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Marathi (English: /məˈrɑːti/;[8] मराठी Marāṭhī; Marathi: [məˈɾaʈʰi] ( listen)) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people
Marathi people
of Maharashtra, India. It is the official language and co-official language in the Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Goa
Goa
states of Western India, respectively, and is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. There were 73 million speakers in 2007; Marathi ranks 19th in the list of most spoken languages in the world. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India, after Hindi, Bengali and Telugu, in that order.[9] Marathi has some of the oldest literature of all modern Indian languages, dating from about 900 AD.[10] The major dialects of Marathi are Standard Marathi and the Varhadi dialect.[11] Koli, Malvani Konkani has been heavily influenced by Marathi varieties. The earliest example of the existence of Marathi as an independent language dates back to more than 2,000 years[12][13] Marathi distinguishes inclusive and exclusive forms of 'we' and possesses a three-way gender system that features the neuter in addition to the masculine and the feminine. In its phonology it contrasts apico-alveolar with alveopalatal affricates and, in common with Gujarati, alveolar with retroflex laterals ([l] and [ɭ], Marathi letters ल and ळ respectively).[14]

Contents

1 Geographic distribution 2 Status 3 History

3.1 Yadava period 3.2 Medieval and Deccan Sultanate period 3.3 Maratha
Maratha
Empire 3.4 British colonial period 3.5 Marathi since Indian independence

4 Dialects

4.1 Zadi Boli 4.2 Southern Indian Marathi 4.3 Varhadi 4.4 Others

5 Phonology 6 Writing

6.1 Devanagari 6.2 The Modi alphabet 6.3 Consonant
Consonant
clusters in Devanagari

7 Grammar 8 Vocabulary

8.1 Sharing of linguistic resources with other languages 8.2 Morphology and etymology 8.3 Compounds 8.4 Counting

9 Marathi on computers and the Internet 10 Marathi Language Day 11 Marathi organisations

11.1 Outside Maharashtra
Maharashtra
state

12 See also 13 References

13.1 Bibliography

14 External links

Geographic distribution[edit] Marathi is primarily spoken in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
(India) and parts of neighbouring states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Goa, Tamil Nadu Karnataka
Karnataka
(Particularly the bordering districts of Belgaum, Bidar, Gulbarga
Gulbarga
and Uttara Kannada), Telangana, Chhattisgarh, union-territories of Daman and Diu
Daman and Diu
and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. The former Maratha
Maratha
ruled cities of Baroda, Indore, Gwalior, and Tanjore have had sizable Marathi speaking populations for centuries. Marathi is also spoken by Maharashtrian emigrants to other parts of India
India
and overseas.[15] Status[edit] Marathi is the official language of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and co-official language in the union territories of Daman and Diu[4] and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.[5] In Goa, Konkani is the sole official language; however, Marathi may also be used for some official purposes in some case. Marathi is included among the languages which stand a part of the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India, thus granting it the status of a "scheduled language".[16] The Government of Maharashtra has submitted an application to the Ministry of Culture to grant classical language status to Marathi.[17]

