Manuel Acuña Roxas (born Manuel Róxas Acuña; January 1, 1892 –
April 15, 1948) was the fifth
President of the Philippines
1 Personal life 2 Lineage 3 Political career
4 Presidential election of 1946
4.1 Last President of the Commonwealth 4.2 First President of the Third Republic (1946–1948)
5.1 Administration and cabinet
5.1.1 Domestic policies
18.104.22.168 Economy 22.214.171.124 Reconstruction after the war 126.96.36.199 Agrarian reform 188.8.131.52 Amnesty proclamation 184.108.40.206 Huks outlawed
5.1.2 Foreign policy
220.127.116.11 Treaty of General Relations 18.104.22.168 United States military bases 22.214.171.124 Parity Rights Amendment 126.96.36.199 Turtle and Mangsee Islands
5.1.3 Assassination attempt 5.1.4 Controversies
6 Death 7 Legacy 8 Ancestry 9 References
10 External links
Roxas was married to Trinidad de León-Roxas at Our Lady of Remedies
Church located at Barangay Sibul,
San Miguel, Bulacan
Antonio Roxas y Ureta – third great-grandfather
Juan Roxas y Arroyo – second great-grandfather
Caetano Roxas – great-grandfather
Antonio Roxas II – grandfather
Prominent relatives from the line of Antonio Roxas y Ureta:
Felix Roxas y Arroyo (1820–?), son of Antonio Roxas y Ureta and father of Felix Roxas, Jr. y Fernandez. He was the first Filipino qualified architect.
Felix Roxas, Jr. y Fernandez (1864–1936), son of Felix Arroyo Roxas,
Sr. and grandson of Antonio Roxas y Ureta. He was mayor of
Felipe Roxas y Arroyo (1840–1899), son of Antonio Roxas y Ureta. He was the painter who emigrated to Paris. Francisco L. Roxas y Reyes (1851–1897), son of Juan Roxas y Arroyo and grandson of Antonio Roxas y Ureta. He was a businessman and one of the thirteen martyrs of Bagumbayan.
Monsignor Éric de Moulins-Beaufort (b. 1962), great-great-grandson of Francisco L. Roxas. He is the Auxiliary Bishop of Notre-Dame de Paris (Archdiocese of Paris) since 2008.
Prominent relatives from the line of Domingo Roxas y Ureta, brother of Antonio Roxas:
Margarita Roxas-de Ayala y Ubaldo (1826–1869), daughter of Domingo Roxas who married Antonio de Ayala. She was considered the first Filipino philanthropist and the greatest businessperson of her time. She was the matriarch of the Roxas-de Ayala family. José Bonifacio Roxas y Ubaldo (1834–1888), younger brother of Margarita Roxas de Ayala. In 1851, he would purchase the former Jesuit estate of Hacienda de San Pedro de Macati, which would become the basis of the Zóbel de Ayala family wealth.
Pedro Pablo "Perico" Roxas (1847–1912), son of José Bonifacio Roxas y Ubaldo. He was a major stockholder and the first manager of the original San Miguel Brewery.
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Roxas occupied more important positions in the Philippine government
than any other Filipino had ever held before him.
Starting in 1917 he was a member of the municipal council of Capiz. He
became the youngest governor of his province and served in this
capacity from 1919 to 1922.
He was elected to the
Philippine House of Representatives
Former diplomatic residence of
After the amendments to the 1935 Philippine Constitution were approved
in 1941, he was elected (1941) to the Philippine Senate, but was
unable to serve until 1945 because of the outbreak of World War II.
Having enrolled prior to
World War II
Presidential styles of Manuel Roxas
Reference style His Excellency
Spoken style Your Excellency
Alternative style Mr. President
Prior to the Philippine national elections of 1946, at the height of
the last Commonwealth elections, Senate President Roxas and his
friends left from the
Roxas served as the President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines
in a brief period, from May 28, 1946 to July 4, 1946 during which time
Roxas helped prepared the groundwork for an independent Philippines.
On May 8, 1946, prior to his inauguration, President-elect Roxas,
accompanied by US High Commissioner Paul V. McNutt, left for the
On May 28, 1946, Roxas was inaugurated as the last President of the
Commonwealth of the Philippines. The inaugural ceremonies were held in
the ruins of the Legislative Building (now part of the National Museum
of the Philippines) and were witnessed by about 200,000
people. In his address, he outlined the main policies
of his administration, mainly: closer ties with the United States;
adherence to the newly created United Nations; national
reconstruction; relief for the masses; social justice for the working
class; the maintenance of peace and order; the preservation of
individual rights and liberties of the citizenry; and honesty and
efficiency of government.
On June 3, 1946, Roxas appeared for the first time before a joint
session of Congress to deliver his first State of the Nation Address.
Among other things, he told the members of the Congress the grave
problems and difficulties the
Short American newsreel of Philippine independence ceremonies on July 4, 1946 with brief footage of Roxas taking the Oath of Office.
