards. For example, 21 is read एक-वीस (1-twenty). Also, a two digit number that ends with a 9 is considered to be the next tens place minus one. For example, 29 is एकुणतीस/एकोणतीस (एक-उणे-तीस)(Thirty minus one). Two digit numbers used before hazaara, etc. are written in the same way.

MARATHI ON COMPUTERS AND THE INTERNET

Shrilipee, Shivaji, kothare 2,4,6, Kiran fonts KF-Kiran and many more (about 48) are clip fonts that were used prior to the introduction of Unicode
Unicode
standard for Devanagari
Devanagari
script . Clip fonts are in vogue on PCs even today since most of the computers in use are working with English Keyboard. Even today a large number of printed publications of books, newspapers and magazines are prepared using these ASCII based fonts. However, clip fonts cannot be used on internet since those did not have unicode compatibility.

Earlier Marathi suffered from weak support by computer operating systems and Internet
Internet
services, as have other Indian languages. But recently, with the introduction of language localisation projects and new technologies, various software and Internet
Internet
applications have been introduced. Various Marathi typing software is widely used and display interface packages are now available on Windows , Linux
Linux
and macOS . Many Marathi websites, including Marathi newspapers, have become popular especially with Maharashtrians outside India. Online projects such as the Marathi language
Marathi language
, with 36,000+ articles, the Marathi blogroll and Marathi blogs have gained immense popularity.

MARATHI LANGUAGE DAY

Marathi Language Day (Marathi Din, Marathi Diwas : मराठी दिन, मराठी दिवस is celebrated on February 27 every year across the Indian states of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Goa
Goa
. This day is regulated by the State Government. It is celebrated on Birthday of eminent Marathi Poet Vi. Va. Shirwadkar .

Essay competitions and seminars are arranged in Schools and Colleges. Government officials are asked to conduct various events.

MARATHI ORGANISATIONS

Many government and semi-government organisations exist which work for the regulation, promotion and enrichment of the Marathi language. These are either initiated or funded by the government of Maharashtra. A few Marathi organisations are given below:

* Akhil Bharatiya keertan sanstha, Dadar, Mumbai * Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Natya Parishad * Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Sahitya Mahamandal (Central confederation of all Marathi organisations) * Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Sahitya Parishad , Pune * Marathi Kavita * Marathi Vishwakosh - Marathi encyclopaedia project * Marathwada
Marathwada
Sahitya Parishad, Aurangabad * Mumbai
Mumbai
Marathi Sahitya Sangh * Rajya Marathi Vikas Sanstha * Shodh Marathicha * Vidarbha
Vidarbha
Sahitya Sangh, Nagpur

OUTSIDE MAHARASHTRA STATE

* Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Mandal, Jabalpur * Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Marathi Sahitya Parishad, Hyderabad * Marathi Granth Sangrahalay, Hyderabad * Vivek Vardhini Shikshan Sanstha, Hyderabad * Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Mandal, Hyderabad * Vedic Dharma Prakashika High School, Hyderabad * Gomantak Marathi Academy , Goa
Goa
* Gomantak Sahitya Sevak mandal, Panaji
Panaji
, Goa
Goa
* Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Sahitya Parishad, Jabalpur * Marathi Sahitya Parishad, Karnataka * Karnataka
Karnataka
Sahitya Parishad, Gulbarga * Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
Marathi Sahitya Parishad, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
* Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Marathi Sahitya Parishad, Bhopal
Bhopal
* Vadodara
Vadodara
(Badode Sansthan-Gaikwad State), Gujarat
Gujarat
Rajya, Bharat * Shri Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Sahitya Sabha, Indore * Sanand Nyas, Indore * Marathi Samaj, Indore * Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Rangayan, Delhi * Vrihanna Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Mandal, an umbrella body of all Marathis who stay outside Maharashtra * Marathi Association Sydney Incorporated, Sydney, Australia * Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Mandal, London * Marathi Bhashik Mandal, Toronto * Lagos Nigeria

SEE ALSO

* Maharashtra
Maharashtra
portal

* Konkani language
Konkani language
* Languages of India
India
* Languages with official status in India
India
* Marathi Mhani

