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The MARATHA EMPIRE or the MARATHA CONFEDERACY was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
in the 18th century. The empire formally existed from 1674 with the coronation of Chhatrapati Shivaji
Shivaji
and ended in 1818 with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II . The Marathas
Marathas
are credited to a large extent for ending the Mughal rule in India.

The Marathas
Marathas
are a Hindu
Hindu
warrior group from the western Deccan Plateau (present day Maharashtra
Maharashtra
) that rose to prominence by establishing a Hindavi Swarajya . The Marathas
Marathas
became prominent in the seventeenth century under the leadership of Shivaji
Shivaji
who revolted against the Adil Shahi dynasty
Adil Shahi dynasty
and the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
and carved out a kingdom with Raigad as his capital. Known for their mobility, the Marathas
Marathas
were able to consolidate their territory during the Mughal–Maratha Wars and later controlled a large part of the Indian subcontinent.

Chhattrapati Shahu , grandson of Shivaji, was released by the Mughals after the death of Emperor Aurangzeb . Following a brief struggle with his aunt Tarabai
Tarabai
, Shahu became the ruler and appointed Balaji Vishwanath and later, his descendants, as the peshwas or prime ministers of the empire. Balaji and his descendants played a key role in the expansion of Maratha
Maratha
rule. The empire at its peak stretched from Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
in the south, to Peshawar (modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa , Pakistan
Pakistan
) in the north, and Bengal
Bengal
in the east. In 1761, the Maratha Army
Maratha Army
lost the Third Battle of Panipat
Third Battle of Panipat
to Ahmad Shah Abdali of the Afghan Durrani Empire which halted their imperial expansion into Afghanistan
Afghanistan
. Ten years after Panipat, the young Peshwa Madhavrao I
Madhavrao I
's Maratha Resurrection reinstated Maratha
Maratha
authority over North India
India
.

In a bid to effectively manage the large empire, Madhavrao I
Madhavrao I
gave semi-autonomy to the strongest of the knights, which created a confederacy of Maratha
Maratha
states. They became known as the Gaekwads of Baroda
Baroda
, the Holkars of Indore and Malwa , the Scindias of Gwalior
Gwalior
and Ujjain , the Bhonsales of Nagpur
Nagpur
and the Puars of Dhar and Dewas
Dewas
. In 1775, the East India
India
Company intervened in a Peshwa family succession struggle in Pune
Pune
, which led to the First Anglo-Maratha War , resulting in a Maratha
Maratha
victory. The Marathas
Marathas
remained the pre-eminent power in India
India
until their defeat in the Second and Third Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
Wars (1805-1818 CE) which left the East India
India
Company in control of most of India.

A large portion of the Maratha
Maratha
empire was coastline, which had been secured by the potent Maratha Navy under commanders such as Kanhoji Angre . He was very successful at keeping foreign naval ships, particularly of the Portuguese and British, at bay. Securing the coastal areas and building land-based fortifications were crucial aspects of the Maratha's defensive strategy and regional military history .

CONTENTS

* 1 Nomenclature * 2 History

* 3 Shivaji
Shivaji
and his descendants

* 3.1 Shivaji
Shivaji
* 3.2 Sambhaji * 3.3 Rajaram and Tarabai
Tarabai
* 3.4 Shahu

* 4 Peshwa era

* 4.1 Balaji Vishwanath * 4.2 Baji Rao
Baji Rao
I

* 4.3 Balaji Baji Rao
Baji Rao

* 4.3.1 Maratha\'s Afghan conquests * 4.3.2 Maratha
Maratha
invasion of Delhi
Delhi
and Rohilkhand * 4.3.3 Third battle of Panipat

* 4.4 Peshwa Madhav Rao I

* 5 Confederacy era

* 5.1 Major events * 5.2 British intervention

* 6 Administration * 7 Geography

* 8 Legacy

* 8.1 Navy

* 9 Accounts by Afghans and Europeans

* 10 Notable generals and administrators

* 10.1 Ramchandra Pant Amatya Bawdekar * 10.2 Nana Phadnavis
Nana Phadnavis

* 11 Personalities

* 11.1 Royal houses

* 11.2 Peshwas

* 11.2.1 Peshwas From Bhat Family

* 12 Clans * 13 Maps showing the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
at different stages of history * 14 Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Maratha
Maratha
Kingdom (Tamil Nadu) * 15 See also * 16 Footnotes * 17 Citations * 18 Bibliography

NOMENCLATURE

The Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
is also referred to as the Maratha
Maratha
Confederacy. The historian Barbara Ramusack says that the former is a designation preferred by Indian nationalists, while the latter was that used by British historians. She notes, "neither term is fully accurate since one implies a substantial degree of centralisation and the other signifies some surrender of power to a central government and a longstanding core of political administrators. Maratha
Maratha
power was fragmented among several discrete fragments".

Although at present, the word Maratha
Maratha
refers to a particular caste of warriors and peasants, in the past the word has been used to describe Marathi people , including Marathas
Marathas
themselves.

HISTORY

The empire had its head in the Chhatrapati as de jure, but the de facto governance was in the hands of the Peshwas. After the death of Chhatrapati Shahu and with the death of Madhavrao - I, various chiefs played the role of the de facto rulers in their own regions. The details are as below.

SHIVAJI AND HIS DESCENDANTS

SHIVAJI

A portrait of Chattrapati Shivaji
Shivaji
Main article: Shivaji
Shivaji

Shivaji
Shivaji
was a Maratha
Maratha
aristocrat of the Bhosle clan who is considered to be the historical founder of the Maratha
Maratha
empire. Shivaji
Shivaji
led a resistance to free the Maratha
Maratha
people from the Sultanate of Bijapur from 1645 and establish Hindavi Swarajya (self-rule of Hindu
Hindu
people ). He created an independent Maratha
Maratha
kingdom with Raigad as its capital and successfully fought against the Mughals to defend his kingdom. He was crowned as Chhatrapati (sovereign) of the new Maratha
Maratha
kingdom in 1674. The state Shivaji
Shivaji
founded was a Maratha
Maratha
kingdom comprising about 4.1% of the subcontinent, but spread over large tracts. At the time of his death it was dotted with about 300 forts, about 40,000 cavalry, 50,000 foot soldiers and naval establishments all over the west coast. Over time, the kingdom would increase in size and heterogeneity; by the time of his grandson, and later on under the Peshwas in the early 18th century, it was a full-fledged empire.

SAMBHAJI

Main article: Sambhaji Sambhaji Bhosle

Shivaji
Shivaji
had two sons: Sambhaji and Rajaram . Sambhaji, the elder son, was very popular among the courtiers. In 1681, Sambhaji had himself crowned and resumed his father's expansionist policies. Sambhaji had earlier defeated the Portuguese and Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore
Mysore
. To nullify any Rajput- Maratha
Maratha
alliance as well as the Deccan Sultanates , the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb himself headed south in 1681. With his entire imperial court, administration and an army of about 500,000 troops he proceeded to build the empire, gaining territories such as the sultanates of Bijapur and Golconda
Golconda
. During the eight years that followed, Sambhaji led the Marathas, never losing a battle or a fort to Aurangzeb.