Manuel Roxas' term as the President of the Commonwealth ended on the
morning of July 4, 1946, when the Third Republic of the Philippines
was inaugurated and independence from the United States proclaimed.
The occasion, attended by some 300,000 people, was marked by the
simultaneous lowering of the Stars and Stripes and raising of the
National Flag, a 21-gun salute, and the pealing of church bells. Roxas
then swore the Oath of Office as the first President of the new
The inaugural ceremonies took place at
OFFICE NAME TERM
President Manuel Roxas May 28, 1946 – April 15, 1948
Vice-President Elpidio Quirino May 28, 1946 – April 17, 1948
Secretary of Foreign Affairs Elpidio Quirino July 5, 1946 – April 17, 1948
Secretary of the Interior Jose Zulueta May 28, 1946 – April 17, 1948
Secretary of Finance Elpidio Quirino May 28, 1946 – November 23, 1946
Miguel Cuaderno November 24, 1946 – April 17, 1948
Secretary of Justice Ramón Ozaeta May 28, 1946 – April 17, 1948
Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce Mariano Garchitorena May 28, 1946 – April 17, 1948
Secretary of Public Works and Communications Ricardo Nepumoceno May 28, 1946 – April 17, 1948
Secretary of Public Instruction Manuel Gallego May 28, 1946 – April 17, 1948
Secretary of Labor and Employment Pedro Magsalin May 28, 1946 – April 17, 1948
Secretary of National Defense Ruperto Kangleon May 28, 1946 – April 17, 1948
Secretary of Health and Public Welfare Antonio Villarama May 28, 1946 – April 17, 1948
Commissioner of Social Welfare Asuncion A. Perez 1946
Antonio Villarama 1946–1948
General Auditing Office Sotero Cabahug 1945–1946
Secretary to the President Emilio M. Abello May 30, 1946 – July 4, 1946
Chief of the Executive Office Emilio Abello July 4, 1946 – September 3, 1947
Nicanor Roxas September 10, 1947 – October 3, 1947
Executive Secretary Nicanor Roxas October 4, 1947 – February 6, 1948
Emilio Abello February 26, 1948 – April 17, 1948
Resident Commissioner of the
Domestic policies Economy
Economy of the
Gross Domestic Product
1947 Php 85, 269 million
Growth rate, 1947–48 39.5%
Per capita income
1947 Php 4,434
1947 Php 24, 824 million
1 US$ = Php 2.00 1 Php = US$ 0.50
Sources: Philippine Presidency Project Malaya, Jonathan; Eduardo Malaya. So Help Us God... The Inaugurals of the Presidents of the Philippines. Anvil Publishing, Inc.
No sooner had the fanfare of the independence festivities ended that
the government and the people quickly put all hands to work in the
tasks of rescuing the country from its dire economic straits. Reputed
to be the most bombed and destroyed country in the world, the
One of the last pictures of President Manuel Roxas.
Although Roxas was successful in getting rehabilitation funds from the
United States after independence, he was forced to concede military
bases (23 of which were leased for 99 years), trade restriction for
the Philippine citizens, and special privileges for U.S. property
owner and investor.
Parity Rights Amendment
On March 11, 1947, Philippine voters, agreeing with Roxas, ratified in
a nationwide plebiscite the "parity amendment" to the 1935
Constitution of the Philippines, granting United States citizens the
right to dispose of and utilize Philippine natural resources, or
Turtle and Mangsee Islands
Philippine Turtle Islands
Gravesite of Manuel Roxas
Roxas did not finish his full four-year term. On the morning of April 15, 1948 Roxas delivered a speech before the United States Thirteenth Air Force. After the speech, he felt dizzy and was brought to the residence of Major General E.L. Eubank at Clark Field, Pampanga. He died later that night of a heart attack. Roxas' term as President is thus the third shortest, lasting one year, ten months, and 18 days. On April 17, 1948, two days after Roxas' death, Vice-President Elpidio Quirino took the oath of office as President of the Philippines. Legacy
1992 Two Peso President
In his honour Roxas, Oriental Mindoro, the first to be named as such,
Roxas City, Capiz, President Roxas, Capiz, President Roxas, Cotabato,
Ancestors of Manuel Roxas
16. Mariano Roxas
8. Domingo Roxas
17. Ana María de Ureta
4. Antonio Roxas
18. Eustacio Vicente Ubaldo
9. María Saturnina Ubaldo
19. María Vita Vicenta
2. Gerardo Roxas
5. Lucina Arroyo
1. Manuel Roxas
6. Eleuterio Acuña
3. Rosario Acuña
14. Paulino Villaruz
7. Ramona Villaruz
30. ? Andrada
15. Eugenia Andrada
31. ? Villagracia
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 23, 2010.
Retrieved September 7, 2015.
