MAO ZEDONG (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976), commonly known
as CHAIRMAN MAO, was a Chinese communist revolutionary, poet,
political theorist and founding father of the People\'s Republic of
Mao Zedong was the son of a wealthy farmer in
Hunan . Mao
adopted a Chinese nationalist and anti-imperialist outlook early in
his life, and was particularly influenced by the events of the Xinhai
On October 1, 1949,
Mao Zedong proclaimed the foundation of the
People's Republic of
A controversial figure, Mao Zedong is regarded as one of the most important individuals in modern world history and is also known as a theorist, military strategist, poet and visionary. Supporters credit him with driving imperialism out of China, modernising the nation and building it into a world power , promoting the status of women, improving education and health care, as well as increasing life expectancy as China's population grew from around 550 million to over 900 million under his leadership. Conversely, his autocratic totalitarian regime has been vastly condemned for overseeing mass repressions and destruction of religious and cultural artifacts and sites, which through arbitrary executions , purges and forced labor caused an estimated 40 to 70 million deaths, which would rank his tenure as the top incidence of excess mortality in human history.
* 1 Early life
* 1.1 Youth and the Xinhai Revolution: 1893–1911 * 1.2 Fourth Normal School of Changsha: 1912–19
* 2 Early revolutionary activity
* 2.1 Beijing, Anarchism, and Marxism: 1917–19 * 2.2 New Culture and political protests, 1919–20 * 2.3 Founding the Communist Party of China: 1921–22 * 2.4 Collaboration with the Kuomintang: 1922–27
* 3 Civil
* 3.1 The Nanchang and Autumn Harvest Uprisings: 1927 * 3.2 Base in Jinggangshan: 1927–1928 * 3.3 Jiangxi Soviet Republic of China: 1929–1934 * 3.4 The Long March: 1934–1935 * 3.5 Alliance with the Kuomintang: 1935–1940 * 3.6 Resuming civil war: 1940–1949
* 4 Leadership of
* 4.4 Great Proletarian
* 4.4.1 "Mango fever"
* 4.4.2 End of the
* 5 State visits * 6 Death and aftermath
* 7 Legacy
* 7.1 Public image
* 8 Genealogy
* 8.1 Ancestors * 8.2 Wives * 8.3 Siblings * 8.4 Children
* 9 Personal life
* 10 Writings and calligraphy
* 10.1 Literary works
* 17 External links
* 17.1 General * 17.2 Commentary
Main article: Early life of Mao Zedong
YOUTH AND THE XINHAI REVOLUTION: 1893–1911
Mao Zedong was born on December 26, 1893, in
Shaoshan village, Hunan
Province , China. His father,
Mao Yichang , was a formerly
impoverished peasant who had become one of the wealthiest farmers in
Shaoshan. Growing up in rural Hunan,
Mao described his father as a
stern disciplinarian, who would beat him and his three siblings, the
boys Zemin and Zetan , as well as an adopted girl, Zejian . Mao's
Wen Qimei , was a devout Buddhist who tried to temper her
husband's strict attitude.
Mao too became a Buddhist, but abandoned
this faith in his mid-teenage years. At age 8,
Mao was sent to
Shaoshan Primary School. Learning the value systems of
While working on his father's farm,
Mao read voraciously and
developed a "political consciousness" from
Mao began middle school in Changsha. Revolutionary
sentiment was strong in the city, where there was widespread animosity
Puyi 's absolute monarchy and many were advocating
republicanism . The republicans' figurehead was
Sun Yat-sen , an
American-educated Christian who led the
Tongmenghui society. In
Mao was influenced by Sun's newspaper, The People's
Independence (Minli bao), and called for Sun to become president in a
school essay. As a symbol of rebellion against the
Inspired by Sun's republicanism, the army rose up across southern
China, sparking the
Xinhai Revolution . Changsha's governor fled,
leaving the city in republican control. Supporting the revolution,
Mao joined the rebel army as a private soldier , but was not involved
in fighting. The northern provinces remained loyal to the emperor, and
hoping to avoid a civil war, Sun—proclaimed "provisional president"
by his supporters—compromised with the monarchist general Yuan
Shikai . The monarchy would be abolished, creating the Republic of
FOURTH NORMAL SCHOOL OF CHANGSHA: 1912–19
Over the next few years,
Mao Zedong enrolled and dropped out of a
police academy, a soap-production school, a law school, an economics
school, and the government-run
Changsha Middle School. Studying
independently, he spent much time in Changsha's library, reading core
works of classical liberalism such as
Adam Smith 's The Wealth of
The Spirit of the Laws , as well as the
works of western scientists and philosophers such as Darwin , Mill ,
Mao desired to become a teacher and enrolled at the Fourth Normal
School of Changsha, which soon merged with the First Normal School of
Changsha, widely seen as the best in Hunan. Befriending Mao,
Yang Changji urged him to read a radical newspaper, New
Youth (Xin qingnian), the creation of his friend
In his first school year,
Mao befriended an older student, Xiao
Zisheng ; together they went on a walking tour of Hunan, begging and
writing literary couplets to obtain food. A popular student, in 1915
Mao was elected secretary of the Students Society. He organized the
Association for Student Self-Government and led protests against
school rules. In spring 1917, he was elected to command the students'
volunteer army, set up to defend the school from marauding soldiers.
Increasingly interested in the techniques of war, he took a keen
World War I
EARLY REVOLUTIONARY ACTIVITY
Main article: Early revolutionary activity of Mao Zedong
BEIJING, ANARCHISM, AND MARXISM: 1917–19
Mao moved to
Paid a low wage,
Mao lived in a cramped room with seven other
Hunanese students, but believed that Beijing's beauty offered "vivid
and living compensation". At the university,
Mao was widely snubbed
by other students due to his rural Hunanese accent and lowly position.
He joined the university's Philosophy and Journalism Societies and
attended lectures and seminars by the likes of
NEW CULTURE AND POLITICAL PROTESTS, 1919–20
On May 4, 1919, students in
Mao had begun teaching history at the Xiuye Primary
School and organizing protests against the pro-Duan Governor of Hunan
Zhang Jingyao , popularly known as "Zhang the Venomous" due
to his corrupt and violent rule. In late May,
Mao co-founded the
Hunanese Student Association with
He Shuheng and
Deng Zhongxia ,
organizing a student strike for June and in July 1919 began production
of a weekly radical magazine,
Xiang River Review (Xiangjiang pinglun).