In early 1689, Sambhaji called his commanders for a strategic meeting at Sangameshwar to consider a final onslaught on the Mughal forces. In a meticulously planned operation, Ganoji Shirke and Aurangzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan, attacked Sangameshwar when Sambhaji was accompanied by a few men. Sambhaji was ambushed and captured by Mughal troops on February 01, 1689. He and his advisor, Kavi Kalash, were taken to Bahadurgad, where they were executed for rebellion against the Mughals on 11 March 1689.

RAJARAM AND TARABAI

Main articles: Rajaram and Tarabai
Tarabai

Upon Sambhaji's death, Rajaram, his half-brother, assumed the throne. The Mughal siege of Raigad continued and he had to flee to Vishalgad and then to Gingee for safety. From there the Marathas
Marathas
raided Mughal territory and many forts were recaptured by Maratha
Maratha
commanders such as Santaji Ghorpade , Dhanaji Jadhav , Parshuram Pant Pratinidhi , Shankaraji Narayan Sacheev and Melgiri Pandit. In 1697, Rajaram offered a truce but this was rejected by Aurangzeb. Rajaram died in 1700 at Sinhagad . His widow, Tarabai
Tarabai
, assumed control in the name of her son, Ramaraja ( Shivaji
Shivaji
II). She led the Marathas
Marathas
against the Mughals and by 1705 they had crossed the Narmada River
Narmada River
and entered Malwa, then in Mughal possession.

SHAHU

After Aurangzeb's death in 1707, Shahu , son of Sambhaji (and grandson of Shivaji), was released by Bahadur Shah I , the new Mughal emperor but his mother was kept a hostage of the Mughals in order to ensure that Shahu adhered to the release conditions. Upon release, Shahu immediately claimed the Maratha
Maratha
throne and challenged his aunt Tarabai
Tarabai
and her son. This promptly turned the now-spluttering Mughal- Maratha
Maratha
war into a three-cornered affair. The states of Satara and Kolhapur
Kolhapur
came into being in 1707, because of the succession dispute over the Maratha
Maratha
kingship. However, Shahu was finally accepted as Chhatrapati of the Marathas. His mother was still held captive and he could only obtain her release in 1719 when the Marathas
Marathas
became strong enough.

Shahu appointed Balaji Vishwanath as Peshwa. During the regime of Shahu, Raghuji Bhosale expanded the empire in East reaching present-day Bengal
Bengal
. Senapati Dabhade expanded in the West. Peshwa Bajirao and his three chiefs Pawar ( Dhar ), Holkar
Holkar
(Indore) and Scindia
Scindia
(Gwalior) expanded in North. All these houses became hereditary, thereby eventually undermining the Chhatrapati's authority there.

PESHWA ERA

Shaniwarwada palace fort in Pune
Pune
, it was the seat of the Peshwa rulers of the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
until 1818.

During this era, Peshwas belonging to the Bhat family
Bhat family
controlled the Maratha Army
Maratha Army
and later became de facto rulers of the Maratha
Maratha
Empire. During their reign, the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
dominated most of the Indian subcontinent.

BALAJI VISHWANATH

Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath

Shahu appointed Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath in 1713. From his time, the office of Peshwa became supreme while Shahuji became a figure head.

* His first major achievement was the conclusion of the Treaty of Lanavala in 1714 with Kanhoji Angre
Kanhoji Angre
, the most powerful naval chief on the Western Coast. He later joined the Marathas.

* In 1719, an army of Marathas
Marathas
marched up to Delhi
Delhi
along with Sayyid Hussain Ali, the Mughal governor of Deccan and managed to depose the Mughal emperor. Thus, Marathas
Marathas
realised for the first time their potential to make and unmake Mughal Emperors.

BAJI RAO I

Peshwa Baji Rao
Baji Rao
I

After Balaji Vishwanath's death in April 1720, his son, Baji Rao
Baji Rao
I , was appointed Peshwa by Shahu. Bajirao is credited with expanding the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
tenfold from 3% to 30% of the modern Indian landscape during 1720–1740. He fought over 41 battles before his death in April 1740 and is reputed to have never lost one.

* The Battle of Palkhed was a land battle that took place on February 28, 1728 at the village of Palkhed, near the city of Nashik, Maharashtra, India
India
between Baji Rao
Baji Rao
I and the Qamar-ud-din Khan, Asaf Jah I of Hyderabad. The Marathas
Marathas
defeated the Nizam
Nizam
.The battle is considered an example of brilliant execution of military strategy. * In 1737, Marathas
Marathas
under Bajirao I raided the suburbs of Delhi
Delhi
in a blitzkrieg in the Battle of Delhi
Delhi
(1737) . * The Nizam
Nizam
left Deccan to rescue Mughals from the invasion of Marathas, but was defeated decisively in the Battle of Bhopal . The Marathas
Marathas
extracted a large tribute from the Mughals and signed a treaty which ceded Malwa to the Marathas. * The Battle of Vasai was fought between the Marathas
Marathas
and the Portuguese rulers of Vasai , a village lying on northern shore of Vasai creek, 50 km north of Mumbai
Mumbai
. The Marathas
Marathas
were led by Chimaji Appa , brother of Baji Rao. Maratha
Maratha
victory in this war was a major achievement of Baji Rao's time in office.

BALAJI BAJI RAO

Peshwa Balaji Bajirao

Baji Rao's son, Balaji Bajirao (Nanasaheb), was appointed as the next Peshwa by Shahuji despite opposition of other chiefs.

* In 1740, the Maratha
Maratha
forces came down upon Arcot and defeated the Nawab of Arcot , Dost Ali, in the pass at Damalcherry. In the war that followed, Dost Ali, one of his sons Hasan Ali, and a number of other prominent persons lost their lives. This initial success at once enhanced Maratha
Maratha
prestige in the south. From Damalcherry, the Marathas proceeded to Arcot, which surrendered to them without much resistance. Then, Raghuji invaded Trichinopoly in December 1740. Unable to resist, Chanda Saheb surrendered the fort to Raghuji on March 14, 1741. Chanda Saheb and his son were arrested and sent to Nagpur. * After the successful campaign of Karnatak and the Battle of Trichinopolly , Raghuji returned from Karnatak. He undertook six expeditions in Bengal
Bengal
from 1741 to 1748. Raghuji was able to annex Odisha
Odisha
to his kingdom permanently as he successfully exploited the chaotic conditions prevailing in Bengal
Bengal
, Bihar
Bihar
and Odisha
Odisha
after the death of their Governor, Murshid Quli Khan , in 1727. Constantly harassed by the Bhonsles, Odisha
Odisha
or Cuttack, Bengal
Bengal
and parts of Bihar were economically ruined. Alivardi Khan, Nawab of Bengal
Bengal
made peace with Raghuji in 1751 ceding in perpetuity Cuttack up to the river Subarnarekha, and agreeing to pay Rs.1.2 million annually in lieu of the Chauth of Bengal
Bengal
and Bihar. * Rajputana
Rajputana
also came under Maratha
Maratha
domination during this time.