REFERENCES

* ^ http://marathi.com/Marathi. Retrieved 5 December 2014. Missing or empty title= (help ) Marathi. Retrieved on 2013-07-28. * ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin * ^ Campbell, George L. (1999). Concise compendium of the world\'s languages (. ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415160490 . Retrieved 8 January 2017. * ^ http://www.unicode.org/L2/L2011/11212r2-n4034-modi.pdf * ^ A B The Goa, Daman and Diu
Daman and Diu
Official Language Act, 1987 makes Konkani the sole official language, but provides that Marathi may also be used "for all or any of the official purposes". The Government also has a policy of replying in Marathi to correspondence received in Marathi. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, , pp. para 11.3 Archived 19 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
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Goa
University". Unigoa.ac.in. 2012-04-27. Retrieved 2013-05-09. * ^ http://www.unitedstatesofindia.com/index.php/inspiration/today-in-history/item/888-01-may-1960 * ^ Bloch 1970 , p. 32. * ^ Keune, Jon Milton (2011). Eknāth Remembered and Reformed: Bhakti, Brahmans, and Untouchables in Marathi Historiography. New York, NY, USA: Columbia University press. p. 32. Retrieved 9 March 2016. * ^ A B Natarajan, ed. by Nalini (1996). Handbook of twentieth century literatures of India
India
(1. publ. ed.). Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press. p. 209. ISBN 978-0313287787 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Kulkarni, G.T. (1992). "DECCAN (MAHARASHTRA) UNDER THE MUSLIM RULERS FROM KHALJIS TO SHIVAJI : A STUDY IN INTERACTION, PROFESSOR S.M KATRE Felicitation". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. 51/52,: 501–510. JSTOR
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42930434 . * ^ Gordon, Stewart (1993). Cambridge History of India: The Marathas 1600-1818. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-521-26883-7 . * ^ Kamat, Jyotsna. "The Adil Shahi Kingdom (1510 CE to 1686 CE)". Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved 4 December 2014. * ^ Eaton, Richard M. (2005). The new Cambridge history of India. (1. publ. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 154. ISBN 0-521-25484-1 . Retrieved 25 March 2016. * ^ Callewaert,, Winand M.; Snell, Rupert; Tulpule, S G (1994). According to Tradition: Hagiographical Writing in India. Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 166. ISBN 3-447-03524-2 . Retrieved 9 April 2015. * ^ Ray, Mohit K. (Editor); Sawant, Sunil (Author) (2008). Studies in translation (2nd rev. and enl. ed. ed.). New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. pp. 134–135. ISBN 9788126909223 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link )CS1 maint: Extra text (link ) * ^ James, Molesworth, Thomas Candy, Narayan G Kalelkar (1857). Molesworth\'s, Marathi-English dictionary (2nd ed.). Pune: J.C. Furla, Shubhada Saraswat Prakashan. ISBN 81-86411-57-7 . CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Chavan, Dilip (2013). Language politics under colonialism : caste, class and language pedagogy in western India. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars. p. 174. ISBN 978-1443842501 . * ^ Chavan, Dilip (2013). Language politics under colonialism : caste, class and language pedagogy in western India
India
(first ed.). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars. pp. 136–184. ISBN 978-1443842501 . Retrieved 13 December 2016. , * ^ Natarajan, Nalini (editor); Deo, Shripad D. (1996). Handbook of twentieth century literatures of India
India
(1. publ. ed.). Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press. p. 212. ISBN 978-0313287787 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Natarajan, Nalini (editor); Deo, Shripad D. (1996). Handbook of twentieth century literatures of India
India
(1. publ. ed.). Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press. pp. 213–214. ISBN 978-0313287787 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Deshpande, G. P. (1997). "Marathi Literature since Independence: Some Pleasures and Displeasures". Economic and Political Weekly. 32. (44/45): 2885–2892. Retrieved 16 December 2016. * ^ Natarajan, Nalini; Emmanuel Sampath Nelson (1996). "Chap 13: Dalit
Dalit
Literature in Marathi by Veena Deo". Handbook of twentieth-century literatures of India. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 363. ISBN 0-313-28778-3 . * ^ Issues of Language and Representation:Babu Rao Bagul Handbook of twentieth-century literatures of India, Editors: Nalini Natarajan, Emmanuel Sampath Nelson. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1996. ISBN 0-313-28778-3 . Page 368. * ^ Mother 1970 Indian short stories, 1900–2000, by E.V. Ramakrishnan, I. V. Ramakrishnana. Sahitya Akademi . Page 217, Page 409 (Biography). * ^ Jevha Mi Jat Chorali Hoti (1963) Encyclopaedia of Indian literature vol. 2. Editors Amaresh Datta. Sahitya Akademi , 1988. ISBN 81-260-1194-7 . Page 1823. * ^ "Of art, identity, and politics". The Hindu
The Hindu
. Jan 23, 2003. * ^ Assayag,, Jackie; Fuller, Christopher John (2005). Globalizing India: Perspectives from Below. London, UK: Anthem Press. p. 80. ISBN 1-84331-194-1 . * ^ Khodade, 2004 * ^ Colin Masica, 1993, The Indo-Aryan Languages * ^ In Kudali dialect * ^ Masica (1991:97) * ^ "Marathi language, alphabet and pronunciation". Omniglot.com. Retrieved 2013-05-09. * ^ Rao, Goparaju Sambasiva (1994). Language Change: Lexical Diffusion and Literacy. Delhi: Academic Foundation. p. 49. ISBN 81-7188-057-6 . * ^ Masica, Colin P. (1993). The Indian Languages. Cambridge University Press. p. 437. ISBN 9780521299442 . Archived from the original on 7 December 2014. * ^ Rao, Goparaju Sambasiva (1994). Language Change: Lexical Diffusion and Literacy. Academic Foundation. pp. 48 and 49. ISBN 9788171880577 . Archived from the original on 7 December 2014. * ^ Ajmire, P.E.; Dharaskar, RV; Thakare, V M (22 March 2013). "A Comparative Study of Handwritten Marathi Character Recognition" (PDF). International Journal of Computer Applications. INTRODUCTION. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2014. * ^ Bhimraoji, Rajendra (28 February 2014). "Reviving the Modi Script" (PDF). Typoday. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2014. * ^ Carey, William. "Memoir Relative to the Translations" 1807: Serampore Mission Press. * ^ Archived 16 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
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. * ^ A B Bhosale, G.; Kembhavi, S.; Amberkar, A.; Mhatre, M.; Popale, L.; Bhattacharyya, P. (2011), "Processing of Kridanta (Participle) in Marathi" (PDF), Proceedings of ICON-2011: 9th International Conference on Natural Language Processing, MacMillan Publishers, India
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* ^ "Wals.info". Wals.info. Retrieved 2013-05-09. * ^ Dhongde & Wali 2009 , pp. 179–80. * ^ Dhongde & Wali 2009 , p. 263. * ^ Polomé, Edgar C. Reconstructing Languages and Cultures. Walter De Gruyter. p. 521. * ^ "Indian Numbering System". Oocities.org. Retrieved 2012-09-18. * ^ Sushma Gupta, Sushma, Gupta. "Indian Numbering System". Sushmajee.com. Archived from the original on 30 April 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-18. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ "Welcome to www.kiranfont.com". Kiranfont.com. Archived from the original on 31 October 2014. Retrieved 2012-09-18. * ^ Askari, Faiz. "Inside the Indian Blogosphere". Express Computer. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-10. * ^ "मराठी भाषा दिवस - २७ फेब्रुवारी". MarathiMati.com. Retrieved 27 February 2016. * ^ "jagatik marathi bhasha din celebration - divyamarathi.bhaskar.com". divyabhaskar. Retrieved 27 February 2016. * ^ "आम्ही मराठीचे शिलेदार!". Loksatta. 22 February 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2016. * ^ Encyclopaedia of Indian literature Volume I, Sahitya Akademi, ISBN 8126018038 * ^ https://www.pudhe.com/poems/ * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 July 2014. Retrieved 3 January 2015. * ^ http://www.dol.goa.gov.in/maracademy.html * ^ A B C D "3 Puneites in race for Sammelan presidentship". The Times of India. * ^ http://marathisydney.org.au/ * ^ http://www.mmlondon.co.uk/ * ^ http://www.mbmtoronto.com/