Using vernacular language that would be understandable to the majority
of China's populace, he advocated the need for a "Great Union of the
Popular Masses", strengthened trade unions able to wage non-violent
revolution. His ideas were not Marxist, but heavily influenced by
Kropotkin's concept of mutual aid . Students in
Zhang banned the Student Association, but
Mao continued publishing
after assuming editorship of the liberal magazine New
Hunan) and offered articles in popular local newspaper
Mao visited Tianjin,
Jinan , and
FOUNDING THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF CHINA: 1921–22
The Communist Party of
Mao was now party secretary for
Hunan stationed in Changsha, and to
build the party there he followed a variety of tactics. In August
1921, he founded the Self-Study University, through which readers
could gain access to revolutionary literature, housed in the premises
Mao claimed that he missed the July 1922 Second Congress of the
Communist Party in
COLLABORATION WITH THE KUOMINTANG: 1922–27
At the Third Congress of the Communist Party in
In late 1924,
Mao returned to Shaoshan, perhaps to recuperate from an
illness. He found that the peasantry were increasingly restless and
some had seized land from wealthy landowners to found communes. This
convinced him of the revolutionary potential of the peasantry, an idea
advocated by the KMT leftists but not the Communists. He returned to
When party leader
Sun Yat-sen died in May 1925, he was succeeded by
Chiang Kai-shek , who moved to marginalise the left-KMT and the
Mao nevertheless supported Chiang's National
Revolutionary Army , who embarked on the
Northern Expedition attack in
1926 on warlords. In the wake of this expedition, peasants rose up,
appropriating the land of the wealthy landowners, who were in many
cases killed. Such uprisings angered senior KMT figures, who were
themselves landowners, emphasizing the growing class and ideological
divide within the revolutionary movement. "
In March 1927,
Mao appeared at the Third Plenum of the KMT Central
Executive Committee in Wuhan, which sought to strip General Chiang of
his power by appointing
THE NANCHANG AND AUTUMN HARVEST UPRISINGS: 1927
Flag of the Chinese Workers\' and Peasants\' Red Army
Fresh from the success of the Northern Expedition against the warlords, Chiang turned on the Communists, who by now numbered in the tens of thousands across China. Chiang ignored the orders of the Wuhan-based left KMT government and marched on Shanghai, a city controlled by Communist militias. As the Communists awaited Chiang's arrival, he loosed the White Terror , massacring 5000 with the aid of the Green Gang . In Beijing, 19 leading Communists were killed by Zhang Zuolin . That May, tens of thousands of Communists and those suspected of being communists were killed, and the CPC lost approximately 15,000 of its 25,000 members. "'Eagles cleave the air, Fish glide in the limpid deep; Under freezing skies a million creatures contend in freedom. Brooding over this immensity, I ask, on this boundless land Who rules over man's destiny?" — Excerpt from Mao's poem "Changsha", September 1927
The CPC continued supporting the Wuhan KMT government, a position Mao
initially supported, but by the time of the CPC's Fifth Congress he
had changed his mind, deciding to stake all hope on the peasant
militia. The question was rendered moot when the Wuhan government
expelled all Communists from the KMT on July 15. The CPC founded the
Workers' and Peasants' Red Army of China, better known as the "Red
Army ", to battle Chiang. A battalion led by General
Zhu De was
ordered to take the city of
Nanchang on August 1, 1927, in what became
known as the
Nanchang Uprising . They were initially successful, but
were forced into retreat after five days, marching south to
and from there they were driven into the wilderness of
Jung Chang and Jon Halliday claim that the uprising was in fact sabotaged by Mao to allow him to prevent a group of KMT soldiers from defecting to any other CPC leader. Chang and Halliday also claim that Mao talked the other leaders (including Russian diplomats at the Soviet consulate in Changsha who, Chang and Halliday claim, had been controlling much of the CPC activity) into striking only at Changsha, then abandoning it. Chang and Halliday report a view sent to Moscow by the secretary of the Soviet Consulate in Changsha that the retreat was "the most despicable treachery and cowardice."
BASE IN JINGGANGSHAN: 1927–1928
The CPC Central Committee, hiding in Shanghai, expelled Mao from their ranks and from the Hunan Provincial Committee, as punishment for his "military opportunism", for his focus on rural activity, and for being too lenient with "bad gentry". They nevertheless adopted three policies he had long championed: the immediate formation of Workers\' councils , the confiscation of all land without exemption, and the rejection of the KMT. Mao's response was to ignore them. He established a base in Jinggangshan City , an area of the Jinggang Mountains, where he united five villages as a self-governing state, and supported the confiscation of land from rich landlords, who were "re-educated" and sometimes executed. He ensured that no massacres took place in the region, and pursued a more lenient approach than that advocated by the Central Committee. He proclaimed that "Even the lame, the deaf and the blind could all come in useful for the revolutionary struggle", he boosted the army's numbers, incorporating two groups of bandits into his army, building a force of around 1,800 troops. He laid down rules for his soldiers: prompt obedience to orders, all confiscations were to be turned over to the government, and nothing was to be confiscated from poorer peasants. In doing so, he molded his men into a disciplined, efficient fighting force. "When the enemy advances, we retreat. When the enemy rests, we harass him. When the enemy avoids a battle, we attack. When the enemy retreats, we advance." Mao's advice in combating the Kuomintang, 1928
In spring 1928, the Central Committee ordered Mao's troops to southern Hunan, hoping to spark peasant uprisings. Mao was skeptical, but complied. They reached Hunan, where they were attacked by the KMT and fled after heavy losses. Meanwhile, KMT troops had invaded Jinggangshan, leaving them without a base. Wandering the countryside, Mao's forces came across a CPC regiment led by General Zhu De and Lin Biao ; they united, and attempted to retake Jinggangshan. They were initially successful, but the KMT counter-attacked, and pushed the CPC back; over the next few weeks, they fought an entrenched guerrilla war in the mountains. The Central Committee again ordered Mao to march to south Hunan, but he refused, and remained at his base. Contrastingly, Zhu complied, and led his armies away. Mao's troops fended the KMT off for 25 days while he left the camp at night to find reinforcements. He reunited with the decimated Zhu's army, and together they returned to Jinggangshan and retook the base. There they were joined by a defecting KMT regiment and Peng Dehuai 's Fifth Red Army. In the mountainous area they were unable to grow enough crops to feed everyone, leading to food shortages throughout the winter.