Maratha\'s Afghan Conquests

* Balaji Bajirao encouraged agriculture, protected the villagers and brought about a marked improvement in the state of the territory. Continued expansion saw Raghunath Rao , brother of Nanasaheb, pushing into in the wake of the Afghan withdrawal after Ahmed Shah Abdali
Ahmed Shah Abdali
's plunder of Delhi
Delhi
in 1756. Delhi
Delhi
was captured by the Maratha
Maratha
army under Raghunath Rao in August 1757 defeating Afghan garrison in the Battle of Delhi
Delhi
. This laid the foundation for the Maratha
Maratha
conquest of North-west India
India
. In Lahore
Lahore
, as in Delhi, the Marathas
Marathas
were now major players. After Battle of Attock, 1758 , the Marathas
Marathas
captured Peshawar defeating the Afghan troops in the Battle of Peshawar on 8 May 1758. As noted by J.C. Grant Duff:

The pre-eminence to which the Mahrattas had attained was animating and glorious; their right to tribute was acknowledged on the banks of the Coleroon (the lower Kaveri
Kaveri
in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
) and the Deccan horse had quenched their thirst from the waters of the Indus.

Maratha
Maratha
Invasion Of Delhi
Delhi
And Rohilkhand

Just prior to the battle of Panipat in 1761, Marathas
Marathas
looted "Diwan-i-Khas" or Hall of Private Audiences in the Red Fort
Red Fort
of Delhi, which was the place where the Mughal emperors used to receive courtiers and state guests, in one of their expeditions of Delhi.

"The Marathas
Marathas
who were hard pressed for money stripped the ceiling of Diwan-i-Khas of its silver and looted the shrines dedicated to Muslim saints".

During the Maratha
Maratha
invasion of Rohilkhand in the 1750s

"The Marathas
Marathas
defeated the Rohillas, forced them to seek shelter in hills and ransacked their country in such a manner that the Rohillas dreaded the Marathas
Marathas
and hated them ever afterwards".

Third Battle Of Panipat

In 1759, The Marathas
Marathas
under Sadashivrao Bhau (referred to as the Bhau or Bhao in sources) responded to the news of the Afghans' return to North India
India
by sending a big army North. Bhau's force was bolstered by some Maratha
Maratha
forces under Holkar
Holkar
, Scindia
Scindia
, Gaikwad and Govind Pant Bundele . The combined army of over 100,000 regular troops had re-captured the former Mughal capital, Delhi, from an Afghan garrison in August 1760. Delhi
Delhi
had been reduced to ashes many times due to previous invasions and in addition there being acute shortage of supplies in the Maratha
Maratha
camp. Bhau ordered the sacking of the already depopulated city. He is said to have planned to place his nephew and the Peshwa's son, Vishwasrao , on the Mughal throne. By 1760, with defeat of the Nizam
Nizam
in the Deccan , Maratha
Maratha
power had reached its zenith with a territory of over 2,800,000 km² acres. Signature Maratha
Maratha
helmet with curved back, front view Signature Maratha helmet with curved back, side view. Maratha
Maratha
Armour from Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Ahmad Shah Durrani , then called the Rohillas and the Nawab of Oudh to assist him in driving out the infidel Marathas
Marathas
from Delhi. Huge armies of Muslim forces and Marathas
Marathas
collided with each other on January 14, 1761 in the Third Battle of Panipat
Third Battle of Panipat
. The Maratha
Maratha
Army lost the battle which halted their imperial expansion. The Jats and Rajputs did not support the Marathas. Their withdrawal from the ensuing battle played a crucial role in its result. Historians have criticised the Maratha
Maratha
treatment of fellow Hindu
Hindu
groups. Kaushik Roy says "The treatment of Marathas
Marathas
with their co-religionist fellows – Jats and Rajputs was definitely unfair and ultimately they had to pay its price in Panipat where Muslim forces had united in the name of religion." The Marathas
Marathas
had antagonised the Jats and Rajputs by taxing them heavily, punishing them after defeating the Mughals and interfering in their internal affairs. The Marathas
Marathas
were abandoned by Raja
Raja
Suraj Mal
Suraj Mal
of Bharatpur and the Rajputs who quit the Maratha alliance at Agra
Agra
before the start of the great battle and withdrew their troops as Maratha
Maratha
general Sadashivrao Bhau did not heed the advice to leave soldier's families (women and children) and pilgrims at Agra
Agra
and not take them to the battle field with the soldiers, rejected their co-operation. Their supply chains (earlier assured by Raja
Raja
Suraj Mal
Suraj Mal
and Rajputs) did not exist.

PESHWA MADHAV RAO I

Peshwa Madhavrao I
Madhavrao I

Peshwa Madhavrao I
Madhavrao I
was the fourth Peshwa of the Maratha
Maratha
Empire. It was during his tenure that the Maratha Resurrection took place. He worked as a unifying force in the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
and moved to the south to subdue Nizam
Nizam
and Mysore
Mysore
to assert Maratha
Maratha
power. He sent generals such as Bhonsle, Scindia
Scindia
and Holkar
Holkar
to the north, where they re-established Maratha
Maratha
authority by the early 1770s.

Prof G. S. Chhabra wrote:

Young though he was, Madhav Rao had a cool and calculating head of a seasoned and experienced man. The diplomacy by which he could win over his uncle Raghoba when he had no strength to fight and the way he could crush his power when he had the means to do so later on proved in him a genius who knows when and how to act. The formidable power of the Nizam
Nizam
was crushed, Hyder Ali, who was a terror even to the British, was effectually humbled and before he died in 1772, the Marathas
Marathas
were almost there in the north where they had been before Panipat. What could not have the Marathas
Marathas
achieved if Madhav had continued living just for a few years more? Destiny was not in favour of the Marathas, the death of Madhav was a greater blow than their defeat of Panipat and from this blow they could never again recover.

Madhav Rao died in 1772, at the age of 27. His death is considered to be a fatal blow to the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
and from that time Maratha
Maratha
power started to move on a downward trajectory, less an empire than a confederacy.

CONFEDERACY ERA

Mahadaji Scindia
Scindia
restored the Maratha
Maratha
domination on northern India.

In a bid to effectively manage the large empire, Madhavrao Peshwa gave semi-autonomy to the strongest of the knights. After the death of Peshwa Madhavrao I
Madhavrao I
, various chiefs and statesman became de facto rulers and regents for the infant Peshwa Madhavrao II
Madhavrao II
. Thus, the semi-autonomous Maratha
Maratha
states came into being in far-flung regions of the empire:

* Peshwas of Pune * Gaekwads of Baroda
Baroda
* Holkars of Indore * Scindias (aka Shindes) of Gwalior
Gwalior
(Chambal region) and Ujjain ( Malwa Region). * Bhonsales of Nagpur
Nagpur
(no blood relation with Shivaji's or Tarabai 's family) * Puars (or Pawars ) of Dewas
Dewas
and Dhar * Even in the original kingdom of Shivaji
Shivaji
itself, many knights were given semi-autonomous charges of small districts, which led to princely states Sangli , Aundh , Bhor , Bawda, Phaltan , Miraj
Miraj
, etc. Pawars of Udgir
Udgir
were also part of confederacy.

