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Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
(Punjabi: [mənˈmoːɦən ˈsɪ́ŋɡ] ( listen); born 26 September 1932) is an Indian economist and politician who served as the Prime Minister of India from 2004 to 2014. The first Sikh
Sikh
in office, Singh was also the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
to be re-elected after completing a full five-year term. Born in Gah (now in Punjab, Pakistan), Singh's family migrated to India
India
during its partition in 1947. After obtaining his doctorate in economics from Oxford, Singh worked for the United Nations during 1966–69. He subsequently began his bureaucratic career when Lalit Narayan Mishra hired him as an advisor in the Ministry of Commerce and Industry. Over the 70s and 80s, Singh held several key posts in the Government of India, such as Chief Economic Advisor (1972–76), Reserve Bank governor (1982–85) and Planning Commission head (1985–87). In 1991, as India
India
faced a severe economic crisis, newly elected Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha Rao
P. V. Narasimha Rao
surprisingly inducted the apolitical Singh into his cabinet as Finance Minister. Over the next few years, despite strong opposition, he as a Finance Minister carried out several structural reforms that liberalised India's economy. Although these measures proved successful in averting the crisis, and enhanced Singh's reputation globally as a leading reform-minded economist, the incumbent Congress party fared poorly in the 1996 general election. Subsequently, Singh served as Leader of the Opposition in the Rajya Sabha (the upper house of Parliament of India) during the Atal Bihari Vajpayee government of 1998–2004. In 2004, when the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance
United Progressive Alliance
(UPA) came to power, its chairperson Sonia Gandhi
Sonia Gandhi
unexpectedly relinquished the premiership to Manmohan Singh. Singh's first ministry executed several key legislations and projects, including the Rural Health Mission, Unique Identification Authority, Rural Employment Guarantee scheme and Right to Information Act. In 2008, opposition to a historic civil nuclear agreement with the United States nearly caused Singh's government to fall after Left Front parties withdrew their support. Although India's economy grew rapidly under UPA I, its security was threatened by several terrorist incidents (including the 2008 Mumbai attacks) and the continuing Maoist insurgency. The 2009 general election saw the UPA return with an increased mandate, with Singh retaining the office of Prime Minister. Over the next few years, Singh's second ministry government faced a number of corruption charges—over the organisation of the 2010 Commonwealth Games, the 2G spectrum allocation case and the allocation of coal blocks. After his term ended in 2014 he opted out from the race to the office of the Prime Minister of India
Prime Minister of India
during 2014 Indian general election.[2] Singh was never a member of the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
but continues to serve as a member of the Parliament of India, representing the state of Assam
Assam
in the Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
for the fifth consecutive term since 1991.[3]

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Early career 3 Political career

3.1 Minister of Finance 3.2 Leader of Opposition in Rajya Sabha

4 Prime Minister of India

4.1 14th Lok Sabha

4.1.1 Economic policy 4.1.2 Healthcare and education 4.1.3 Security and Home Affairs 4.1.4 Legislations 4.1.5 Foreign policy

4.2 15th Lok Sabha 4.3 16th Lok Sabha

5 Post-premiership 6 Public image 7 Family and personal life 8 Degrees and posts held 9 Honours, awards and international recognition 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

Early life and education Singh was born to Gurmukh Singh and Amrit Kaur on 26 September 1932, in Gah, Punjab, British India, into a Sikh
Sikh
family.[4] He lost his mother when he was very young and was raised by his paternal grandmother, to whom he was very close. After the Partition of India, his family migrated to Amritsar, India, where he studied at Hindu College. He attended Panjab University, then in Hoshiarpur,[5][6][7] Punjab, studying Economics and got his bachelor's and master's degrees in 1952 and 1954, respectively, standing first throughout his academic career. He completed his Economics Tripos at University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
as he was a member of St John's College in 1957.[8] In a 2005 interview with the British journalist Mark Tully, Singh said about his Cambridge days:

"At (Cambridge) university I first became conscious of the creative role of politics in shaping human affairs, and I owe that mostly to my teachers Joan Robinson
Joan Robinson
and Nicholas Kaldor. Joan Robinson
Joan Robinson
was a brilliant teacher, but she also sought to awaken the inner conscience of her students in a manner that very few others were able to achieve. She questioned me a great deal and made me think the unthinkable. She propounded the left wing interpretation of Keynes, maintaining that the state has to play more of a role if you really want to combine development with social equity. Kaldor influenced me even more; I found him pragmatic, scintillating, stimulating. Joan Robinson
Joan Robinson
was a great admirer of what was going on in China, but Kaldor used the Keynesian analysis to demonstrate that capitalism could be made to work."

After Cambridge, Singh returned to India
India
to his teaching position at Punjab University.[9] In 1960, he went to the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
for the D.Phil, where he was a member of Nuffield College. His 1962 doctoral thesis under supervision of I.M.D. Little was titled "India's export performance, 1951–1960, export prospects and policy implications", and was later the basis for his book "India's Export Trends and Prospects for Self-Sustained Growth".[10] Early career After completing his D.Phil, Singh returned to India
India
until 1966 when he went to work for the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) from 1966–1969.[8] Later, he was appointed as an advisor to the Ministry of Foreign Trade by Lalit Narayan Mishra, in recognition of Singh's talent as an economist.[citation needed] From 1969 to 1971, Singh was a Professor of International Trade at the Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi.[8][11] In 1972, Singh was Chief Economic Adviser in the Ministry of Finance and in 1976 he was Secretary in the Finance Ministry.[8] In 1980–1982 he was at the Planning Commission, and in 1982, he was appointed Governor of the Reserve Bank of India
Governor of the Reserve Bank of India
under then Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee
Pranab Mukherjee
and held the post until 1985.[8] He went on to become the deputy chairman of the Planning Commission (India) from 1985 to 1987.[4] Following his tenure at the Planning Commission, he was Secretary General of the South Commission, an independent economic policy think tank headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland from 1987 to November 1990.[12] Singh returned to India
India
from Geneva
Geneva
in November 1990 and held the post as the Advisor to Prime Minister of India
Prime Minister of India
on Economic Affairs during the tenure of V. P. Singh.[8] In March 1991, he became Chairman of the University Grants Commission.[8] Political career In June 1991, India's Prime Minister at the time, P. V. Narasimha Rao, chose Singh to be his Finance Minister. Singh told Mark Tully
Mark Tully
the British journalist in 2005 ""On the day (Rao) was formulating his cabinet, he sent his Principal Secretary to me saying, 'The PM would like you to become the Minister of Finance'. I didn't take it seriously. He eventually tracked me down the next morning, rather angry, and demanded that I get dressed up and come to Rashtrapati Bhavan for the swearing in. So that's how I started in politics".[9] Minister of Finance In 1991, India's fiscal deficit was close to 8.5 per cent of the gross domestic product, the balance of payments deficit was huge and the current account deficit was close to 3.5 percent of India's GDP.[13] India's foreign reserves barely amounted to US$1 billion, enough to pay for 2 weeks of imports,[14] in comparison to US$283 billion today.[15] Evidently, India
India
was facing an economic crisis. At this point, the government of India
India
sought funds from the supranational International Monetary Fund, which, while assisting India
India
financially, imposed several conditions regarding India's economic policy. In effect, IMF-dictated policy meant that the ubiquitous Licence Raj
Licence Raj
had to be dismantled, and India's attempt at a state-controlled economy had to end. Manmohan explained to the PM and the party that India
India
is facing an unprecedented crisis.[14] However the rank and file of the party resisted deregulation.[14] So Chidambaram and Manmohan explained to the party that the economy would collapse if it was not deregulated.[14] To the dismay of the party, Rao allowed Manmohan to deregulate the Indian economy.[14] Subsequently, Singh, who had thus far been one of the most influential architects of India's socialist economy, eliminated the permit raj,[14] reduced state control of the economy, and reduced import taxes[13][16] Rao and Singh thus implemented policies to open up the economy and change India's socialist economy to a more capitalistic one, in the process dismantling the Licence Raj, a system that inhibited the prosperity of private businesses. They removed many obstacles standing in the way of Foreign Direct Investment
Foreign Direct Investment
(FDI), and initiated the process of the privatisation of public sector companies. However, in spite of these reforms, Rao's government was voted out in 1996 due to non-performance of government in other areas. In praise of Singh's work that pushed India
India
towards a market economy, long-time Cabinet minister P. Chidambaram
P. Chidambaram
has referred to Singh as the Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
of India.[17] In 1993, Singh offered his resignation from the post of Finance Minister after a parliamentary investigation report criticised his ministry for not being able to anticipate a US$1.8 billion securities scandal. Prime Minister Rao refused Singh's resignation, instead promising to punish the individuals directly accused in the report.[18] Leader of Opposition in Rajya Sabha Singh was first elected to the upper house of Parliament, the Rajya Sabha, in 1991[19] by the legislature of the state of Assam, and was re-elected in 1995, 2001, 2007[4] and 2013.[20] From 1998 to 2004, while the Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party
was in power, Singh was the Leader of the Opposition in the Rajya Sabha. In 1999, he contested for the Lok Sabha from South Delhi but was unable to win the seat.[21] Prime Minister of India

