A map is a symbol
ic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects
s, or themes.
Many maps are static, fixed to paper
or some other durable medium, while others are dynamic or interactive. Although most commonly used to depict geography, maps may represent any space
, real or fictional, without regard to context
, such as in brain mapping
mapping, or computer network topology mapping. The space being mapped may be two dimensional, such as the surface of the earth, three dimensional, such as the interior of the earth, or even more abstract spaces of any dimension, such as arise in modeling phenomena having many independent variables.
Although the earliest maps known are of the heavens, geographic maps of territory have a very long tradition and exist from ancient times. The word "map" comes from the medieval Latin ''Mappa mundi'', wherein ''mappa'' meant napkin or cloth and ''mundi'' the world. Thus, "map" became a shortened term referring to a two-dimensional representation of the surface of the world.
or ''map-making'' is the study and practice of crafting representations of the Earth upon a flat surface (see History of cartography
), and one who makes maps is called a cartographer
are perhaps the most widely used maps today, and form a subset of navigational maps, which also include aeronautical
and nautical chart
s, railroad network maps, and hiking and bicycling maps. In terms of quantity, the largest number of drawn map sheets is probably made up by local surveys, carried out by municipalities
, utilities, tax assessors, emergency services providers, and other local agencies. Many national surveying projects have been carried out by the military, such as the British Ordnance Survey
: a civilian government agency, internationally renowned for its comprehensively detailed work.
In addition to location information, maps may also be used to portray contour line
s indicating constant values of elevation
Orientation of maps
The orientation of a map is the relationship between the directions on the map and the corresponding compass direction
s in reality. The word "orient
" is derived from Latin
, meaning east. In the Middle Ages
many maps, including the T and O map
s, were drawn with east at the top (meaning that the direction "up" on the map corresponds to East on the compass). The most common cartographic convention, is that north is at the top of a map.
Maps not oriented with north at the top:
* Maps from non-Western traditions are oriented a variety of ways. Old maps of Edo
show the Japanese imperial palace
as the "top", but also at the centre, of the map. Labels on the map are oriented in such a way that you cannot read them properly unless you put the imperial palace above your head.
European T and O map
s such as the Hereford Mappa Mundi
were centred on Jerusalem
with East at the top. Indeed, prior to the reintroduction of Ptolemy
'' to Europe around 1400, there was no single convention in the West. Portolan chart
s, for example, are oriented to the shores they describe.
* Maps of cities bordering a sea are often conventionally oriented with the sea at the top.
* Route and channel maps have traditionally been oriented to the road or waterway they describe.
* Polar maps
of the Arctic
regions are conventionally centred on the pole; the direction North would be towards or away from the centre of the map, respectively. Typical maps of the Arctic have 0° meridian towards the bottom of the page; maps of the Antarctic have the 0° meridian towards the top of the page.
* Reversed map
s, also known as ''Upside-Down maps'' or ''South-Up maps'', reverse the ''North is up'' convention and have south at the top. Ancient Africans including in Ancient Egypt
utilised this orientation, as some maps in Brazil do today.
* Buckminster Fuller
's Dymaxion map
s are based on a projection of the Earth's sphere
onto an icosahedron
. The resulting triangular pieces may be arranged in any order or orientation.
Scale and accuracy
Many maps are drawn to a scale
expressed as a ratio
, such as 1:10,000, which means that 1 unit of measurement
on the map corresponds to 10,000 of that same unit on the ground. The scale statement can be accurate when the region mapped is small enough for the curvature
of the Earth to be neglected, such as a city map
. Mapping larger regions, where curvature cannot be ignored, requires projections
to map from the curved surface of the Earth to the plane. The impossibility of flattening the sphere
to the plane
without distortion means that the map cannot have constant scale. Rather, on most projections the best that can be attained is accurate scale along one or two paths on the projection. Because scale differs everywhere, it can only be measured meaningfully as point scale
per location. Most maps strive to keep point scale variation within narrow bounds. Although the scale statement is nominal it is usually accurate enough for most purposes unless the map covers a large fraction of the earth. At the scope of a world map, scale as a single number is practically meaningless throughout most of the map. Instead, it usually refers to the scale along the equator.