Rajya Marathi Vikas Sanstha[18] is the main regulator of Marathi

The contemporary grammatical rules described by Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Sahitya Parishad and endorsed by the Government of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
are supposed to take precedence in standard written Marathi. Traditions of Marathi Linguistics and the above-mentioned rules give special status to tatsamas, words adapted from Sanskrit. This special status expects the rules for tatsamas to be followed as in Sanskrit. This practice provides Marathi with a large treasure of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words to cope with demands of new technical words whenever needed. In addition to all universities in Maharashtra, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda
Baroda
in Vadodara,[19] Osmania University
Osmania University
in Hyderabad,[20] Karnataka
Karnataka
University in Dharwad,[21] Gulbarga University in Kalaburagi,[22] Devi Ahilya University
Devi Ahilya University
in Indore[23] and Goa
Goa
University in Goa[24] have special departments for higher studies in Marathi linguistics. Jawaharlal Nehru University (New Delhi) has announced plans to establish a special department for Marathi.[25] Marathi Day is celebrated on 27 February, the birthday of poet Vishnu Vaman Shirwadkar.[26] History[edit] See also: Marathi literature Indian languages, including Marathi, that belong to the Indo-Aryan language family are derived from early forms of Prakrut. Marathi is one of several languages that further descend from Mahārāshtrī Prakrut. Further change led to the Apabhraṃśa languages like Old Marathi, however this is challenged by Bloch (1970), who states that Apabhraṃśa was formed after Marathi had already separated from the Middle Indian dialect.[27] Marathi is probably first attested in a 739 CE copper-plate inscription found in Satara. Several inscriptions dated to the second half of the 11th century feature Marathi, which is usually appended to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
or Kannada
Kannada
in these inscriptions.[28] The earliest Marathi-only inscriptions are the ones issued during the Shilahara rule, including a c. 1012 CE stone inscription from Akshi taluka of Raigad district, and a 1060 or 1086 CE copper-plate inscription from Dive that records a land grant (agrahara) to a Brahmin.[29] A 2-line 1118 CE Marathi inscription at Shravanabelagola
Shravanabelagola
records a grant by the Hoysalas. These inscriptions suggest that Marathi was a standard written language by the 12th century. However, there is no record of any actual literature produced in Marathi until the late 13th century.[30] Yadava period[edit] After 1187 CE, the use of Marathi grew substantially in the inscriptions of the Seuna (Yadava) kings, who earlier used Kannada
Kannada
and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
in their inscriptions.[29] Marathi became the dominant language of epigraphy during the last half century of the dynasty's rule (14th century), and may have been a result of the Yadava attempts to connect with their Marathi-speaking subjects, and to distinguish themselves from the Kannada-speaking Hoysalas.[28] Further growth and usage of the language was because of two religious sects – the Mahanubhava and Varkari
Varkari
panthans – who adopted Marathi as the medium for preaching their doctrines of devotion. Marathi had attained a venerable place in court life by the time of the Seuna kings. During the reign of the last three Seuna kings, a great deal of literature in verse and prose, on astrology, medicine, Puranas, Vedanta, kings and courtiers were created. Nalopakhyan, Rukmini swayamvar and Shripati's Jyotishratnamala (1039) are a few examples. The oldest book in prose form in Marathi, Vivēkasindhu (विवेकसिंधु), was written by Mukundaraja, a Nath yogi and arch-poet of Marathi. Mukundaraja bases his exposition of the basic tenets of the Hindu philosophy
Hindu philosophy
and the yoga marga on the utterances or teachings of Shankaracharya. Mukundaraja's other work, Paramamrta, is considered the first systematic attempt to explain the Vedanta
Vedanta
in the Marathi language Notable examples of Marathi prose are "Līḷācarītra" (लीळाचरीत्र), events and anecdotes from the miracle filled life of Chakradhar Swami of the Mahanubhava sect compiled by his close disciple, Mahimbhatta, in 1238. The Līḷācarītra is thought to be the first biography written in the Marathi language. Mahimbhatta's second important literary work is the Shri Govindaprabhucharitra or Rudhipurcharitra, a biography of Shri Chakradhar Swami's guru, Shri Govind Prabhu. This was probably written in 1288. The Mahanubhava sect made Marathi a vehicle for the propagation of religion and culture. Mahanubhava literature generally comprises works that describe the incarnations of gods, the history of the sect, commentaries on the Bhagavad Gita, poetical works narrating the stories of life of Krishna
Krishna
and grammatical and etymological works that are deemed useful to explain the philosophy of sect. Medieval and Deccan Sultanate period[edit] The 13th century varkari saint Dnyaneshwar(1275–1296) wrote a treatise in Marathi on Bhagawat Gita popularly called Dnyaneshwari
Dnyaneshwari
and Amritanubhava. His contemporary, Namdev composed verses or abhang in Marathi as well as Hindi. Mukund Raj was a poet who lived in the 13th century and is said to be the first poet who composed in Marathi.[31] He is known for the Viveka-Siddhi and Parammrita which are metaphysical, pantheistic works connected with orthodox Vedantism. The 16th century saint-poet Eknath (1528–1599) is well known for composing the Eknāthī Bhāgavat, a commentary on Bhagavat Purana and the devotional songs called Bharud.[32] Mukteshwar
Mukteshwar
translated the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
into Marathi; Tukaram
Tukaram
(1608–49) transformed Marathi into a rich literary language. His poetry contained his inspirations. Tukaram
Tukaram
wrote over 3000 abhangs or devotional songs.[33] Marathi was widely used during the Sultanate period. Although the rulers were Muslims, the local feudal landlords and the revenue collectors were Hindus and so was the majority of the population. Political expediency made it important for the sultans to make use of Marathi. Nevertheless, Marathi in official documents from the era is totally persianised in its vocabulary.[34] The persian influence continues to this day with many persian derived words used in every day speech such as bāg (Garden), kārkhānā (factory), shahar (city), bāzār (market), dukān (shop), hushār (clever), kāḡaḏ (paper), khurchi (chair), jamin (land), jāhirāt (advertisement), and hazār (thousand)[35] Marathi also became language of administration during the Ahmadnagar Sultanate.[36] Adilshahi of Bijapur also used Marathi for administration and record keeping.[37] Maratha
Maratha
Empire[edit] Marathi gained prominence with the rise of the Maratha
Maratha
empire beginning with the reign of Chhatrapati Shivaji
Shivaji
(ruled 1674–1680). Under Shivaji, the language used administrative documents became less persianised. Whereas in 1630, 80% of the vocabulary was Persian, it dropped to 37% by 1677[38] Samarth Ramdas
Samarth Ramdas
was a contemporary of Shivaji. He advocated the unity of Marathas to propagate Maharashtra dharma.[33] Unlike varkari saints, his writing has a strong militant expression to it. Subsequent Maratha
Maratha
rulers extended the empire northwards to Attock, eastwards to Odisha, and southwards to Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu. These excursions by the Marathas helped to spread Marathi over broader geographical regions. This period also saw the use of Marathi in transactions involving land and other business. Documents from this period, therefore, give a better picture of life of common people. There are lot of Bakharis written in Marathi and Modi script
Modi script
from this period. But by the late 18th century, the Maratha
Maratha
Empire's influence over a large part of the country was on the decline. In the 18th century during Peshwa
Peshwa
rule, some well-known works such as Yatharthadeepika by Vaman Pandit, Naladamayanti Swayamvara by Raghunath Pandit, Pandava Pratap, Harivijay, Ramvijay by Shridhar Pandit and Mahabharata
Mahabharata
by Moropant were produced. Krishnadayarnava and Sridhar were poets during the Peshwa
Peshwa
period. New literary forms were successfully experimented with during the period and classical styles were revived, especially the Mahakavya and Prabandha forms. The most important hagiographies of Varkari
Varkari
Bhakti saints was written by Mahipati
Mahipati
in the 18th Century.[39] [33] Other well known literary scholars of the 17th century were Mukteshwar
Mukteshwar
and Shridhar[40]. Mukteshwar
Mukteshwar
was the grandson of Eknath and is the most distinguished poet in the ovi meter. He is most known for translating the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and the Ramayana
Ramayana
in Marathi but only a part of the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
translation is available and the entire Ramayana translation is lost. Shridhar Kulkarni came from the Pandharpur area and his works are said to have superseded the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
epics to a certain extent. This period also saw development of Powada (ballads sung in honor of warriors), and Lavani
Lavani
(romantic songs presented with dance). Major poet composers of Powada and Lavani
Lavani
songs of the 17th and the 18th century were Anant Phandi, Ram Joshi and Honaji Bala.[41] British colonial period[edit] The British colonial period starting in early 1800s saw standardisation of Marathi grammar through the efforts of the Christian missionary William Carey. Carey's dictionary had fewer entries and Marathi words were in Devanagari. Translations of the Bible
Bible
were first books to be printed in Marathi.These translations by William Carey, the American Marathi mission and the Scottish missionaries led to the development of a peculiar pidginized Marathi called the "Missionary Marathi in early 1800s[42] The most comprehensive Marathi-English dictionary was compiled by Captain James Thomas Molesworth and Major Thomas Candy in 1831. The book is still in print nearly two centuries after its publication.[43] The colonial authorities also worked on standardizing Marathi under the leadership of James Thomas Molesworth and Candy.They used Brahmins of Pune
Pune
for this task and adopted the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
dominated dialect spoken by elite in the city as the standard dialect for Marathi[44].,[45][46]. The first Marathi translation of the New Testament
New Testament
was published in 1811 by the Serampore press of William Carey.[47]The first Marathi newspaper called Durpan was started by Balshastri Jambhekarin 1832.[48].Newspapers provided a platform for sharing literary views, and many books on social reforms were written. First Marathi periodical Dirghadarshan was started in 1840. The Marathi language flourished as Marathi drama gained popularity. Musicals known as Sangeet Natak
Sangeet Natak
also evolved[citation needed]. Keshavasut, the father of modern Marathi poetry published his first poem in 1885. The late-19th century in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
saw the rise of essayist Vishnushastri Chiplunkar with his periodical, Nibandhmala that had essays that criticized social reformers like Phule and Gopal Hari Deshmukh. Phule and Deshmukh also started their own periodicals, Deenbandhu and Prabhakar, that criticised the prevailing Hindu culture of the day.[49].The 19th century and early 20th century saw several books published on Marathi Grammar.Notable grammarians of this period were Tarkhadkar,A.K.Kher, Moro Keshav Damle, and R.Joshi[50] The first half of the 20th century was marked by new enthusiasm in literary pursuits, and socio-political activism helped achieve major milestones in Marathi literature, drama, music and film[citation needed]. Modern Marathi prose flourished through various new literary forms like the essay, the biographies, the novels, prose, drama etc. N.C.Kelkar's biographical writings, novels of Hari Narayan Apte, Narayan Sitaram Phadke and V. S. Khandekar, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar's nationalist literature and plays of Mama Varerkar and Kirloskar's are particularly worth noting. Marathi since Indian independence[edit]