Wikinews has related news: Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
becomes the third longest serving Prime Minister of India

14th Lok Sabha See also: First Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
ministry

An economist,[22] Singh is shown here arriving at the 33rd G8 summit in Heiligendamm.

After the 2004 general elections, the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
ended the incumbent National Democratic Alliance (NDA) tenure by becoming the political party with the single largest number of seats in the Lok Sabha. It formed United Progressive Alliance
United Progressive Alliance
(UPA) with allies and staked claim to form government. In a surprise move, Chairperson Sonia Gandhi declared Manmohan Singh, a technocrat, as the UPA candidate for the Prime Ministership. Despite the fact that Singh had never won a Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
seat, according to the BBC, he "has enjoyed massive popular support, not least because he was seen by many as a clean politician untouched by the taint of corruption that has run through many Indian administrations."[23] He took the oath as the Prime Minister of India on 22 May 2004.[24][25] Economic policy In 1991, Singh as Finance Minister, freed India
India
from the Licence Raj, source of slow economic growth and corruption in the Indian economy for decades. He liberalised the Indian economy, allowing it to speed up development dramatically. During his term as Prime Minister, Singh continued to encourage growth in the Indian market, enjoying widespread success in these matters. Singh, along with the former Finance Minister, P. Chidambaram, have presided over a period where the Indian economy has grown with an 8–9% economic growth rate. In 2007, India
India
achieved its highest GDP growth rate of 9% and became the second fastest growing major economy in the world.[26][27] Singh's government has continued the Golden Quadrilateral
Golden Quadrilateral
and the highway modernisation program that was initiated by Vajpayee's government.[28] Singh has also been working on reforming the banking and financial sectors, as well as public sector companies.[29] The Finance ministry has been working towards relieving farmers of their debt and has been working towards pro-industry policies.[30] In 2005, Singh's government introduced the value added tax, replacing sales tax. In 2007 and early 2008, the global problem of inflation impacted India.[31] Healthcare and education In 2005, Prime Minister Singh and his government's health ministry started the National Rural Health Mission, which has mobilised half a million community health workers. This rural health initiative was praised by the American economist Jeffrey Sachs.[32] In 2006, his Government implemented the proposal to reserve 27% of seats in All India
India
Institute of Medical Studies (AIIMS), Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) and other central institutions of higher education for Other Backward Classes which led to 2006 Indian anti-reservation protests. Eight more IIT's were opened in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Orissa, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and Himachal Pradesh.[33] The Singh government also continued the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan programme. The programme includes the introduction and improvement of mid-day meals and the opening of schools all over India, especially in rural areas, to fight illiteracy.[34] Security and Home Affairs Singh's government has been instrumental in strengthening anti-terror laws with amendments to Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act
Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act
(UAPA). National Investigation Agency (India)
National Investigation Agency (India)
(NIA) was also created soon after the Nov 2008 Mumbai terror attacks, as need for a central agency to combat terrorism was realised. Also, Unique Identification Authority of India
India
was established in February 2009, an agency responsible for implementing the envisioned Multipurpose National Identity Card with the objective of increasing national security and facilitating e-governance. Singh's administration initiated a massive reconstruction effort in Kashmir
Kashmir
to stabilise the region but after some period of success, insurgent infiltration and terrorism in Kashmir
Kashmir
has increased since 2009.[35] However, the Singh administration has been successful in reducing terrorism in Northeast India.[35] Legislations The important National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
(NREGA) and the Right to Information Act
Right to Information Act
were passed by the Parliament in 2005 during his tenure. While the effectiveness of the NREGA has been successful at various degrees, in various regions, the RTI act has proved crucial in India's fight against corruption.[36] New cash benefits[37] were also introduced for widows, pregnant women, and landless persons.[38] The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 was passed on 29 August 2013 in the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
(lower house of the Indian parliament) and on 4 September 2013 in Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
(upper house of the Indian parliament). The bill received the assent of the President of India, Pranab Mukherjee on 27 September 2013.[39] The Act came into force from 1 January 2014.[40][41][42] Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act
Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act
was enacted on 4 August 2009, which describes the modalities of the importance of free and compulsory education for children between 6 and 14 in India under Article 21A of the Indian Constitution.[43] India
India
became one of 135 countries to make education a fundamental right of every child when the act came into force on 1 April 2010.[44][45][46] Foreign policy

Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
with American President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
at the White House.

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
seen here with Dmitry Medvedev, Hu Jintao, Dilma Rousseff
Dilma Rousseff
and Jacob Zuma
Jacob Zuma
at the 3rd 2011 BRICS Summit in Sanya, China.

Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
has continued the pragmatic foreign policy that was started by P.V. Narasimha Rao
P.V. Narasimha Rao
and continued by Bharatiya Janata Party's Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Singh has continued the peace process with Pakistan initiated by his predecessor, Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Exchange of high-level visits by top leaders from both countries have highlighted his tenure. Efforts have been made during Singh's tenure to end the border dispute with People's Republic of China. In November 2006, Chinese President Hu Jintao
Hu Jintao
visited India
India
which was followed by Singh's visit to Beijing in January 2008. A major development in Sino-Indian relations
Sino-Indian relations
was the reopening of the Nathula Pass
Nathula Pass
in 2006 after being closed for more than four decades. As of 2010, the People's Republic of China is the second biggest trade partner of India.[47] Relations with Afghanistan have also improved considerably, with India now becoming the largest regional donor to Afghanistan.[48] During Afghan President Hamid Karzai's visit to New Delhi in August 2008, Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
increased the aid package to Afghanistan for the development of more schools, health clinics, infrastructure, and defence.[49] Under the leadership of Singh, India
India
has emerged as one of the single largest aid donors to Afghanistan.[49] Singh's government has worked towards stronger ties with the United States. He visited the United States in July 2005 initiating negotiations over the Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement. This was followed by George W. Bush's successful visit to India
India
in March 2006, during which the declaration over the nuclear agreement was made, giving India
India
access to American nuclear fuel and technology while India
India
will have to allow IAEA
IAEA
inspection of its civil nuclear reactors. After more than two years for more negotiations, followed by approval from the IAEA, Nuclear Suppliers Group
Nuclear Suppliers Group
and the US Congress, India
India
and the US signed the agreement on 10 October 2008 with Pranab Mukherjee representing India.[50] Singh had the first official state visit to the White House
White House
during the administration of US President Barack Obama. The visit took place in November 2009, and several discussions took place, including on trade and nuclear power. Relations have improved with Japan and European Union
European Union
countries, like the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. Relations with Iran have continued and negotiations over the Iran-Pakistan- India
India
gas pipeline have taken place. New Delhi hosted an India–Africa Summit in April 2006 which was attended by the leaders of 15 African states.[51] Relations have improved with other developing countries, particularly Brazil and South Africa. Singh carried forward the momentum which was established after the "Brasilia Declaration" in 2003 and the IBSA Dialogue Forum was formed.[52] Singh's government has also been especially keen on expanding ties with Israel. Since 2003, the two countries have made significant investments in each other[53] and Israel now rivals Russia to become India's defence partner.[54] Though there have been a few diplomatic glitches between India
India
and Russia, especially over the delay and price hike of several Russian weapons to be delivered to India,[55] relations between the two remain strong with India
India
and Russia signing various agreements to increase defence, nuclear energy and space co-operation.[56] 15th Lok Sabha India
India
held general elections to the 15th Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
in five phases between 16 April 2009 and 13 May 2009. The results of the election were announced on 16 May 2009.[57] Strong showing in Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh helped the United Progressive Alliance
United Progressive Alliance
(UPA) form the new government under the incumbent Singh, who became the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
in 1962 to win re-election after completing a full five-year term.[58] The Congress and its allies were able to put together a comfortable majority with support from 322 members out of 543 members of the House. These included those of the UPA and the external support from the Bahujan Samaj Party
Bahujan Samaj Party
(BSP), Samajwadi Party
Samajwadi Party
(SP), Janata Dal (Secular)
Janata Dal (Secular)
(JD(S)), Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) and other minor parties.[59] On 22 May 2009, Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
was sworn in as the Prime Minister during a ceremony held at Rashtrapati Bhavan.[60][61] The 2009 Indian general election was the largest democratic election in the world held to date, with an eligible electorate of 714 million. The 2012 report filed by the CAG in Parliament of India
Parliament of India
states that due to allocation of coal blocks to certain private companies without bidding process the nation suffered estimated loss of Rs 1.85 trillion (short scale) between 2005 and 2009 in which Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
was the coal minister of India.[62][63] Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
declined to appear before a Joint Parliamentary Committee (JPC) in April 2013 when called upon by one of the members of JPC Yashwant Sinha
Yashwant Sinha
for his alleged involvement in the 2G case.[64] 16th Lok Sabha Singh did not contest the 2014 general election for the 16th Lok Sabha and resigned his post as prime minister at the end of his term on 17 May 2014. He served as the acting prime minister till 25 May 2014, when Narendra Modi
Narendra Modi
was sworn in as the new prime minister.[65][66][67] Post-premiership In 2016 it was announced that Singh was to take up a position at Panjab University
Panjab University
as the Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
Chair.[68] Singh will not be conducting research but instead interacting with students and departments to inspire them. Public image

13th Prime Minister of India
Prime Minister of India
Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
with 14th Prime Minister of India
India
Narendra Modi
Narendra Modi
in New Delhi.

The Independent
The Independent
described Singh as "one of the world's most revered leaders" and "a man of uncommon decency and grace," noting that he drives a Maruti 800, one of the humblest cars in the Indian market. Khushwant Singh
Khushwant Singh
lauded Singh as the best prime minister India
India
has had, even rating him higher than Jawaharlal Nehru. He mentions an incident in his book Absolute Khushwant: The Low-Down on Life, Death and Most things In-between where after losing the 1999 Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
elections, Singh immediately returned the ₹2 lakh (US$3,100) he had borrowed from the writer for hiring taxis. Terming him as the best example of integrity, Khushwant Singh
Khushwant Singh
stated, "When people talk of integrity, I say the best example is the man who occupies the country's highest office."[69]

Stamp launched in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
in honor of Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
in 2006.

In 2010, Newsweek
Newsweek
magazine recognised him as a world leader who is respected by other heads of state, describing him as "the leader other leaders love." The article quoted Mohamed ElBaradei, who remarked that Singh is "the model of what a political leader should be."[70] Singh also received the World Statesman Award in 2010. Henry Kissinger described Singh as "a statesman with vision, persistence and integrity", and praised him for his "leadership, which has been instrumental in the economic transformation underway in India." [71] Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
was ranked 18 on the 2010 Forbes
Forbes
list of the world's most powerful people.[72] Forbes
Forbes
magazine described Singh as being "universally praised as India's best prime minister since Nehru".[73] Australian journalist Greg Sheridan praised Singh "as one of the greatest statesmen in Asian history."[74] Singh was later ranked 19 and 28 in 2012 and 2013 in Forbes
Forbes
list.[75][76][77] Time magazine's Asia edition for 10–17 July 2012 week, on its cover remarked that Singh was an "underachiever".[78] It stated that Singh appears "unwilling to stick his neck out" on reforms that will put the country back on growth path. Congress spokesperson, Manish Tiwari rebutted the charges. UPA ally Lalu Prasad Yadav
Lalu Prasad Yadav
took issue with the magazine's statements. Praising the government, Prasad said UPA projects [were] doing well and asked, "What will America say as their own economy is shattered?".[79] Political opponents including L. K. Advani
L. K. Advani
have claimed that Singh is a "weak" Prime Minister. Advani declared "He is weak. What do I call a person who can't take his decisions until 10 Janpath
10 Janpath
gives instruction."[80][81][82] The Independent
The Independent
also claimed that Singh did not have genuine political power.[83] Singh's public image had been tarnished with his coalition government having been accused of various corruption scandals since the start of its second term in 2009.[84] Opposition demanded his resignation for his alleged inaction and indecisiveness in 2G spectrum case[85] and Indian coal allocation scam.[86] Senior MP of the Communist Party of India
India
Gurudas Dasgupta accused Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
of "Dereliction of duty", alleging that he (the PM) was fully aware of irregularities in dispensing of 2G telecom licences.[87] His party, the Indian National Congress, was criticized by the Supreme Court for appointing P.J. Thomas as the CVC chief, while there was an ongoing corruption enquiry against the same individual in the Palmolein Oil Import Scam. Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
has come in for severe criticism for remaining silent on the matter.[88] Singh was also criticised for allowing allocation of S-band spectrum without any bidding to ISRO
ISRO
by an agreement. The agreement was between Devas multimedia, a private firm and Antrix Corporation, a commercial wing of ISRO.[89] He has been largely viewed as accepting the role as "seat warmer" for Rahul Gandhi; this was felt to have undercut the institution of the prime minister.[90] Family and personal life Singh married Gursharan Kaur
Gursharan Kaur
in 1958. They have three daughters, Upinder Singh, Daman Singh and Amrit Singh.[91] Upinder Singh
Upinder Singh
is a professor of history at Delhi University. She has written six books, including Ancient Delhi (1999) and A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India
India
(2008). Daman Singh is a graduate of St. Stephen's College, Delhi and Institute of Rural Management, Anand, Gujarat, and author of The Last Frontier: People and Forests in Mizoram and a novel Nine by Nine,[92] Amrit Singh is a staff attorney at the American Civil Liberties Union.[93] Ashok Pattnaik, 1983 batch IPS officer, son-in-law of former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, was appointed CEO of National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) in 2016.[94] Singh has undergone multiple cardiac bypass surgeries, the most recent of which took place in January 2009.[95] Degrees and posts held

BA (Hons) in Economics 1952; MA First Class in Economics, 1954 Panjab University, Chandigarh (then in Hoshiarpur, Punjab), India Honours degree in Economics, University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
– St John's College (1957)

Senior Lecturer, Economics (1957–1959) Reader (1959–1963) Professor (1963–1965) Professor of International Trade (1969–1971)

DPhil in Economics, University of Oxford
University of Oxford
Nuffield College
Nuffield College
(1962) Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi

Honorary Professor (1966)