Some maps, called cartogram
s, have the scale deliberately distorted to reflect information other than land area or distance. For example, this map (at the right) of Europe
has been distorted to show population distribution, while the rough shape of the continent is still discernible.
Another example of distorted scale is the famous London Underground map
. The basic geographical structure is respected but the tube lines (and the River Thames
) are smoothed to clarify the relationships between stations. Near the center of the map stations are spaced out more than near the edges of map.
Further inaccuracies may be deliberate. For example, cartographers may simply omit military installations or remove features solely in order to enhance the clarity of the map. For example, a road map may not show railroads, smaller waterways or other prominent non-road objects, and even if it does, it may show them less clearly (e.g. dashed or dotted lines/outlines) than the main roads. Known as decluttering, the practice makes the subject matter that the user is interested in easier to read, usually without sacrificing overall accuracy. Software-based maps often allow the user to toggle decluttering between ON, OFF and AUTO as needed. In AUTO the degree of decluttering is adjusted as the user changes the scale being displayed.
Geographic maps use a projection
to translate the three-dimensional real surface of the geoid
to a two-dimensional picture. Projection always distorts the surface. There are many ways to apportion the distortion, and so there are many map projections. Which projection to use depends on the purpose of the map.
The various features shown on a map are represented by conventional sign
s or symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads. Those signs are usually explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet.
Some cartographers prefer to make the map cover practically the entire screen or sheet of paper, leaving no room "outside" the map for information about the map as a whole.
These cartographers typically place such information in an otherwise "blank" region "inside" the mapcartouche
, map legend
, title, compass rose
, bar scale
In particular, some maps contain smaller "sub-maps" in otherwise blank regions—often one at a much smaller scale showing the whole globe and where the whole map fits on that globe, and a few showing "regions of interest" at a larger scale in order to show details that wouldn't otherwise fit.
Occasionally sub-maps use the same scale as the large map—a few maps of the contiguous United States
include a sub-map to the same scale for each of the two non-contiguous states.
The design and production of maps is a craft that has developed over thousands of years, from clay tablets to Geographic information systems
. As a form of Design
, particularly closely related to Graphic design
, map making incorporates scientific knowledge about how maps are used, integrated with principles of artistic expression, to create a product that is aesthetically attractive, carries an aura of authority, and functionally serves a particular purpose for an intended audience.
Designing a map involves bringing together a number of elements and making a large number of decisions. The elements of design fall into several broad topics, each of which has its own theory, its own research agenda, and its own best practices. That said, there are synergistic effects between these elements, meaning that the overall design process is not just working on each element one at a time, but an iterative feedback process of adjusting each to achieve the desired gestalt
* Map projections
: The foundation of the map is the plane on which it rests (whether paper or screen), but projections are required to flatten the surface of the earth. All projections distort this surface, but the cartographer can be strategic about how and where distortion occurs.
: All maps must be drawn at a smaller scale than reality, requiring that the information included on a map be a very small sample of the wealth of information about a place. Generalization is the process of adjusting the level of detail in geographic information to be appropriate for the scale and purpose of a map, through procedures such as selection, simplification, and classification.
: Any map visually represents the location and properties of geographic phenomena using map symbols, graphical depictions composed of several visual variables
, such as size, shape, color, and pattern.
* Composition: As all of the symbols are brought together, their interactions have major effects on map reading, such as grouping
and Visual hierarchy
* Typography or Labeling
: Text serves a number of purposes on the map, especially aiding the recognition of features, but labels must be designed and positioned well to be effective.
: The map image must be placed on the page (whether paper, web, or other media), along with related elements, such as the title, legend, additional maps, text, images, and so on. Each of these elements have their own design considerations, as does their integration, which largely follows the principles of Graphic design
* Map type-specific design: Different kinds of maps, especially thematic maps
, have their own design needs and best practices.
Maps of the world or large areas are often either 'political' or 'physical'. The most important purpose of the political map is to show territorial border
s; the purpose of the physical is to show features of geography
such as mountains, soil type or land use including infrastructure such as roads, railroads and buildings. Topographic map
s show elevation
s and relief
with contour line
s or shading. Geological map
s show not only the physical surface, but characteristics of the underlying rock, fault
lines, and subsurface structures.