JIANGXI SOVIET REPUBLIC OF CHINA: 1929–1934
In January 1929, Mao and Zhu evacuated the base with 2,000 men and a further 800 provided by Peng, and took their armies south, to the area around Tonggu and Xinfeng in Jiangxi . The evacuation led to a drop in morale, and many troops became disobedient and began thieving; this worried Li Lisan and the Central Committee, who saw Mao's army as lumpenproletariat , that were unable to share in proletariat class consciousness . In keeping with orthodox Marxist thought, Li believed that only the urban proletariat could lead a successful revolution, and saw little need for Mao's peasant guerrillas; he ordered Mao to disband his army into units to be sent out to spread the revolutionary message. Mao replied that while he concurred with Li's theoretical position, he would not disband his army nor abandon his base. Both Li and Mao saw the Chinese revolution as the key to world revolution , believing that a CPC victory would spark the overthrow of global imperialism and capitalism. In this, they disagreed with the official line of the Soviet government and Comintern. Officials in Moscow desired greater control over the CPC and removed Li from power by calling him to Russia for an inquest into his errors. They replaced him with Soviet-educated Chinese Communists, known as the " 28 Bolsheviks ", two of whom, Bo Gu and Zhang Wentian , took control of the Central Committee. Mao disagreed with the new leadership, believing they grasped little of the Chinese situation, and he soon emerged as their key rival.
In February 1930,
Mao created the Southwest
Jiangxi Provincial Soviet
Government in the region under his control. In November, he suffered
emotional trauma after his wife and sister were captured and beheaded
by KMT general He Jian.
Mao then married
He Zizhen , an 18-year-old
revolutionary who bore him five children over the following nine
years. Facing internal problems, members of the
accused him of being too moderate, and hence anti-revolutionary. In
December, they tried to overthrow Mao, resulting in the Futian
incident , during which Mao's loyalists tortured many and executed
between 2000 and 3000 dissenters. The CPC Central Committee moved
Jiangxi which it saw as a secure area. In November it proclaimed
Jiangxi to be the Soviet Republic of
The KMT armies adopted a policy of encirclement and annihilation of
the Red armies. Outnumbered,
Mao responded with guerrilla tactics
influenced by the works of ancient military strategists like
Sun Tzu ,
but Zhou and the new leadership followed a policy of open
confrontation and conventional warfare. In doing so, the Red Army
successfully defeated the first and second encirclements . Angered
at his armies' failure,
Chiang Kai-shek personally arrived to lead the
operation. He too faced setbacks and retreated to deal with the
further Japanese incursions into
THE LONG MARCH: 1934–1935
On October 14, 1934, the Red Army broke through the KMT line on the
Jiangxi Soviet's south-west corner at Xinfeng with 85,000 soldiers and
15,000 party cadres and embarked on the "
Long March ". In order to
make the escape, many of the wounded and the ill, as well as women and
children, were left behind, defended by a group of guerrilla fighters
whom the KMT massacred. The 100,000 who escaped headed to southern
Hunan, first crossing the
Xiang River after heavy fighting, and then
the Wu River , in
Guizhou where they took
Zunyi in January 1935.
Temporarily resting in the city, they held a conference ; here, Mao
was elected to a position of leadership, becoming Chairman of the
Politburo , and de facto leader of both Party and Red Army, in part
because his candidacy was supported by Soviet Premier
Mao led his troops to
Loushan Pass , where they faced
armed opposition but successfully crossed the river. Chiang flew into
the area to lead his armies against Mao, but the Communists
outmanoeuvred him and crossed the
Jinsha River . Faced with the more
difficult task of crossing the
Tatu River , they managed it by
fighting a battle over the
Many if not most of the events as later described by Mao and which the CPC claims are true are seen as false by Jung Chang. During the decade spent researching the book, Mao: The Unknown Story, for instance, Chang found evidence that there was no battle at Luding and that the CPC crossed the bridge unopposed. Chang interviewed an eye witness to the crossing of the Dadu (Tatu) River at Luding, Mrs Zhu De, then 93 years old, who recalled no deaths, except for two people who fell from the bridge at Luding while repairing it. Chang also points out the contradictions in the version of events as told by the CPC, which said the bridge was taken by a suicide attack by 22 men, but that these men were also present at a ceremony following the crossing of the bridge.
Chang and Halliday also dispute the Communist Party of China's official version by claiming that far from the Long March being a masterful piece of strategy by the CPC, it was in fact devised by Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the KMT. Chiang's aim was to give the CPC an easy route to follow through warlord controlled areas. Hemmed in by Nationalist troops on three sides, the CPC was forced to follow the route dictated by the KMT. The aim of this was to allow KMT forces to follow the reds into warlord controlled areas such as Sichuan and win over warlords scared of the sudden arrival of the Communist force. The only glitch in this plan came when Mao refused to follow the easy route into Sichuan where he was to meet up with a red army much larger than his own and led by a more senior CPC member, Chang Kuo Tao. Mao recognised the threat Chang posed to his rising position in the CPC and doubled back to give himself time to further cement his political power, causing the needless deaths of thousands of his own troops.
Chang and Halliday also claim that Mao and other top CPC leaders did not walk the Long March, but were carried on litters – Mao himself told his staff that being carried on the Long March gave him much time to read – with the litter bearers' knees being worn to the bone when forced to carry Mao up mountains.
Though well received in the popular press, Chang and Halliday's work has been highly criticized by professional historians.
ALLIANCE WITH THE KUOMINTANG: 1935–1940
Mao's troops arrived at the Yan\'an Soviet during October 1935 and
settled in Pao An, until spring 1936. While there, they developed
links with local communities, redistributed and farmed the land,
offered medical treatment, and began literacy programs.
commanded 15,000 soldiers, boosted by the arrival of
He Long 's men
Hunan and the armies of
Zhu De and
Zhang Guotao returned from
Tibet. In February 1936, they established the North West
Anti-Japanese Red Army University in Yan'an, through which they
trained increasing numbers of new recruits. In January 1937, they
began the "anti-Japanese expedition", that sent groups of guerrilla
fighters into Japanese-controlled territory to undertake sporadic
attacks. In May 1937, a Communist Conference was held in
discuss the situation. Western reporters also arrived in the "Border
Region" (as the Soviet had been renamed); most notable were Edgar Snow
, who used his experiences as a basis for Red Star Over
On the Long March, Mao's wife He Zizen had been injured by a shrapnel wound to the head. She traveled to Moscow for medical treatment; Mao proceeded to divorce her and marry an actress, Jiang Qing . Mao moved into a cave-house and spent much of his time reading, tending his garden and theorizing. He came to believe that the Red Army alone was unable to defeat the Japanese, and that a Communist-led "government of national defence" should be formed with the KMT and other "bourgeois nationalist" elements to achieve this goal. Although despising Chiang Kai-shek as a "traitor to the nation", on May 5, he telegrammed the Military Council of the Nanking National Government proposing a military alliance, a course of action advocated by Stalin. Although Chiang intended to ignore Mao's message and continue the civil war, he was arrested by one of his own generals, Zhang Xueliang , in Xi\'an , leading to the Xi\'an Incident ; Zhang forced Chiang to discuss the issue with the Communists, resulting in the formation of a United Front with concessions on both sides on December 25, 1937. Mao in 1938, writing On Protracted War
The Japanese had taken both
RESUMING CIVIL WAR: 1940–1949
In 1944, the Americans sent a special diplomatic envoy, called the Dixie Mission , to the Communist Party of China. According to Edwin Moise, in Modern China: A History 2nd Edition:
Most of the Americans were favourably impressed. The CPC seemed less
corrupt, more unified, and more vigorous in its resistance to Japan
than the KMT.