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Bloch, J (1970). Formation of the Marathi Language. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-2322-8 . * Dhongde, Ramesh Vaman; Wali, Kashi (2009). Marathi. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Pub. Co. ISBN 978-90-272-38139 . * A Survey of Marathi Dialects. VIII. Gāwḍi, A. M. Ghatage padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutMARATHIat Wikipedia's sister projects

* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Travel guide from Wikivoyage * Learning resources from Wikiversity

* भारतीय भाषा ज्योति: मराठी —a textbook for learning Marathi through Hindi
Hindi
from the Central Institute of Indian Languages

Dictionaries

* Molesworth, J. T. (James Thomas). A dictionary, Marathi and English. 2d ed., rev. and enl. Bombay: Printed for government at the Bombay Education Society's press, 1857. * Vaze, Shridhar Ganesh. The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English. Poona: Arya-Bhushan Press, 1911. * Tulpule, Shankar Gopal and Anne Feldhaus. A dictionary of old Marathi. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan, 1999. * Marathi Wordnet * English to Marathi and Marathi to English Dictionary

* v * t * e

Marathi

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Movement * Maharashtra
Maharashtra
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Divisions and Districts

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Million-plus cities in Maharashtra
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Portal : Maharashtra
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Prakrit

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Khari Boli
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URDU

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Urdu
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OTHERS

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EASTERN

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BIHARI

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ODIA

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OTHERS

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NORTHERN

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North western

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SOUTHERN

MARATHI–KONKANI

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INSULAR

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WESTERN

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OTHERS

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OTHERS

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IRANIAN

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OLD

WESTERN

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EASTERN

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MIDDLE

WESTERN

* Middle Persian * Parthian

EASTERN

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MODERN

NORTH

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