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Manzanar
Manzanar
is most widely known as the site of one of ten American concentration camps where over 110,000 Japanese Americans
Japanese Americans
were unjustly incarcerated during World War II
World War II
from December 1942 to 1945. Located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada in California's Owens Valley between the towns of Lone Pine to the south and Independence to the north, it is approximately 230 miles (370 km) north of Los Angeles. Manzanar
Manzanar
(which means "apple orchard" in Spanish) was identified by the United States National Park Service
National Park Service
as the best-preserved of the former camp sites, and is now the Manzanar National Historic Site, which preserves and interprets the legacy of Japanese American
Japanese American
incarceration in the United States.[8] Long before the first incarcerees arrived in March 1942, Manzanar
Manzanar
was home to Native Americans, who lived mostly in villages near several creeks in the area. Ranchers and miners formally established the town of Manzanar
Manzanar
in 1910,[9] but abandoned the town by 1929 after the City of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
purchased the water rights to virtually the entire area.[8] As different as these groups were, their histories displayed a common thread of forced relocation. Since the last incarcerees left in 1945, former incarcerees and others have worked to protect Manzanar
Manzanar
and to establish it as a National Historic Site to ensure that the history of the site, along with the stories of those who were unjustly incarcerated there, are remembered by current and future generations. The primary focus is the Japanese American incarceration era,[10] as specified in the legislation that created the Manzanar
Manzanar
National Historic Site. The site also interprets the former town of Manzanar, the ranch days, the settlement by the Owens Valley
Owens Valley
Paiute, and the role that water played in shaping the history of the Owens Valley.[7][10]

Contents

1 Terminology 2 Before World War II

2.1 Owens Valley
Owens Valley
Paiute 2.2 Ranchers 2.3 Quenching Los Angeles' thirst

3 Wartime: 1942–45

3.1 Climate 3.2 Camp layout and facilities 3.3 Life behind the barbed wire 3.4 Resistance 3.5 Closure 3.6 Notable incarcerees

4 Preservation and remembrance

4.1 Manzanar
Manzanar
Pilgrimage 4.2 California Historical Landmark
California Historical Landmark
and Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Historic-Cultural Monument 4.3 National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
and National Historic Site 4.4 Opposition to the creation of the Manzanar
Manzanar
National Historic Site

5 In popular culture 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading

8.1 Owens Valley
Owens Valley
resources 8.2 Wartime-related resources 8.3 Post-War-related resources

9 External links

Terminology[edit] Further information: Japanese American
Japanese American
internment § Terminology debate Since the end of World War II, there has been debate over the terminology used to refer to Manzanar, and the other camps in which Americans of Japanese ancestry and their immigrant parents, were incarcerated by the United States Government
United States Government
during the war.[11][12][13] Manzanar
Manzanar
has been referred to as a "War Relocation Center," "relocation camp," "relocation center," "internment camp", and "concentration camp", and the controversy over which term is the most accurate and appropriate continues to the present day.[14][15][16][17][18] Dr. James Hirabayashi, Professor Emeritus and former Dean of Ethnic Studies at San Francisco State University, wrote an article in 1994 in which he stated that he wonders why euphemistic terms used to describe camps such as Manzanar
Manzanar
are still being used.

Let us review the main points of the debate. Over 120,000 residents of the U.S.A., two thirds of whom were American citizens, were incarcerated under armed guard. There were no crimes committed, no trials, and no convictions: the Japanese Americans
Japanese Americans
were political incarcerees. To detain American citizens in a site under armed guard surely constitutes a "concentration camp." But what were the terms used by the government officials who were involved in the process and who had to justify these actions? Raymond Okamura provides us with a detailed list of terms. Let's consider three such euphemisms: "evacuation," "relocation," and "non-aliens." Earthquake and flood victims are evacuated and relocated. The words refer to moving people in order to rescue and protect them from danger. The official government policy makers consistently used "evacuation" to refer to the forced removal of the Japanese Americans
Japanese Americans
and the sites were called "relocation centers." These are euphemisms (Webster: "the substitution of an inoffensive term for one considered offensively explicit") as the terms do not imply forced removal nor incarceration in enclosures patrolled by armed guards. The masking was intentional.[19]

Hirabayashi went on to describe the harm done by the use of such euphemisms and also addressed the issue of whether or not only the Nazi camps can be called "concentration camps."

The harm in continuing to use the government's euphemisms is that it disguises or softens the reality which subsequently has been legally recognized as a grave error. The actions abrogated some fundamental principles underlying the Constitution, the very document under which we govern ourselves. This erosion of fundamental rights has consequences for all citizens of our society and we must see that it is never repeated. Some have argued that the Nazi Germany camps during the Holocaust were concentration camps and to refer to the Japanese American camps likewise would be an affront to the Jews. It is certainly true that the Japanese Americans
Japanese Americans
did not suffer the harsh fate of the Jews in the terrible concentration camps or death camps where Nazi Germany practiced a policy of genocide. Although the loss of life was minimal in America's concentration camps, it does not negate the reality of the unconstitutional incarceration of Japanese American citizens. Michi and Walter Weglyn's research concerning Nazi Germany's euphemisms for their concentration camps revealed such phrases as "protective custody camps," "reception centers," and "transit camps." Ironically, two Nazi euphemisms were identical to our government's usage: "assembly centers" and "relocation centers." It might be well to point out, also, that the Nazis were not operating under the U.S. Constitution. Comparisons usually neglect to point out that Hitler was operating under the rules of the Third Reich. In America all three branches of the U.S. government, ostensibly operating under the U.S. Constitution, ignored the Bill of Rights in order to incarcerate Japanese Americans.[19]

In 1998, use of the term "concentration camps" gained greater credibility prior to the opening of an exhibit about the American camps at Ellis Island. Initially, the American Jewish Committee
American Jewish Committee
(AJC) and the National Park Service, which manages Ellis Island, objected to the use of the term in the exhibit.[20] However, during a subsequent meeting held at the offices of the AJC in New York City, leaders representing Japanese Americans
Japanese Americans
and Jewish Americans reached an understanding about the use of the term.[21] After the meeting, the Japanese American
Japanese American
National Museum and the AJC issued a joint statement (which was included in the exhibit) that read in part:

A concentration camp is a place where people are imprisoned not because of any crimes they have committed, but simply because of who they are. Although many groups have been singled out for such persecution throughout history, the term 'concentration camp' was first used at the turn of the [20th] century in the Spanish American and Boer Wars. During World War II, America's concentration camps were clearly distinguishable from Nazi Germany's. Nazi camps were places of torture, barbarous medical experiments and summary executions; some were extermination centers with gas chambers. Six million Jews were slaughtered in the Holocaust. Many others, including Gypsies, Poles, homosexuals and political dissidents were also victims of the Nazi concentration camps. In recent years, concentration camps have existed in the former Soviet Union, Cambodia and Bosnia. Despite differences, all had one thing in common: the people in power removed a minority group from the general population and the rest of society let it happen.[22][23]

The New York Times
New York Times
published an unsigned editorial supporting the use of "concentration camp" in the exhibit.[24] An article quoted Jonathan Mark, a columnist for The Jewish Week, who wrote, "Can no one else speak of slavery, gas, trains, camps? It's Jewish malpractice to monopolize pain and minimize victims."[25] AJC Executive Director David A. Harris stated during the controversy, "We have not claimed Jewish exclusivity for the term 'concentration camps.'"[26] On July 7, 2012, at their annual convention, the National Council of the Japanese American
Japanese American
Citizens League unanimously ratified the Power of Words Handbook, calling for the use of "...truthful and accurate terms, and retiring the misleading euphemisms created by the government to cover up the denial of Constitutional and human rights, the force, oppressive conditions, and racism against 120,000 innocent people of Japanese ancestry locked up in America's World War II concentration camps." [27] According to the Power Of Words Handbook:

From government documents and propaganda, to public discourse and newspapers, many euphemisms have been used to describe the experiences of Japanese Americans
Japanese Americans
who were forced from their homes and communities during World War II. Words like evacuation, relocation, and assembly centers imply that the United States Government
United States Government
was trying to rescue Japanese Americans
Japanese Americans
from a disastrous environment on the West Coast and simply help them move to a new gathering place. These terms strategically mask the fact that thousands of Japanese Americans
Japanese Americans
were denied their rights as US citizens, and forcibly ordered to live in poorly constructed barracks on sites that were surrounded by barbed wire and guard towers. Although the use of euphemisms was commonplace during World War II, and in many subsequent years, we realize that the continued use of these inaccurate terms is highly problematic.[28]

Before World War II[edit]

Owens Valley
Owens Valley
Paiute woman weaving a basket

Owens Valley
Owens Valley
Paiute[edit] Manzanar
Manzanar
was first inhabited by Native Americans nearly 10,000 years ago. Approximately 1,500 years ago, the area was settled by the Owens Valley Paiute,[8][29] who ranged across the Owens Valley
Owens Valley
from Long Valley on the north to Owens Lake
Owens Lake
on the south, and from the crest of the Sierra Nevada on the west to the Inyo Mountains
Inyo Mountains
on the east.[30] Other Native American nations in the region included the Miwok, Western Mono, and Tubatulabal to the west, the Shoshone
Shoshone
to the south and east, and the Mono Lake
Mono Lake
Paiute to the north.[30] The Owens Valley Paiute hunted and fished, collected pine nuts, and raised crops utilizing irrigation in the Manzanar
Manzanar
area.[8][31] They also traded brown-ware pottery for salt from the Saline Valley, and traded other wares and goods across the Sierra Nevada during the summer and fall.[32] The Owens Valley
Owens Valley
had received scant attention from European Americans before the early 1860s, as it was little more than a crossroads of the routes through the area. When gold and silver were discovered in the Sierra Nevada and the Inyo Mountains, the resulting sudden influx of miners, farmers, cattlemen and their hungry herds brought conflict with the Owens Valley
Owens Valley
Paiute, whose crops were being destroyed.[33] The Owens Valley
Owens Valley
Indian War of 1861–1863 ensued; at the end, the Owens Valley
Owens Valley
Paiute, along with other native peoples in the region, were forced at gunpoint by the United States Army
United States Army
to walk almost 200 miles (320 km) to Fort Tejon,[31] in one of the many forced relocations or "Trails of Tears" inflicted upon Native Americans in the United States.[34][35] Approximately one-third of the Native Americans in the Owens Valley were forcibly relocated to Fort Tejon. After 1863, many returned to their permanent villages that had been established along creeks flowing down from the Sierra Nevada mountains.[34] In the Manzanar area, the Owens Valley
Owens Valley
Paiute had established villages along Bairs, Georges, Shepherds, and Symmes creeks.[34] Evidence of Paiute settlement in the area is still present.