MAJOR EVENTS

* After the 1761 Battle of Panipat, Malhar Rao Holkar
Holkar
attacked the Rajputs and defeated them at the battle of Mangrol. This largely restored Maratha
Maratha
power in Rajasthan
Rajasthan
. * Under the leadership of Mahadji Shinde
Mahadji Shinde
, the ruler of the state of Gwalior
Gwalior
in central India, the Marathas
Marathas
defeated the Jats, the Rohilla Afghans and took Delhi
Delhi
which remained under Maratha
Maratha
control for the next three decades. His forces conquered modern day Haryana Shinde was instrumental in resurrecting Maratha
Maratha
power after the débâcle of the Third Battle of Panipat, and in this he was assisted by Benoît de Boigne . * In 1767 Madhavrao I
Madhavrao I
crossed the Krishna River
Krishna River
and defeated Hyder Ali in the battles of Sira and Madgiri. He also rescued the last queen of the Keladi Nayaka Kingdom , who had been kept in confinement by Hyder Ali in the fort of Madgiri. * In early 1771, ten years after the collapse of Maratha
Maratha
authority over North India
India
following the Third Battle of Panipat, Mahadji recaptured Delhi
Delhi
and installed Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
as a puppet ruler on the Mughal throne. receiving in return the title of deputy Vakil-ul-Mutlak or vice-regent of the Empire
Empire
and that of Vakil-ul-Mutlak being at his request conferred on the Peshwa. The Mughals also gave him the title of Amir-ul-Amara (head of the amirs).

Maratha
Maratha
king of Gwalior
Gwalior
at his palace.

* After taking control of Delhi, the Marathas
Marathas
sent a large army in 1772 to punish Afghan Rohillas for their involvement in Panipat. Their army devastated Rohilkhand by looting and plundering as well as taking members of the royal family as captives. * After the growth in power of feudal lords like Malwa sardars, landlords of Bundelkhand and Rajput
Rajput
kingdoms of Rajasthan, they refused to pay tribute to Mahadji. So he sent his army conquer the states such as Bhopal , Datiya, Chanderi, Narwar, Salbai and Gohad. However, he launched an unsuccessful expedition against the Raja
Raja
of Jaipur, but withdrew after the inconclusive Battle of Lalsot in 1787. * The Battle of Gajendragad was fought between the Marathas
Marathas
under the command of Tukojirao Holkar
Holkar
(the adopted son of Malharrao Holkar) and Tipu Sultan from March 1786 to March 1787 in which Tipu Sultan was defeated by the Marathas. By the victory in this battle, the border of the Maratha
Maratha
territory extended till Tungabhadra river. * The strong fort of Gwalior
Gwalior
was then in the hands of Chhatar Singh , the Jat
Jat
ruler of Gohad . In 1783, Mahadji besieged the fort of Gwalior
Gwalior
and conquered it. He delegated the administration of Gwalior to Khanderao Hari Bhalerao. After celebrating the conquest of Gwalior, Mahadji Shinde
Mahadji Shinde
turned his attention to Delhi
Delhi
again. * In 1788, Mahadji's armies defeated Ismail Beg
Ismail Beg
, a Mughal noble who resisted the Marathas. The Rohilla chief Ghulam Kadir, Ismail Beg's ally, took over Delhi, capital of the Mughal dynasty and deposed and blinded the king Shah Alam II, placing a puppet on the Delhi
Delhi
throne. Mahadji intervened and killed him, taking possession of Delhi
Delhi
on October 02 restoring Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
to the throne and acting as his protector. * Jaipur
Jaipur
and Jodhpur
Jodhpur
, the two most powerful Rajput
Rajput
states, were still out of direct Maratha
Maratha
domination. So, Mahadji sent his general Benoît de Boigne to crush the forces of Jaipur
Jaipur
and Jodhpur
Jodhpur
at the Battle of Patan . Marwar was also captured on September 10, 1790. * Another achievement of the Marathas
Marathas
was their victories over the Nizam
Nizam
of Hyderabad's armies including in the Battle of Kharda .

BRITISH INTERVENTION

Main article: Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
Wars A mural depicting the British surrender during the First Anglo-Maratha War . The mural is a part of the Victory Memorial (Vijay Stambh) located at Vadgaon Maval
Vadgaon Maval
(Off NH-4, Malinagar, Vadgaon Maval
Vadgaon Maval
, Pune
Pune
)

In 1775, the British East India
India
Company, from its base in Bombay, intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, on behalf of Raghunathrao (also called Raghobadada), who wanted to become Peshwa of the empire. Marathas
Marathas
forces under Tukojirao Holkar
Holkar
and Mahadaji Shinde defeated a British expeditionary force at the Battle of Wadgaon , but the heavy surrender terms, which included the return of annexed territory and a share of revenues, were disavowed by the British authorities at Bengal and fighting continued. What became known as the First Anglo-Maratha War ended in 1782 with a restoration of the pre-war status quo and the East India
India
Company's abandonment of Raghunathrao's cause. Peshwa Madhavrao II
Madhavrao II
in his court in 1790, concluding a treaty with British.

In 1799, Yashwantrao Holkar
Holkar
was crowned King of Holkars, he captured Ujjain. He started campaigning towards the north to expand his empire in that region. Yashwant Rao rebelled against the policies of the Peshwa Baji Rao II
Baji Rao II
. In May 1802, he marched towards Pune
Pune
the seat of the Peshwa. This gave rise to the Battle of Poona in which the Peshwa was defeated. After the Battle of Poona, the flight of Peshwa left the government of Maratha
Maratha
state in the hands of Yashwantrao Holkar. He appointed Amrutrao as the Peshwa and went to Indore on March 13, 1803. All except Gaikwad chief of Baroda
Baroda
, who had already accepted British protection by a separate treaty on July 26, 1802, supported the new regime. He made a treaty with the British. Also, Yashwant-Rao successfully resolved the disputes with Scindia
Scindia
and the Peshwa. He tried to unite the Maratha
Maratha
Confederacy but to no avail. In 1802, the British intervened in Baroda
Baroda
to support the heir to the throne against rival claimants and they signed a treaty with the new Maharaja recognising his independence from the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
in return for his acknowledgement of British paramountcy. Before the Second Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War (1803–1805), the Peshwa Baji Rao II
Baji Rao II
signed a similar treaty. The defeat in Battle of Delhi, 1803 during Second Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War resulted in the loss of the city of Delhi
Delhi
for the Marathas.

The Second Anglo-Maratha War
Second Anglo-Maratha War
represents the military high-water mark of the Marathas
Marathas
who posed the last serious opposition to the formation of the British Raj. The real contest for India
India
was never a single decisive battle for the subcontinent. Rather it turned on a complex social and political struggle for control of the South Asian military economy. The victory in 1803 hinged as much on finance, diplomacy, politics and intelligence as it did on battlefield manoeuvre and war itself. Battle of Assaye
Battle of Assaye
during the Second Anglo-Maratha War
Second Anglo-Maratha War
.

Ultimately, the Third Anglo-Maratha War
Third Anglo-Maratha War
(1817–1818) resulted in the loss of Maratha
Maratha
independence. It left the British in control of most of India. The Peshwa was exiled to Bithoor (Marat, near Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh ) as a pensioner of the British. The Maratha
Maratha
heartland of Desh, including Pune, came under direct British rule, with the exception of the states of Kolhapur
Kolhapur
and Satara , which retained local Maratha
Maratha
rulers (descendants of Shivaji
Shivaji
and Sambhaji II ruled over Kolhapur). The Maratha-ruled states of Gwalior, Indore, and Nagpur
Nagpur
all lost territory and came under subordinate alliance with the British Raj as princely states that retained internal sovereignty under British paramountcy. Other small princely states of Maratha
Maratha
knights were retained under the British Raj
British Raj
as well. Peshwa Baji Rao
Baji Rao
II signing of the Treaty of Bassein with the British.