The popular Marathi language
Marathi language
newspapers at a newsstand in Mumbai, 2006

After Indian independence, Marathi was accorded the status of a scheduled language on the national level. On 1 May 1960, Maharashtra was re-organised along linguistic lines; this added Vidarbha
Vidarbha
and Marathwada
Marathwada
regions to its fold and thus about the socio-political unity of major portions of the Marathi speaking. With state and cultural protection, Marathi made great strides by the 1990s. A literary event called Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Sahitya Sammelan (All- India
India
Marathi Literature Meet) is held every year. In addition, the Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Natya Sammelan (All- India
India
Marathi Theatre Convention) is also held annually. Both events are very popular among Marathi speakers. Notable works in Marathi in the latter half of 20th century includes Khandekar's Yayati, which won him the Jnanpith Award. Also Vijay Tendulkar's plays in Marathi have earned him a reputation beyond Maharashtra. P.L.Deshpande(PuLa), Vishnu Vaman Shirwadkar, P.K.Atre & Prabodhankar Thackeray, were also known for their writings in Marathi in the field of drama, comedy and social commentary[51] In 1958 the term " Dalit
Dalit
literature" was used for the first time, when the first conference of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Dalit
Dalit
Sahitya Sangha (Maharashtra Dalit
Dalit
Literature Society) was held at Mumbai, a movement inspired by 19th century social reformer, Jyotiba Phule
Jyotiba Phule
and eminent dalit leader, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar.[52] Baburao Bagul (1930–2008) was a pioneer of Dalit
Dalit
writings in Marathi.[53] His first collection of stories, Jevha Mi Jat Chorali (जेव्हा मी जात चोरली) (When I Concealed My Caste), published in 1963, created a stir in Marathi literature
Marathi literature
with its passionate depiction of a cruel society and thus brought in new momentum to Dalit
Dalit
literature in Marathi.[54][55] Gradually with other writers like, Namdeo Dhasal (who founded Dalit
Dalit
Panther), these Dalit
Dalit
writings paved way for the strengthening of Dalit
Dalit
movement.[56] Notable Dalit
Dalit
authors writing in Marathi include Arun Kamble, Shantabai Kamble, Raja Dhale, Namdev Dhasal, Daya Pawar, Annabhau Sathe, Laxman Mane, Laxman Gaikwad, Sharankumar Limbale, Bhau Panchbhai, Kishor Shantabai Kale, Narendra jadhav, and Urmila Pawar. In recent decades there has been a trend among Marathi speaking parents of all social classes in major urban areas of sending their children to English medium schools. There is some concern, though without foundation, that this may lead to marginalisation of the language.[57] Dialects[edit] See also: Marathi–Konkani languages Standard Marathi is based on dialects used by academics and the print media. Indic scholars distinguish 42 dialects of spoken Marathi. Dialects bordering other major language areas have many properties in common with those languages, further differentiating them from standard spoken Marathi. The bulk of the variation within these dialects is primarily lexical and phonological (e.g. accent placement and pronunciation). Although the number of dialects is considerable, the degree of intelligibility within these dialects is relatively high.[58] Zadi Boli[edit]