From the last quarter of the 20th century, the indispensable tool of the cartographer
has been the computer. Much of cartography, especially at the data-gathering survey
level, has been subsumed by Geographic Information Systems
(GIS). The functionality of maps has been greatly advanced by technology simplifying the superimposition of spatially located variables onto existing geographical maps. Having local information such as rainfall level, distribution of wildlife, or demographic data integrated within the map allows more efficient analysis and better decision making. In the pre-electronic age such superimposition
of data led Dr. John Snow
to identify the location of an outbreak of cholera
. Today, it is used by agencies of the human kind, as diverse as wildlife conservationists and militaries around the world.
Even when GIS is not involved, most cartographers now use a variety of computer graphics programs to generate new maps.
Interactive, computerised maps are commercially available, allowing users to ''zoom in'' or ''zoom out'' (respectively meaning to increase or decrease the scale), sometimes by replacing one map with another of different scale, centered where possible on the same point. In-car global navigation satellite system
s are computerised maps with route-planning and advice facilities which monitor the user's position with the help of satellites. From the computer scientist's point of view, zooming in entails one or a combination of:
# replacing the map by a more detailed one
# enlarging the same map without enlarging the pixel
s, hence showing more detail by removing less information compared to the less detailed version
# enlarging the same map with the pixels enlarged (replaced by rectangles of pixels); no additional detail is shown, but, depending on the quality of one's vision, possibly more detail can be seen; if a computer display does not show adjacent pixels really separate, but overlapping instead (this does not apply for an LCD
, but may apply for a cathode ray tube
), then replacing a pixel by a rectangle of pixels does show more detail. A variation of this method is interpolation
* Typically (2) applies to a Portable Document Format
(PDF) file or other format based on vector graphics
. The increase in detail is limited to the information contained in the file: enlargement of a curve may eventually result in a series of standard geometric figures such as straight lines, arcs of circles or splines
* (2) may apply to text and (3) to the outline of a map feature such as a forest or building.
* (1) may apply to the text as needed (displaying labels for more features), while (2) applies to the rest of the image. Text is not necessarily enlarged when zooming in. Similarly, a road represented by a double line may or may not become wider when one zooms in.
* The map may also have layers which are partly raster graphics
and partly vector graphics
. For a single raster graphics image (2) applies until the pixels in the image file correspond to the pixels of the display, thereafter (3) applies.
The maps that reflect the territorial distribution of climatic
conditions based on the results of long-term observations are called ''climatic maps''. These maps can be compiled both for individual climatic features (temperature, precipitation, humidity) and for combinations of them at the earth's surface and in the upper layers of the atmosphere. Climatic maps show climatic features across a large region and permit values of climatic features to be compared in different parts of the region. When generating the map, spatial interpolation
can be used to synthesize values where there are no measurements, under the assumption that conditions change smoothly.
Climatic maps generally apply to individual months and to the year as a whole, sometimes to the four seasons, to the growing period, and so forth. On maps compiled from the observations of ground meteorological stations, atmospheric pressure is converted to sea level. Air temperature maps are compiled both from the actual values observed on the surface of the earth and from values converted to sea level. The pressure field in free atmosphere is represented either by maps of the distribution of pressure at different standard altitudes—for example, at every kilometer above sea level—or by maps of baric topography on which altitudes (more precisely geopotentials) of the main isobaric surfaces (for example, 900, 800, and 700 millibars) counted off from sea level are plotted. The temperature, humidity, and wind on aeroclimatic maps may apply either to standard altitudes or to the main isobaric surfaces.
Isolines are drawn on maps of such climatic features as the long-term mean values (of atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity, total precipitation, and so forth) to connect points with equal values of the feature in question—for example, isobars for pressure, isotherms for temperature, and isohyets for precipitation. Isoamplitudes are drawn on maps of amplitudes (for example, annual amplitudes of air temperature—that is, the differences between the mean temperatures of the warmest and coldest month). Isanomals are drawn on maps of anomalies (for example, deviations of the mean temperature of each place from the mean temperature of the entire latitudinal zone). Isolines of frequency are drawn on maps showing the frequency of a particular phenomenon (for example, annual number of days with a thunderstorm or snow cover). Isochrones are drawn on maps showing the dates of onset of a given phenomenon (for example, the first frost and appearance or disappearance of the snow cover) or the date of a particular value of a meteorological element in the course of a year (for example, passing of the mean daily air temperature through zero). Isolines of the mean numerical value of wind velocity or isotachs are drawn on wind maps (charts); the wind resultants and directions of prevailing winds are indicated by arrows of different length or arrows with different plumes; lines of flow are often drawn. Maps of the zonal and meridional components of wind are frequently compiled for the free atmosphere. Atmospheric pressure and wind are usually combined on climatic maps. Wind roses, curves showing the distribution of other meteorological elements, diagrams of the annual course of elements at individual stations, and the like are also plotted on climatic maps.
