Mapai
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Mapai ( he, מַפָּא"י, an acronym for , ''Mifleget Poalei Eretz Yisrael'', lit. "Workers' Party of the
Land of Israel Land is the solid surface of the Earth that is not permanently covered by water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemica ...

Land of Israel
") was a
democratic socialist Democratic socialism is a political philosophy Political philosophy is the philosophical study of government, addressing questions about the nature, scope, and legitimacy of public agents and institutions and the relationships between them. ...
political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific political ideology, ...
in
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל; ar, إِسْرَائِيل), officially known as the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, '), is a country in Western Asia, located on the Eastern Mediterranean, southeastern sho ...

Israel
, and was the dominant force in Israeli politics until its merger into the modern-day
Israeli Labor Party The Israeli Labor Party ( he, מִפְלֶגֶת הָעֲבוֹדָה הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִית, translit. ), commonly known as HaAvoda ( he, הָעֲבוֹדָה lit., "The Labor"), is a social democratic and Zionist political party ...
in 1968. During Mapai's time in office, a wide range of progressive reforms were carried out, as characterised by the establishment of a welfare state, providing minimum income, security, and free (or almost free) access to housing subsidies and health and social services.


History

The party was founded on 5 January 1930 by the merger of the
Hapoel Hatzair Hapoel Hatzair ( he, הפועל הצעיר, "The Young Worker") was a Zionist group active in Palestine from 1905 until 1930. It was founded by A.D. Gordon, Yosef Aharonovich, Yosef Sprinzak and followed a non-Marxist, Zionist, socialist agenda ...
founded by A. D. Gordon and the original Ahdut HaAvoda (founded in 1919 from the right, more moderate, wing of the Zionism, Zionist Socialism, socialist Poale Zion led by David Ben-Gurion). In the early 1920s the Labor Zionism, Labor Zionist movement had founded the Histadrut Union, which dominated the Hebrew settlement economy and infrastructure, later making Mapai the dominant political faction in Zionist politics. It was also responsible for the founding of Hashomer and Haganah, the first two armed Jewish groups which secured the people and property of the new and emerging Jewish communities. By the early 1930s, David Ben-Gurion had taken over the party, and had become de facto leader of the Jewish community in Palestine (known as the Yishuv). It was a member of the Labour and Socialist International between 1930 and 1940. The party was Jewish-only until the late 1960s, with a succession of Arab satellite lists, satellite parties for Israeli Arabs, including the Democratic List of Nazareth, the Democratic List for Israeli Arabs, Agriculture and Development, Progress and Work, Cooperation and Brotherhood, Progress and Development and Cooperation and Development. It supported the policy of subjecting Arab citizens to martial law, which included confining them to the towns of their residence, and allowing them to exit only with a permit granted by the Israeli authorities.


Politics and government

Due to its role in emerging victorious and independent from the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the party won large support in Israel's 1949 Israeli legislative election, first elections in 1949, winning 35.7% of the vote (well ahead of second-placed Mapam's 14.7%) and 46 of the 120 seats. Ben-Gurion became Prime Minister of Israel, Prime Minister and formed a coalition with the United Religious Front, the Progressive Party (Israel), Progressive Party, the Sephardim and Oriental Communities and the Democratic List of Nazareth (an Israeli Arab party associated with Mapai). A notable piece of legislation enacted during Mapai's first term in office was an educational law in 1949 which introduced compulsory schooling for all children between the ages of 5 to 14. Mapai's years in office also witnessed the passage of the National Insurance Act of 1953 and the Social Welfare Service Law of 1958, which authorised a broad range of social welfare programmes, including special allowances for large families, workers' compensation provisions, maternity insurance, and old age and survivors' pensions. In the 1951 Israeli legislative election, second elections in 1951 Mapai increased its vote to 37.3% (and 47 seats) despite the country's Austerity in Israel, economic problems. Ben-Gurion again formed the government with the support of Mizrachi (political party), Mizrachi, Hapoel HaMizrachi, Agudat Yisrael, Poalei Agudat Yisrael and the three Israeli Arab parties associated with Mapai, the Democratic List for Israeli Arabs, Progress and Work and Agriculture and Development. However, he shocked the nation by resigning on 6 December 1953 in order to settle in the small Negev kibbutz of Sde Boker, and was replaced by Moshe Sharett. The 1955 Israeli legislative election, 1955 elections saw a drop in the party's support to 32.2% (and 40 seats), though still well ahead of the second-placed Herut (12.6%). Ben Gurion returned as Prime Minister, and formed a coalition with the National Religious Front (which later changed its name to the National Religious Party), Mapam, Ahdut HaAvoda, and the three Israeli Arab parties, the Democratic List for Israeli Arabs, Progress and Work and Agriculture and Development. Later the Progressive Party was also added. In contrast to the previous one, the 1959 Israeli legislative election, 1959 election saw a surge in support, as the party recorded its best electoral performance, taking 38.2% of the vote and 47 seats. Ben-Gurion again invited the National Religious Party, Mapam, Ahdut HaAvoda, the Progressive Party and the three Israeli Arab parties, Progress and Development, Cooperation and Brotherhood and Agriculture and Development to form the coalition. The inquiry into the Lavon Affair which brought down the government in 1961 probably contributed to the party's relatively poor performance in the 1961 Israeli legislative election, elections in the same year, as it picked up only 34.7% of the vote and 42 seats. Although Ben-Gurion formed a strong coalition with the National Religious Party, Ahdut HaAvoda, Agudat Yisrael Workers, Cooperation and Brotherhood and Progress and Development, two events during the fifth Knesset led to Mapai's reducing dominance. Firstly, Ben-Gurion resigned as head of the party citing personal reasons, though in reality he was upset at a perceived lack of support from colleagues. He set up a new party, Rafi (political party), Rafi, taking with him seven other Mapai members. Secondly, the two major right-wing opposition parties, Herut and the Liberal Party (Israel), Liberal Party had merged into Gahal. This meant by the end of the Knesset session, Mapai had only 34 seats to Gahal's 27. The party's response to the unprecedented strength of the opposition was to seek support from other parties with similar ideologies. The result was an alliance with Ahdut HaAvoda to form the Alignment (political party), Labor Alignment before the 1965 Israeli legislative election, 1965 election. The new party won 36.7% of the vote and 45 seats, and comfortably beat Gahal (26 seats). On 23 January 1968 Mapai, Ahdut HaAvoda and Rafi merged into the
Israeli Labor Party The Israeli Labor Party ( he, מִפְלֶגֶת הָעֲבוֹדָה הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִית, translit. ), commonly known as HaAvoda ( he, הָעֲבוֹדָה lit., "The Labor"), is a social democratic and Zionist political party ...
and ceased to exist as individual entities.


List of General Secretaries

* 1930–1954 – David Ben-Gurion * 1954–1955 – Moshe Sharett * 1955–1963 – David Ben-Gurion * 1963–1968 – Levi Eshkol


Electoral results


References


External links


Worker's Party of Eretz Yisrael (Mapai)
Knesset website {{Authority control Political parties in Mandatory Palestine Political parties established in 1930 1930 establishments in Mandatory Palestine Political parties disestablished in 1968 1968 disestablishments in Israel Defunct political parties in Israel Socialist parties in Israel Zionist political parties in Israel Members of the Labour and Socialist International Labor Zionism Poale Zion Left-wing nationalist parties