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Zadi Boli or Zhadiboli (झाडीबोली) is spoken in Zadipranta (a forest rich region) of far eastern Maharashtra
Maharashtra
or eastern Vidarbha
Vidarbha
or western-central Gondwana comprising Gondia, Bhandara, Chandrapur, Gadchiroli and some parts of Nagpur
Nagpur
of Maharashtra. Zadi Boli Sahitya Mandal and many literary figures are working for the conservation of this important and distinct dialect of Marathi. Southern Indian Marathi[edit]

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Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Marathi, Namadeva Shimpi Marathi, Arey Marathi and Bhavsar Marathi are some of the dialects of Marathi spoken by many descendants of Maharashtrians who migrated to the Southern India. These dialects retain the 17th century basic form of Marathi and have been considerably influenced by the Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
after the migration. These dialects have speakers in various parts of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Karnataka. Varhadi[edit] Main article: Varhadi dialect Varhadi (Varhādi) (वऱ्हाडी) or Vaidarbhi (वैदर्भी) is spoken in the Western Vidarbha
Vidarbha
region of Maharashtra. In Marathi, the retroflex lateral approximant ḷ [ɭ] is common, while in the Varhadii dialect, it corresponds to the palatal approximant y (IPA: [j]), making this dialect quite distinct. Such phonetic shifts are common in spoken Marathi and, as such, the spoken dialects vary from one region of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
to another. Others[edit]

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Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Marathi, spoken in Tanjore, Tamil Nadu Judæo-Marathi, spoken by the Bene Israel
Bene Israel
Jews

Other Languages and dialects spoken in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
include Maharashtrian Konkani, Koli, Mangeli, Malvani, Agri, Andh, Warli, Dangi, Khandeshi, Ahirani, Kokna, Vadvali, Samavedi, Marathwadi and Deshi languageDeshi]]. Phonology[edit] Main article: Marathi phonology The phoneme inventory of Marathi is similar to that of many other Indo-Aryan languages. An IPA
IPA
chart of all contrastive sounds in Marathi is provided below.

Consonants[59]

  Labial Dental Alveolar Retroflex (Alveolo-) palatal Velar Glottal

Nasal plain m n̪

ɳ (ɲ) (ŋ)

murmured mʱ n̪ʱ

ɳʱ

Stop voiceless p t̪ t͡s ʈ t͡ɕ~t͡ʃ k

aspirated pʰ t̪ʰ

ʈʰ t͡ɕʰ~t͡ʃʰ kʰ

voiced b d̪ d͡z~z ɖ d͡ʑ~d͡ʒ ɡ

murmured bʱ d̪ʱ d͡zʱ~zʱ ɖʱ d͡ʑʱ~d͡ʒʱ ɡʱ

Fricative

s ʂ ɕ~ʃ

h~ɦ

Approximant plain ʋ

l ɭ j

murmured ʋʱ

(jʱ)[60]

Flap/Trill plain

ɾ ɺ̢[61]

murmured

ɾʱ

Older aspirated *tsʰ, dzʱ have lost their onset, with *tsʰ merging with /s/ and *dzʱ being typically realised as an aspirated fricative, [zʱ]. This /ts, dz, zʱ/ series is not distinguished in writing from /tʃ, tʃʰ, dʒ, dʒʱ/.

Vowels

  Front Central Back

High i   u

Mid e ə o

Low   a  

There are two more vowels in Marathi to denote the pronunciations of English words such as of a in act and a in all. These are written as अॅ and ऑ. The IPA
IPA
signs for these are [æ] and [ɒ], respectively. Maharashtri Prakrit, the ancestor of modern Marathi, is a particularly interesting case. Maharashtri was often used for poetry and as such, diverged from proper Sanskrit
Sanskrit
grammar mainly to fit the language to the meter of different styles of poetry. The new grammar stuck, which led to the unique flexibility of vowels lengths – amongst other anomalies – in Marathi. Marathi retains the original Sanskrit
Sanskrit
pronunciation of certain letters such as the anusvāra (for instance, saṃhar, compared to sanhar in Hindi). Moreover, Marathi preserves certain Sanskrit
Sanskrit
patterns of pronunciation, as in the words purṇa and rāma compared to purṇ and rām in Hindi. Writing[edit]

Modi script
Modi script
was used to write Marathi

Main articles: Devanagari, Balbodh, and Modi script

An effort to conserve the "Modi Script" under India
India
Post's My Stamp scheme. Here, the word 'Marathi' is printed in the "Modi Script".

Kadamba alphabet
Kadamba alphabet
and its variants has been historically used to write Marathi in the form of inscriptions on stones and copper plates. The Marathi version of Devanagari, called Balbodh, is similar to the Hindi Devanagari
Devanagari
alphabet except for its use as words in Marathi traditionally pronounce schwa making its written form differ even from other Marathi words. For example, the word 'रंग' (colour) is pronounced as 'ranga' in Marathi & 'rang' in other languages using devanagari despite same spelling, 'खरं' (true) despite the anuswara is pronounced as 'khara' as the anuswara in this case is used to avoid schwa deletion in pronunciation since most other languages using devanagari show schwa deletion in pronunciation despite the presence of schwa in the written spelling. From the 13th century until the mid-20th century, Marathi was written in the Modi script. Since 1950 it has been written in the Balbodh style of Devanagari.[62] Except for Father Stephen's Christ Puran in the Latin script
Latin script
in the 1600s, Marathi has mainly been printed in Devanagari
Devanagari
because William Carey, the pioneer of printing in Indian languages, was only able to print in Devanagari. He later tried printing in Modi but by that time, Balbodh Devanagari
Devanagari
had been accepted for printing.[63] Devanagari[edit] Marathi is usually written in the Balbodh[64][65][66][67] version of Devanagari
Devanagari
script, an abugida consisting of 36 consonant letters and 16 initial-vowel letters. It is written from left to right. The Devanagari
Devanagari
alphabet used to write Marathi is slightly different from the Devanagari
Devanagari
alphabets of Hindi
Hindi
and other languages: there are a couple of additional letters in the Marathi alphabet, and Western punctuation is used. As with a large part of India, a traditional duality existed in script usage between Devanagari
Devanagari
by religiously educated people (most notably Brahmins) and Modi for common usage among administrators, businesspeople, and others. As observed in 1807,[68]

Although in the Mahratta country the Devanagari
Devanagari
character is well known to men of education, yet a character is current among the men of business which is much smaller, and varies considerably in form from the Nagari, though the number and power of the letters nearly correspond.