Chief, Financing for Trade Section, UNCTAD, United Nations Secretariat, New York

1966 : Economic Affairs Officer 1966

Economic Advisor, Ministry of Foreign Trade, India
India
(1971–1972) Chief Economic Advisor, Ministry of Finance, India, (1972–1976) Honorary Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
University, New Delhi (1976) Director, Reserve Bank of India
Reserve Bank of India
(1976–1980) Director, Industrial Development Bank of India
Industrial Development Bank of India
(1976–1980) Board of Governors, Asian Development Bank, Manila Secretary, Ministry of Finance (Department of Economic Affairs), Government of India, (1977–1980) Governor, Reserve Bank of India
Reserve Bank of India
(1982–1985) Deputy chairman, Planning Commission of India, (1985–1987) Secretary General, South Commission, Geneva
Geneva
(1987–1990) Advisor to Prime Minister of India
Prime Minister of India
on Economic Affairs (1990–1991) Chairman, University Grants Commission (15 March 1991 – 20 June 1991)[4] Finance Minister of India, (21 June 1991 – 15 May 1996) Leader of the Opposition in the Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
(1998–2004) Prime Minister of India
Prime Minister of India
(22 May 2004 – 26 May 2014)

Honours, awards and international recognition In March 1983, Panjab University
Panjab University
awarded him Doctor of Letters
Doctor of Letters
and in 2009 created a Dr. Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
chair in their economics department.[96] In 1997, the University of Alberta
University of Alberta
awarded him an Honorary Doctor of Law degree.[97] The University of Oxford
University of Oxford
awarded him an honorary Doctor of Civil Law
Doctor of Civil Law
degree in July 2005,[98] and in October 2006, the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
followed with the same honour.[99] St. John's College further honoured him by naming a PhD Scholarship after him, the Dr. Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
Scholarship.[100] In 2008, he was awarded honorary Doctor of Letters
Doctor of Letters
degree by Benaras Hindu University[101] and later that year he was awarded an honorary doctorate degree by University of Madras.[102] In 2010, he was awarded honorary doctorate degree by King Saud University[103] and in 2013, he was awarded honorary doctorate degree by Moscow State Institute of International Relations.[104] Further more, he has also received honorary doctorates from University of Bologna, University of Jammu
University of Jammu
and Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee.[105]

Year Name of Award or Honour Awarding Organisation

2014 Grand Cordon of the Order of the Paulownia Flowers[106] Government of Japan

2010 World Statesman Award[71] Appeal of Conscience Foundation

2005 Top 100 Influential People in the World[107] Time

2005 Honorary Fellowship[108] All India
India
Institute of Medical Sciences

2002 Outstanding Parliamentarian Award[109] Indian Parliamentary Group

2000 Annasaheb Chirmule Award[8] Annasaheb Chirmule Trust

1999 H.H. Kanchi Sri Paramacharya Award for Excellence[8] Shri R. Venkataraman, The Centenarian Trust

1999 Fellow of the National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, New Delhi[8] National Academy of Agricultural Sciences

1997 Lokmanya Tilak Award[8] Tilak Smarak Trust, Pune

1997 Justice K.S. Hegde Foundation Award[8] Justice K.S. Hegde Foundation

1997 Nikkei Asia prize for Regional Growth[8] Nihon Keizai Shimbun
Nihon Keizai Shimbun
Inc.

1996 Honorary Professorship[8] Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, Delhi

1995 Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
Birth Centenary Award (1994–95)[8] Indian Science Congress Association

1994 Finance Minister of the Year[8] Asiamoney

1994 Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
Birth Centenary Award (1994–95)[8] Indian Science Congress Association.

1994 Elected Distinguished Fellow of the London School of Economics[8] London School of Economics, Centre for Asia Economy, Politics and Society

1994 Elected Honorary Fellow, Nuffield College[8] Nuffield College, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

1994 Elected Distinguished Fellow of the London School of Economics[8] London School of Economics, Centre for Asia Economy, Politics and Society

1994 Elected Honorary Fellow of the All India
India
Management Association[8] All India
India
Management Association

1993 Finance Minister of the Year[8] Euromoney

1993 Finance Minister of the Year[8] Asiamoney

1987 Padma Vibhushan[8] President of India

1986 Elected National Fellow, National Institute of Education[8] National Institute of Education

1985 Elected President of the Indian Economic Association[8] Indian Economic Association

1982 Elected Honorary Fellow, St. John's College[8] St John's College, Cambridge

1982 Elected Honorary Fellow, Indian Institute of Bankers[8] Indian Institute of Bankers

1976 Honorary Professorship[8] Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
University, New Delhi

1957 Elected Wrenbury Scholar[8] University of Cambridge, UK

1956 Adam Smith Prize[8] University of Cambridge, UK

1955 Wright Prize for Distinguished Performance[8] St. John's College, Cambridge, UK

1954 Uttar Chand Kapur Medal, for standing first in M.A. (Economics)[8] Panjab University, Chandigarh
Panjab University, Chandigarh
Was then in Hoshiarpur, Punjab

1952 University Medal for standing first in B.A. (Honors Economics)[8] Panjab University, Chandigarh

See also

Biography portal India
India
portal Chandigarh portal Politics portal

Dr Manmohan Singh Scholarship
Dr Manmohan Singh Scholarship
at the University of Cambridge Economic reforms under Manmohan Singh First Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
ministry United Progressive Alliance

Political offices

Preceded by Atal Bihari Vajpayee Prime Minister of India 2004–2014 Succeeded by Narendra Modi