Manzanar
Manzanar
Community Hall, ca. 1912. In back is Hatfield's (later Bandhauer's) General Store, which housed the post office

Ranchers[edit] When European American
European American
settlers first arrived in the Owens Valley
Owens Valley
in the mid–19th century, they found a number of large Paiute villages in the Manzanar
Manzanar
area.[36] John Shepherd, one of the first of the new settlers, homesteaded 160 acres (65 ha) of land 3 miles (5 km) north of Georges Creek in 1864. With the help of Owens Valley Paiute field workers and laborers,[37] he expanded his ranch to 2,000 acres (810 ha).[38] In 1905, George Chaffey, an agricultural developer from Southern California, purchased Shepherd's ranch and subdivided it, along with other adjacent ranches. He founded the town of Manzanar
Manzanar
in 1910.[9][39] Chaffey's Owens Valley
Owens Valley
Improvement Company built an irrigation system and planted thousands of fruit trees.[9] By 1920, the town had more than twenty-five homes, a two-room school, a town hall, and a general store.[39] Also at that time, nearly 5,000 acres (2,000 ha) of apple, pear, and peach trees were under cultivation; along with crops of grapes, prunes, potatoes, corn and alfalfa; and large vegetable and flower gardens.[9][40] " Manzanar
Manzanar
was a very happy place and a pleasant place to live during those years, with its peach, pear, and apple orchards, alfalfa fields, tree-lined country lanes, meadows and corn fields," said Martha Mills, who lived at Manzanar
Manzanar
from 1916 to 1920.[41] Some of the early orchards, along with remnants of the town and ranches, are still present at Manzanar
Manzanar
today.[39]

Unlined section of the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Aqueduct, just south of Manzanar near U.S. Route 395.

Quenching Los Angeles' thirst[edit] As early as March 1905, the City of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
began secretly acquiring water rights in the Owens Valley.[42][43] In 1913, it completed construction of its 233-mile (375 km) Los Angeles Aqueduct,[44] But it did not take long for Los Angeles
Los Angeles
water officials to realize that Owens River water was not enough to supply the rapidly growing metropolis. In 1920, they began to purchase more of the water rights on the Owens Valley
Owens Valley
floor. As the decade went on, the City of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
bought out one Owens Valley
Owens Valley
farmer after another, and extended its reach northward into Mono County, including Long Valley.[45] By 1933, the City owned 85% of all town property and 95% of all ranch and farm land in the Owens Valley, including Manzanar.[39] Although some residents sold their land for prices that made them financially independent and relocated, a significant number chose to stay. In dry years, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
pumped ground water and drained all surface water, diverting all of it into its aqueduct and leaving Owens Valley ranchers without water.[46] Without water for irrigation, the holdout ranchers were forced off their ranches and out of their communities; that included the town of Manzanar, which was abandoned by 1929.[8]

'There was so much water during those early years, that when a horse pulled a buggy, the water frequently came up to the horse's knees,' said Lucille DeBoer, who lived on a ranch at Manzanar. 'When this happened, the children took off their shoes and socks to walk home. In the early 1900s the City of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
started to purchase ranches in the Owens Valley
Owens Valley
for the sole purpose of supplying water to the people in Los Angeles. People started to sell their land to the City; the City put in wells to drain the water out of the ground; the trees began to die; and the land finally turned to vacant dirt. This ended the Land of the Big Red Apples.'[40]

Manzanar
Manzanar
remained uninhabited until the United States Army
United States Army
leased 6,200 acres (2,500 ha) from the City of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
for the Manzanar
Manzanar
War Relocation Center.[8] Wartime: 1942–45[edit]

Barracks under construction at Poston. Barrack construction and materials were the same at all ten camps, including Manzanar. Poston, Arizona May 5, 1942

After the December 7, 1941, attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States Government swiftly moved to begin solving the "Japanese Problem" on the West Coast of the United States.[47] In the evening hours of that same day, the Federal Bureau of Investigation
Federal Bureau of Investigation
(FBI) arrested selected "enemy" aliens, including more than 5,500 Issei
Issei
men.[48] The California
California
government pressed for action by the national government, as many citizens were alarmed about potential activities by people of Japanese descent. On February 19, 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
signed Executive Order 9066, which authorized the Secretary of War to designate military commanders to prescribe military areas and to exclude "any or all persons" from such areas. The order also authorized the construction of what would later be called "relocation centers" by the War Relocation Authority
War Relocation Authority
(WRA) to house those who were to be excluded.[49] This order resulted in the forced relocation of over 120,000 Japanese Americans, two-thirds of whom were native-born American citizens. The rest had been prevented from becoming citizens by federal law.[50][51] Over 110,000 were incarcerated in the ten concentration camps located far inland and away from the coast.[48] Manzanar
Manzanar
was the first of the ten concentration camps to be established.[52] Initially, it was a temporary "reception center", known as the Owens Valley
Owens Valley
Reception Center from March 21, 1942, to May 31, 1942.[52] At that time, it was operated by the US Army's Wartime Civilian Control Administration (WCCA).[53] The Owens Valley
Owens Valley
Reception Center was transferred to the WRA on June 1, 1942, and officially became the " Manzanar
Manzanar
War Relocation Center." The first Japanese American
Japanese American
incarcerees to arrive at Manzanar
Manzanar
were volunteers who helped build the camp. By mid–April, up to 1,000 Japanese Americans
Japanese Americans
were arriving daily, and by July, the population of the camp neared 10,000.[54] Over 90 percent of the incarcerees were from the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
area, with the rest coming from Stockton, California; and Bainbridge Island, Washington.[54] Many were farmers and fishermen. Manzanar
Manzanar
held 10,046 incarcerees at its peak, and a total of 11,070 people were incarcerated there.[8] Climate[edit]

Far end of a barrack row looking west to the desert beyond with the mountains in the background. Evacuees at Manzanar
Manzanar
are encountering the terrific desert heat July 2, 1942

Typical interior scene in a Manzanar
Manzanar
barrack apartment. Note the cloth partition separating one apartment from another, lending a small amount of privacy. June 30, 1942

Female incarceree practicing calisthenics

The weather at Manzanar
Manzanar
caused suffering for the incarcerees, few of whom were accustomed to the extremes of the area's climate. The temporary buildings were not adequate to shield people from the weather. The Owens Valley
Owens Valley
lies at an elevation of about 4,000 feet (1,200 m).[55] Summers on the desert floor of the Owens Valley are generally hot, with temperatures exceeding 100 °F (38 °C) not uncommon.[55] Winters bring occasional snowfall and daytime temperatures that often drop into the 40 °F (4 °C) range.[55] At night, temperatures are generally 30 to 40 °F (17 to 22 °C) lower than the daytime highs, and high winds are common day or night.[53][55] The area's mean annual precipitation is barely five inches (12.7 cm). The ever-present dust was a continual problem due to the frequent high winds; so much so that incarcerees usually woke up in the morning covered from head to toe with a fine layer of dust, and they constantly had to sweep dirt out of the barracks.[56] "In the summer, the heat was unbearable," said former Manzanar incarceree Ralph Lazo (see Notable incarcerees section, below). "In the winter, the sparsely rationed oil didn't adequately heat the tar paper-covered pine barracks with knotholes in the floor. The wind would blow so hard, it would toss rocks around."[57] Camp layout and facilities[edit]

"Wooden sign at entrance to the Manzanar
Manzanar
War Relocation Center with a car at the gatehouse in the background.", c. 1943.

The camp site was situated on 6,200 acres (2,500 ha) at Manzanar, leased from the City of Los Angeles,[8] with the developed portion covering approximately 540 acres (220 ha).[58] The residential area was about one square mile (2.6 km2), and consisted of 36 blocks of hastily constructed,[59] 20-foot (6.1 m) by 100-foot (30 m) tarpaper barracks, with each incarceree family living in a single 20-foot (6.1 m) by 25-foot (7.6 m) "apartment" in the barracks. These apartments consisted of partitions with no ceilings, eliminating any chance of privacy.[60][61] Lack of privacy was a major problem for the incarcerees, especially since the camp had communal men's and women's latrines.[60][61] "...One of the hardest things to endure was the communal latrines, with no partitions; and showers with no stalls," said former Manzanar incarceree Rosie Kakuuchi.[59] Each residential block also had a communal mess hall, a laundry room, a recreation hall, an ironing room, and a heating oil storage tank, although Block 33 lacked a recreation hall.[61] In addition to the residential blocks, Manzanar
Manzanar
had 34 additional blocks that had staff housing, camp administration offices, two warehouses, a garage, a camp hospital, and 24 firebreaks.[58] The camp also had school facilities, a high school auditorium, staff housing, chicken and hog farms, churches, a cemetery, a post office, a cooperative store, other shops, a camp newspaper, and other necessary amenities that one would expect to find in most American cities.[60] Manzanar
Manzanar
also had a camouflage net factory, an experimental plantation for producing natural rubber from the Guayule
Guayule
plant, and an orphanage called Children's Village, which housed 101 Japanese American orphans.[60][62] The camp perimeter had eight watchtowers manned by armed Military Police, and it was enclosed by five-strand barbed wire. There were sentry posts at the main entrance.[58][60] Life behind the barbed wire[edit] See also: Japanese American
Japanese American
internment: Conditions in the camps After being uprooted from their homes and communities, the incarcerees found themselves having to endure primitive, sub-standard conditions,[59] and lack of privacy. They had to wait in one line after another for meals, at latrines, and at the laundry room.[63] Each camp was intended to be self-sufficient, and Manzanar
Manzanar
was no exception. Cooperatives operated various services, such as the camp newspaper,[64][65][66] beauty and barber shops, shoe repair, and more.[63] In addition, incarcerees raised chickens, hogs, and vegetables, and cultivated the existing orchards for fruit.[63] Incarcerees made their own soy sauce and tofu.[63]

Waiting for lunch outside a mess hall at noon July 7, 1942

Food at Manzanar
Manzanar
was based on military requirements. Meals usually consisted of hot rice and vegetables, since meat was scarce due to rationing.[63] In early 1944, a chicken ranch began operation, and in late April of the same year, the camp opened a hog farm. Both operations provided welcome meat supplements to the incarcerees' diet.[67] Most incarcerees were employed at Manzanar
Manzanar
to keep the camp running. Unskilled workers earned US$8 per month ($119.8 per month as of 2018), semi-skilled workers earned $12 per month ($180 per month as of 2018), skilled workers made $16 per month ($240 per month as of 2018), and professionals earned $19 per month ($285 per month as of 2018). In addition, all incarcerees received $3.60 per month ($54 per month as of 2018) as a clothing allowance.[63]

A baseball game at Manzanar, 1943.