After the end of World
To enhance the Red Army's military operations, Mao as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China, named his close associate General Zhu De to be its Commander-in-Chief.
In 1948, under direct orders from Mao, the People's Liberation Army
starved out the
Kuomintang forces occupying the city of
LEADERSHIP OF CHINA
The People's Republic of
Mao took up residence in
In October 1950, Mao made the decision to send the People\'s Volunteer Army (PVA), a special unit of the People\'s Liberation Army , into the war in Korea and fight as well as to reinforce the armed forces of North Korea, the Korean People\'s Army , which had been in full retreat. Historical records showed that Mao directed the PVA campaigns to the minutest details. As the Chairman of the CPC's Central Military Commission (CMC), he was also the Supreme Commander in Chief of the PLA and the People's Republic and Chairman of the ruling CPC. The PVA was under the overall command of then newly installed Premier Zhou Enlai , with General Peng Dehuai as field commander and political commissar. Mao with his fourth wife, Jiang Qing , called "Madame Mao", 1946
During the land reform, a significant numbers of landlords and well-to-do peasants were beaten to death at mass meetings organised by the Communist Party as land was taken from them and given to poorer peasants, which significantly reduced economic inequality . The Campaign to Suppress Counter-revolutionaries , involved public executions that targeted mainly former Kuomintang officials, businessmen accused of "disturbing" the market, former employees of Western companies and intellectuals whose loyalty was suspect. In 1976, the U.S. State department estimated as many as a million were killed in the land reform, and 800,000 killed in the counter-revolutionary campaign.
Mao himself claimed that a total of 700,000 people were killed in attacks on "counter-revolutionaries" during the years 1950–1952. However, because there was a policy to select "at least one landlord, and usually several, in virtually every village for public execution", the number of deaths range between 2 million and 5 million. In addition, at least 1.5 million people, perhaps as many as 4 to 6 million, were sent to "reform through labour" camps where many perished. Mao played a personal role in organizing the mass repressions and established a system of execution quotas, which were often exceeded. He defended these killings as necessary for the securing of power.
The Mao government is generally credited with eradicating both consumption and production of opium during the 1950s using unrestrained repression and social reform. Ten million addicts were forced into compulsory treatment, dealers were executed, and opium-producing regions were planted with new crops. Remaining opium production shifted south of the Chinese border into the Golden Triangle region.
Starting in 1951,
Mao initiated two successive movements in an effort
to rid urban areas of corruption by targeting wealthy capitalists and
political opponents, known as the three-anti/five-anti campaigns .
Whereas the three-anti campaign was a focused purge of government,
industrial and party officials, the five-anti campaign set its sights
slightly broader, targeting capitalist elements in general. Workers
denounced their bosses, spouses turned on their spouses, and children
informed on their parents; the victims were often humiliated at
struggle sessions , a method designed to intimidate and terrify people
to the maximum.
Mao insisted that minor offenders be criticised and
reformed or sent to labour camps, "while the worst among them should
be shot". These campaigns took several hundred thousand additional
lives, the vast majority via suicide.
In Shanghai, suicide by jumping from tall buildings became so commonplace that residents avoided walking on the pavement near skyscrapers for fear that suicides might land on them. Some biographers have pointed out that driving those perceived as enemies to suicide was a common tactic during the Mao-era. For example, in his biography of Mao, Philip Short notes that in the Yan\'an Rectification Movement , Mao gave explicit instructions that "no cadre is to be killed", but in practice allowed security chief Kang Sheng to drive opponents to suicide and that "this pattern was repeated throughout his leadership of the People's Republic".
Following the consolidation of power,
Mao launched the First
Five-Year Plan (1953–1958). The plan aimed to end Chinese dependence
upon agriculture in order to become a world power. With the Soviet
Union 's assistance, new industrial plants were built and agricultural
production eventually fell to a point where industry was beginning to
produce enough capital that
Programs pursued during this time include the Hundred Flowers
Campaign , in which
Mao indicated his supposed willingness to consider
different opinions about how
Li Zhisui, Mao's physician, suggested that Mao had initially seen the policy as a way of weakening opposition to him within the party and that he was surprised by the extent of criticism and the fact that it came to be directed at his own leadership. It was only then that he used it as a method of identifying and subsequently persecuting those critical of his government. The Hundred Flowers movement led to the condemnation, silencing, and death of many citizens, also linked to Mao's Anti-Rightist Movement, resulting in deaths possibly in the millions.
GREAT LEAP FORWARD
In January 1958, Mao launched the second Five-Year Plan , known as the Great Leap Forward , a plan intended as an alternative model for economic growth to the Soviet model focusing on heavy industry that was advocated by others in the party. Under this economic program, the relatively small agricultural collectives which had been formed to date were rapidly merged into far larger people\'s communes , and many of the peasants were ordered to work on massive infrastructure projects and on the production of iron and steel. Some private food production was banned; livestock and farm implements were brought under collective ownership.
Under the Great Leap Forward, Mao and other party leaders ordered the implementation of a variety of unproven and unscientific new agricultural techniques by the new communes. The combined effect of the diversion of labour to steel production and infrastructure projects, and cyclical natural disasters led to an approximately 15% drop in grain production in 1959 followed by a further 10% decline in 1960 and no recovery in 1961.
In an effort to win favour with their superiors and avoid being purged, each layer in the party hierarchy exaggerated the amount of grain produced under them. Based upon the fabricated success, party cadres were ordered to requisition a disproportionately high amount of that fictitious harvest for state use, primarily for use in the cities and urban areas but also for export. The result, compounded in some areas by drought and in others by floods, was that rural peasants were left with little food for themselves and many millions starved to death in the largest famine known as the Great Chinese Famine . This famine was a direct cause of the death of some 30 million Chinese peasants between 1959 and 1962. Further, many children who became emaciated and malnourished during years of hardship and struggle for survival died shortly after the Great Leap Forward came to an end in 1962.