Vowels

Devanagari अ आ इ ई उ ऊ ऋ ए ऐ ओ औ अं अः अॅ अॉ

Transliterated a ā i ī u ū ṛ e ai o au aṃ aḥ æ ɒ

IPA [ə] [a] short[i] [i] short[u] [u] [ru] [e] [əi] [o] [əu] [əm] [əɦa] [æ] [ɒ]

Vowel
Vowel
ligatures with Consonant
Consonant
क/ka

क का कि की कु कू के कै को कौ कं कः कॅ कॉ

ka kā ki kī ku kū ke kai ko kau kam kah kæ kɒ

consonants क ख ग घ ङ च छ ज झ ञ ट ठ ड ढ ण त थ द ध न प फ ब भ म य र ल व श ष स ह ळ क्ष ज्ञ

ka kha ga gha ṅa ca cha ja jha ña ṭa ṭha ḍa ḍha ṇa ta tha da dha na pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va śa ṣa sa ha ḷa kṣa dña/jña It is written from left to right. Devanagari
Devanagari
used to write Marathi is slightly different than that of Hindi
Hindi
or other languages. It uses additional vowels and consonants that are not found in other languages that also use devanagari. The Modi alphabet[edit] See also: Modi alphabet From the thirteenth century until 1950, Marathi, especially for business use, was written in the Modi alphabet
Modi alphabet
— a cursive script designed for minimising the lifting of pen from paper while writing.[69] Consonant
Consonant
clusters in Devanagari[edit] In Devanagari, consonant letters by default come with an inherent schwa. Therefore, तयाचे will be 'təyāche', not 'tyāche'. To form 'tyāche', you will have to write it as त् + याचे, giving त्याचे. When two or more consecutive consonants are followed by a vowel then a jodakshar (consonant cluster) is formed. Some examples of consonant clusters are shown below:

त्याचे - tyāche - "his" प्रस्ताव - prastāva - "proposal" विद्या - vidyā - "knowledge" म्यान - myān "Sheath/scabbard" त्वरा - tvarā "immediate/Quick" महत्त्व - mahatttva - "importance" फक्त - phakta - "only" बाहुल्या - bāhulyā - "dolls"

In writing, Marathi has a few digraphs that are rarely seen in the world's languages, including those denoting the so-called "nasal aspirates" (ṇh, nh, and mh) and liquid aspirates (rh, ṟh, lh, and vh). Some examples are given below.

कण्हेरी - kaṇherī - "a shrub known for flowers"/ Oleander न्हाणे - nhāṇe - "bathing" म्हणून - mhaṇūna - "therefore" तऱ्हा - taṟhā - "different way of behaving" कोल्हा - kolhā - "fox" केंव्हा - keṃvhā - "when"

Grammar[edit] Main article: Marathi grammar Marathi grammar shares similarities with other modern Indo-Aryan languages. The first modern book exclusively concerning Marathi Grammar was printed in 1805 by William Carey. Marathi employs agglutinative, inflectional and analytical forms.[70] Unlike most other Indo-Aryan languages, Marathi preserves all three grammatical genders from Sanskrit: masculine, feminine and neuter. The primary word order of Marathi is subject–object–verb[71] Marathi follows a split-ergative pattern of verb agreement and case marking: it is ergative in constructions with either perfective transitive verbs or with the obligative ("should", "have to") and it is nominative elsewhere.[72] An unusual feature of Marathi, as compared to other Indo-European languages, is that it displays inclusive and exclusive we also found in Rajasthani and Gujarati and common to the Austronesian and Dravidian languages. Other similarities to Dravidian include the extensive use of participial constructions[70] and also to a certain extent the use of the two anaphoric pronouns swətah and apəṇ.[73] Numerous scholars have noted the existence of Dravidian linguistic patterns in the Marathi language.[74] Vocabulary[edit] Sharing of linguistic resources with other languages[edit]

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Marathi neon signboard at Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Police headquarters in Mumbai.