The incarcerees made Manzanar
Manzanar
more livable through recreation. They participated in sports, including baseball and football, and martial arts.[56] Lou Frizzell served as the musical director, and under his mentorship Mary Nomura became known as the "songbird of Manzanar" for her performances at dances and other camp events.[68] The incarcerees also personalized and beautified their barren surroundings by building elaborate gardens, which often included pools, waterfalls, and rock ornaments. There was even a nine-hole golf course.[63][69] Remnants of some of the gardens, pools, and rock ornaments are still present at Manzanar. Resistance[edit] Although most incarcerees quietly accepted their fate during World War II, there was some resistance in the camps. Poston, Heart Mountain, Topaz, and Tule Lake each had civil disturbances about wage differences, black marketing of sugar, intergenerational friction, rumors of "informers" reporting to the camp administration or the FBI, and other issues.[56] However, the most serious incident occurred at Manzanar
Manzanar
on December 5–6, 1942, and became known as the Manzanar Riot.[70] After several months of tension between incarcerees who supported the Japanese American
Japanese American
Citizens League (JACL) and a group of Kibei ( Japanese Americans
Japanese Americans
educated in Japan), rumors spread that sugar and meat shortages were the result of black marketing by camp administrators.[56] To make matters worse, incarceree and JACL leader Fred Tayama was beaten by six masked men. Harry Ueno, the leader of the Kitchen Workers Union, was suspected of involvement and was arrested and removed from Manzanar.[70] Soon after, 3,000 to 4,000 incarcerees gathered and marched to the administration area, protesting Ueno's arrest. After Ueno's supporters negotiated with the camp administration, he was returned to the Manzanar
Manzanar
jail.[70] A crowd of several hundred returned to protest, and when the people surged forward, military police threw tear gas to disperse them. As people ran to avoid the tear gas, some in the crowd pushed a driverless truck toward the jail. At that moment, the military police fired into the crowd, killing a 17-year–old boy instantly. A 21-year–old man who was shot in the abdomen died days later. Nine other prisoners were wounded, and a military police corporal was wounded by a ricocheting bullet.[56][71]

Monument at Manzanar
Manzanar
cemetery, 2002

Closure[edit] On November 21, 1945, the WRA closed Manzanar, the sixth camp to be closed. Although the incarcerees had been brought to the Owens Valley by the United States Government, they had to leave the camp and travel to their next destinations on their own.[70][72] The WRA gave each person $25 ($340 today), one-way train or bus fare, and meals to those who had less than $600 ($8,156 today).[72] While many left the camp voluntarily, a significant number refused to leave because they had no place to go after having lost everything when they were forcibly uprooted and removed from their homes. As such, they had to be forcibly removed once again, this time from Manzanar. Indeed, those who refused to leave were generally removed from their barracks, sometimes by force, even if they had no place to go.[72] 146 incarcerees died at Manzanar.[73] Fifteen incarcerees were buried there, but only five graves remain, as most were later reburied elsewhere by their families.[74] The Manzanar
Manzanar
cemetery site is marked by a monument that was built by incarceree stonemason Ryozo Kado in 1943.[75] An inscription in Japanese on the front (east side) of the monument reads 慰霊塔 ("Soul Consoling Tower").[73] The inscription on the back (west side) reads "Erected by the Manzanar
Manzanar
Japanese" on the left-hand column, and "August 1943" on the right-hand column.[73] Today, the monument is often draped in strings of origami, and sometimes survivors and other visitors leave offerings of personal items as mementos. The National Park Service periodically collects and catalogues such items. After the camp was closed, the site eventually returned to its original state. Within a couple of years, all the structures had been removed, with the exception of the two sentry posts at the entrance, the cemetery monument, and the former Manzanar
Manzanar
High School auditorium, which was purchased by the County of Inyo. The County leased the auditorium to the Independence Veterans of Foreign Wars, who used it as a meeting facility and community theater until 1951. After that, the building was used as a maintenance facility by the Inyo County Road Department.[70][76] As of 2007, the site also retains numerous building foundations, portions of the water and sewer systems, the outline of the road grid, remains of the landscaping constructed by incarcerees, and much more.[76] Despite four years of use by the incarcerees, the site also retains evidence of the ranches and of the town of Manzanar, as well as artifacts from the days of the Owens Valley
Owens Valley
Paiute settlement.[2][77]

Manzanar
Manzanar
Committee Chair Sue Kunitomi Embrey welcoming crowd at 33rd annual Manzanar
Manzanar
Pilgrimage, April 27, 2002

Notable incarcerees[edit]

Sue Kunitomi Embrey, born on January 6, 1923, was an editor of the Manzanar
Manzanar
Free Press, the camp newspaper, and wove camouflage nets to support the war effort. She left Manzanar
Manzanar
in late 1943 for Madison, Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and one year later moved to Chicago, Illinois. Returning to California
California
in 1948, she went on to become a schoolteacher and a labor and community activist.[78] In 1969, Embrey was one of approximately 150 people who attended the first organized Manzanar
Manzanar
Pilgrimage (see Manzanar
Manzanar
Pilgrimage section, below) and was one of the founders of the annual event. She also went on to become the primary force behind the preservation of the site and its gaining National Historic Site status until her death in May, 2006.[78][79]

'Embrey took her pain and anger from the unjust internment and turned it into a life dedicated to making certain that would never happen again,' said Rose Ochi, legal counsel for the Manzanar
Manzanar
Committee, after Embrey died on May 15, 2006. 'She was just tireless and as a teacher she was making certain that our history books did talk about the tragic episode.'[79]

'The reason [that the Manzanar
Manzanar
National Historic Site has] been accepted by Japanese Americans, local Owens Valley
Owens Valley
residents and general visitors is in large part because of [Embrey's] knowledge and her personal experience,' said Alisa Lynch, Chief of Interpretation, Manzanar
Manzanar
National Historic Site. 'She had the insight to help us be able to be truthful, to be accurate. She was a historian and an internee, she could wear many different hats.'[79]

Aiko Herzig-Yoshinaga, born in 1925 in Los Angeles, was 17 years old when she was incarcerated at Manzanar. Later, she was incarcerated at Jerome and Rohwer, Arkansas.[80] Yoshinaga-Herzig later moved to New York, where she became a community activist in the 1960s and was a member of Asian Americans for Action (AAA), the first Asian American political organization on the East Coast. It included Asian American activists Bill and Yuri Kochiyama.[80] Although she was not trained to be an archival researcher, Yoshinaga-Herzig decided to find out what historical documents about her and her family might exist at the National Archives.[80]

Herzig-Yoshinaga and her husband, John "Jack" Herzig, pored over mountains of documents from the War Relocation Authority, a task that "was roughly equivalent to indexing all the information in a library, working from a card catalog that only gave a subject description by shelf, without giving individual book titles or authors."[80] Their efforts resulted in the discovery of evidence that the US Government perjured itself before the United States Supreme Court in the 1944 cases Korematsu v. United States, Hirabayashi v. United States, and Yasui v. United States
Yasui v. United States
which challenged the constitutionality of the relocation and incarceration. The government had presented falsified evidence to the Court, destroyed evidence, and had withheld other vital information.[81] This evidence provided the legal basis Japanese Americans needed to seek redress and reparations for their wartime imprisonment. The Herzigs' research was also valuable in their work with the National Coalition for Japanese American
Japanese American
Redress (NCJAR), which filed a class-action lawsuit against the US Government on behalf of the incarcerees. The US Supreme Court ruled against the plaintiff.[80]

Henry Fukuhara, who was born in Fruitland, California, in 1913, was incarcerated with his family in April 1942.[82] An artist and watercolorist, Fukuhara would later teach a series of annual artistic workshops at Manzanar
Manzanar
beginning in 1998.[82] His workshops, which usually had about 80 students a year, including Milford Zornes, used outdoor structures at Manzanar
Manzanar
to teach water color painting.[82] William Hohri (1927–2010),[83] was incarcerated at Manzanar
Manzanar
when he was 15 years old. His family entered Manzanar
Manzanar
on April 3, 1942, and remained behind the barbed wire until August 25, 1945.[84] Hohri became a civil rights and anti-war activist after World War II. In the late 1970s he became the chair of the National Coalition for Japanese American Redress (NCJAR), which brought a class action lawsuit against the US Government on March 16, 1983, asserting that it had unjustly incarcerated Japanese Americans
Japanese Americans
during World War II.[85] The lawsuit stated 22 causes of action, including fifteen alleged violations of constitutional rights, and sought $27 billion in damages.[86] Despite the fact the US Supreme Court eventually ruled against the class action plaintiffs, the lawsuit helped bring the Japanese American
Japanese American
case for redress and reparations to public awareness. It showed the Congress and the Executive Branch that the US Government would have far greater exposure in the still-pending lawsuit than by legislation under consideration in Congress for reparations. The proposed bill called for $20,000 reparations payments to each former incarceree or their immediate relatives, along with money for a civil liberties education fund (see Civil Liberties Act
Civil Liberties Act
of 1988).[87][88][83]

...(The class action lawsuit) remained active until after Congress had passed the redress legislation. While it remained alive, it played a significant part in publicizing the issues. The NCJAR lawsuit demanded $220,000 for each individual whose liberties had been denied. This was more than 20 times greater than the $20,000 per surviving incarcerated person that the redress bills proposed, allowing proponents to portray the legislative solution as a moderate alternative.[80]

Ralph Lazo in a group photo at Manzanar

Ralph Lazo, born in 1924 in Los Angeles, was of Mexican American
Mexican American
and Irish American
Irish American
descent, but when at age 16 he learned that his Japanese American
Japanese American
friends and neighbors were being forcibly removed and incarcerated at Manzanar, he was outraged.[57] Lazo was so incensed that he joined friends on a train that took hundreds to Manzanar
Manzanar
in May 1942[89] Manzanar
Manzanar
officials never asked him about his ancestry.[90]