The extent of Mao's knowledge of the severity of the situation has been disputed. Mao's physician believed that he may have been unaware of the extent of the famine, partly due to a reluctance to criticise his policies, and the willingness of his staff to exaggerate or outright fake reports regarding food production. Upon learning of the extent of the starvation, Mao vowed to stop eating meat, an action followed by his staff. Early in the Great Leap Forward, commune members were encouraged to eat their fill in communal canteens and later many canteens shut down as they ran out of food and fuel.
The idea that the state mistakenly took too much grain from the
countryside because it assumed that the harvest was much larger than
it was is largely a myth—at most partially true for the autumn of
1958 only. In most cases the party knew very well that it was starving
its own people to death. At a secret meeting in the Jinjiang Hotel in
Professor Emeritus Thomas P. Bernstein of
Some scholars believe that this shows Mao’s readiness to accept mass death on an immense scale. My own view is that this is an instance of Mao’s use of hyperbole, another being his casual acceptance of death of half the population during a nuclear war. In other contexts, Mao did not in fact accept mass death. Zhou’s Chronology shows that in October 1958, Mao expressed real concern that 40,000 people in Yunnan had starved to death (p. 173). Shortly after the March 25 meeting, he worried about 25.2 million people who were at risk of starvation. But from late summer on, Mao essentially forgot about this issue, until, as noted, the "Xinyang Incident" came to light in October 1960.
In the article "
Mao Zedong and the
In late autumn 1958, Mao Zedong strongly condemned widespread practices of the Great Leap Forward (GLF) such as subjecting peasants to exhausting labour without adequate food and rest, which had resulted in epidemics, starvation and deaths. At that time Mao explicitly recognized that anti-rightist pressures on officialdom were a major cause of "production at the expense of livelihood." While he was not willing to acknowledge that only abandonment of the GLF could solve these problems, he did strongly demand that they be addressed. After the July 1959 clash at Lushan with Peng Dehuai , Mao revived the GLF in the context of a new, extremely harsh anti-rightist campaign, which he relentlessly promoted into the spring of 1960 together with the radical policies that he previously condemned. Not until spring 1960 did Mao again express concern about abnormal deaths and other abuses, but he failed to apply the pressure needed to stop them. Given what he had already learned about the costs to the peasants of GLF extremism, the Chairman should have known that the revival of GLF radicalism would exact a similar or even bigger price. Instead, he wilfully ignored the lessons of the first radical phase for the sake of achieving extreme ideological and developmental goals.
In Hungry Ghosts: Mao\'s Secret
Whatever the cause of the disaster,
Mao lost esteem among many of the
top party cadres, was eventually forced to abandon the policy in 1962,
and lost political power to moderate leaders such as
Liu Shaoqi and
Great Leap Forward was a tragedy for the vast majority of the
Chinese. Although the steel quotas were officially reached, almost all
of the supposed steel made in the countryside was iron, as it had been
made from assorted scrap metal in home-made furnaces with no reliable
source of fuel such as coal. This meant that proper smelting
conditions could not be achieved. According to Zhang Rongmei, a
geometry teacher in rural
"We took all the furniture, pots, and pans we had in our house, and all our neighbours did likewise. We put everything in a big fire and melted down all the metal."
The worst of the famine was steered towards enemies of the state. As Jasper Becker explains:
"The most vulnerable section of China's population, around five per cent, were those whom Mao called 'enemies of the people '. Anyone who had in previous campaigns of repression been labeled a 'black element' was given the lowest priority in the allocation of food. Landlords, rich peasants, former members of the nationalist regime, religious leaders, rightists, counter-revolutionaries and the families of such individuals died in the greatest numbers."
At a large Communist Party conference in
At the Lushan Conference in July/August 1959, several ministers expressed concern that the Great Leap Forward had not proved as successful as planned. The most direct of these was Minister of Defence and Korean War veteran General Peng Dehuai . Following Peng's criticism of the Great Leap Forward, Mao orchestrated a purge of Peng and his supporters, stifling criticism of the Great Leap policies. Senior officials who reported the truth of the famine to Mao were branded as "right opportunists." A campaign against right-wing opportunism was launched and resulted in party members and ordinary peasants being sent to prison labor camps where many would subsequently die in the famine. Years later the CPC would conclude that as many as six million people were wrongly punished in the campaign.
The number of deaths by starvation during the
Great Leap Forward is
deeply controversial. Until the mid-1980s, when official census
figures were finally published by the Chinese Government, little was
known about the scale of the disaster in the Chinese countryside, as
the handful of Western observers allowed access during this time had
been restricted to model villages where they were deceived into
believing that the
Great Leap Forward had been a great success. There
was also an assumption that the flow of individual reports of
starvation that had been reaching the West, primarily through Hong
Kong and Taiwan, must have been localised or exaggerated as
Censuses were carried out in
SPLIT FROM SOVIET UNION
On the international front, the period was dominated by the further
isolation of China. The
The split resulted from
Stalin had established himself as the successor of "correct" Marxist
thought well before
Mao controlled the Communist Party of
Partly surrounded by hostile American military bases (in South Korea,
GREAT PROLETARIAN CULTURAL REVOLUTION
During the early 1960s,
Mao became concerned with the nature of
post-1959 China. He saw that the revolution and
Great Leap Forward had
replaced the ruling old elite with a new one. He was concerned that
those in power were becoming estranged from the people they were to
Mao believed that a revolution of culture would unseat and
unsettle the "ruling class" and keep
Believing that certain liberal bourgeois elements of society
continued to threaten the socialist framework, groups of young people
known as the
Mao was informed of such losses, particularly that people had
been driven to suicide, he is alleged to have commented: "People who
try to commit suicide — don't attempt to save them! . . .
It was during this period that
Lin Biao , who seemed to
echo all of Mao's ideas, to become his successor. Lin was later
officially named as Mao's successor. By 1971, however, a divide
between the two men became apparent. Official history in
Despite being considered a feminist figure by some and a supporter of
women's rights, documents released by the
US Department of State in
2008 show that
Mao declared women to be a "nonsense" in 1973, in
conversation with Kissinger, joking that "
On August 4, 1968,
Mao was presented with some mangoes by the
Pakistani foreign minister , Syed
Sharifuddin Pirzada , in an apparent
Mao called the mangoes a "spiritual time bomb"
and shortly afterwards,
Mao had his aide divide them up and send them
Mao Zedong Propaganda Teams across
In the afternoon of the fifth, when the great happy news of Chairman
Mao giving mangoes to the Capital Worker and Peasant
Thought Propaganda Team reached the
Subsequent articles were also written by government officials propagandizing the reception of the mangoes, and another poem in the People's Daily said: "Seeing that golden mango/Was as if seeing the great leader Chairman Mao ... Again and again touching that golden mango/the golden mango was so warm". Few people at this time in China had ever seen a mango before, and a mango was seen as "a fruit of extreme rarity, like Mushrooms of Immortality".