References

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Manmohan Singh
files Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
nomination papers amid protests". NDTV. 15 May 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2015.  ^ "India's Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
to step down as PM". The Guardian. 3 January 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2015.  ^ " Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
takes oath as Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
member". The Times of India. 17 June 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2015.  ^ a b c d "Detailed Profile: Dr. Manmohan Singh". Archived from the original on 7 December 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2011.  ^ "Government College, Hoshiarpur
Hoshiarpur
Colleges in Hoshiarpur
Hoshiarpur
Punjab". Punjabcolleges.com. Retrieved 26 September 2011.  ^ "Three sardars and their Hoshiarpur
Hoshiarpur
connection". Portal.bsnl.in. 23 March 1932. Archived from the original on 28 November 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011.  ^ "Hoshiarpur". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 2012-07-12.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah "Curriculum Vitae of Prime Minister of India". CSIR. Archived from the original on 24 January 2012. Retrieved 13 June 2013.  ^ a b Mark Tully. "Architect of the New India". Cambridge Alumni Magazine. Michaelmas 2005. Retrieved on 28 February 2013. Archived 1 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Curriculum Vitae" (PDF). Prime Minister's Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 February 2007. Retrieved 11 December 2008.  ^ "Detailed Profile: Dr. Manmohan Singh". india.gov.in. Retrieved 23 July 2015.  ^ " India
India
– Head of Government". Archived from the original on 1 December 2008.  ^ a b rediff Business Desk (26 September 2005). "Manmohan Singh: Father of Indian Reform". Rediff.com. Retrieved 3 January 2010.  ^ a b c d e f "Commanding Heights : Episode 2 on PBS". Pbs.org. Retrieved 3 November 2015.  ^ Mahalakshmi Hariharan (2 January 2010). "Forex reserves swell 11% in 2009". Yahoo Finance India. Archived from the original on 3 January 2010. Retrieved 3 January 2010.  ^ Friedman, Thomas L. (2008). The World is Flat – A brief history of the twenty-first century. Picador. p. 130. ISBN 0-374-29288-4.  ^ "Manmohan is Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
of India: P Chidambaram – Oneindia News". News.oneindia.in. 2 May 2008. Retrieved 15 February 2011.  ^ "Indian Leader Bars Key Aide From Quitting in Stock Scam". The New York Times. 1 January 1994. Retrieved 7 April 2010.  ^ "Profile: Prime Minister India". Indian gov. Archived from the original on 22 April 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2009.  ^ "PM Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
elected to Rajya Sabha". Zee News Limited. Retrieved 11 June 2013.  ^ "Candidate Statistics Manmohan Singh". IBN Live. Archived from the original on 19 April 2009. Retrieved 30 November 2009.  ^ Watson, Paul (24 May 2004). " Economist
Economist
chosen to become next prime minister of India". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 11 December 2008.  ^ "Profile: Manmohan Singh". BBC
BBC
News. 30 March 2009. Retrieved 7 April 2010.  ^ "Manmohan to Advani: Change your astrologers, stop abuse against me". Thaindian News. 22 July 2008. Retrieved 23 July 2008.  ^ "Manmohan takes on Advani: Babri destruction his only contribution". Southasia Times. 25 March 2009.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "CIA – The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 15 February 2011.  ^ "The India
India
Report" (PDF). Astaire Research. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 January 2009.  ^ "Economic benefits of golden Quadilateral". Business today. Retrieved 14 June 2013.  ^ "Banking on reform". Indian Express. Retrieved 14 June 2013.  ^ "Farmer Waiver Scheme- PM statement". PIB. Retrieved 14 June 2013.  ^ Kevin Plumberg; Steven C. Johnson (2 November 2008). "Global inflation climbs to historic levels". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 June 2011.  ^ Sachs, Jeffrey D. (6 March 2005). "The End of Poverty". Time.  ^ "LS passes bill to provide IIT for eight states". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 14 June 2013.  ^ "Direct SSA funds for school panels". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 14 June 2013.  ^ a b Infiltration has not reduced in Kashmir, insurgency down in North East: Chidambaram Archived 7 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "RTI Act: A strong tool to cleanse corruption in India". Retrieved 16 November 2016.  ^ http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---gender/documents/publication/wcms_233599.pdf ^ Ltd, Career Launcher India
India
(1 November 2009). " India
India
Business Yearbook 2009". Vikas Publishing House Pvt Limited. Retrieved 16 November 2016 – via Google Books.  ^ "President Pranab Mukherjee
Pranab Mukherjee
gives nod to Land Acquisition Bill". NDTV. 27 September 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2013.  ^ "Gazette Notification of coming into force of the Act" (PDF). Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 January 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2014.  ^ "The New Land Acquisition Act to come into effect from 2014". Economic Times. 16 October 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2013.  ^ "Land Acquisition bill to be notified early next year: Jairam Ramesh". Economic Times. 15 September 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2013.  ^ "Provisions of the Constitution of India
India
having a bearing on Education". Department of Higher Education. Archived from the original on 1 February 2010. Retrieved 1 April 2010.  ^ Aarti Dhar (1 April 2010). "Education is a fundamental right now". The Hindu.  ^ " India
India
launches children's right to education". BBC
BBC
News. 1 April 2010.  ^ " India
India
joins list of 135 countries in making education a right". The Hindu News. 2 April 2010.  ^ China becomes India's 2nd largest trade partner ^ Bajoria, Jayshree (23 October 2008). "India-Afghanistan Relations". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 29 November 2008. Retrieved 11 December 2008.  ^ a b " BBC
BBC
NEWS - South Asia - India
India
announces more Afghan aid". Retrieved 16 November 2016.  ^ "U.S., India
India
ink historic civilian nuclear deal". People's Daily. 11 October 2008. Retrieved 11 December 2008.  ^ "Several African leaders to attend Africa- India
India
summit, AU says". African Press International. 28 March 2008. Retrieved 11 December 2008.  ^ Beri, Ruchita (10 December 2008). "IBSA Dialogue Forum: A Strategic Partnership". The African Executive. Archived from the original on 11 April 2009. Retrieved 11 December 2008.  ^ Halarnkar, Samar (23 October 2007). " India
India
and Israel: The great seduction". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 7 January 2009. Retrieved 11 December 2008.  ^ Waldman, Amy (7 September 2003). "The Bond Between India
India
and Israel Grows". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 December 2008.  ^ Dikshit, Sandeep (17 April 2008). "Centre admits to problems in naval deals". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 11 December 2008.  ^ Roychowdhury, Amitabh (6 December 2006). "India, Russia sign agreements to further strengthen ties". Outlook. Archived from the original on 11 April 2009. Retrieved 11 December 2008.  ^ "India's ruling party wins resounding victory". Associated Press. 16 May 2009. Archived from the original on 6 December 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2009.  ^ "Second UPA win, a crowning glory for Sonia's ascendancy". Business Standard. 16 May 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2009.  ^ "Smooth sailing for UPA, parties scramble to support". CNN-IBN. 19 May 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2009.  ^ "Team Manmohan set to form govt today". Times Now. 22 May 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2009.  ^ " India
India
PM Singh takes oath for second term". Reuters. 22 May 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2009.  ^ Nairita (18 August 2012). "Coalgate scam: PM Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
asked to resign". Retrieved 11 April 2013.  ^ "Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
directly responsible for coal scam: Arun Jaitley". The Economic Times. PTI. 19 August 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2013.  ^ "2G scam: Disappointed over Manmohan Singh's refusal to appear before JPC, says Yashwant Sinha". DNA India. ANI. 9 April 2013. Retrieved 13 April 2013.  ^ "Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
Resigns After 10 Years in Office". Retrieved 16 November 2016.  ^ " Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
to continue as PM till Modi assumes office". Retrieved 16 November 2016.  ^ " Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
resigns bringing to an end his 10-year tenure - Times of India". Retrieved 16 November 2016.  ^ "Former PM Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
returns to teaching". Asian Voice. 13 April 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2016.  ^ PM Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
is the best example of integrity: Khushwant Singh date= 17 August 2010 publisher Times Of India ^ Christopher Dickey (16 August 2010). "Go to the Head of the Class". Newsweek. Retrieved 15 February 2011.  ^ a b PTI (23 September 2010). " Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
honoured with 2010 World Statesman Award". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2012.  ^ "The World's Most Powerful People: Manmohan Singh". Forbes. 3 November 2010.  ^ "The World's Most Powerful People: Sonia Gandhi". Forbes. 3 November 2010.  ^ "Strengthen Team India". The Australian. 21 May 2009. Retrieved 17 March 2011.  ^ "Manmohan Singh". Retrieved 16 November 2016.  ^ Tharakan, By Tony. "Sonia Gandhi, Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
slip in Forbes' most powerful list". Retrieved 16 November 2016.  ^ "These are the world's most powerful people, Photo Gallery". Retrieved 16 November 2016.  ^ "Time magazine dubs Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
as 'underachiever'". The Times of India. 8 July 2012.  ^ "Cong counters Time magazine's 'underachiever' remark against PM". 8 July 2012.  ^ " Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
is a weak PM, reiterates Advani : East News – India
India
Today". Retrieved 17 May 2012. . Indiatoday.intoday.in (21 October 2011). Retrieved 17 May 2012. ^ " Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
weak PM, unbecoming of the coveted post: BJP – India
India
– DNA". Retrieved 17 May 2012. . Dnaindia.com (21 January 2012). Retrieved 17 May 2012. ^ "Dangerous to have a weak PM: Anna". Retrieved 17 May 2012. . Zeenews.india.com (9 December 2011). Retrieved 17 May 2012. ^ "Saviour or Sonia's poodle, asks UK paper about PM Manmohan Singh". The Times of India. 17 July 2012.  ^ "India's corruption scandals". BBC. 18 April 2012.  ^ The silence of the lamb Ashish Khetan. Tehelka.com. Retrieved on 16 July 2013. ^ Is Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
actually a very astute politician? Shoma Chaudhury. Tehelka.com. Retrieved on 16 July 2013. ^ Gurudas Dasgupta rubbishes JPC report on 2G scam. The Hindu
The Hindu
(21 April 2013). Retrieved on 16 July 2013. ^ "Congress silent on CVC row". The Hindu. 23 November 2010. Retrieved 23 November 2010.  ^ "An ignorant prime minister is a serious matter: BJP". 14 February 2011.  ^ "Victor in India
India
Promises to Make Country Strong". The New York Times. 18 May 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2016.  ^ "Dr. Manmohan Singh: Personal Profile". Prime Minister's Office, Government of India. Archived from the original on 3 March 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2009.  ^ "Meet Dr. Singh's daughter". Rediff.com. 28 January 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2009.  ^ Rajghatta, Chidanand (21 December 2007). "PM's daughter puts White House in the dock". The Times of India. Retrieved 13 October 2008.  ^ "An NDA boost for NATGRID, Home Minister reviews progress". India Today. New Delhi, India. 31 August 2016. Archived from the original on 1 September 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2016.  ^ "One graft successfully performed on Manmohan Singh". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 24 January 2009. Archived from the original on 14 April 2009. Retrieved 24 January 2009.  ^ "What happened to PM's honorary degree?". The New Indian Express. India. Retrieved 16 May 2012.  ^ " University of Alberta
University of Alberta
confers honorary doctorate on Manmohan Singh".  ^ "Oxford University confers doctorate degree on Manmohan Singh". Archived from the original on 28 November 2011.  ^ Roy, Amit (15 October 2006). "Cambridge University confers doctorate degree on Manmohan Singh". The Telegraph.  ^ to apply for a Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
Undergraduate Scholarship., Applicants to the University from India
India
may be eligible. "Manmohan Singh Scholarships for applicants from India". study.cam.ac.uk.  ^ " Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
awarded honorary doctorate degree by BHU". The Times of India. 15 March 2008.  ^ " Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
conferred honorary doctorate degree by Madras University".  ^ "Manmohan conferred honorary doctorate by King Saud University". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 1 March 2010.  ^ "Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
conferred Honorary Doctorate by Russian institute". The Economic Times. 21 October 2013.  ^ " Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
is 'doctor' once again". Hindustan Times. India. Retrieved 28 April 2017.  ^ PTI (3 November 2014). " Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
chosen for Japan national award". The Hindu. Retrieved 3 November 2014.  ^ Sen, Amartya (18 April 2005). "Manmohan Singh: The 2005 TIME 100". Time. Retrieved 27 March 2012.  ^ "Explore ways to improve the health status of the country: PM". Press Information Bureau. 18 April 2005. Retrieved 28 April 2017.  ^ "Indian Parliamentary Group". p. 1. Retrieved 13 June 2013. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Manmohan Singh.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Manmohan Singh