"Internment was immoral," Lazo told the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. "It was wrong, and I couldn't accept it."[57] "These people hadn't done anything that I hadn't done except to go to Japanese language school."[91] In 1944, Lazo was elected president of his class at Manzanar
Manzanar
High School.[57] He remained at Manzanar
Manzanar
until August of that year, when he was inducted into the US Army.[57] He served as a Staff Sergeant in the South Pacific until 1946, helping liberate the Philippines. Lazo was awarded the Bronze Star for heroism in combat.[57] After the war, he was a strong supporter of redress and reparations for Japanese Americans incarcerated during the war.[91] The film, Stand Up for Justice: The Ralph Lazo Story, documents his life story, particularly his stand against the incarceration.[92]

Photographer Toyo Miyatake

Toyo Miyatake, who was born in Kagawa, Shikoku, Japan, in 1896, immigrated to the United States in 1909. He settled in the Little Tokyo section of Los Angeles, and was incarcerated at Manzanar
Manzanar
along with his family. A photographer, Miyatake smuggled a lens and film holder into Manzanar
Manzanar
and later had a craftsman construct a wooden box with a door that hid the lens. He took many now-famous photos of life and the conditions at Manzanar. His contraband camera was eventually discovered by the camp administration and confiscated. However, camp director Ralph Merritt later allowed Miyatake to photograph freely within the camp, even though he was not allowed to actually press the shutter button, requiring a guard or camp official to perform this simple task. Merritt finally saw no point to this technicality, and allowed Miyatake to take photos.[93] Togo Tanaka (1916–2009), editor of the Rafu Shimpo newspaper, was sent to the Manzanar, where he used his journalism experience to document conditions in the camp. A supporter of cooperation with the authorities, he was labeled a collaborator and was transferred to Death Valley after being the target of riots before the first anniversary of Pearl Harbor.[94] Harry Ueno, born in Hawaii in 1907, was a Kibei (native-born Japanese American educated in Japan) who was incarcerated at Manzanar
Manzanar
with his wife and children.<[95] After volunteering for mess hall work, Ueno discovered that Manzanar
Manzanar
camp staff were stealing rationed sugar and meat and selling them on the black market.<[95]>[96] Ueno exposed the thefts, and worked to organize incarcerees to deal with them.[97] This led to his arrest, which resulted in Ueno becoming the focal point of the Manzanar
Manzanar
Riot.[95][98] Ueno was one of the incarcerees featured in Emiko Omori's Emmy Award-winning film Rabbit in the Moon.[99]

"Ueno made us aware there was opposition in the camps," said Omori. "He made us feel that people did fight back and made us realize that one person can make a difference."[100]

Karl Yoneda
Karl Yoneda
was born in Glendale, California, on July 15, 1906, but his family moved back to Japan in 1913.[101][102] He became an activist early in his life.[101] With Japan on a path towards war, Yoneda returned to the United States rather than be drafted into the Japanese Army.[101] He arrived in San Francisco on December 14, 1926. He was taken to the Immigration Detention House on Angel Island, where he was detained for two months, despite having his California
California
birth certificate.[102] Yoneda later moved to Los Angeles, where he found work organizing with the Trade Union Educational League, and later the Japanese Workers' Association.[101] Yoneda arrived at Manzanar
Manzanar
on March 22, 1942, one of the first Japanese Americans
Japanese Americans
to arrive as a volunteer to build the camp.[103] Yoneda later distinguished himself in service to the US, volunteering to serve in the Military Intelligence Service.[104] After the war, Yoneda continued to support progressive causes and civil and human rights issues.[101]

Other notable Manzanar
Manzanar
incarcerees are: Koji Ariyoshi, Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston, Isao Kikuchi, Tura Satana, Gordon H. Sato, Tak Shindo, Larry Shinoda, Iwao Takamoto, Takuji Yamashita and Wendy Yoshimura. Preservation and remembrance[edit] Manzanar
Manzanar
Pilgrimage[edit] On December 21, 1969, about 150 people departed Los Angeles
Los Angeles
by car and bus, headed for Manzanar.[105] It was the "first" annual Manzanar Pilgrimage. But as it turned out, two ministers, the Reverend Sentoku Mayeda and the Reverend Shoichi Wakahiro, had been making annual pilgrimages to Manzanar
Manzanar
since the camp closed in 1945.[105] The non-profit Manzanar
Manzanar
Committee, formerly led by Sue Kunitomi Embrey, has sponsored the Pilgrimage since 1969. The event is held annually on the last Saturday of April[105] with hundreds of visitors of all ages and backgrounds, including some former incarcerees, gathering at the Manzanar
Manzanar
cemetery to remember the incarceration. The hope is that participants can learn about it and help ensure that what is generally accepted to be a tragic chapter in American History is neither forgotten nor repeated. The program traditionally consists of speakers, cultural performances, an interfaith service to memorialize those who died at Manzanar, and Ondo dancing.[106] "My mother was a very staunch Buddhist and she would always say, 'Those poor people that are buried over there at Manzanar
Manzanar
in the hot sun—they must be so dry. Be sure to take some water [as offerings],'" said Embrey. "She always thought it was important to go back and remember the people who had died."[107]

As part of the Manzanar
Manzanar
At Dusk program, former Manzanar
Manzanar
incarceree Wilbur Sato (at far right) relates his experiences in Manzanar
Manzanar
during a small group session

In 1997, the Manzanar
Manzanar
At Dusk program became a part of the Pilgrimage.[108] The program attracts local area residents, as well as descendants of Manzanar's ranch days and the town of Manzanar. Through small group discussions, the event gives participants the opportunity to hear directly about the experiences of former incarcerees first-hand, to share their experiences and feelings about what they learned, and talk about the relevance of what happened at Manzanar
Manzanar
to their own lives.[109] Since the September 11 attacks, American Muslims
American Muslims
have participated in the Pilgrimage to promote and increase awareness of civil rights protections in the wake of widespread suspicions harbored against them post-9/11.[110][111] California Historical Landmark
California Historical Landmark
and Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Historic-Cultural Monument[edit] The Manzanar
Manzanar
Committee's efforts resulted in the State of California naming Manzanar
Manzanar
as California Historical Landmark
California Historical Landmark
#850 in 1972, with an historical marker being placed at the sentry post on April 14, 1973.[2][112] Manzanar, which had been historically owned by the City of Los Angeles, was registered as a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument
Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument
in 1976.[4] National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
and National Historic Site[edit] The Manzanar
Manzanar
Committee also spearheaded efforts for Manzanar
Manzanar
to be listed in the National Register of Historic Places, and in February 1985, Manzanar
Manzanar
was designated a National Historic Landmark.[6][2][113] Embrey and the Committee also led the effort to have Manzanar designated a National Historic Site, and on March 3, 1992, President George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
signed House Resolution 543 into law (Pub.L. 102–248; 106 Stat. 40). This act of Congress established the Manzanar
Manzanar
National Historic Site "to provide for the protection and interpretation of the historical, cultural, and natural resources associated with the relocation of Japanese Americans
Japanese Americans
during World War II."[7][114] Five years later, the National Park Service
National Park Service
acquired 814 acres (329 ha) of land at Manzanar
Manzanar
from the City of Los Angeles.[114]

Replica of an historic watch tower at the Manzanar
Manzanar
National Historic Site, built in 2005. Eight watchtowers, equipped with searchlights and machine guns pointed inward at the incarcerees, were positioned around the perimeter of the camp. April 27, 2007.

The site features a visitor center, housed in the historically restored Manzanar
Manzanar
High School Auditorium, which has a permanent exhibit that tells the stories of the incarcerees at Manzanar, the Owens Valley
Owens Valley
Paiute, the ranchers, the town of Manzanar, and water in the Owens Valley.[115][116]

'...Stories like this need to be told, and too many of us have died without telling our stories,' Embrey said during her remarks at the Grand Opening ceremonies for the Manzanar
Manzanar
National Historic Site Interpretive Center on April 24, 2004. 'The Interpretive Center is important because it needs to show to the world that America is strong as it makes amends for the wrongs it has committed, and that we will always remember Manzanar
Manzanar
because of that.'[79]