One of the mangoes was sent to the
It has been claimed that
Mao used the mangoes to express support for
the workers who would go to whatever lengths necessary to end the
factional fighting among students, and a "prime example of Mao's
strategy of symbolic support". Even up until early 1969, participants
Mao Zedong Thought study classes in
End Of The Cultural Revolution
Mao declared the
Estimates of the death toll during the Cultural Revolution, including
civilians and Red Guards, vary greatly. An estimate of around 400,000
deaths is a widely accepted minimum figure, according to Maurice
Meisner . MacFarquhar and Schoenhals assert that in rural
Historian Daniel Leese notes that in the 1950s Mao's personality was hardening: The impression of Mao's personality that emerges from the literature is disturbing. It reveals a certain temporal development from a down-to-earth leader, who was amicable when uncontested and occasionally reflected on the limits of his power, to an increasingly ruthless and self-indulgent dictator. Mao's preparedness to accept criticism decreased continuously.
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COUNTRY DATE HOST
During his leadership,
Mao traveled outside
DEATH AND AFTERMATH
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Further information: Mausoleum of Mao Zedong
Smoking may have played an important role in his declining health, for Mao was a heavy smoker during most of his adult life. It became a state secret that he suffered from multiple lung and heart ailments during his later years. There are unconfirmed reports that he possibly had Parkinson\'s disease in addition to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , also known as Lou Gehrig's disease.
Mao's last public appearance—and the last known photograph of him
alive—was on May 27, 1976, when he met the visiting Pakistani Prime
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Mao's embalmed, CPC-flag-draped body lay in state at the Great Hall of the People for one week. During this period, one million people (none of them foreign diplomats, and the majority crying openly or otherwise displaying some kind of sadness) filed past Mao to pay their final respects. Chairman Mao's official portrait was hung on the wall, with a banner reading: "Carry on the cause left by Chairman Mao and carry on the cause of proletarian revolution to the end", until September 17. On September 17, Chairman Mao's body was taken in a minibus from the Great Hall of the people to Maojiawan to the 305 Hospital that Liu Zhisui directed, and Mao's internal organs were preserved in formaldehyde .
On September 18, a somber cacophony of guns, sirens, whistles and
horns all across
A large portrait of
Zhang Zhenshi at
Mao died in 1956, his achievements would have been immortal. Had he
died in 1966, he would still have been a great man but flawed. But he
died in 1976. Alas, what can one say?" —
Chen Yun , a leading
Communist Party official under
Mao remains a controversial figure and there is little agreement over
his legacy both in
In mainland China,
Mao is still revered by many members and
supporters of the Communist Party and respected by the majority of the
general population as the "Founding Father of modern China", credited
for giving "the Chinese people dignity and self-respect." Mobo Gao in
his 2008 book The Battle for China's Past:
Mao and the Cultural
Mao for raising the average life expectancy from
35 in 1949 to 63 by 1975, bringing "unity and stability to a country
that had been plagued by civil wars and foreign invasions", and laying
the foundation for
Mao has many Chinese critics, both those who live inside and
outside China. Opposition to
Mao is subject to restriction and
censorship in mainland China, but is especially strong elsewhere,
where he is often reviled as a brutish ideologue. In the West, his
name is generally associated with tyranny and his economic theories
are widely discredited—though to some political activists he remains
a symbol against capitalism , imperialism and western influence. Even
in China, key pillars of his economic theory have been largely
dismantled by market reformers like
Chinese Communist Party
There continue to be disagreements on Mao's legacy. Former Party
official Su Shachi, has opined that "he was a great historical
criminal, but he was also a great force for good." In a similar vein,
Liu Binyan has described
Mao as "both monster and a
genius." Some historians argue that
Mao Zedong was "one of the great
tyrants of the twentieth century", and a dictator comparable to Adolf
The People's Republic of
Others, such as
Philip Short , reject such comparisons in Mao: A
Life, arguing that whereas the deaths caused by
Mao's English interpreter
Sidney Rittenberg wrote in his memoir The
Man Who Stayed Behind that whilst
Mao "was a great leader in history",
he was also "a great criminal because, not that he wanted to, not that
he intended to, but in fact, his wild fantasies led to the deaths of
tens of millions of people." Li Rui , Mao's personal secretary, goes
further and claims he was dismissive of the suffering and death caused
by his policies: "Mao's way of thinking and governing was terrifying.
He put no value on human life. The deaths of others meant nothing to
him." Sculptures in front of the Mausoleum of Mao,
In their 832-page biography, Mao: The Unknown Story ,
Jung Chang and
Jon Halliday take a very critical view of Mao's life and influence.
For example, they note that
Mao was well aware that his policies would
be responsible for the deaths of millions; While discussing
labour-intensive projects such as waterworks and making steel, Mao
said to his inner circle in November 1958: "Working like this, with
all these projects, half of
Thomas Bernstein of
The Chinese original, however, is not quite as shocking. In the speech, Mao talks about massive earthmoving irrigation projects and numerous big industrial ones, all requiring huge numbers of people. If the projects, he said, are all undertaken simultaneously "half of China's population unquestionably will die; and if it's not half, it'll be a third or ten percent, a death toll of 50 million people." Mao then pointed to the example of Guangxi provincial Party secretary, Chén Mànyuǎn (陳漫遠) who had been dismissed in 1957 for failing to prevent famine in the previous year, adding: "If with a death toll of 50 million you didn't lose your jobs, I at least should lose mine; whether I should lose my head would also be in question. Anhui wants to do so much, which is quite all right, but make it a principle to have no deaths."
Jasper Becker notes, "archive material gathered by Dikötter ... confirms that far from being ignorant or misled about the famine, the Chinese leadership were kept informed about it all the time. And he exposes the extent of the violence used against the peasants":
Mass killings are not usually associated with
Mao and the Great Leap
Countless others were deliberately deprived of food and consequently starved to death. Many more vanished because they were too old, weak or sick to work—and hence unable to earn their keep. People were killed selectively because they had the wrong class background, because they dragged their feet, because they spoke out or simply because they were not liked, for whatever reason, by the man who wielded the ladle in the canteen.