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
Prime Ministers Office, Archived Profile and CV of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
Prime Ministers Office, Archived Cabinet of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
Prime Ministers Office, Archived

Political offices

Preceded by Indraprasad Gordhanbhai Patel Governor of the Reserve Bank 1982–1985 Succeeded by Amitav Ghosh

Preceded by Narasimha Rao Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission 1985–1987 Succeeded by Punjala Shiv Shankar

Preceded by Yashwant Sinha Minister of Finance 1991–1996 Succeeded by Jaswant Singh

Preceded by Atal Bihari Vajpayee Prime Minister of India 2004–2014 Succeeded by Narendra Modi

Chairperson of the Planning Commission 2004–2014

Preceded by Kunwar Natwar Singh Minister of External Affairs 2005–2006 Succeeded by Pranab Mukherjee

Preceded by Palaniappan Chidambaram Minister of Finance 2008–2009

Preceded by Pranab Mukherjee Minister of Finance 2012 Succeeded by Palaniappan Chidambaram

Diplomatic posts

Preceded by Khaleda Zia Chairperson of SAARC 2007 Succeeded by Mahinda Rajapaksa

Links to related articles

v t e

Second Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
Cabinet

Prime Minister: Manmohan Singh

Cabinet Ministers

Agriculture

Sharad Pawar

Civil Aviation

Ajit Singh

Coal

Shriprakash Jaiswal

Commerce and Industry

Anand Sharma

Communications and IT

Kapil Sibal

Culture

Chandresh Kumari Katoch

Defence

A. K. Antony

Earth Sciences

Jaipal Reddy

External Affairs

Salman Khurshid

Finance

P. Chidambaram

Food Processing Industries

Sharad Pawar

Health and Family Welfare

Ghulam Nabi Azad

Heavy Ind. & Public Enterprises

Praful Patel

Home Affairs

Sushilkumar Shinde

Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation

Girija Vyas

Human Resource Development

Pallam Raju

Labour and Employment

Sis Ram Ola

Law and Justice

Kapil Sibal

Mines

Dinsha Patel

Minority Affairs

K. Rahman Khan

New and Renewable Energy

Farooq Abdullah

Overseas Indian Affairs

Vayalar Ravi

Parliamentary Affairs

Kamal Nath

Petroleum and Natural Gas

Veerappa Moily

Railway

Mallikarjun Kharge

Road Transport and Highways

Oscar Fernandes

Rural development

Jairam Ramesh

Science and Technology

Jaipal Reddy

Social Justice and Emp.

Selja Kumari

Steel

Beni Prasad Verma

Shipping

G. K. Vasan

Textiles

Kavuri Samba Siva Rao

Tribal Affairs

Kishore Chandra Deo

Urban Development

Kamal Nath

Water Resources

Harish Rawat

Ministers of State (Independent Charge)

Chemicals and Fertilizers

Srikant Kumar Jena

Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution

K. V. Thomas

Corporate Affairs

Sachin Pilot

Development of North Eastern Region

Paban Singh Ghatowar

Drinking Water and Sanitation

Bharatsinh Madhavsinh Solanki

Environment and Forests

Jayanthi Natarajan

Information and Broadcasting

Manish Tewari

MSME

K. H. Muniyappa

Power

Jyotiraditya Madhavrao Scindia

Statistics and Programme Implementation

Srikant Kumar Jena

Tourism

K. Chiranjeevi

Women and Child Dev.

Krishna Tirath

Youth Affairs and Sports

Jitendra Singh

Ministers of State

Agriculture

Charan Das Mahant, Tariq Anwar

Civil Aviation

K. C. Venugopal

Coal

Pratik Prakashbapu Patil

Commerce and Industry

Daggubati Purandeswari, E. M. Sudarsana Natchiappan

Comm. & IT

Killi Krupa Rani, Milind Murli Deora

Corporate Affairs

R. P. N. Singh

Defence

Jitendra Singh

External Affairs

E. Ahamed, Preneet Kaur

Finance

Namo Narain Meena, S. S. Palanimanickam

Food Processing Ind.

Charan Das Mahant

Health and Family Welfare

Abu Hasem Khan Choudhury, S. Gandhiselvan

Home Affairs

Mullappally Ramachandran, R. P. N. Singh

Human Resource Development

Jitin Prasada, Shashi Tharoor

Information and Broadcasting

S. Jagathrakshakan

Labour and Employment

Kodikunnil Suresh

Minority Affairs

Ninong Ering

Parliamentary Affairs

Paban Singh Ghatowar, Rajeev Shukla

Petroleum and Natural Gas

Panabaka Lakshmi, R. P. N. Singh

New and Renewable Energy

S. Jagathrakshakan

Personnel, Public Griev. & Pensions

V. Narayanasamy

Planning Commission

Rajeev Shukla

Power

K. C. Venugopal

PMO

V. Narayanasamy

Railway

Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury, K. J. Surya Prakash Reddy

Road Trans. & Highways

Sarvey Sathyanarayana, Tushar Amarsinh Chaudhary

Rural development

Lal Chand Kataria, Pradeep Jain Aditya

Shipping

Milind Murli Deora

Social Justice and Emp.