Over a period of many centuries the Marathi language
Marathi language
and people came into contact with many other languages and dialects. The primary influence of Prakrit, Maharashtri, Apabhraṃśa and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
is understandable. Marathi borrows a lot of its vocabulary from Sanskrit.[citation needed] Marathi has also shared directions, vocabulary and grammar with languages such as Indian Dravidian languages, and foreign languages such as Persian, Arabic, English and a little from Portuguese. While recent genome studies suggest some amount of political and trade relations between the Indian subcontinent and East Africa, Middle East, Central Asia over a millennium, these studies are still not conclusive about the exact effect on linguistics.[citation needed] Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, the noted freedom fighter and Hindutva Ideologue and also writer and poet in his own right,has contributed to Marathi language, by coining new Marathi equivalents for words from other languages, mostly English. Prior to these Marathi equivalents, words from other languages were used commonly which was unacceptable to Savarkar. He opined that intrusion of foreign words, polluted the Marathi language, while also rendering the original Marathi words, of the same meanings, obsolete.[citation needed] Following are some of the words coined and popularised by him for safeguarding cultural integrity: Marathi has also shared directions, vocabulary and grammar with languages such as Indian Dravidian languages, and foreign languages such as Persian, Arabic, English and a little from Portuguese. School: शाळा, College: महाविद्यालय, Academy: प्रबोधिका, Headmaster: मुख्याध्यापक, Superintendent of highschool: आचार्य, Principal: प्राचार्य, Professor: प्राध्यापक, Dispensary: औषधालय, Consulting room: चिकित्सालय, Vakil(an Urdu
Urdu
word): विधिज्ञ, Fauj, Lashkar(Urdu): सेना, सैन्य, Skirmish: चकमक, Camp: शिबीर, छावणी, Submarine: पाणबुडी, Telephone: दूरध्वनी, Television: दूरदर्शन, Circular: परिपत्रक, Chronicle: इतिवृत्त, Report: अहवाल, प्रतिवृत्त, Jindabad: की जय, जय हो, अमर हो, Legislature: विधी मंडळ, Parliamentarian: संसदपटू, Ahmedabad: कर्णावती, Arabian sea: पश्चिम समुद्र, सिंधुसागर, Hyderabad(south): भाग्यनगर, Cinema hall:चित्रपटगृह, Cinema: चित्रपट, Film: चित्रावली, चित्रपट्टिका, Interval: मध्यंतर, Studio: कलागृह, कलामंदिर, Shooting: चित्रण, Three dimension: त्रिमितीपट, Green groom: नेपथ्य, Photograph: छायाचित्र, Camera: छायिक, Portrait: व्यक्तिचित्र, Tape recorder: ध्वनिमुद्रा, Scenario: पटकथा, चित्रकथा, Trailer: परिचयपट, Music director: संगीत नियोजक, Director: दिग्दर्शक, Editor: संकलक,[citation needed] Morphology and etymology[edit]

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Spoken Marathi contains a high number of Sanskrit-derived (tatsama) words.[citation needed] Such words are for example nantar (from nantara or after), purṇa (purṇa or complete, full, or full measure of something), ola (ola or damp), karaṇ (karaṇa or cause), puṣkaḷ (puṣkala or much, many), satat (satata or always), vichitra (vichitra or strange), svatah (svatah or himself/herself), prayatna (prayatna or effort, attempt), bhīti (from bhīti, or fear) and bhāṇḍa (bhāṇḍa or vessel for cooking or storing food). Other words ("tadbhavas") have undergone phonological changes from their Sanskrit
Sanskrit
roots, for example dār (dwāra or door), ghar (gṛha or house), vāgh (vyāghra or tiger), paḷaṇe (palāyate or to run away), kiti (kati or how many) have undergone more modification. Examples of words borrowed from other Indian and foreign languages include:

Aḍakittā "nutcracker" directly borrowed from Kannada Akka "sister" borrowed from Tamil Hajērī Attendance from Haziri Urdu Jāhirāta "advertisement" is derived from Arabic
Arabic
zaahiraat Marjī "wish" is derived from Persian "marzi" Shiphārasa "recommendation" is derived from Persian sefaresh

A lot of English words are commonly used in conversation, and are considered to be assimilated into the Marathi vocabulary. These include "pen" (native Marathi lekhaṇii) and "shirt" (sadaraa). Compounds[edit] Marathi uses many morphological processes to join words together, forming compounds. For example, ati + uttam gives the word atyuttam, miith-bhaakar ("salt-bread"), udyog-patii ("businessman"), ashṭa-bhujaa ("eight-hands", name of a Hindu goddess). Counting[edit] Like many other languages, Marathi uses distinct names for the numbers 1 to 20 and each multiple of 10, and composite ones for those greater than 20. As with other Indic languages, there are distinct names for the fractions ​1⁄4, ​1⁄2, and ​3⁄4. They are paava, ardhaa, and pauṇa, respectively. For most fractions greater than 1, the prefixes savvaa-, saaḍe-, paavaṇe- are used. There are special names for ​3⁄2 (diiḍ) and ​5⁄2 (aḍich). Powers of ten are denoted by separate specific words as depicted in below table.