The site, which has seen 1,275,195 people visit from 2000 through December 2016,[1] features restored sentry posts at the camp entrance, a replica of a camp guard tower built in 2005,[117] a self-guided tour road, and wayside exhibits.[118] Staff offer guided tours and other educational programs,[119] including a Junior Ranger educational program for children between four and fifteen years of age.[120] The National Park Service
National Park Service
is reconstructing one of the 36 residential blocks as a demonstration block (Block 14, adjacent to and west of the Visitor Center). One barrack appears as it would have when Japanese Americans first arrived at Manzanar
Manzanar
in 1942, while another has been reconstructed to represent barracks life in 1945. Exhibits in these barracks opened on April 16, 2015.[121] A restored World War II
World War II
mess hall, moved to the site from Bishop Airport in 2002, was opened to visitors in late 2010.[122][123] In late 2008, historically appropriate vegetation was planted near the Visitor Center.[124][125] The Manzanar
Manzanar
National Historic Site also unveiled its virtual museum on May 17, 2010[126] and continues to collect oral histories of former incarcerees and others from all periods of Manzanar's history.[127] National Park Service
National Park Service
staff have continued to uncover artifacts from throughout Manzanar's history, the result of archaeological digs that have also excavated several of the gardens designed and built by World War II incarcerees, including the famous Merritt Park (also known as Pleasure Park).[128] In progress is a classroom exhibit that will be housed in the Block 9 barracks[129] and an historic replica of the Block 9 women's latrine (opened in October 2016, but with no interpretive exhibit materials at this time).[130] Opposition to the creation of the Manzanar
Manzanar
National Historic Site[edit] After Congress named Manzanar
Manzanar
a National Historic Site and gave the National Park Service
National Park Service
the job of restoring the site in 1992, protests against its creation emerged. Letters flooded the National Park Service, demanding that Manzanar
Manzanar
be portrayed as a guest housing center for the Japanese Americans.[131] William Hastings, of Bishop, California, wrote to the National Park Service, saying that the portrayal of Manzanar
Manzanar
as a concentration camp amounts to "treason."[131] Protesters threatened to start dismissal campaigns against Bill Michael, a member of the Manzanar
Manzanar
Advisory Commission who was the Director of the Eastern California
California
Museum in Independence, California, and Superintendent Ross Hopkins, the National Park Service employee assigned to the site.[131] They also threatened to destroy any buildings erected or restored at Manzanar.[132] Further, Lillian Baker, and others in California, objected to the words, "concentration camp" on the California
California
State historical marker,[132] which has been hacked and stained, with the first "C" of "concentration camp" having been ground off.[132] Further, a man, who described himself as a World War II veteran, called Hopkins to say that he had driven 200 miles to urinate on the marker.[132] In popular culture[edit] A made-for-television movie, Farewell to Manzanar, directed by John Korty, aired on March 11, 1976, on NBC. It was based on the 1973 memoir of the same name, written by Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston, who was incarcerated at Manzanar
Manzanar
as a child, and her husband James D. Houston. The book and the movie tell the story of the Wakatsuki family and their experiences behind the barbed wire through young Jeanne's eyes.[133][134] On October 7, 2011, the Japanese American
Japanese American
National Museum (JANM) announced that they had negotiated the rights to the movie, and that they would make it available for purchase on DVD.[135][136] Come See The Paradise
Come See The Paradise
was a feature film about how forced relocation and imprisonment at Manzanar
Manzanar
affected a Japanese American
Japanese American
family from Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and a European American
European American
union organizer. The film, released in 1990, starred Dennis Quaid
Dennis Quaid
and Tamlyn Tomita, and was written and directed by Alan Parker.[137] Folk/country musician Tom Russell
Tom Russell
wrote "Manzanar", a song about the Japanese American
Japanese American
internment, that was released on his album Box of Visions (1993).[138] Laurie Lewis
Laurie Lewis
covered the song on her album Seeing Things (1998), adding the Japanese string instrument, the koto, to her performance.[139] The 1994 award-winning novel, Snow Falling on Cedars
Snow Falling on Cedars
by David Guterson, contains many scenes and details relating to Japanese Americans from the Puget Sound, Washington, area and their incarceration experiences at Manzanar.[140][141] The 2000 film based on the book also details that connection. The Asian American jazz fusion band Hiroshima has a song entitled "Manzanar" on its album The Bridge (2003). It is an instrumental song inspired by Manzanar
Manzanar
and the Japanese American
Japanese American
incarceration.[142] Also, its song "Living In America", on its album titled East (1990), contains the phrase "I still remember Manzanar." Fort Minor's song "Kenji", from the album The Rising Tied
The Rising Tied
(2005), tells the true story of Mike Shinoda's family and their experiences before, during, and after World War II, including their imprisonment at Manzanar.[143] Channel 3's song titled "Manzanar" is about the incarceration.[144] In the 1984 movie The Karate Kid, Daniel reads the letter which informed Miyagi of the death of his wife and son during child birth on November 2, 1944 while in the Manzanar
Manzanar
Relocation Camp. Mr. Miyagi was fighting for the US against the Germans in Europe when he received the news.[145] A 2007 episode of the CBS
CBS
television crime drama Cold Case, titled "Family 8108", dealt with the 1945 murder of a Japanese American
Japanese American
man in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
after he and his family were released from Manzanar. The episode originally aired on December 9, 2007.[146] The 253'rd episode of 99% Invisible which aired March 2017, focused on Manzanar.[147] See also[edit]

Internment of Japanese Americans Ansel Adams California
California
Water Wars Densho: The Japanese American
Japanese American
Legacy Project Dorothea Lange Japanese American
Japanese American
incarceration Bob Matsui

Other camps:

Gila River War Relocation Center Granada War Relocation Center Heart Mountain War Relocation Center Jerome War Relocation Center

Minidoka National Historic Site Poston War Relocation Center Rohwer War Relocation Center Topaz War Relocation Center Tule Lake Unit, World War II
World War II
Valor in the Pacific National Monument

California
California
portal Greater Los Angeles
Los Angeles
portal History portal United States portal

References[edit]

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Japanese American
Relocation Site. pp. 173–200. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b " Sue Kunitomi Embrey Obituary" (Press release). Embrey, Bruce. May 2006.  ^ a b c d Gunji, Nao, Muranaka, Gwen (May 17, 2006). "Sue Embrey, 83, Led Movement to Preserve Manzanar". Rafu Shimpo. p. 1.  ^ a b c d e f Fujita-Rony, Thomas Y. (2003). "Destructive Force: Aiko Herzig-Yoshinaga's Gendered Labor in the Japanese American
Japanese American
Redress Movement". Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies. Frontiers Editorial Collective. 24 (1): 38–60. doi:10.1353/fro.2003.0017. Retrieved April 24, 2007.  ^ Unrau, Harlan D. (1996). Manzanar
Manzanar
National Historic Site: The Evacuation And Relocation Of Persons Of Japanese Ancestry During World War II: A Historical Study Of The Manzanar
Manzanar
War Relocation Center: Historic Resource Study/ Special
Special
History Study, Volume Two. National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior. pp. 856–857.  ^ a b c Woo, Elaine (2010-02-14). " Henry Fukuhara Dies At 96; Watercolorist
Watercolorist
Led Annual Painting Workshops at Manzanar". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2013-05-10.  ^ a b Nakagawa, Martha (November 16, 2010). "Hohri, 83; Lead Plaintiff In Internees' Lawsuit Against Government". Rafu Shimpo. Retrieved June 1, 2017.  ^ Hohri, William Minoru (1988). Repairing America: An Account of the Movement for Japanese American
Japanese American
Redress. Washington State University Press. p. 1. ISBN 0-87422-034-3.  ^ Hohri. Repairing America: An Account of the Movement for Japanese American Redress. p. 203.  ^ Unrau. Manzanar
Manzanar
National Historic Site: The Evacuation And Relocation Of Persons Of Japanese Ancestry During World War II: A Historical Study Of The Manzanar
Manzanar
War Relocation Center: Historic Resource Study/ Special
Special
History Study, Volume Two. p. 857.  ^ Hohri. Repairing America: An Account of the Movement for Japanese American Redress. p. 210.  ^ Magagnini, Stephen (October 8, 2001). "A Nation's Apology". Sacramento Bee.  ^ Yen, Janice. "Who Was Ralph Lazo?". National Coalition for Civil Rights and Redress. Retrieved August 2, 2007.  ^ Nakayama, Takeshi (January 9, 1992). "Nikkei Community Loses Loyal Friend" (PDF). Rafu Shimpo. p. 1. Retrieved December 16, 2008.  ^ a b " Ralph Lazo – A True Friend". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Almanac. Retrieved October 7, 2017.  ^ "Stand Up for Justice:The Ralph Lazo Story". National Coalition for Civil Rights and Redress. January 2004. Retrieved April 23, 2007.  ^ " Manzanar
Manzanar
National Historic Site – Photo Gallery (U.S. National Park Service)". National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved April 12, 2007.  ^ Woo, Elaine (July 7, 2009). "Togo W. Tanaka Dies At 93; Journalist Documented Life At Manzanar
Manzanar
Internment Camp". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved November 18, 2010.  ^ a b c Oliver, Myrna (December 21, 2004). "Harry Ueno, 97; Hero to Japanese Americans
Japanese Americans
in Internment Camps". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved June 1, 2017.  ^ Embrey, Sue Kunitomi, Hansen, Arthur A., Kulberg, Betsy Mitson (1986). Manzanar
Manzanar
Martyr: An Interview With Harry Ueno. The Oral History Program, California
California
State University, Fullerton. pp. 30–34. ISBN 0-930046-07-2. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Embrey, Sue Kunitomi, Hansen, Arthur A., Kulberg, Betsy Mitson. Manzanar
Manzanar
Martyr: An Interview With Harry Ueno. pp. 34–37. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Embrey, Sue Kunitomi, Hansen, Arthur A., Kulberg, Betsy Mitson. Manzanar
Manzanar
Martyr: An Interview With Harry Ueno. xvi. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "Rabbit in the Moon: About the Film – PBS". Public Broadcasting System. 1999. Retrieved November 18, 2010.  ^ Lin, Sam Chu (December 24, 2004). "Harry Yoshio Ueno, Manzanar Martyr, Dies at 97". Asian Week. p. 1.  ^ a b c d e Price, Tom (May 1999). "Karl Yoneda, Working Class Hero". International Longshore and Warehouse Union and Recollection Books. Archived from the original on May 3, 2013. Retrieved May 26, 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ a b Yoneda, Karl (1983). Ganbatte: Sixty-Year Struggle of a Kibei Worker. Los Angeles: UCLA Asian American Studies Center, Regents of the University of California. p. 5. ISBN 0-934052-07-7.  ^ Yoneda, Karl. Ganbatte: Sixty-Year Struggle of a Kibei Worker. p. 126.  ^ Yoneda, Karl. Ganbatte: Sixty-Year Struggle of a Kibei Worker. pp. 145–165.  ^ a b c "Our History". Manzanar
Manzanar
Committee. June 1, 2011. Retrieved June 28, 2011.  ^ Matsuda, Gann (April 30, 2010). "41st Annual Manzanar
Manzanar
Pilgrimage Highlights the Unfinished Business of the Civil Rights Struggle". Manzanar
Manzanar
Committee. Retrieved May 20, 2017.  ^ Conway, Chandra. "Interned But Not Forgotten: New Museum Chronicles Japanese American
Japanese American
Life at Manzanar". Human Rights Reporting. The Journalism School, Columbia University (Spring 2004). Archived from the original on January 7, 2009. Retrieved January 19, 2009.  ^ Matsuda, Gann (June 2011). " Manzanar
Manzanar
At Dusk". Manzanar
Manzanar
Committee. Retrieved June 28, 2011.  ^ Matsuda, Gann (June 4, 2010). "Connections And Common Bonds Are Key At Manzanar
Manzanar
At Dusk Program". Manzanar
Manzanar
Committee. Retrieved May 20, 2017.  ^ Matsuda, Gann (April 30, 2008). " Manzanar
Manzanar
Pilgrimage: A Diversity of Faces...And Much More". Manzanar
Manzanar
Committee. Retrieved May 20, 2017.  ^ Leach, Emily (May 2, 2008). "The Ties That Bind: Muslim Americans Join Japanese Americans
Japanese Americans
on Manzanar
Manzanar
Pilgrimage". Asian Week. Archived from the original on May 13, 2008. Retrieved September 16, 2008.  ^ "Manzanar". Office of Historic Preservation, California
California
State Parks. Retrieved 2012-10-07.  ^ Thompson, Irwin H. (August 12, 1984). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Manzanar
Manzanar
War Relocation Center/Manzanar Internment Camp" (PDF). U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved May 29, 2008.  ^ a b Reflections: Three Self-Guided Tours Of Manzanar. Manzanar Committee. p. 20.  ^ U.S. National Park Service. " Manzanar
Manzanar
National Historic Site: Visitor Center (U.S. National Park Service)". National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved May 18, 2017.  ^ Hitchcock, Anne. "Using Civic Engagement To Address History's Difficult Lessons" (PDF). The Federalist. Society For History In The Federal Government. 14 (Second Series, Summer 2007). Retrieved August 19, 2011.  ^ " Manzanar
Manzanar
National Historic Site – Guard Tower". U.S. National Park Service. July 25, 2006. Retrieved May 18, 2017.  ^ " Manzanar
Manzanar
National Historic Site: Outdoor Activities (U.S. National Park Service)". National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved May 18, 2017.  ^ " Manzanar
Manzanar
National Historic Site: Guided Tours (U.S. National Park Service)". National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved May 18, 2017.  ^ "Be A Junior Ranger". National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved May 18, 2017.  ^ Lynch Broch, Alisa (April 17, 2015). " Manzanar
Manzanar
National Historic Site Opens Long-Awaited Barracks Exhibit" (Press release). National Park Service. Retrieved May 18, 2017.  ^ " Manzanar
Manzanar
Barracks Groundbreaking Set For February 13, 2010" (Press release). U.S. National Park Service. January 12, 2010. Retrieved May 18, 2017.  ^ Boxall, Bettina (December 11, 2002). "Reassembling A Sad Chapter Of History". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. p. A1. Retrieved May 18, 2017.  ^ " Manzanar
Manzanar
National Historic Site Receives Funding From Centennial Initiative" (Press release). National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior. May 1, 2008. Retrieved May 18, 2017.  ^ " Manzanar
Manzanar
Completes Centennial Project with Support From Friends of Manzanar" (Press release). National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior. November 23, 2008. Retrieved May 18, 2017.  ^ " Manzanar
Manzanar
National Historic Site Unveils Virtual Museum" (Press release). National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior. May 17, 2010. Retrieved May 18, 2017.  ^ "Museum Collection". U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved May 18, 2017.  ^ Alvarado, Patrick (May 31, 2011). "Nishi Family Returns To Manzanar To Help Rebuild Historic Bridge At Merritt Park". Manzanar
Manzanar
Committee. Retrieved May 18, 2017.  ^ Matsuda, Gann (September 22, 2016). "What's New At Manzanar
Manzanar
NHS: Classroom Exhibit Is Taking Shape". Manzanar
Manzanar
Committee. Retrieved May 20, 2017.  ^ Matsuda, Gann (May 12, 2017). "New At Manzanar
Manzanar
NHS: You've Got To See The Historic Women's Latrine". Manzanar
Manzanar
Committee. Retrieved May 20, 2017.  ^ a b c Jones, Robert A . (April 10, 1996). "Whitewashing Manzanar: Various Veterans Groups want To (Bully) The Government Into Denying The Site of its Historic Meaning". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved May 15, 2015.  ^ a b c d Forstenzer, Martin (April 4, 1996). "Bitter Feelings Still Run Deep at Camp". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved May 15, 2015.  ^ Houston, Jeanne Wakatsuki (1983) [1973]. Farewell To Manzanar: A True Story of Japanese American
Japanese American
Experience During and After the World War II Internment. Laurel Leaf. ISBN 0-553-27258-6.  ^ "Discover Nikkei: Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston". DiscoverNikkei.org. November 25, 2006. Retrieved November 18, 2010.  ^ Newman, Esther (2011-10-07). " Farewell to Manzanar on DVD-Timeless and Timely". Japanese American
Japanese American
National Museum. Retrieved 2011-10-11.  ^ Yamamoto, J.K. (October 27, 2011). "A New Beginning for "Farewell to Manzanar"". Rafu Shimpo. Retrieved June 4, 2016.  ^ James, Caryn (December 23, 1990). "Review/Film; When a Population Was Victimized at Home". New York Times. Retrieved April 23, 2016.  ^ "Box of Visions – Tom Russell
Tom Russell
(1993)". Billboard. April 10, 2003. Retrieved May 2, 2010.  ^ Geffen, Lewis (January 1, 2004). "Laurie Lewis". Bluegrass Works LLC. Archived from the original on August 6, 2007. Retrieved December 24, 2007.  ^ Guterson, David (1995). Snow Falling On Cedars. Vintage. ISBN 0-679-76402-X.  ^ "Aggressive Regionalism: Commentary: 16. David Guterson, Snow Falling on Cedars". Center For The Study Of The Pacific Northwest, University of Washington. Retrieved April 23, 2016.  ^ "Bridge". Hiroshima, Inc. October 2003. Retrieved May 27, 2007.  ^ "MorleyViews: Interviews by Morley Seaver: Mike Shinoda
Mike Shinoda
(Linkin Park, Fort Minor)". AntiMusic/Iconoclast Entertainment Group. Retrieved September 24, 2007.  ^ "Song Meanings – Lyrics – Channel 3 – Manzanar". SongMeanings. September 30, 2006. Retrieved September 24, 2007.  ^ Cowan, Jared (June 17, 2014). "How a Movie Shot in the San Fernando Valley Made Us All The Karate Kid". LA Weekly. Retrieved April 23, 2016.  ^ "Cold Case: Family 8108 – TV.com". 2007. Retrieved December 10, 2007.  ^ FitzGerald, Emmett (2017). "Manzanar". 99% Invisible. Retrieved April 6, 2017. 