The Third Anglo-Maratha War
Third Anglo-Maratha War
was fought by Maratha
Maratha
war lords separately instead of forming a common front and they surrendered one by one. Shinde and the Pashtun Amir Khan were subdued by the use of diplomacy and pressure, which resulted in the Treaty of Gwalior
Gwalior
on November 05, 1817. All other Maratha
Maratha
chiefs like Holkars, Bhonsles and Peshwa gave up arms by 1818. British historian Percival Spear describes 1818 as a watershed year in the history of India
India
, saying that by the year "the British dominion in India
India
became the British dominion of India".

The war left the British, under the auspices of the British East India
India
Company, in control of virtually all of present-day India
India
south of the Sutlej River
Sutlej River
. The famed Nassak Diamond
Nassak Diamond
was acquired by the Company as part of the spoils of the war. The British acquired large chunks of territory from the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
and in effect put an end to their most dynamic opposition. The terms of surrender Major-general John Malcolm offered to the Peshwa were controversial amongst the British for being too liberal: The Peshwa was offered a luxurious life near Kanpur and given a pension of about 80,000 pounds.

ADMINISTRATION

See also: Ashtapradhan Maratha
Maratha
Court

The Ashtapradhan (The Council of Eight) was a council of eight ministers that administered the Maratha
Maratha
empire. This system was formed by Shivaji. Ministerial designations were drawn from the Sanskrit language and comprised:

* Pantpradhan or Peshwa Prime Minister
Prime Minister
, general administration of the Empire. * Amatya or Mazumdar – Finance Minister , managing accounts of the Empire. * Sacheev – Secretary
Secretary
, preparing royal edicts. * Mantri – Interior Minister , managing internal affairs especially intelligence and espionage. * Senapati – Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
, managing the forces and defence of the Empire. * Sumant – Foreign Minister , to manage relationships with other sovereigns. * Nyayadhish – Chief Justice , dispensing justice on civil and criminal matters. * Panditrao – High Priest , managing internal religious matters.

With the notable exception of the priestly Panditrao and the judicial Nyayadisha, the other pradhans held full-time military commands and their deputies performed their civil duties in their stead. In the later era of the Maratha
Maratha
Empire, these deputies and their staff constituted the core of the Peshwa's bureaucracy.

The Peshwa was the titular equivalent of a modern Prime Minister. Shivaji
Shivaji
created the Peshwa designation in order to more effectively delegate administrative duties during the growth of the Maratha Empire. Prior to 1749, Peshwas held office for 8–9 years and controlled the Maratha Army
Maratha Army
. They later became the de facto hereditary administrators of the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
from 1749 till its end in 1818.

Under Peshwa administration and with the support of several key generals and diplomats (listed below), the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
reached its zenith, ruling most of the Indian subcontinent. It was also under the Peshwas that the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
came to its end through its formal annexation into the British Empire
British Empire
by the British East India
India
Company in 1818. Gold coins minted during Shivaji's era, 17th century.

The Marathas
Marathas
used secular policy of administration and allowed complete freedom of religion . There were many notable Muslims in the military and administration of Marathas
Marathas
like Ibrahim Khan Gardi , Haider Ali Kohari, Daulat Khan, Siddi Ibrahim, and Jiva Mahal.

Shivaji
Shivaji
was an able administrator who established a government that included modern concepts such as cabinet, foreign policy and internal intelligence . He established an effective civil and military administration. He believed that there was a close bond between the state and the citizens. He is remembered as a just and welfare-minded king. Cosme da Guarda says of him that:

Such was the good treatment Shivaji
Shivaji
accorded to people and such was the honesty with which he observed the capitulations that none looked upon him without a feeling of love and confidence. By his people he was exceedingly loved. Both in matters of reward and punishment he was so impartial that while he lived he made no exception for any person; no merit was left unrewarded, no offence went unpunished; and this he did with so much care and attention that he specially charged his governors to inform him in writing of the conduct of his soldiers, mentioning in particular those who had distinguished themselves, and he would at once order their promotion, either in rank or in pay, according to their merit. He was naturally loved by all men of valor and good conduct.

GEOGRAPHY

The Maratha
Maratha
Empire, at its peak, ruled over a large area in the Indian sub-continent. Apart from capturing various regions, the Marathas
Marathas
maintained a large number of tributaries who were bounded by agreement to pay a certain amount of regular tax, known as Chauth . The empire defeated the Sultanate of Mysore
Mysore
under Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan , Nawab of Oudh , Nawab of Bengal
Bengal
, Nizam
Nizam
of Hyderabad and Nawab of Arcot as well as the Polygar
Polygar
kingdoms of South India. They extracted chauth from the rulers in Delhi, Oudh, Bengal, Bihar
Bihar
, Odisha
Odisha
, Punjab
Punjab
, Hyderabad, Mysore, Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
and Rajputana
Rajputana
.

The Marathas
Marathas
were requested by Safdarjung , the Nawab of Oudh, in 1752 to help him defeat Afghani Rohilla. The Maratha
Maratha
force left Pune and defeated Afghan Rohilla in 1752, capturing the whole of Rohilkhand (present-day northwestern Uttar Pradesh). In 1752, Marathas
Marathas
entered into an agreement with the Mughal emperor, through his wazir, Safdarjung, Mughals gave Marathas
Marathas
the chauth of Punjab
Punjab
, Sindh and Doab in addition to the subedari of Ajmer
Ajmer
and Agra
Agra
. In 1758, Marathas
Marathas
started their north-west conquest and expanded their boundary till Afghanistan. They defeated Afghan forces of Ahmed Shah Abdali
Ahmed Shah Abdali
, in what is now Pakistan, including Pakistani Punjab
Punjab
Province and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
. The Afghans were numbered around 25,000–30,000 and were led by Timur Shah , the son of Ahmad Shah Durrani . The Marathas
Marathas
massacred and looted thousands of Afghan soldiers and captured Lahore
Lahore
, Multan
Multan
, Dera Ghazi Khan , Attock
Attock
, Peshawar in the Punjab
Punjab
region and Kashmir.

During the confederacy era, Mahadji Sindhia resurrected the Maratha domination on much of North India, which was lost after the Third battle of Panipat including the cis-Sutlej states (south of Sutlej) like Kaithal , Patiala , Jind , Thanesar , Maler Kotla and Faridkot , Delhi
Delhi
and Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
were under the suzerainty of the Scindhias of the Maratha
Maratha
Empire, following the Second Anglo-Maratha War
Second Anglo-Maratha War
of 1803–1805, Marathas
Marathas
lost these territories to the British East India Company.

LEGACY

NAVY

Main article: Maratha Navy A painted scroll depicting different types of ships of the Marathan Navy including some captured English ships

The Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
is credited with laying the foundation of the Indian Navy and bringing about considerable changes in naval warfare by introducing a blue-water navy . From its inception in 1674, the Marathas
Marathas
established a naval force, consisting of cannons mounted on ships. The 'Pal' was a three-masted Maratha
Maratha
man-of-war with guns on its broadsides .