Number power to 10 Marathi Number name[75][76] In Devanagari

100 Ek एक

101 dahaa दहा

102 Shambhar शंभर

103 Hazaar (Sahasra, Ayut) सहस्र/हजार

104 Daha Hazaar (dash-sahasra) दशसहस्र/दशहजार

105 Laakh (laksha) लाख/लक्ष

106 DahaaLaakh (Dasha-Laksha) दशलक्ष

107 Koti (Karoda) कोटी

108 dasha-koti दशकोटी

109 Abja (Arbud, Arab) अब्ज

1010 dasha-Abja दशअब्ज

1011 Vrund वृंद

1012 Kharv (Kharab) खर्व

1013 Nikharv (Neela) निखर्व

1014 Sashastra सशस्त्र

1015 Mahaapadm (padma) महापद्म

1016 Kamal कमळ

1017 Shanku (shankha) शंकू

1017 Skand स्कंद

1018 Suvachya सुवाच्य

1019 jaladhi (samudra) जलधी

1020 Krutya कृत्य

1021 Antya अंत्य

1022 Aajanm आजन्म

1023 Madhy मध्य

1024 Laxmi लक्ष्मी

1025 paraardha परार्ध

A positive integer is read by breaking it up from the tens digit leftwards, into parts each containing two digits, the only exception being the hundreds place containing only one digit instead of two. For example, 1,234,567 is written as 12,34,567 and read as 12 laakha 34 hazaara 5 she 67. Every two-digit number after 18 (11 to 18 are predefined) is read backwards. For example, 21 is read एक-वीस (1-twenty). Also, a two digit number that ends with a 9 is considered to be the next tens place minus one. For example, 29 is एकुणतीस/एकोणतीस (एक-उणे-तीस)(Thirty minus one). Two digit numbers used before hazaara, etc. are written in the same way. Marathi on computers and the Internet[edit] Shrilipee, Shivaji, kothare 2,4,6, Kiran fonts KF-Kiran[77] and many more (about 48) are clip fonts that were used prior to the introduction of Unicode
Unicode
standard for Devanagari
Devanagari
script. Clip fonts are in vogue on PCs even today since most of the computers in use are working with English Keyboard. Even today a large number of printed publications of books, newspapers and magazines are prepared using these ASCII based fonts. However, clip fonts cannot be used on internet since those did not have unicode compatibility. Earlier Marathi suffered from weak support by computer operating systems and Internet
Internet
services, as have other Indian languages. But recently, with the introduction of language localisation projects and new technologies, various software and Internet
Internet
applications have been introduced. Various Marathi typing software is widely used and display interface packages are now available on Windows, Linux
Linux
and macOS. Many Marathi websites, including Marathi newspapers, have become popular especially with Maharashtrians outside India. Online projects such as the Marathi language, with 36,000+ articles, the Marathi blogroll and Marathi blogs have gained immense popularity.[78] Marathi Language Day[edit] Marathi Language Day (Marathi Dina, Marathi Diwasa : मराठी दिन/मराठी दिवस is celebrated on 27 February every year across the Indian states of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Goa. This day is regulated by the State Government. It is celebrated on the Birthday of eminent Marathi Poet Vi. Va. Shirwadkar.[79][80] Essay competitions and seminars are arranged in Schools and Colleges. Government officials are asked to conduct various events.[81] Marathi organisations[edit] Many government and semi-government organisations exist which work for the regulation, promotion and enrichment of the Marathi language. These are either initiated or funded by the government of Maharashtra. A few Marathi organisations are given below:[82]

Akhil Bharatiya keertan sanstha, Dadar, Mumbai Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Natya Parishad Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Sahitya Mahamandal (Central confederation of all Marathi organisations) Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Sahitya Parishad, Pune Marathi Kavita[83] Marathi Vishwakosh - Marathi encyclopaedia project Marathwada
Marathwada
Sahitya Parishad, Aurangabad Mumbai
Mumbai
Marathi Sahitya Sangh Rajya Marathi Vikas Sanstha[18] Shodh Marathicha Vidarbha
Vidarbha
Sahitya Sangh, Nagpur

Outside Maharashtra
Maharashtra
state[edit]

Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Mandal, Jabalpur[84] Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Marathi Sahitya Parishad, Hyderabad Marathi Granth Sangrahalay, Hyderabad Vivek Vardhini Shikshan Sanstha, Hyderabad Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Mandal, Hyderabad Vedic Dharma Prakashika High School, Hyderabad Gomantak Marathi Academy, Goa[85] Gomantak Sahitya Sevak mandal, Panaji, Goa[86] Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Sahitya Parishad, Jabalpur Marathi Sahitya Parishad, Karnataka Karnataka
Karnataka
Sahitya Parishad, Gulbarga[86] Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
Marathi Sahitya Parishad, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh[86] Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Marathi Sahitya Parishad, Bhopal[86] Vadodara
Vadodara
(Badode Sansthan-Gaikwad State), Gujarat
Gujarat
Rajya, Bharat Shri Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Sahitya Sabha, Indore Sanand Nyas, Indore Marathi Samaj, Indore Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Rangayan, Delhi Brihanna Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Mandal, an umbrella body of all Marathis who stay outside Maharashtra Marathi Association Sydney Incorporated, Sydney, Australia[87] Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Mandal, London[88] Marathi Bhashik Mandal, Toronto[89]

See also[edit]

Maharashtra
Maharashtra
portal

Konkani language Languages of India Languages with official status in India

References[edit]

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Bibliography[edit]

Bloch, J (1970). Formation of the Marathi Language. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-2322-8.  Dhongde, Ramesh Vaman; Wali, Kashi (2009). Marathi. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Pub. Co. ISBN 978-90-272-38139.  A Survey of Marathi Dialects. VIII. Gāwḍi, A. M. Ghatage & P. P. Karapurkar. The State Board for Literature and Culture, Bombay. 1972. Marathi: The Language and its Linguistic Traditions - Prabhakar Machwe, Indian and Foreign Review, 15 March 1985. 'Atyavashyak Marathi Vyakaran' (Essential Marathi Grammar) - Dr. V. L. Vardhe 'Marathi Vyakaran' (Marathi Grammar) - Moreshvar Sakharam More. 'Marathi Vishwakosh, Khand 12 (Marathi World Encyclopedia, Volume 12), Maharashtra
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Rajya Vishwakosh Nirmiti Mandal, Mumbai 'Marathyancha Itihaas' by Dr. Kolarkar, Shrimangesh Publishers, Nagpur 'History of Medieval Hindu India
India
from 600 CE to 1200 CE, by C. V. Vaidya Marathi Sahitya (Review of the Marathi Literature up to I960) by Kusumavati Deshpande, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Information Centre, New Delhi Christian Lee Novetzke (2016). The Quotidian Revolution: Vernacularization, Religion, and the Premodern Public Sphere in India. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-54241-8. 