Further reading[edit] Owens Valley
Owens Valley
resources[edit]

Burton, Jeff (1998). The Archeology of Somewhere: Archeological Testing Along U.S. Highway 395, Manzanar
Manzanar
National Historic Site. Western Archeological Center, National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior. Publications in Anthropology 72 (Covers archeological finds at Manzanar
Manzanar
from the pre-World War II, wartime and post-war periods).  Chalfant, William A. (1980). Story Of Inyo. Chalfant Press. ISBN 0-912494-34-4.  Ewan, Rebecca Fish (2000). A Land Between: Owens Valley, California. The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6461-5.  Hoffman, Abraham (1992). Vision or Villainy: Origins of the Owens Valley- Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Water Controversy. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 0-89096-509-9.  Kahri, William L. (1983). Water and Power: The Conflict Over Los Angeles Water Supply in the Owens Valley. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-05068-1.  Nadeau, Remi A. (1997). The Water Seekers. Crest Publishers. ISBN 0-9627104-5-8.  Steward, Julian (1933). "Ethnography of the Owens Valley
Owens Valley
Paiute". University of California
California
Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology. 33 (3): 233–250.  Steward, Julian (2007) [1934]. Myths of the Owens Valley
Owens Valley
Paiute. Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 1-4325-6538-9.  Wehrey, Jane (2006). Voices From This Long Brown Land: Oral Recollections of Owens Valley
Owens Valley
Lives and Manzanar
Manzanar
Pasts. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-29541-3. 

Wartime-related resources[edit]

Armor, John; Wright, Peter. (1989). Manzanar; Photographs by Ansel Adams. Vintage Books.  Adams Ansel, Benti, Wynne (ed.), Embrey, Sue Kunitomi (contributor), Michael, William H. (contributor). (2001). Born Free And Equal: The Story of Loyal Japanese Americans. Spotted Dog Press. ISBN 1-893343-05-7. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Bunting, Eve, Soentpiet, Chris K. (1998). So Far from the Sea. Clarion Books. ISBN 0-395-72095-8. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Cooper, Michael. (2002). Remembering Manzanar: Life In A Japanese Relocation Camp. Clarion Books. ISBN 0-618-06778-7.  Denenberg, Barry. (1999). The Journal of Ben Uchida: Citizen 13559, Mirror Lake Internment Camp, California, 1942. Scholastic. ISBN 0-590-48531-8.  Embrey, Sue Kunitomi. (1972). The Lost Years: 1942–1946. Moonlight Publications. ISBN 0-930046-07-2.  Garrett, Jessie A., Larson, Ronald C. (ed). (1977). Camp and Community: Manzanar
Manzanar
and the Owens Valley. Japanese American
Japanese American
Oral History Program: California
California
State University, Fullerton. ISBN 0-930046-00-5. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Goyette, Braden (September 16, 2014). "These Haunting Photos Capture The Daily Reality Of A Dark Episode In U.S. History". Huffington Post. Retrieved November 17, 2016.  Goyette, Braden (May 12, 2014). "What It Was Like To Be A Kid In The Middle Of A Shameful Chapter In American History". Huffington Post. Retrieved November 17, 2016.  Howser, Huell (2002-01-08). " Manzanar
Manzanar
(4012)". California's Gold. Chapman University
Chapman University
Huell Howser
Huell Howser
Archive. Retrieved 2013-06-16.  Inada, Lawson Fusao (ed.) (2000). Only What We Could Carry: The Japanese American
Japanese American
Internment Experience. Heyday Books and the California
California
Historical Society. ISBN 1-890771-30-9. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Peterson, Robert (November–December 1999). "Scouting in World War II Detention Camps". Scouting Magazine: the Way It Was. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved September 28, 2007.  Weglyn, Michi (1996) [1976]. Years Of Infamy: The Untold Story Of America's Concentration Camps. University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-97484-2. 

Post-War-related resources[edit]

Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians. (1997). Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians. Civil Liberties Public Education Fund and University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-97558-X.  Bahr, Diana Myers (2007). The Unquiet Nisei: An Oral History Of The Life Of Sue Kunitomi Embrey. Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN 0-230-60067-0.  Daniels, Roger, Kitano, Harry H.L., Taylor, Sandra C (1986). Japanese Americans From Relocation To Redress. University of Utah Press. ISBN 0-87480-258-X. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Irons, Peter (1983). Justice At War. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-503273-X.  Japanese American
Japanese American
Historical Society of Southern California
California
(1998). Nanka Nikkei Voices: Resettlement Years, 1945–1955. Japanese American Historical Society of Southern California.  Maki, Mitchell T., Kitano, Harry H.L., Berthold, S. Megan (1999). Achieving The Impossible Dream: How Japanese Americans
Japanese Americans
Obtained Redress. University of Illinois
Illinois
Press. ISBN 0-252-02458-3. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Silber, Rebecca R (March 15, 1998). "Lexicon of Genocide (Letter to the Editor)". New York Times. Retrieved January 1, 2008.  Takei, Barbara, Tachibana, Julie (2001). Tule Lake Revisited. T & T Press. ISBN 0-9711676-0-5. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Tse, Joyce (May 2, 2007). " Manzanar
Manzanar
Pilgrimage Begins A New Era". The Rafu Shimpo. Archived from the original on July 1, 2007. Retrieved January 19, 2009. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Manzanar
Manzanar
War Relocation Center.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Manzanar.