Balram Naik, Manikrao Hodlya Gavit

Textiles

Panabaka Lakshmi

Tribal Affairs

Mahadeo Singh Khandela, Ranee Narah

Urban Development

Deepa Dasmunsi

v t e

Prime Minister of India

Jawaharlal Nehru Gulzarilal Nanda
Gulzarilal Nanda
(acting) Lal Bahadur Shastri Gulzarilal Nanda
Gulzarilal Nanda
(acting) Indira Gandhi Morarji Desai Charan Singh Rajiv Gandhi V. P. Singh Chandra Shekhar P. V. Narasimha Rao Atal Bihari Vajpayee H. D. Deve Gowda I. K. Gujral Manmohan Singh Narendra Modi

List List by longevity Official residence PM's Office

v t e

Finance Ministers of India

Liaquat Ali Khan R. K. Shanmukham Chetty John Mathai Chintamanrao Deshmukh T. T. Krishnamachari Jawaharlal Nehru Morarji Desai T. T. Krishnamachari Sachindra Chaudhuri Morarji Desai Indira Gandhi Yashwantrao Chavan C. Subramaniam H M Patel Choudhary Charan Singh Ramaswamy Venkataraman Pranab Mukherjee V.P. Singh S.B. Chavan Rajiv Gandhi Madhu Dandavate Yashwant Sinha Manmohan Singh P. Chidambaram Yashwant Sinha Jaswant Singh P. Chidambaram Manmohan Singh Pranab Mukherjee Manmohan Singh P. Chidambaram Arun Jaitley
Arun Jaitley
(2014-Present)

v t e

External Affairs Ministers of India

Jawaharlal Nehru Gulzari Lal Nanda Lal Bahadur Shastri Sardar Swaran Singh M. C. Chagla Indira Gandhi Dinesh Singh Sardar Swaran Singh Y. B. Chavan Atal Bihari Vajpayee Shyam Nandan Prasad Mishra P. V. Narasimha Rao Indira Gandhi Rajiv Gandhi Bali Ram Bhagat P. Shiv Shankar Narayan Dutt Tiwari Rajiv Gandhi P. V. Narasimha Rao Vishwanath Pratap Singh I. K. Gujral Vidya Charan Shukla Madhavsinh Solanki P. V. Narasimha Rao Dinesh Singh Pranab Mukherjee Sikander Bakht I. K. Gujral Atal Bihari Vajpayee Jaswant Singh Yashwant Sinha Natwar Singh Manmohan Singh Pranab Mukherjee S. M. Krishna Salman Khurshid Sushma Swaraj

v t e

Railway Minister of India

John Mathai N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar Lal Bahadur Shastri Jagjivan Ram Sardar Swaran Singh Kengal Hanumanthaiah C. M. Poonacha Panampilly Govinda Menon Gulzari Lal Nanda T. A. Pai Lalit Narayan Mishra Kamalpati Tripathi Madhu Dandavate Kedar Pandey A. B. A. Ghani Khan Chowdhury Madhav Rao Scindia Janeshwar Mishra C. K. Jaffer Sheriff Suresh Kalmadi Atal Bihari Vajpayee Ram Vilas Paswan Nitish Kumar Mamata Banerjee Nitish Kumar Lalu Prasad Yadav Mamata Banerjee Mukul Roy Manmohan Singh Dinesh Trivedi Mukul Roy C. P. Joshi Pawan Kumar Bansal Mallikarjun Kharge D. V. Sadananda Gowda Suresh Prabhu Piyush Goyal

v t e

Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission

Gulzari Lal Nanda V.T. Krishnamachari C.M. Trivedi Ashok Mehta D.R. Gadgil C. Subramaniam Durga Prasad Dhar P.N. Haksar D.T. Lakdawala N.D. Tiwari S.B. Chavan Prakash Chandra Sethi P.V. Narasimha Rao Manmohan Singh P. Shiv Shankar Madhav Singh Solanki Ramakrishna Hegde Madhu Dandavate Mohan Dharia Pranab Mukherjee Madhu Dandavate Jaswant Singh K.C. Pant Montek Singh Ahluwalia
Montek Singh Ahluwalia
(2004 -)

v t e

Governors of the Reserve Bank of India

Osborne Smith (1935–37) James Braid Taylor (1937–43) C. D. Deshmukh
C. D. Deshmukh
(1943–49) Benegal Rama Rau (1949–57) K. G. Ambegaonkar (1957) H. V. R. Iyengar (1957–62) P. C. Bhattacharya (1962–67) Lakshmi Kant Jha (1967–70) B. N. Adarkar (1970) S. Jagannathan (1970–75) N. C. Sen Gupta (1975) K. R. Puri (1975–77) M. Narasimham (1977) I. G. Patel
I. G. Patel
(1977–82) Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
(1982–85) Amitav Ghosh (1985) R. N. Malhotra (1985–90) S. Venkitaramanan (1990–92) C. Rangarajan (1992–97) Bimal Jalan (1997–2003) Y. Venugopal Reddy (2003–08) Duvvuri Subbarao
Duvvuri Subbarao
(2008–13) Raghuram Rajan
Raghuram Rajan
(2013–16) Urjit Patel
Urjit Patel
(2016–)

v t e

Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress

Seva Dal Minority Congress Youth Congress National Students Union of India
India
(NSUI) Indian National Trade Union Congress
Indian National Trade Union Congress
(INTUC)

History

Statewise Election history of Congress Party Nehru–Gandhi family Congress Radio 10 Janpath The Emergency Bofors scandal INA Defence Committee Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
(Organisation) Breakaway parties Congress Karma Parishad Congress core group

Internal Organisations

Congress President Working President Congress Working Committee Central Election Committee All India
India
Congress Committee

Pradesh Congress Committees (PCC)

Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
CC Assam
Assam
PCC Bihar PCC Chhattisgarh PCC Gujarat
Gujarat
PCC Karnataka PCC Kerala
Kerala
PCC Maharashtra
Maharashtra
PCC Mizoram PCC Mumbai PCC Punjab PCC Tamil Nadu PCC Telangana PCC Uttarakhand PCC West Bengal PCC

Presidents

Banerjee Naoroji Tyabji Yule Wedderburn Mehta Charlappa Banerjee Naoroji Webb Banerjee Sayani Nair A. M. Bose Dutt Chandavarkar Wacha Banerjee L. Ghosh H. Cotton Gokhale Naoroji R. Ghosh (1907–1908) Malaviya Wedderburn Dar Mudholkar Bahadur B. N. Bose Sinha Mazumdar Besant Malaviya Imam M. Nehru Rai C. Vijayaraghavachariar Khan Das M. Ali A. K. Azad Mahatma Gandhi Naidu Iyengar Ansari Motilal Nehru Jawaharlal Nehru S. V. Patel Malaviya (1932–1933) Nellie Sengupta Rajendra Prasad
Rajendra Prasad
(1934–1935) Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
(1936–1937) S. C. Bose (1938–1939) A. K. Azad (1940–1946) J. B. Kripalani Sitaramayya (1948–1949) Tandon Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
(1951–1954) Dhebar (1955–1959) Indira Gandhi Neelam Sanjiva Reddy (1960–1963) K. Kamaraj
K. Kamaraj
(1964–1967) S. Nijalingappa
S. Nijalingappa
(1968–1969) Jagjivan Ram
Jagjivan Ram
(1970–1971) S. D. Sharma (1972–1974) Baruah (1975–1977) Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
(1978–1984) Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
(1985–1991) Narasimha Rao (1992–1996) Kesri (1996–1998) Sonia Gandhi
Sonia Gandhi
(1998–2017) Rahul Gandhi
Rahul Gandhi
(2017-present)

Leaders in the Lok Sabha

Gandhi Rao Pawar S. Gandhi Mukherjee Shinde Kharge

Leaders in the Rajya Sabha

Manmohan Singh Vora Patel Sharma Azad Ramesh Antony Digvijay Chidambaram Singhvi Sibal