Dikötter argues that CPC leaders "glorified violence and were inured to massive loss of life. And all of them shared an ideology in which the end justified the means. In 1962, having lost millions of people in his province, Li Jingquan compared the Great Leap Forward to the Long March in which only one in ten had made it to the end: 'We are not weak, we are stronger, we have kept the backbone.'"
Regarding the large-scale irrigation projects, Dikötter stresses
that, in spite of
Mao being in a good position to see the human cost,
they continued unabated for several years, and ultimately claimed the
lives of hundreds of thousands of exhausted villagers. He also notes
that "In a chilling precursor of
The television series Biography stated: " turned
In the book
Though admittedly far from perfect, the comparison is based on the fact that Jackson is remembered both as someone who played a significant role in the development of a political organization (the Democratic Party) that still has many partisans, and as someone responsible for brutal policies toward Native Americans that are now referred to as genocidal.
Both men are thought of as having done terrible things yet this does not necessarily prevent them from being used as positive symbols. And Jackson still appears on $20 bills, even though Americans tend to view as heinous the institution of slavery (of which he was a passionate defender) and the early 19th-century military campaigns against Native Americans (in which he took part).
At times Jackson, for all his flaws, is invoked as representing an egalitarian strain within the American democratic tradition, a self-made man of the people who rose to power via straight talk and was not allied with moneyed interests. Mao stands for something roughly similar.
Mao's military writings continue to have a large amount of influence
both among those who seek to create an insurgency and those who seek
to crush one, especially in manners of guerrilla warfare, at which Mao
is popularly regarded as a genius. As an example, the Communist Party
of Nepal (Maoist) followed Mao's examples of guerrilla warfare to
considerable political and military success even in the 21st century.
Mao's major contribution to the military science is his theory of
"Let us imagine how many people would die if war breaks out. There are 2.7 billion people in the world, and a third could be lost. If it is a little higher, it could be half ... I say that if the worst came to the worst and one-half dies, there will still be one-half left, but imperialism would be razed to the ground and the whole world would become socialist. After a few years there would be 2.7 billion people again"
But historians dispute the sincerity of Mao's words. Robert Service says that Mao "was deadly serious," while Frank Dikötter claims that "He was bluffing ... the sabre-rattling was to show that he, not Khrushchev, was the more determined revolutionary."
Mao's poems and writings are frequently cited by both Chinese and non-Chinese. The official Chinese translation of President Barack Obama 's inauguration speech used a famous line from one of Mao's poems. Republican senator John McCain misattributed a campaign quote to Mao several times during his 2008 presidential election bid, saying "Remember the words of Chairman Mao: 'It's always darkest before it's totally black.'"
The ideology of
Maoism has influenced many Communists, mainly in the
Third World , including revolutionary movements such as
Revolutionary Communist Party, USA also claims
Maoism as its ideology, as do other Communist
Parties around the world which are part of the Revolutionary
Internationalist Movement .
As the Chinese government instituted free market economic reforms starting in the late 1970s and as later Chinese leaders took power, less recognition was given to the status of Mao. This accompanied a decline in state recognition of Mao in later years in contrast to previous years when the state organised numerous events and seminars commemorating Mao's 100th birthday. Nevertheless, the Chinese government has never officially repudiated the tactics of Mao. Deng Xiaoping, who was opposed to the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, has to a certain extent rejected Mao's legacy, famously saying that Mao was "70% right and 30% wrong".
In the mid-1990s, Mao Zedong's picture began to appear on all new renminbi (人民幣) currency from the People's Republic of China. This was officially instituted as an anti-counterfeiting measure as Mao's face is widely recognised in contrast to the generic figures that appear in older currency. On March 13, 2006, a story in the People\'s Daily reported that a proposal had been made to print the portraits of Sun Yat-sen and Deng Xiaoping.
In 2006, the government in
Mao gave contradicting statements on the subject of personality cults
. In 1955, as a response to the
Khrushchev Report that criticised
In 1962, Mao proposed the Socialist Education Movement (SEM) in an attempt to educate the peasants to resist the "temptations" of feudalism and the sprouts of capitalism that he saw re-emerging in the countryside from Liu's economic reforms . Large quantities of politicised art were produced and circulated — with Mao at the centre. Numerous posters, badges and musical compositions referenced Mao in the phrase "Chairman Mao is the red sun in our hearts" (毛主席是我們心中的紅太陽, Máo Zhǔxí Shì Wǒmen Xīnzhōng De Hóng Tàiyáng) and a "Savior of the people" (人民的大救星, Rénmín De Dà Jiùxīng).
In October 1966, Mao's Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung , which was known as the Little Red Book was published. Party members were encouraged to carry a copy with them and possession was almost mandatory as a criterion for membership. Over the years, Mao's image became displayed almost everywhere, present in homes, offices and shops. His quotations were typographically emphasised by putting them in boldface or red type in even the most obscure writings. Music from the period emphasised Mao's stature, as did children's rhymes. The phrase "Long Live Chairman Mao for ten thousand years " was commonly heard during the era. Visitors wait in line to enter the Mao Zedong Mausoleum.
Mao also has a presence in
His ancestors were:
* Máo Yíchāng (毛貽昌, born Xiangtan October 15, 1870, died Shaoshan January 23, 1920), father, courtesy name Máo Shùnshēng (毛順生) or also known as Mao Jen-sheng * Wén Qīmèi (文七妹, born Xiangxiang 1867, died October 5, 1919), mother. She was illiterate and a devout Buddhist. She was a descendant of Wen Tianxiang . * Máo Ēnpǔ (毛恩普, born May 22, 1846, died November 23, 1904), paternal grandfather * née Luó (羅氏), paternal grandmother (given name not recorded)
* Máo Zǔrén (毛祖人), paternal great-grandfather
Mao Zedong had four wives who gave birth to a total of 10 children. They were:
* Luo Yixiu (October 20, 1889 – 1910) of Shaoshan : married 1907 to 1910 * Yang Kaihui (1901–1930) of Changsha : married 1921 to 1927, executed by the KMT in 1930; mother to Mao Anying , Mao Anqing, and Mao Anlong * He Zizhen (1910–1984) of Jiangxi: married May 1928 to 1939; mother to Mao Anhong, Li Min , and four other children * Jiang Qing (1914–1991), married 1939 to Mao's death; mother to Li Na
He had several siblings:
Mao Zedong's parents altogether had five sons and two daughters. Two of the sons and both daughters died young, leaving the three brothers Mao Zedong, Mao Zemin, and Mao Zetan. Like all three of Mao Zedong's wives, Mao Zemin and Mao Zetan were communists. Like Yang Kaihui, both Zemin and Zetan were killed in warfare during Mao Zedong's lifetime.