The struggle for self government at Manzanar
Manzanar
Relocation Center, The Bancroft Library Manzanar
Manzanar
Assembly Center letter and telegrams, 1942-1943, The Bancroft Library Forced Relocation and The Owens Valley
Owens Valley
By Lee Hanover, University of Nevada, Las Vegas Deepest Valley: Owens Valley
Owens Valley
resource Eastern California
California
Museum Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) No. CA-2399, "Manzanar War Relocation Center, Owens Valley
Owens Valley
off U.S. Highway 395, six miles south of Independence, Inyo County, CA" Manzanar
Manzanar
Cemetery Manzanar
Manzanar
Committee Manzanar
Manzanar
Committee – official blog Manzanar
Manzanar
National Historic Site, National Park Service Manzanar
Manzanar
National Historic Site Virtual Museum Photo Journal: Solemn Lessons From Mananar," by Mario G. Reyes, Rafu Shimpo Prehistory of Owens Valley Smithsonian Institution: A More Perfect Union "Manzanar," Glen Kitayama, Densho Encyclopedia " Manzanar
Manzanar
Free Press (newspaper)," Patricia Wakida, Densho Encyclopedia Manzanar
Manzanar
National Historic Site, National Park Service
National Park Service
at Google Cultural Institute

v t e

Internment of Japanese Americans

Key topics

Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians Executive Order 9066 Executive Order 9102 Korematsu v. United States Ex parte Endo Lordsburg Killings War Relocation Authority History of Japanese Americans Propaganda for Japanese-American internment

Concentration camps

Gila River Granada Heart Mountain Jerome Manzanar Minidoka Poston Rohwer Topaz Tule Lake

Assembly centers

Arboga Assembly Center Fresno Assembly Center Mayer Assembly Center Merced Assembly Center Owens Valley
Owens Valley
Reception Center Parker Dam Reception Center Pinedale Assembly Center Pomona Assembly Center Portland Assembly Center Puyallup Assembly Center Sacramento Assembly center Salinas Assembly Center Santa Anita Assembly Center Stockton Assembly Center Tanforan Assembly Center Tulare Assembly Center Turlock Assembly Center Woodland Civil Control Station

Citizen Isolation centers

Leupp Isolation Center Moab Isolation Center Old Raton Ranch Camp Camp Tulelake

Detention facilities

Catalina Federal Honor Camp Crystal City Alien Enemy Detention Facility Fort Lincoln Alien Enemy Detention Facility Fort Missoula Alien Enemy Detention Facility Fort Stanton
Fort Stanton
Alien Enemy Detention Facility Kenedy Alien Enemy Detention Facility Kooskia Alien Enemy Detention Facility Santa Fe Alien Enemy Detention Facility Seagoville Alien Enemy Detention Facility Tuna Canyon Detention Station

Army facilities

Camp Blanding Camp Forrest Camp Livingston Camp McCoy Camp Florence Fort Bliss
Fort Bliss
Internment Camp Fort Howard Internment Camp Fort McDowell Internment Camp Fort Meade Internment Camp Fort Lewis Internment Camp Fort Richardson Internment Camp Fort Sam Houston
Fort Sam Houston
Internment Camp Fort Sill Internment Camp Griffith Park
Griffith Park
Detention Camp Haiku Internment Camp Honouliuli Internment Camp Kalaheo Stockade Kilauea Military Camp Lordsburg Internment Camp Sand Island Internment Camp Stringtown Internment Camp

Notable incarcerees

See: Category:Japanese-American internees

In the arts

Allegiance Born Free and Equal Farewell to Manzanar No-No Boy The Invisible Thread Under the Blood Red Sun When the Emperor was Divine List of documentaries List of feature films

Legacy

Japanese American
Japanese American
redress and court cases Renunciation Act of 1944 Japanese-American Claims Act Day of Remembrance Fred Korematsu Day CWRIC Civil Liberties Act
Civil Liberties Act
of 1988 Japanese American
Japanese American
National Museum Densho Long Journey Home Japanese American
Japanese American
Exclusion Memorial Japanese American
Japanese American
Internment Museum Sakura Square

Category

v t e

Protected areas of California

National Park System

National Parks

Channel Islands Death Valley Joshua Tree Kings Canyon Lassen Volcanic Pinnacles Redwood Sequoia Yosemite

National Preserves

Mojave

National Monuments

Cabrillo Castle Mountains Cesar E. Chavez Devils Postpile Lava Beds Muir Woods World War II
World War II
Valor in the Pacific

National Seashores

Point Reyes

National Historical Parks

Rosie the Riveter/ World War II
World War II
Home Front San Francisco Maritime

National Historic Sites

Eugene O'Neill Fort Point John Muir Manzanar

National Memorials

Port Chicago Naval Magazine

National Recreation Areas

Golden Gate Santa Monica Mountains Whiskeytown

State Parks

State Parks

Ahjumawi Lava Springs Andrew Molera Angel Island Annadel Año Nuevo Anza-Borrego Desert Arthur B. Ripley Desert Woodland Bidwell–Sacramento River Big Basin Redwoods Border Field Bothe-Napa Valley Burton Creek Butano Calaveras Big Trees Castle Crags Castle Rock Caswell Memorial China Camp Chino Hills Clear Lake Crystal Cove Cuyamaca Rancho D. L. Bliss Del Norte Coast Redwoods Donner Memorial Ed Z'berg Sugar Pine Point Emerald Bay The Forest of Nisene Marks Fort Ord
Fort Ord
Dunes Fremont Peak Garrapata Gaviota Great Valley Grasslands Grizzly Creek Redwoods Grover Hot Springs Hearst San Simeon Hendy Woods Henry Cowell Redwoods Henry W. Coe Humboldt Lagoons Humboldt Redwoods Jedediah Smith Redwoods Julia Pfeiffer Burns Leo Carrillo Limekiln MacKerricher Malibu Creek Manchester McArthur–Burney Falls Memorial McLaughlin Eastshore Mendocino Headlands Mendocino Woodlands Montaña de Oro Morro Bay Mount Diablo Mount San Jacinto Mount Tamalpais Navarro River Redwoods Pacheco Palomar Mountain Patrick's Point Pfeiffer Big Sur Placerita Canyon Plumas-Eureka Point Mugu Portola Redwoods Prairie Creek Redwoods Red Rock Canyon Richardson Grove Rio de Los Angeles Robert Louis Stevenson Russian Gulch Saddleback Butte Salt Point Samuel P. Taylor San Bruno Mountain Sinkyone Wilderness South Yuba River Sugarloaf Ridge Sutter Buttes Tolowa Dunes Tomales Bay Topanga Van Damme Washoe Meadows Wilder Ranch

State Natural Reserves

Antelope Valley California
California
Poppy Armstrong Redwoods Azalea Caspar Headlands John B. Dewitt John Little Jug Handle Kruse Rhododendron Los Osos Oaks Mailliard Redwoods Mono Lake
Mono Lake
Tufa Montgomery Woods Point Lobos Smithe Redwoods Torrey Pines Tule Elk

State Marine Reserves

Albany Big Creek Carmel Pinnacles Del Mar Landing Emeryville Crescent Estero de Limantour Fitzgerald Laguna Beach Lovers Point Montara Moro Cojo Slough Natural Bridges Point Lobos Point Sur Russian River Stewarts Point

State Historic Parks

Anderson Marsh Antelope Valley Indian Museum Bale Grist Mill Benicia Capitol Bidwell Mansion Bodie California
California
Citrus California
California
State Indian Museum Chumash Painted Cave Colonel Allensworth Columbia Cowell Ranch/John Marsh El Presidio de Santa Barbara Empire Mine Folsom Powerhouse Fort Humboldt Fort Ross Fort Tejon Governor's Mansion Hearst San Simeon Indian Grinding Rock Jack London La Purísima Mission Leland Stanford Mansion Los Angeles Los Encinos Malakoff Diggins Marconi Conference Center Marshall Gold Discovery Monterey Old Sacramento Old Town San Diego Olompali Petaluma Adobe Pigeon Point Light Station Pío Pico Point Sur Railtown 1897 San Juan Bautista San Pasqual Battlefield Santa Cruz Mission Santa Susana Pass Shasta Sonoma Sutter's Fort Tomo-Kahni Wassama Round House Watts Towers of Simon Rodia Weaverville Joss House Will Rogers William B. Ide Adobe Woodland Opera House

State Beaches

Asilomar Bean Hollow Bolsa Chica Cardiff Carlsbad Carmel River Carpinteria Caspar Headlands Cayucos Corona del Mar Dockweiler Doheny El Capitán Emma Wood Gray Whale Cove Greenwood Half Moon Bay Huntington Leucadia Lighthouse Field Little River Malibu Lagoon Mandalay Manresa Marina McGrath Montara Monterey Moonlight Morro Strand Moss Landing Natural Bridges New Brighton Pacifica Pelican Pescadero Pismo Point Dume Point Sal Pomponio Refugio Robert H. Meyer Memorial Robert W. Crown Memorial Salinas River San Buenaventura San Clemente San Elijo San Gregorio San Onofre Santa Monica Schooner Gulch Seacliff Silver Strand Sonoma Coast South Carlsbad Sunset Thornton Torrey Pines Trinidad Twin Lakes Westport-Union Landing Will Rogers William Randolph Hearst Memorial Zmudowski

State Recreation Areas

Admiral William Standley Auburn Austin Creek Benbow Lake Benicia Bethany Reservoir Brannan Island Candlestick Point Castaic Lake Colusa-Sacramento River Folsom Lake Franks Tract George J. Hatfield Harry A. Merlo Kenneth Hahn Kings Beach Lake Del Valle Lake Oroville Lake Perris Lake Valley Martial Cottle Park McConnell Millerton Lake Picacho Providence Mountains Salton Sea San Luis Reservoir Silverwood Lake Standish-Hickey Tahoe Turlock Lake Woodson Bridge

State Vehicular Recreation Areas

Carnegie Clay Pit Heber Dunes Hollister Hills Hungry Valley Oceano Dunes Ocotillo Wells Prairie City

Other

Burleigh H. Murray Ranch California
California
State Mining and Mineral Museum California
California
State Capitol Museum California
California
State Railroad Museum Castro Adobe Delta Meadows Estero Bay Hatton Canyon Indio Hills Palms Point Cabrillo Light Station Point Lobos
Point Lobos
Ranch Point Montara Light Station Reynolds Wayside Campground San Timoteo Canyon Stone Lake Verdugo Mountains Ward Creek Wildwood Canyon