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भारतीय भाषा ज्योति: मराठी —a textbook for learning Marathi through Hindi
Hindi
from the Central Institute of Indian Languages

Dictionaries

Molesworth, J. T. (James Thomas). A dictionary, Marathi and English. 2d ed., rev. and enl. Bombay: Printed for government at the Bombay Education Society's press, 1857. Vaze, Shridhar Ganesh. The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English. Poona: Arya-Bhushan Press, 1911. Tulpule, Shankar Gopal and Anne Feldhaus. A dictionary of old Marathi. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan, 1999. Marathi Wordnet English to Marathi and Marathi to English Dictionary Marathi Grammar

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Marathi

Grammar Phonology Literature Poetry Samyukta Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Movement Maharashtra
Maharashtra
State Marathi

Marathi language
Marathi language
as per location

East indians of Mumbai Puneri Kolhapuri Satari Nagari Malvani Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Marathi

Marathi as per Boli

Jhadi Boli Varhadi Boli Ahirani
Ahirani
Boli Khandeshi
Khandeshi
Boli Konkani Boli Vadvali Boli Samavedi Boli Southern Indian Marathi Boli Dangii Boli Judæo Boli Deshi Boli

Marathi scripts

Balbodh style of Devanagari Braille Modi Marathi romanization

Other

Marathi Cinema Marathi theatre Literature Marathi people
Marathi people
(List)

Language politics

Anti-Marathi agitations of Karnataka

Arts

Awards Sahitya Akademi
Sahitya Akademi
Award Jnanpith Award Writers Poets National Film Award Maharashtra

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State of Maharashtra

Capital: Mumbai
Mumbai
Second capital: Nagpur

Topics

History Geography Economy Tourism Highest point Marathi language Culture Marathi people Marathi literature Marathi cinema Maharashtrian cuisine Sports

Regions

Desh Khandesh Konkan Mumbai
Mumbai
Metropolitan Region Marathwada Vidarbha

Divisions and Districts

Amravati
Amravati
division

Akola Amravati Buldhana Washim Yavatmal

Konkan
Konkan
division

Mumbai Mumbai
Mumbai
Suburban Palghar Raigad Ratnagiri Sindhudurg Thane

Aurangabad division

Aurangabad Beed Jalna Osmanabad Nanded Latur Parbhani Hingoli

Nagpur
Nagpur
division

Bhandara Chandrapur Gadchiroli Gondia Nagpur Wardha

Nashik
Nashik
division

Ahmednagar Dhule Jalgaon Nandurbar Nashik

Pune
Pune
division

Kolhapur Pune Sangli Satara Solapur

Million-plus cities in Maharashtra

Mumbai Pune Nagpur Aurangabad Nashik Solapur Thane Pimpri-Chinchwad Kalyan-Dombivali Vasai-Virar Navi Mumbai

Other cities with municipal corporations

Ahmednagar Akola Amravati Bhiwandi-Nizampur Chandrapur Dhule Jalgaon Kolhapur Latur Malegaon Mira-Bhayandar Nanded Panvel Parbhani Sangli Ulhasnagar

Portal: Maharashtra

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Languages of India

Official languages

Union-level

Hindi English

8th schedule to the Constitution of India

Assamese Bengali Bodo Dogri Gujarati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Konkani Maithili Malayalam Meitei (Manipuri) Marathi Nepali Odia Punjabi Sanskrit Sindhi Santali Tamil Telugu Urdu

State-level only

Garo Gurung Khasi Kokborok Lepcha Limbu Mangar Mizo Newari Rai Sherpa Sikkimese Sunwar Tamang

Major unofficial languages

Over 1 million speakers

Angika Awadhi Bagheli Bagri Bajjika Bhili Bhojpuri Bundeli Chhattisgarhi Dhundhari Garhwali Gondi Harauti Haryanvi Ho Kangri Khandeshi Khortha Kumaoni Kurukh Lambadi Magahi Malvi Marwari Mewari Mundari Nimadi Rajasthani Sadri Surjapuri Tulu Wagdi Varhadi

100,000 – 1 million speakers

Adi Angami Ao Dimasa Halbi Karbi Kharia Kodava Kolami Konyak Korku Koya Kui Kuvi Ladakhi Lotha Malto Mishing Nishi Phom Rabha Sema Sora Tangkhul Thadou

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Modern Indo-Aryan languages

Dardic

Dameli Domaaki Gawar-Bati Indus Kohistani Kalami Kalash Kashmiri Khowar Kundal Shahi Mankiyali Nangalami Palula Pashayi Sawi Shina Shumashti Torwali Ushoji

Northern

Eastern

Doteli Jumli Nepali Palpa

Central

Garhwali Kumaoni

Western

Dogri Kangri Mandeali

North- western

Punjabi

Punjabi

dialects

Lahnda

Hindko Khetrani Pahari-Pothwari Saraiki

Sindhi

Jadgali Kutchi Luwati Memoni Sindhi

Western

Gujarati

Aer Gujarati Jandavra Koli Lisan ud-Dawat Parkari Koli Saurashtra Vaghri

Bhil

Bhili Gamit Kalto Vasavi

Rajasthani

Bagri Goaria Gujari Jaipuri Malvi Marwari Mewari Dhatki

Others

Domari Khandeshi Romani

list of languages

Central

Western

Braj Bhasha Bundeli Haryanvi Hindustani

Hindi

Bombay Hindi

Urdu

Dakhini Hyderabadi Urdu Rekhta

Khariboli Kannauji Sansi Sadhukadi

Eastern

Awadhi Bagheli Chhattisgarhi Fiji Hindi

Others

Danwar Parya

Eastern

Bihari

Angika Bhojpuri Caribbean Hindustani Vajjika Magahi Maithili Majhi Sadri

Bengali– Assamese

Assamese Bengali

dialects

Bishnupriya Manipuri Chakma Chittagonian Goalpariya Hajong Kamrupi Kharia Thar Kurmukar Rangpuri Rohingya Sylheti Tanchangya

Odia

Odia Kosli Bodo Parja Kupia Reli

Halbic

Halbi Bhatri Kamar Mirgan Nahari

Others

Mal Paharia

Southern

Marathi–Konkani

Konkani Kukna Marathi others..

Insular

Maldivian Sinhalese

Unclassified

Chinali Sheikhgal

Pidgins/ creoles

Andaman Creole Hindi Haflong Hindi Nagamese Nefamese Vedda

See also: Old and Middle Indo-Aryan; Indo-Iranian languages; Nuristani languages; Iranian languages

Authority control

GND: 4037440-3 SUDOC: 02788

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