Category

v t e

Padma Vibhushan
Padma Vibhushan
award recipients

Arts

Ebrahim Alkazi Kishori Amonkar Amitabh Bachchan M. Balamuralikrishna T. Balasaraswati Asha Bhosle Nandalal Bose Hariprasad Chaurasia Girija Devi Kumar Gandharva Adoor Gopalakrishnan Satish Gujral Gangubai Hangal Bhupen Hazarika M. F. Husain Ilaiyaraaja Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer Bhimsen Joshi Ali Akbar Khan Amjad Ali Khan Allauddin Khan Bismillah Khan Ghulam Mustafa Khan Yamini Krishnamurthy Dilip Kumar R. K. Laxman Birju Maharaj Kishan Maharaj Lata Mangeshkar Sonal Mansingh Mallikarjun Mansur Zubin Mehta Mario Miranda Kelucharan Mohapatra Raghunath Mohapatra Jasraj
Jasraj
Motiram Benode Behari Mukherjee Hrishikesh Mukherjee Rajinikanth Ram Narayan D. K. Pattammal K. Shankar Pillai Akkineni Nageswara Rao Kaloji Narayana Rao Satyajit Ray S. H. Raza Zohra Sehgal Uday Shankar Ravi Shankar V. Shantaram Shivkumar Sharma Umayalpuram K. Sivaraman M. S. Subbulakshmi K. G. Subramanyan Kapila Vatsyayan Homai Vyarawalla K. J. Yesudas

Civil Service

Bimala Prasad Chaliha Naresh Chandra T. N. Chaturvedi Jayanto Nath Chaudhuri Suranjan Das Rajeshwar Dayal Basanti Devi P. N. Dhar Jyotindra Nath Dixit M. S. Gill Hafiz Mohamad Ibrahim H. V. R. Iyengar Bhola Nath Jha Dattatraya Shridhar Joshi Ajudhia Nath Khosla Rai Krishnadasa V. Krishnamurthy P. Prabhakar Kumaramangalam Pratap Chandra Lal K. B. Lall Sam Manekshaw Om Prakash Mehra Mohan Sinha Mehta M. G. K. Menon Brajesh Mishra Sumati Morarjee A. Ramasamy Mudaliar Sardarilal Mathradas Nanda Chakravarthi V. Narasimhan Braj Kumar Nehru Bhairab Dutt Pande Ghananand Pande Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit T. V. Rajeswar C. R. Krishnaswamy Rao Pattadakal Venkanna R Rao V. K. R. V. Rao Khusro Faramurz Rustamji Harish Chandra Sarin Binay Ranjan Sen Homi Sethna Arjan Singh Harbaksh Singh Kirpal Singh Manmohan Singh Tarlok Singh Lallan Prasad Singh Balaram Sivaraman Chandrika Prasad Srivastava T. Swaminathan Arun Shridhar Vaidya Dharma Vira Narinder Nath Vohra

Literature and Education

V. S. R. Arunachalam Jagdish Bhagwati Satyendra Nath Bose Tara Chand Suniti Kumar Chatterji D. P. Chattopadhyaya Bhabatosh Datta Avinash Dixit Mahasweta Devi John Kenneth Galbraith Sarvepalli Gopal Lakshman Shastri Joshi Kaka Kalelkar Dhondo Keshav Karve Gopinath Kaviraj Kuvempu O. N. V. Kurup Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis Sitakant Mahapatra John Mathai Kotha Satchidanda Murthy Giani Gurmukh Singh Musafir Basanti Dulal Nagchaudhuri Bal Ram Nanda R. K. Narayan P. Parameswaran Amrita Pritam K. N. Raj C. Rangarajan Raja Rao Ramoji Rao Hormasji Maneckji Seervai Rajaram Shastri Kalu Lal Shrimali Govindbhai Shroff Khushwant Singh Chandeshwar Prasad Narayan Singh Premlila Vithaldas Thackersey Mahadevi Varma Bashir Hussain Zaidi

Medicine

Jasbir Singh Bajaj B. K. Goyal Purshotam Lal A. Lakshmanaswami Mudaliar S. I. Padmavati Autar Singh Paintal Kantilal Hastimal Sancheti Balu Sankaran V. Shanta Vithal Nagesh Shirodkar Prakash Narain Tandon Brihaspati Dev Triguna M. S. Valiathan

Other

Sunderlal Bahuguna B. K. S. Iyengar Rambhadracharya Ravi Shankar Jaggi Vasudev

Public Affairs

L. K. Advani Montek Singh Ahluwalia Aruna Asaf Ali Fazal Ali Adarsh Sein Anand Madhav Shrihari Aney Parkash Singh Badal Sikander Bakht Milon K. Banerji Mirza Hameedullah Beg P. N. Bhagwati Raja Chelliah Chandra Kisan Daphtary Niren De C. D. Deshmukh Anthony Lancelot Dias Uma Shankar Dikshit Kazi Lhendup Dorjee P. B. Gajendragadkar Benjamin A. Gilman Zakir Husain V. R. Krishna Iyer Jagmohan Lakshmi Chand Jain Aditya Nath Jha Murli Manohar Joshi Mehdi Nawaz Jung Ali Yavar Jung Vijay Kelkar Hans Raj Khanna V. N. Khare Balasaheb Gangadhar Kher Akhlaqur Rahman Kidwai Jivraj Narayan Mehta V. K. Krishna Menon Hirendranath Mukherjee Ajoy Mukherjee Pranab Mukherjee Padmaja Naidu Gulzarilal Nanda Govind Narain Fali Sam Nariman Hosei Norota Nanabhoy Palkhivala K. Parasaran Hari Vinayak Pataskar Sunder Lal Patwa Sharad Pawar Naryana Raghvan Pillai Sri Prakasa N. G. Ranga Ravi Narayana Reddy Y. Venugopal Reddy Ghulam Mohammed Sadiq Lakshmi Sahgal P. A. Sangma M. C. Setalvad Karan Singh Nagendra Singh Swaran Singh Walter Sisulu Soli Sorabjee Kalyan Sundaram Chandulal Madhavlal Trivedi Atal Bihari Vajpayee M. N. Venkatachaliah Kottayan Katankot Venugopal Jigme Dorji Wangchuck

Science and Engineering

V. K. Aatre Salim Ali Norman Borlaug Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Rajagopala Chidambaram Charles Correa Satish Dhawan Anil Kakodkar A. P. J. Abdul Kalam Krishnaswamy Kasturirangan Har Gobind Khorana Daulat Singh Kothari Verghese Kurien Raghunath Anant Mashelkar G. Madhavan Nair Roddam Narasimha Jayant Narlikar Rajendra K. Pachauri Benjamin Peary Pal Yash Pal I. G. Patel Venkatraman Ramakrishnan K. R. Ramanathan Raja Ramanna C. R. Rao C. N. R. Rao Palle Rama Rao Udupi Ramachandra Rao Vikram Sarabhai Man Mohan Sharma Obaid Siddiqi E. Sreedharan M. R. Srinivasan George Sudarshan M. S. Swaminathan

Social Work

Baba Amte Pandurang Shastri Athavale Janaki Devi Bajaj Mirabehn Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay Durgabai Deshmukh Nanaji Deshmukh Nirmala Deshpande Mohan Dharia U. N. Dhebar Valerian Gracias Veerendra Heggade Mary Clubwala Jadhav Gaganvihari Lallubhai Mehta Usha Mehta Sister Nirmala Nellie Sengupta

Sports

Viswanathan Anand Edmund Hillary Sachin Tendulkar

Trade and Industry

Dhirubhai Ambani Ghanshyam Das Birla Ashok Sekhar Ganguly Karim Al Hussaini Aga Khan Lakshmi Mittal N. R. Narayana Murthy M. Narasimham Prithvi Raj Singh Oberoi Azim Premji Prathap C. Reddy J. R. D. Tata Ratan Tata

Portal Category WikiProject

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 63147248 LCCN: n89294611 ISNI: 0000 0000 8142 6134 GND: 119241374 SUDOC: 113317999 BNF: cb12457447m (d

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