The dominance of the Maratha Navy started with the ascent of Kanhoji Angre as the Darya-Saranga by the Maratha
Maratha
chief of Satara . Under that authority, he was admiral of the Western coast of India
India
from Bombay to Vingoria (now Vengurla
Vengurla
) in the present day state of Maharashtra, except for Janjira which was affiliated with the Mughal Empire.

The Marathas
Marathas
established watch posts on Andaman Islands and are credited with attaching those islands to India. He attacked English, Dutch and Portuguese ships which were moving to and from East Indies. Until his death in 1729, he repeatedly attacked the colonial powers of Britain and Portugal, capturing numerous vessels of the British East India
India
Company and extracting ransom for their return.

On November 29, 1721, a joint attempt by the Portuguese Viceroy Francisco José de Sampaio e Castro and the British General Robert Cowan to humble Kanhoji failed miserably. Their combined fleet consisted of 6,000 soldiers in no less than four Man-of-war besides other ships led by Captain Thomas Mathews of the Bombay Marine. Aided by the Maratha
Maratha
naval commanders Mendhaji Bhatkar and Mainak Bhandari, Kanhoji continued to harass and plunder the European ships until his death in 1729.

ACCOUNTS BY AFGHANS AND EUROPEANS

Maratha
Maratha
Gurabs ships attacking a British East India
India
Company ship.

The Maratha
Maratha
army, especially its infantry , was praised by almost all the enemies of Maratha
Maratha
Empire, ranging from Duke of Wellington to Ahmad Shah Abdali
Ahmad Shah Abdali
. After the Third Battle of Panipat, Abdali was relieved as Maratha
Maratha
army in the initial stages were almost in the position of destroying the Afghan armies and their Indian Allies Nawab of Oudh and Rohillas. The grand wazir of Durrani Empire , Sardar Shah Wali Khan was shocked when Maratha
Maratha
commander-in-chief Sadashivrao Bhau launched a fierce assault on the centre of Afghan Army, over 3,000 Durrani soldiers were killed alongside Haji Atai Khan, one of the chief commander of Afghan army and nephew of wazir Shah Wali Khan. Such was the fierce assault of Maratha
Maratha
infantry in hand-to-hand combat that Afghan armies started to flee and the wazir in desperation and rage shouted, "Comrades Whither do you fly, our country is far off". Post battle, Ahmad Shah Abdali
Ahmad Shah Abdali
in a letter to one Indian ruler claimed that Afghans were able to defeat the Marathas
Marathas
only because of the blessings of almighty and any other army would have been destroyed by the Maratha
Maratha
army on that particular day even though Maratha
Maratha
army was numerically inferior to Afghan army and its Indian allies. Though Abdali won the battle, he also had heavy casualties on his side. So, he sought immediate peace with the Marathas. Abdali wrote in his letter to Peshwa on February 10, 1761:

There is no reason to have animosity amongst us. Your son Vishwasrao and your brother Sadashivrao died in battle, was unfortunate. Bhau started the battle, so I had to fight back unwillingly. Yet I feel sorry for his death. Please continue your guardianship of Delhi
Delhi
as before, to that I have no opposition. Only let Punjab
Punjab
until Sutlaj remain with us. Reinstate Shah Alam on Delhi's throne as you did before and let there be peace and friendship between us, this is my ardent desire. Grant me that desire. Arms of Maratha
Maratha

Similarly, the Duke of Wellington, after defeating the Marathas, noted that the Marathas, though poorly led by their Generals, had regular infantry and artillery that matched the level of that of the Europeans and warned other British officers from underestimating the Marathas
Marathas
on the battlefield. He cautioned one British general that: "You must never allow Maratha
Maratha
infantry to attack head on or in close hand to hand combat as in that your army will cover itself with utter disgrace". Even when Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington , became the Prime Minister
Prime Minister
of Britain, he held the Maratha
Maratha
infantry in utmost respect, claiming it to be one of the best in the world. However, at the same time he noted the poor leadership of Maratha Generals, who were often responsible for their defeats. Charles Metcalfe, one of the ablest of the British Officials in India
India
and later acting Governor-General, wrote in 1806:

India
India
contains no more than two great powers, British and Mahratta, and every other state acknowledges the influence of one or the other. Every inch that we recede will be occupied by them.

Norman Gash
Norman Gash
says that the Maratha
Maratha
infantry was equal to that of British infantry. After the Third Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
war in 1818, Britain listed the Marathas
Marathas
as one of the Martial Races to serve in the British Indian Army. The 19th century diplomat Sir Justin Sheil commented about the British East India
India
Company copying the French Indian army in raising an army of Indians:

It is to the military genius of the French that we are indebted for the formation of the Indian army. Our warlike neighbours were the first to introduce into India
India
the system of drilling native troops and converting them into a regularly disciplined force. Their example was copied by us, and the result is what we now behold. The French carried to Persia the same military and administrative faculties, and established the origin of the present Persian regular army, as it is styled. When Napoleon the Great resolved to take Iran under his auspices, he dispatched several officers of superior intelligence to that country with the mission of General Gardanne in 1808. Those gentlemen commenced their operations in the provinces of Azerbaijan and Kermanshah, and it is said with considerable success. — Sir Justin Sheil (1803-1871).

NOTABLE GENERALS AND ADMINISTRATORS

Sadashivrao Bhau (centre)

RAMCHANDRA PANT AMATYA BAWDEKAR

Ramchandra Pant Amatya Bawdekar was a court administrator who rose from the ranks of a local Kulkarni to the ranks of Ashtapradhan under guidance and support of Shivaji. He was one of the prominent Peshwas from the time of Shivaji, prior to the rise of the later Peshwas who controlled the empire after Shahuji.

When Rajaram fled to Jinji in 1689 leaving Maratha
Maratha
Empire, he gave a Hukumat Panha (King Status) to Pant before leaving. Ramchandra Pant managed the entire state under many challenges like influx of Mughals, betrayal from Vatandars (local satraps under the Maratha
Maratha
state) and social challenges like scarcity of food. With the help of Pantpratinidhi, Sachiv, he kept the economic condition of Maratha Empire
Empire
in an appropriate state.

He received military help from the Maratha
Maratha
commanders – Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav . On many occasions he himself participated in battles against Mughals.

In 1698, he stepped down from the post of Hukumat Panha when Rajaram offered this post to his wife, Tarabai. Tarabai
Tarabai
gave an important position to Pant among senior administrators of Maratha
Maratha
State. He wrote Adnyapatra (मराठी: आज्ञापत्र) in which he has explained different techniques of war, maintenance of forts and administration etc. But owing to his loyalty to Tarabai against Shahuji (who was supported by more local satraps), he was sidelined after arrival of Shahuji in 1707.

NANA PHADNAVIS

Nana Phadnavis
Nana Phadnavis
was an influential minister and statesman of the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
during the Peshwa administration.After the assassination of Peshwa Narayanrao in 1773, Nana Phadnavis
Nana Phadnavis
managed the affairs of the state with the help of a twelve-member regency council known as the Barbhai council and he remained the chief strategist of Maratha
Maratha
state till his death in 1800 AD. Nana Phadnavis
Nana Phadnavis
played a pivotal role in holding the Maratha
Maratha
Confederacy together in the midst of internal dissension and the growing power of British. Nana's administrative, diplomatic and financial skills brought prosperity to the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
and his management of external affairs kept the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
away from the thrust of the British East India
India
Company.