National Forests and Grasslands

National Forests and Grasslands

Angeles Butte Valley NG Cleveland Eldorado Humboldt-Toiyabe Inyo Klamath Lake Tahoe Basin Lassen Los Padres Mendocino Modoc Plumas Rogue River – Siskiyou San Bernardino Sequoia Shasta–Trinity Sierra Six Rivers Stanislaus Tahoe

National Wilderness Preservation System

Agua Tibia Ansel Adams Bucks Lake Caribou Carson-Iceberg Castle Crags Cucamonga Desolation Dick Smith Dinkey Lakes Emigrant Golden Trout Hoover Inyo Mountains Ishi Jennie Lakes John Muir Kaiser Marble Mountain Mokelumne Mount Shasta Wilderness North Fork Pine Creek San Gabriel Sanhedrin San Jacinto San Rafael Sespe Siskiyou Snow Mountain South Fork Eel River South Sierra South Warner Thousand Lakes Trinity Alps Ventana Yolla Bolly–Middle Eel Yuki

National Monuments and Recreation Areas

Giant Sequoia National Monument San Gabriel Mountains National Monument Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Smith River National Recreation Area Shasta–Trinity National Recreation Area Sand to Snow National Monument

State Forests

Boggs Mountain Demonstration Ellen Pickett Jackson Demonstration Las Posadas LaTour Demonstration Mount Zion Mountain Home Demonstration Soquel Demonstration

National Wildlife Refuges

Antioch Dunes Bitter Creek Blue Ridge Butte Sink Castle Rock Clear Lake Coachella Valley Colusa Delevan Don Edwards San Francisco Bay Ellicott Slough Farallon Guadalupe-Nipomo Dunes Hopper Mountain Humboldt Bay Kern Lower Klamath Marin Islands Merced Modoc Pixley Sacramento Sacramento River Salinas River San Diego Bay San Diego San Joaquin River San Luis San Pablo Bay Seal Beach Sonny Bono Salton Sea Stone Lakes Sutter Tijuana Slough Tule Lake

State Wildlife Areas

Wildlife Areas

Antelope Valley Ash Creek Bass Hill Battle Creek Big Lagoon Big Sandy Biscar Butte Valley Buttermilk Country Cache Creek Camp Cady Cantara/Ney Springs Cedar Roughs Cinder Flats Collins Eddy Colusa Bypass Coon Hollow Cottonwood Creek Crescent City Marsh Crocker Meadows Daugherty Hill Decker Island Doyle Dutch Flat Eastlker River Eel River Elk Creek Wetlands Elk River Fay Slough Feather River Fitzhugh Creek Fremont Weir Grass Lake Gray Lodge Green Creek Grizzly Island Hallelujah Junction Heenan Lake Hill Slough Hollenbeck Canyon Honey Lake Hope Valley Horseshoe Ranch Imperial Indian Valley Kelso Peak and Old Dad Mountains Kinsman Flat Knoxville Laguna Lake Berryessa Lake Earl Lake Sonoma Little Panoche Reservoir Los Banos Lower Sherman Island Mad River Slough Marble Mountains Mendota Merrill's Landing Miner Slough Monache Meadows Morro Bay Moss Landing Mouth of Cottonwood Creek Napa-Sonoma Marshes North Grasslands O'Neill Forebay Oroville Petaluma Marsh Pickel Meadow Pine Creek Point Edith Putah Creek Rector Reservoir Red Lake Rhode Island Sacramento River San Felipe Valley San Jacinto San Luis Obispo San Luis Reservoir San Pablo Bay Santa Rosa Shasta Valley Silver Creek Slinkard/Little Antelope Smithneck Creek South Fork Spenceville Surprise Valley Sutter Bypass Tehama Truckee River Upper Butte Basin Volta Warner Valley Waukell Creek West Hilmar Westlker River White Slough Willow Creek Yolo Bypass

Ecological Reserves

Albany Mudflats Alkali Sink Allensworth Atascadero Creek Marsh Bair Island Baldwin Lake Batiquitos Lagoon Blue Sky Boden Canyon Boggs Lake Bolsa Chica Bonny Doon Buena Vista Lagoon Butler Slough Butte Creek Canyon Butte Creek House Buttonwillow By Day Creek Calhoun Cut Canebrake Carlsbad Highlands Carmel Bay Carrizo Canyon Carrizo Plains China Point Clover Creek Coachella Valley Coal Canyon Corte Madera Marsh Crestridge Dairy Mart Ponds Dales Lake Del Mar Landing Eden Landing Elkhorn Slough Estelle Mountain Fall River Mills Fish Slough Fremont Valley Goleta Slough Indian Joe Spring Kaweah Kerman King Clone Laguna Laurel Loch Lomond Vernal Pool Lokern Magnesia Spring Marin Islands Mattole River McGinty Mountain Morro Dunes Morro Rock Napa River North Table Mountain Oasis Spring Panoche Hills Peytonia Slough Pine Hill Piute Creek Pleasant Valley Rancho Jamul Redwood Shores River Springs Lakes Saline Valley San Dieguito Lagoon San Elijo Lagoon San Felipe Creek San Joaquin River Santa Rosa Plateau Springville Stone Corral Sycamore Canyon Sycuan Peak Thomes Creek Tomales Bay Upper Newport Bay Watsonville Slough West Mojave Desert Woodbridge Yaudanchi

Marine Protected Areas

Abalone Cove Albany Mudflats Anacapa Anacapa Año Nuevo Asilomar Atascadero Beach Bair Island Batiquitos Lagoon Big Creek Big Creek Big Sycamore Canyon Bodega Bolsa Chica Cambria Cardiff and San Elijo Carmel Bay Carmel Pinnacles Carrington Point Catalina Marine Science Center Corte Madera Marsh Crystal Cove Dana Point Del Mar Landing Doheny Doheny Duxbury Reef Edward F. Ricketts Elkhorn Slough Elkhorn Slough Encinitas Estero de Limantour Fagan Marsh Farallon Islands Farnsworth Bank Fort Ross Gerstle Cove Goleta Slough Greyhound Rock Gull Island Harris Point Heisler Park Hopkins Irvine Coast James V. Fitzgerald Judith Rock Julia Pfeiffer Burns La Jolla Laguna Beach Lovers Cove (Catalina Island) Lovers Point MacKerricher Manchester and Arena Rock Marin Islands Mia J. Tegner Moro Cojo Slough Morro Bay Morro Bay Morro Beach Natural Bridges Niguel Pacific Grove Marine Gardens Painted Cave Peytonia Slough Piedras Blancas Piedras Blancas Pismo Pismo-Oceano Beach Point Buchon Point Buchon Point Cabrillo Point Fermin Point Lobos Point Reyes Headlands Point Sur Point Sur Portuguese Ledge Punta Gorda Redwood Shores Refugio Richardson Rock Robert E. Badham Robert W. Crown Russian Gulch Russian River Salt Point San Diego-Scripps San Dieguito Lagoon San Elijo Lagoon Santa Barbara Island Scorpion Skunk Point Sonoma Coast Soquel Canyon South Laguna Beach South Point Swami’s Tomales Bay Upper Newport Bay Van Damme Vandenberg White Rock (Cambria)

Bureau of Land Management
Bureau of Land Management
National Landscape Conservation System

National Monuments

Berryessa Snow Mountain California
California
Coastal Carrizo Plain Cascade-Siskiyou Fort Ord Mojave Trails Sand to Snow Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains

National Conservation Areas

California
California
Desert King Range

Wilderness Areas

Argus Range Big Maria Mountains Bigelow Cholla Garden Bighorn Mountain Black Mountain Bright Star Bristol Mountains Cadiz Dunes Carrizo Gorge Chemehuevi Mountains Chimney Peak Chuckwalla Mountains Chumash Cleghorn Lakes Clipper Mountain Coso Range Coyote Mountains Darwin Falls Dead Mountains Dick Smith El Paso Mountains Fish Creek Mountains Funeral Mountains Golden Valley Grass Valley Headwaters Forest Reserve Hollow Hills Ibex Indian Pass Inyo Mountains Jacumba Kelso Dunes Kiavah Kingston Range Little Chuckwalla Mountains Little Picacho Machesna Mountain Matilija Malpais Mesa Manly Peak Mecca Hills Mesquite Newberry Mountains Nopah Range North Algodones Dunes North Mesquite Mountains Old Woman Mountains Orocopia Mountains Otay Mountain Owens Peak Pahrump Valley Palen/McCoy Palo Verde Mountains Picacho Peak Piper Mountain Piute Mountains Red Buttes Resting Spring Range Rice Valley Riverside Mountains Rodman Mountains Sacatar Trail Saddle Peak Hills San Gorgonio Santa Lucia Santa Rosa Sawtooth Mountains Sespe Sheephole Valley South Nopah Range Stateline Stepladder Mountains Surprise Canyon Sylvania Mountains Trilobite Turtle Mountains Whipple Mountains

National Marine Sanctuaries

Channel Islands Cordell Bank Greater Farallones Monterey Bay

National Estuarine Research Reserves

Elkhorn Slough San Francisco Bay Tijuana River Estuary

University of California
California
Natural Reserve System

Angelo Coast Range Reserve Año Nuevo Island Blue Oak Ranch Reserve Bodega Marine Box Springs Boyd Deep Canyon Desert Research Center Burns Piñon Ridge Carpinteria Salt Marsh Chickering American River Coal Oil Point Dawson Los Monos Canyon Eagle Lake Field Station Elliott Chaparral Emerson Oaks Fort Ord Hastings James San Jacinto Mountains Jenny Pygmy Forest Jepson Prairie Kendall-Frost Mission Bay Marsh Kenneth S. Norris Rancho Marino Landels-Hill Big Creek McLaughlin Motte Rimrock Quail Ridge Sagehen Creek Field Station San Joaquin Freshwater Marsh Santa Cruz Island Scripps Coastal Sedgwick Stebbins Cold Canyon Steele Burnand Anza-Borrego Stunt Ranch Santa Monica Mountains Sweeney Granite Mountains Desert Research Center Valentine Eastern Sierra Younger Lagoon

Heritage registers National Natural Landmarks

v t e

U.S. National Register of Historic Places

Topics

Architectural style categories Contributing property Historic district History of the National Register of Historic Places Keeper of the Register National Park Service Property types

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