Maps of climatic regionalization, that is, division of the earth's surface into climatic zones and regions according to some classification of climates, are a special kind of climatic map.
Climatic maps are often incorporated into climatic atlases of varying geographic range (globe, hemispheres, continents, countries, oceans) or included in comprehensive atlases. Besides general climatic maps, applied climatic maps and atlases have great practical value. Aeroclimatic maps, aeroclimatic atlases, and agroclimatic maps are the most numerous.
Non-geographical spatial maps
Maps exist of the Solar System
, and other cosmological features such as star map
s. In addition maps of other bodies such as the Moon and other planets are technically not ''geo
s are also spatial but not necessarily geospatial.
Diagrams such as schematic diagram
s and Gantt chart
s and treemap
s display logical relationships between items, rather than geographical relationships. Topological
in nature, only the connectivity is significant. The London Underground map
and similar subway maps around the world are a common example of these maps.
General-purpose maps provide many types of information on one map. Most atlas maps, wall maps, and road maps fall into this category. The following are some features that might be shown on general-purpose maps: bodies of water, roads, railway lines, parks, elevations, towns and cities, political boundaries, latitude and longitude, national and provincial parks. These maps give a broad understanding of location and features of an area. The reader may gain an understanding of the type of landscape, the location of urban places, and the location of major transportation routes all at once.
List of map types
* Aeronautical chart
* Cadastral map
* Climatic map
* Geologic map
* Nautical map
* Physical map
* Political map
* Relief map
* Resource map
* Star map
* Street map
* Thematic map
* Topographic map
* Weather map
* World map
* Cultural map
* Technical map
Some countries required that all published maps represent their national claims regarding border dispute
s. For example:
* Within Russia, Google Maps shows Crimea
as part of Russia.
* Both the Republic of India and the People's Republic of China require that all maps show areas subject to the Sino-Indian border dispute
in their own favor.
In 2010, the People's Republic of China began requiring that all online maps served from within China be hosted there, making them subject to Chinese laws.
* Map–territory relation
* Censorship of maps
* List of online map services
* Map collection
; Map designing and types
* Automatic label placement
* City map
* Compass rose
* Contour map
* Estate map
* Fantasy map
* Floor plan
* Geologic map
* Hypsometric tints
* Map design
—A map created from orthophoto
* Pictorial maps
* Road atlas
* Transit map
*Page layout (cartography)
; Map history
* Early world maps
* History of cartography
* List of cartographers
; Related topics
* Aerial landscape art
* Digital geologic mapping
* Economic geography
* Geographic coordinate system
* Index map
* Global Map
* List of online map services
* Map database management
* David Buisseret, ed., ''Monarchs, Ministers and Maps: The Emergence of Cartography as a Tool of Government in Early Modern Europe.'' Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992,
* Denis E. Cosgrove (ed.) ''Mappings''. Reaktion Books, 1999
* Freeman, HerbertAutomated Cartographic Text Placement.
* Ahn, J. and Freeman, H., “A program for automatic name placement,” Proc. AUTO-CARTO 6, Ottawa, 1983. 444–455.
* Freeman, H., “Computer Name Placement,” ch. 29, in Geographical Information Systems, 1, D.J. Maguire, M.F. Goodchild, and D.W. Rhind, John Wiley, New York, 1991, 449–460.
* Mark Monmonier, ''How to Lie with Maps'',
* O'Connor, J.J. and E.F. Robertson,
'. Scotland : St. Andrews University, 2002.
International Cartographic Association (ICA)
the world body for mapping and GIScience professionals
by the staff of the U.S. Library of Congress
The History of Cartography Project
at the University of Wisconsin, a comprehensive research project in the history of maps and mapping