Note that the character zé (澤) appears in all of the siblings' given names. This is a common Chinese naming convention.
From the next generation, Zemin's son, Mao Yuanxin , was raised by Mao Zedong's family. He became Mao Zedong's liaison with the Politburo in 1975. In Li Zhisui's The Private Life of Chairman Mao , Mao Yuanxin played a role in the final power-struggles.
Mao Zedong had a total of ten children, including:
Mao Anying (1922–1950): son to Yang, married to Liú Sīqí
(劉思齊), killed in action during the
Mao Anqing (1923–2007): son to Yang, married to Shao Hua
Mao Xinyu , grandson
Mao Anlong (1927–1931): son to Yang, died during the Chinese
Mao's first and second daughters were left to local villagers because it was too dangerous to raise them while fighting the Kuomintang and later the Japanese. Their youngest daughter (born in early 1938 in Moscow after Mao separated) and one other child (born 1933) died in infancy. Two English researchers who retraced the entire Long March route in 2002–2003 located a woman whom they believe might well be one of the missing children abandoned by Mao to peasants in 1935. Ed Jocelyn and Andrew McEwen hope a member of the Mao family will respond to requests for a DNA test.
Through his ten children,
Mao became grandfather to twelve
grandchildren, many of whom he never knew. He has many
great-grandchildren alive today. One of his granddaughters is
businesswoman Kong Dongmei, one of the richest people in
Mao and Zhang Yufeng in 1964
Mao's private life was very secretive at the time of his rule. However, after Mao's death, Li Zhisui , his personal physician, published The Private Life of Chairman Mao , a memoir which mentions some aspects of Mao's private life, such as chain-smoking cigarettes, rare bathing or dental habits, laziness, addiction to sleeping pills and large number of sexual partners. Some scholars and some other people who also personally knew and worked with Mao, however, have disputed the accuracy of these characterisations.
Having grown up in Hunan , Mao spoke Mandarin with a marked Hunanese accent. Ross Terrill noted Mao was a "son of the soil ... rural and unsophisticated" in origins, while Clare Hollingworth asserted he was proud of his "peasant ways and manners", having a strong Hunanese accent and providing "earthy" comments on sexual matters. Lee Feigon noted that Mao's "earthiness" meant that he remained connected to "everyday Chinese life."
Sinologist Stuart Schram emphasised Mao's ruthlessness, but also noted that he showed no sign of taking pleasure in torture or killing in the revolutionary cause. Lee Feigon considered Mao "draconian and authoritarian" when threatened, but opined that he was not the "kind of villain that his mentor Stalin was". Alexander Pantsov and Steven I. Levine claimed that Mao was a "man of complex moods", who "tried his best to bring about prosperity and gain international respect" for China, being "neither a saint nor a demon." They noted that in early life, he strived to be "a strong, wilful, and purposeful hero, not bound by any moral chains", and that he "passionately desired fame and power".
Mao had learned some English language, but his spoken English only limited to a few single words, phrases, and some short sentences. He chose to learn English in 1950s, which was very unusual as the main foreign language first taught in Chinese schools at that time was Russian.
WRITINGS AND CALLIGRAPHY
Mao's calligraphy : a bronze plaque of a poem by Li Bai . (Chinese : 白帝城毛澤東手書李白詩銅匾)
Mao was a prolific writer of political and philosophical literature.
He is the attributed author of Quotations from Chairman
Mao Tse-tung ,
known in the West as the "Little Red Book" and in Cultural Revolution
* On Guerrilla Warfare (《游擊戰》); 1937 * On Practice (《實踐論》); 1937 * On Contradiction (《矛盾論》); 1937 * On Protracted War (《論持久戰》); 1938 * In Memory of Norman Bethune (《紀念白求恩》); 1939 * On New Democracy (《新民主主義論》); 1940 * Talks at the Yan\'an Forum on Literature and Art (《在延安文藝座談會上的講話》); 1942 * Serve the People (《為人民服務》); 1944 * The Foolish Old Man Who Removed the Mountains (《愚公移山》); 1945 * On the Correct Handling of the Contradictions Among the People (《正確處理人民內部矛盾問題》); 1957
Mao was also a skilled Chinese calligrapher with a highly personal style. In China, Mao was considered a master calligrapher during his lifetime. His calligraphy can be seen today throughout mainland China. His work gave rise to a new form of Chinese calligraphy called "Mao-style" or Maoti, which has gained increasing popularity since his death. There currently exist various competitions specialising in Mao-style calligraphy.
Main article: Poetry of Mao Zedong Mao's calligraphy of his poem "Qingyuanchun Changsha"
As did most Chinese intellectuals of his generation, Mao's education
began with Chinese classical literature .
Edgar Snow in 1936
that he had started the study of the Confucian
Some of his most well-known poems are
Changsha (1925), The Double
Loushan Pass (1935), The
Long March (1935), Snow
(1936), The PLA Captures
PORTRAYAL IN FILM AND TELEVISION
Mao has been portrayed in film and television numerous times. Some
notable actors include: Han Shi, the first actor ever to have
portrayed Mao, in a 1978 drama Dielianhua and later again in a 1980
film Cross the Dadu River;
Gu Yue , who had portrayed
Mao 84 times on
screen throughout his 27-year career and had won the Best Actor title
Hundred Flowers Awards in 1990 and 1993; Liu Ye , who played
The Founding of a Party
MAO AND TIBET
See also: Sinicization of
Mao Zedong won the
Chinese Civil War in 1949, his goal became
the unification of the "five nationalities" under the big family, the
People's Republic of China, and under a single political system, the
Communist Party of China. Aware of Mao's vision, the Tibetan
government in Lhasa sent a representative, Ngabo , to
a strategically high valued town near the border. Ngabo had orders to
hold the position while reinforcements were coming from Lhasa and
fight off the Chinese. On October 16, 1950, news came that the
People's Liberation Army was advancing towards
Chamdo and had also
taken another strategic town, named Riwoche, which could block the
route to Lhasa. With new orders, Ngabo and his men retreated to a
monastery where the
People's Liberation Army finally surrounded and
captured them, though they were treated with respect. Ngabo wrote to
Lhasa suggesting a peaceful surrender instead of war. During the
negotiation, the Chinese negotiator laid the cards straight on the
table, stating that "It is up to you to choose whether
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Revolution; Choice Of Successor Is Uncertain".
The New York Times
* ^ Kong Dongmei on China's rich list:
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Mao Zedong, Appears On
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Los Angeles Times
* ^ Malcolm Moore (May 9, 2013). "Mao\'s granddaughter accused over
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