PERSONALITIES

ROYAL HOUSES

* Shivaji
Shivaji
(1630–1680) * Sambhaji (1657–1689) * Rajaram Chhatrapati (1670–1700)

SATARA:

* Chhattrapati Shahu (r. 1708 – 1749) (alias Shivaji
Shivaji
II, son of Chhatrapati Sambhaji) * Ramaraja II (nominally, grandson of Chhatrapati Rajaram and Queen Tarabai) (r. 1749 – 1777) * Shahu II (r. 1777 – 1808) * Pratap Singh (r. 1808 – 1839) - Signed a treaty with the East India
India
company ceding part of sovereignty to the company

KOLHAPUR:

* Tarabai
Tarabai
(1675–1761) (wife of Chhatrapati Rajaram) in the name of her son Shivaji
Shivaji
II * Shivaji
Shivaji
II (1700–1714) * Sambhaji II (1714 to 1760)-Came to power by deposing his half brother Shivaji
Shivaji
II * Shivaji
Shivaji
III (1760–1812) (adopted from the family of Khanwilkar)

PESHWAS

The Sati of Ramabai
Ramabai
, wife of Peshwa Madhavrao I
Madhavrao I
.

* Moropant Trimbak Pingle
Moropant Trimbak Pingle
(1657–1683) * Bahiroji Pingale
Bahiroji Pingale
(1708–1711)

Peshwas From Bhat Family

From Balaji Vishwanath onwards, actual power gradually shifted to the Bhat family
Bhat family
Peshwas based in Pune.

* Balaji Vishwanath (1713–1720) * Bajirao (1720–1740) * Balaji Bajirao (4 Jul.1740-23 Jun.1761) (b. 8 Dec. 1721, d. 23 Jun.1761) * Madhavrao Peshwa (1761–18 Nov.1772) (b. 16 Feb 1745, d. 18 Nov 1772) * Narayanrao Bajirao (13 Dec. 1772–30 Aug.1773) (b. 10 Aug.1755, d. 30 Aug.1773) * Raghunathrao
Raghunathrao
(5 Dec. 1773–1774) (b. 18 Aug.1734, d. 11 Dec. 1783) * Sawai Madhava Rao II Narayan (1774–27 Oct.1795) (b. 18 Apr.1774, d. 27 Oct.1795) * Baji Rao II
Baji Rao II
(6 Dec. 1796 – 3 Jun.1818) (d. 28 Jan.1851)

CLANS

* Holkars of Indore * Scindias of Gwalior
Gwalior
* Gaikwads of Baroda
Baroda
* Bhonsales of Nagpur
Nagpur
* Puarss of Dewas
Dewas
and Dhar

MAPS SHOWING THE MARATHA EMPIRE AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF HISTORY

*

Maratha
Maratha
kingdom in 1680 (green) *

Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
in 1765 (yellow) *

Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
in 1794 (yellow) *

Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
in 1805 (yellow)

THANJAVUR MARATHA KINGDOM (TAMIL NADU)

Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Maratha
Maratha
palace Main article: Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Marathas
Marathas

The Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Marathas
Marathas
were the rulers of Thanjavur
Thanjavur
principality of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
between the 17th and 19th centuries. Their native language was Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Marathi . Venkoji , Shahaji's son and Shivaji's half brother, was the founder of the dynasty.

THANJAVUR MARATHA DYNASTY :

* Venkoji * Shahuji I of Thanjavur
Thanjavur
* Serfoji I * Tukkoji * Pratapsingh of Thanjavur
Thanjavur
* Thuljaji * Serfoji II * Shivaji
Shivaji
II of Thanjavur
Thanjavur

SEE ALSO

Wikimedia Commons has media related to MARATHA EMPIRE .

* List of Maratha
Maratha
dynasties and states * Maratha
Maratha
War of Independence * Battles involving the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
* Maratha
Maratha
titles * Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Maratha
Maratha
kingdom * List of people involved in the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire

FOOTNOTES

* ^ Some historians may consider 1645 as the founding of the empire because that was the year when the teenaged Shivaji
Shivaji
captured a fort from Adilshahi sultanate * ^ Many historians consider Attock
Attock
to be the final frontier of the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire

CITATIONS

* ^ https://books.google.co.in/books?id=oUTRAAAAMAAJ * ^ Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2007). The Mughul Empire, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-407-1 , pp. 609, 634. * ^ A B C Pearson, M. N. (February 1976). " Shivaji
Shivaji
and the Decline of the Mughal Empire". The Journal of Asian Studies. 35 (2): 221–235. JSTOR
JSTOR
2053980 . doi :10.2307/2053980 . (Subscription required (help)). * ^ Delhi, the Capital of India
India
By Anon, John Capper, p.28. "This source establishes the Maratha
Maratha
control of Delhi
Delhi
before the British" * ^ An Advanced History of Modern India
India
By Sailendra Nath Sen p.Introduction-14. The author says: "The victory at Bhopal in 1738 established Maratha
Maratha
dominance at the Mughal court" * ^ The Journal of Asian Studies The Journal of Asian Studies / Volume 21 / Issue 04 / August 1962, pp 577-578 * ^ Mehta (2005) , p. 204 * ^ A B An Advanced History of Modern India
India
By Sailendra Nath Sen, p.16 * ^ Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bharatiya Itihasa Samiti, Ramesh Chandra Majumdar – The History and Culture of the Indian People : The Maratha
Maratha
supremacy * ^ Naravane, M.S. (2014). Battles of the Honorourable East India Company. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. p. 63. ISBN 9788131300343 . * ^ Pagadi, Setumadhavarao S. (1993). Shivaji. National Book Trust. p. 21. ISBN 81-237-0647-2 . * ^ Jones, Rodney W. (1974). Urban Politics in India: Area, Power, and Policy in a Penetrated System. University of California Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-520-02545-5 . * ^ Gokhale, Balkrishna Govind (1988). Poona in the eighteenth century: an urban history. Oxford University Press. p. 112. * ^ Jackson, William Joseph (2005). Vijayanagara voices: exploring South Indian history and Hindu
Hindu
literature. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-7546-3950-3 . * ^ Vartak, Malavika (8–14 May 1999). " Shivaji
Shivaji
Maharaj: Growth of a Symbol". Economic and Political Weekly. 34 (19): 1126–1134. JSTOR 4407933 . (Subscription required (help)). * ^ M. R. Kantak (1993). The First Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War, 1774–1783: A Military Study of Major Battles. Popular Prakashan. pp. 18–. ISBN 978-81-7154-696-1 . * ^ Mehta (2005) , p. 707:quote:It explains the rise to power of his Peshwa (prime minister) Balaji Vishwanath (1713–20) and the transformation of the Maratha
Maratha
kingdom into a vast empire, by the collective action of all the Maratha
Maratha
stalwarts. * ^ An Advanced History of Modern India
India
By Sailendra Nath Sen, p11 * ^ A B An Advanced History of Modern India
India
By Sailendra Nath Sen, p.11 * ^ An Advanced History of Modern India
India
By Sailendra Nath Sen, p.12 * ^ The Concise History of Warfare By Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, p.132 * ^ An Advanced History of Modern India
India
By Sailendra Nath Sen, p.12 * ^ J.L. Mehta, Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707–1813 (2005) * ^ A B C S.N. Sen, History Modern India
India
(3rd ed. 2006) * ^ An Advanced History of Modern India * ^ An Advanced History of Modern India
India
By Sailendra Nath Sen, p13 * ^ Advanced Study in the History of Modern India
India
1707–1813 By Jaswant Lal Mehta, p 202 * ^ Fall Of The Mughal Empire- Volume 1 (4Th Edn.), J. N.Sarkar * ^ A B An Advanced History of Modern India
India
By Sailendra Nath Sen, p.15 * ^ A B Roy, Kaushik. India's Historic Battles: From Alexander the Great to Kargil. Permanent Black, India. pp. 80–1. ISBN 978-81-7824-109-8 . * ^ Duff, J.C. Grant, A History of the Mahrattas, vol.1, p.507 * ^ A B C D Agrawal, Ashvini (1983). "Events leading to the Battle of Panipat". Studies in Mughal History. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 26. ISBN 81-208-2326-5 . * ^ Mehta, Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707–1813, p.140 * ^ Mehta (2005) , p. 274 * ^ Advance Study in the History of Modern India
India
(Volume-1: 1707–1803) By G.S.Chhabra, p.56 * ^ The Marathas
Marathas
1600–1818, Band 2 by Stewart Gordon p.157 * ^ The Marathas
Marathas
1600–1818, Band 2 by Stewart Gordon p.158 * ^ "Haryana, a Historical Perspective". google.co.in. * ^ Mehta (2005) , p. 458 * ^ A B Rathod (1994) , p. 8 * ^ A B A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: From Twelfth to the Mid ... – Farooqui Salma Ahmed, Salma Ahmed Farooqui – Google Books. * ^ The Great Maratha
Maratha
Mahadaji Scindia
Scindia
By N. G. Rathod, p.95 * ^ "SPLENDOURS OF ROYAL MYSORE (PB)". google.co.in. * ^ The Great Maratha
Maratha
Mahadaji Scindia
Scindia
By N. G. Rathod, p.30 * ^ Rathod (1994) , p. 106 * ^ " Marathas
Marathas
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India
in the nineteenth century (Routledge, 2013). * Laine, James W. Shivaji: Hindu
Hindu
King in Islamic India
India
(New York, 2003). * McEldowney, Philip F (1966), Pindari Society and the Establishment of British Paramountcy in India, Madison: University of Wisconsin, OCLC
OCLC
53790277 * Mehta, J. L (2005), Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707–1813, II, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd, ISBN 978-1-932705-54-6