^ "Bishop Eric comes home Opinion, News, The Philippine Star
philstar.com". Philstar.com:8080. 2010-02-11. Retrieved
^ Keats, J., 1963, They Fought Alone, New York: J.B. Lippincott
^ Lapham, R., and Norling, B., 1996, Lapham's Raiders, Lexington: The
University Press of Kentucky, ISBN 0813119499
^ "'Melted?' Liberal Party meets for 71st anniversary". Rappler.
January 21, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
^ Video: Air Freight by Parachute etc. (1946). Universal Newsreel.
1946. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
^ Official Gazette (Manila, May 1946) vol. 42 no. 5, pp. 1151–1165
^ Official Gazette, July 1946, vol. 42 no. 7, pp. 1625–1628
^ a b c d e f g h i j k Molina, Antonio. The Philippines: Through the
centuries. Manila: University of Sto. Tomas Cooperative, 1961. Print.
^ Gallego, Manuel V. "The Technique of Japanese Cultural Invasion."
Philippine Journal of Education. Manila, November 1946, p. 94
^ Message of His
Zaide, Gregorio F. (1984). Philippine History and Government. National
Bookstore Printing Press.
Zaide, Gregorio (1956). Philippine Political and Cultural History: the
The Philippine Presidency Project A Country Study: Philippines Manuel A. Roxas Elementary School
House of Representatives of the Philippines
Preceded by Antonio Habana Member of the House of Representatives from Capiz's 1st district 1922–1934 Succeeded by Ramon Arnaldo
Preceded by Sergio Osmeña Speaker of the House of Representatives 1922–1933 Succeeded by Quintin Paredes
Preceded by Antonio de Las Alas Secretary of Finance 1938–1941 Succeeded by Serafin Marabut
Preceded by Jorge B. Vargas Executive Secretary 1942 Succeeded by Arturo Rotor
Preceded by José Yulo as Speaker of the National Assembly President of the Senate 1945–1946 Succeeded by José Avelino
Preceded by Sergio Osmeña President of the Philippines (Commonwealth) 1946 Position abolished
Preceded by Manuel Roxas (Commonwealth) President of the Philippines May 28, 1946 – April 17, 1948 Succeeded by Elpidio Quirino
Party political offices
New office Leader of the Liberal Party 1946–1948 Succeeded by Elpidio Quirino
Articles related to Manuel Roxas
v t e
Presidents of the Philippines
Manuel L. Quezon Sergio Osmeña Manuel Roxas
José P. Laurel
Manuel Roxas Elpidio Quirino Ramon Magsaysay Carlos P. Garcia Diosdado Macapagal Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino Fidel Ramos Joseph Estrada Gloria Macapagal Arroyo Benigno Aquino III Rodrigo Duterte
v t e
Presidents of the Senate of the Philippines
Manuel L. Quezon
Mariano Jesús Cuenco
Neptali A. Gonzales, Sr.
Neptali A. Gonzales, Sr.
Neptali A. Gonzales, Sr.
Aquilino Pimentel Jr.
Juan Ponce Enrile
v t e
Speakers of the House of Representatives of the Philippines
Sergio Osmeña Manuel Roxas Quintín Paredes Gil Montilla José Yulo Benigno Aquino, Sr. José Zulueta Eugenio Pérez José Laurel, Jr. Daniel Romualdez Cornelio Villareal José Laurel, Jr. Cornelio Villareal Querube Makalintal Nicanor Yñiguez Ramon Mitra, Jr. Jose de Venecia, Jr. Manny Villar Arnulfo Fuentebella Feliciano Belmonte, Jr. Jose de Venecia, Jr. Prospero Nograles Feliciano Belmonte, Jr. Pantaleon Alvarez
v t e
Candidates in the Philippine presidential election, 1946
Other third party candidates
v t e
Cabinet of President
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
Secretary of the Interior
Secretary of Finance
Secretary of Justice
Ramón Ozaeta (1946-1948)
Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce
Mariano Garchitorena (1946-1948)
Secretary of Public Works and Communications
Ricardo Nepumoceno (1946-1948)
Secretary of Public Instruction
Manuel Gallego (1946-1948)
Secretary of Labor and Employment
Pedro Magsalin (1946-1948)
Secretary of National Defense
Ruperto Kangleon (1946-1948)
Secretary of Health and Public Welfare
Antonio Villarama (1946-1948)
Commissioner of Social Welfare
Asuncion A. Perez (1946) Antonio Villarama (1946-1948)
General Auditing Office
Sotero Cabahug (1946-1949
Emilio M. Abello (1946-1947) Nicanor Roxas (1947) Emilio M. Abello (1947-1948
Resident Commissioner of the
Carlos P. Romulo
WorldCat Identities VIAF: 92574928 LCCN: no00045005 ISNI: 0000 0001 1792 3547 NLA: 35493792 SNAC: w68d0dds