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MARíA ALFONSO TéLLEZ DE MENESES (c. 1265 – 1321), known as María de Molina, was queen consort of Castile and León from 1284 to 1295 by marriage to Sancho IV of Castile , and served as regent for her minor son Ferdinand IV (1295 - c.1301) and later her grandson Alfonso XI of Castile (1312-1321).

CONTENTS

* 1 Biography

* 1.1 Queen * 1.2 First regency * 1.3 Second regency

* 2 Children * 3 Ancestry * 4 References

BIOGRAPHY

Queen María de Molina
María de Molina
presents her son Ferdinand IV of Castile to the Cortes of Valladolid
Valladolid
of 1295. (1863)

María was the daughter of the infante Alfonso of Molina
Alfonso of Molina
and Mayor Alfonso de Meneses
Meneses
. Her paternal grandparents were King Alfonso IX of León and Queen Berengaria of Castile
Berengaria of Castile
.

QUEEN

She married her second cousin Sancho IV of Castile in 1282, the second son of Alfonso X
Alfonso X
the Learned, although the matrimonial dispensation for kinship was not previously granted. Upon the death of Alfonso X, she became queen consort of Castile and León and was crowned alongside her husband in the cathedral of Toledo. Although the couple was pressured to separate by Rome and others, Sancho chose to honor his wife and delegated many responsibilities to her, including the regency of their son after his death. His reign was short since he died in 1295.

FIRST REGENCY

After the death of Sancho IV, he was succeeded by their eldest son Ferdinand IV, who was under age. Though according to the Crónica de Sancho IV, Sancho designated María as the sole regent, she was forced to share the regency with Sancho's uncle, Henry the Senator
Henry the Senator
, younger brother of Alfonso X. Fernando's rule was challenged by a coalition that included his uncle, John, his cousins the infantes de la Cerda, sons of the infante Ferdinand de la Cerda, eldest son of Alfonso X
Alfonso X
, as well as King James II of Aragón and King Denis of Portugal .

Through marriage alliances, gifts of territories, and shrewd politics María was able to lead Ferdinand's cause to victory, though it did not come easily. María built her own coalition, relying on the Castilian Cortes to confirm her authority and playing the powerful family clan of Haro against the Lara clan, who supported the opposition. Civil war continued for several years, and María's coregent Henry was often more of an antagonist than a defender of his great-nephew's cause.

Around 1300 the alliance against Ferdinand began to crumble when one of his principal enemies, Juan Núñez de Lara, was captured and later reconciled to the young king. Portugal returned to allegiance with Ferdinand with the promise of a marriage between the Portuguese princess Constance and the young king of Castile. María's victory for her son seemed sealed in 1301, when she finally received a papal bull from Pope Boniface VIII, legitimizing her marriage and her children. Eventually, only Aragon was left to support the claim of Alfonso de la Cerda and his brother, which was finally set aside in a treaty between Castile and Aragon a few years later.

SECOND REGENCY

Upon the death of her son in 1312, he was succeeded by his son, the grandson of Maria. As the new king was a minor, a regency would be needed during his minority. Maria became regent of Castile a second term, now as guardian regent for her minor grandson.

María de Molina
María de Molina
died in Valladolid
Valladolid
in 1321.

CHILDREN

* Isabella of Castile (1283–1328). Married first James II of Aragon and secondly John III, Duke of Brittany
John III, Duke of Brittany
. * Ferdinand IV of Castile
Ferdinand IV of Castile
(1285–1312). Married Constance of Portugal . * Alfonso (1286–1291) * Henry (1288–1299) * Peter (1290–1319) . Married Maria of Aragon , daughter of James II of Aragon . * Philip (1292–1327). Married his cousin Margarita de la Cerda , daughter of Ferdinand de la Cerda, Infante of Castile . * Beatrice of Castile (1293–1359). Married Afonso IV of Portugal
Afonso IV of Portugal
.