* Moon, Penderel. The British Conquest and Dominion of India: Part One 1745-1857 (1989). * Roy, Tirthankar. "Rethinking the origins of British India: state formation and military-fiscal undertakings in an eighteenth century world region." Modern Asian Studies 47.4 (2013): 1125+ online * Sardesai, Govind Sakharam. New history of the Marathas, vol. I: Shivaji
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and his line, 1600-1707 (Phoenix publications, 1946). * Sen, Sailendra Nath (1994), Anglo- Maratha
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Relations, 1785–96, Volume 2 of Anglo- Maratha
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Relations, Sailendra Nath Sen, Bombay: Popular Prakashan, ISBN 978-81-7154-789-0 * Sen, S.N. History Modern India
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Swarajya, (Cambridge UP, 1986). * Bombay University Maratha
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* v * t * e

Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire

RULERS

* Shivaji
Shivaji
* Sambhaji * Rajaram * Tarabai
Tarabai
* Shahu * Rajaram II * Shahu II

PESHWAS

* Moro Pant Trimbak Pingle * Moreshvar Pingale * Ramchandra Pant Amatya * Bahiroji Pingale
Bahiroji Pingale
* Parashuram Trimbak Kulkarni * Balaji Vishwanath * Bajirao I * Balaji Baji Rao
Baji Rao
* Madhavrao Ballal * Narayanrao * Raghunathrao
Raghunathrao
* Sawai Madhavrao * Baji Rao II
Baji Rao II
* Amrut Rao * Nana Sahib
Nana Sahib
* Bhat family
Bhat family

WOMEN

* Ahilyabai Holkar
Holkar
* Anandibai
Anandibai
* Gopikabai * Jankibai * Jijabai * Kashibai * Mastani * Muddupalani
Muddupalani
* Parvatibai * Putalabai * Radhikabai * Ramabai
Ramabai
* Saibai * Sakvarbai * Soyarabai * Umabai Dabhade * Yesubai * Tulsi Bai Holkar
Holkar

MARATHA CONFEDERACY

* Bhonsle of Nagpur
Nagpur
* Gaekwad
Gaekwad
of Baroda
Baroda
* Scindia
Scindia
of Gwalior
Gwalior
* Holkar
Holkar
of Indore (subsidiary or feudatory states)

BATTLES

* Pratapgarh * Kolhapur
Kolhapur
* Pavan Khind * Chakan * Surat * Purandar * Sinhagad * Kalyan * Bhupalgarh * Sangamner * Bijapur * Raigarh (1689) * Jinji * Satara * Khelna * Raigarh * Torna * Palkhed * Mandsaur * 1st Delhi
Delhi
* Bhopal * Vasai * Gajendragad * 1st Trichinopoly * Katwa (1st) * 2nd Trichinopoly * Katwa (2nd) * Expeditions in Bengal
Bengal
* Burdwan * Udgir
Udgir
* 2nd Delhi
Delhi
* Attock
Attock
* Peshawar * 3rd Panipat * Alegaon * Rakshabhuvan * Panchgaon * Saunshi * Adoni * Badami * Savanur * Bahadur Benda * Lalsot * Chaksana * Patan * Kharda * Poona * 3rd Delhi
Delhi
* Assaye * Laswari * Farrukhabad * Bharatpur * Khadki * Koregaon * Mahidpur

WARS

* Maratha-Mughal War of 27 years * Maratha– Mysore
Mysore
War * First Anglo-Maratha War * Second Anglo-Maratha War
Second Anglo-Maratha War
* Third Anglo-Maratha War
Third Anglo-Maratha War

ADVERSARIES

* Adilshahi * Nizamshahi * Berar Sultanate * Bidar Sultanate * Qutbshahi * Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
* Durrani Empire * British Empire
British Empire
* Portuguese Empire * Nizam
Nizam
of Hyderabad * Mysore
Mysore

FORTS

* Fort Mangad * Panhala * Pratapgad * Purandar * Raigad * Rajgad
Rajgad
* Shaniwar Wada * Shivneri * Sindhudurg * Sinhagad * Torna

COINS

* Shivrai

* v * t * e

Empires

ANCIENT

* Akkadian * Egyptian * Assyrian * Babylonian * Carthaginian

* Chinese

* Qin * Han * Jin * Northern Wei
Northern Wei

* Hellenistic * Hittite

* Indian

* Nanda * Maurya * Satavahana * Shunga * Gupta * Harsha

* Persian

* Median * Achaemenid * Parthian * Sasanian

* Kushan

* Macedonian * Seleucid

* Mongol

* Xianbei *