* Spain portal * Biography portal

ANCESTRY

ANCESTORS OF MARíA DE MOLINA

16. Alfonso VII of León

8. Ferdinand II of León
Ferdinand II of León

17. Berengaria of Barcelona
Berengaria of Barcelona

4. Alfonso IX of Leon
Alfonso IX of Leon

18. Afonso I of Portugal
Afonso I of Portugal

9. Urraca of Portugal

19. Mafalda of Savoy

2. Alfonso of Molina
Alfonso of Molina

20. Sancho III of Castile
Sancho III of Castile

10. Alfonso VIII of Castile

21. Blanche of Navarre

5. Berenguela of Castile

22. Henry II of England
Henry II of England

11. Eleanor of England

23. Eleanor of Aquitaine

1. MARIA DE MOLINA

24. Tello Pérez de Meneses
Meneses

12. Alfonso Téllez de Meneses
Meneses
el Viejo

25. Gontrodo García

6. Alfonso Téllez de Meneses, 4th Lord of Meneses
Meneses

26. Rodrigo Gutiérrez Girón

13. Elvira Rodríguez Girón

27. María de Guzmán

3. Mayor Alfonso Tellez, 6th Lady of Meneses
Meneses

28. Fernando Arias Lima

14. João Fernandes de Lima

29. Teresa Bermudes de Trava

7. Maria Anes de Lima

30. Paio Moniz de Ribeira

15. Maria Pais de Ribeira

31. Urraca Nunes Braganca

REFERENCES

* ^ Carmona Ruiz, María (2005). María de Molina. Barcelona: Random House Mondadori. * ^ Rosell, Cayetano (1875). Crónicas de los reyes de Castilla: Desde don Alfonso el Sabio, hasta los católicos don Fernando y doña Isabel. Madrid: Cárlos Bailly-Baillier. * ^ De Loaysa, Jofré (1982). Crónica de los reyes de Castilla: Fernando III, Alfonso X, y Fernando IV (1248-1305). Murcia: Edición de la Academia Alfonso X
Alfonso X
el Sabio. * ^ del Valle Curieses, Rafael (2000). María de Molina: El soberano ejercicio de la concordia. Madrid: Aldebarán Ediciones.

ROYAL TITLES

Preceded by Violant of Aragon
Violant of Aragon
QUEEN CONSORT OF CASTILE AND LEóN 1284–1295 VACANT Title next held by CONSTANCE OF PORTUGAL

Preceded by Blanca Alfonso of Molina
Alfonso of Molina
LADY OF MOLINA 1293–1321 Succeeded by Alfonso XI of Castile
Alfonso XI of Castile

* v * t * e

Royal consorts of Castile

* Sancha of León
Sancha of León
(1037-1065) * Alberta (1070-1072) * Agnes of Aquitaine (1072-1077) * Constance of Burgundy (1079-1093) * Bertha (1094-1099) * Isabel (1100-1107) * Beatrice (1108-1109) * Alfonso I of Aragon
Alfonso I of Aragon
(1109-1115) * Berengaria of Barcelona
Berengaria of Barcelona
(1128-1149) * Richeza of Poland (1152-1157) * Blanche of Navarre (1151-1156) * Eleanor of England (1177-1214) * Mafalda of Portugal (1215-1216) * Elisabeth of Swabia
Elisabeth of Swabia
(1219-1235) * Joan, Countess of Ponthieu (1237-1253) * Violant of Aragon
Violant of Aragon
(1252-1284) * María de Molina
María de Molina
(1284-1295) * Constance of Portugal
Constance of Portugal
(1302-1312) * Constance of Peñafiel (1325-1327) * Maria of Portugal (1328-1350) * Blanche of Bourbon
Blanche of Bourbon
(1353-1361) * Juana Manuel of Castile
Juana Manuel of Castile
(1369-1379) * Eleanor of Aragon (1379-1382) * Beatrice of Portugal
Beatrice of Portugal
(1383-1390) * Catherine of England (1390-1406) * Maria of Aragon (1418-1445) * Isabella of Portugal
Isabella of Portugal
(1447-1454) * Joan of Portugal (1454-1474) * Isabella of Portugal
Isabella of Portugal
(1526-1539)

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 16782544 * LCCN : no89017250 * ISNI : 0000 0000 5489 037X * GND : 130515353 * SUDOC : 086876821 * BNF : cb144007230 (data) * BNE : XX1096690

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