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Mangrai
Mangrai
(Lanna: ; Thai: มังราย; 1238–1311), also known as Mengrai (Thai: เม็งราย),[Note 1] was the 25th king of Ngoenyang
Ngoenyang
(r. 1261–1292) and the first king of Lanna (r. 1292–1311). He established a new city, Chiang Mai, as the capital of the Lanna Kingdom (1296–1558).[1][2][3]:195

Contents

1 Early years 2 Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Era 3 Death and succession 4 Notes 5 References 6 See also

Early years[edit] King Mangrai
Mangrai
was born on October 2, 1238 in Ngoen Yang[1] (present day Chiang Saen) Thailand on the Mekong River, a son of the local ruler Lao Meng and his wife Ua Ming Chom Mueang, a princess from the Tai Lue city of Chiang Rung, which is now called Jinghong, in Sipsongpanna (Xishuangbanna), China. In 1259, Mangrai
Mangrai
succeeded his father to become the first independent king of the unified Tai city states in northern Lanna and what is now northern Laos. Seeing the Tai states were disunited and in danger, Mangrai
Mangrai
quickly expanded his kingdom by conquering Muang Lai, Chiang Kham and Chiang Khong and initiating alliances with other states. In 1262, he founded the city of Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
as his new capital in the Kok River
Kok River
basin. He also seems to have been operating around this time in the area of Fang in the Upper Kok Valley.[1] In 1287, Mangrai
Mangrai
first made peace between King Ngam Muang of Phayao and King Ram Khamhaeng of Sukhothai, who had seduced the former's queen. The three Kings then entered a "Strong pact of friendship".[3]:195,206 While still living in the area of Fang he was visited by merchants from the Mon kingdom of Haripunchai
Haripunchai
(Haripunjaya, now known as Lamphun). Hearing of the wealth of that kingdom, he determined to conquer it, against the advice of his counselors.[1] As it was thought impossible to take the city by force, Mangrai
Mangrai
sent a merchant named Ai Fa as a mole to gain the confidence of its King Yi Ba. In time, Ai Fa became the Chief Minister and managed to undermine the King's authority. In 1291, with the people in a state of discontent, Mangrai
Mangrai
defeated the Mon kingdom and added Haripunchai
Haripunchai
to his kingdom. Yi Ba, the last king of Hariphunchai, was forced to flee south to Lampang.[3]:208–209 Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Era[edit] After defeating the Hariphunchai kingdom, Mangrai
Mangrai
decided to relocate his capital, and in 1294, Wiang Kum Kam
Wiang Kum Kam
was founded on the eastern bank of the Ping River.[4][5] The site was plagued with floods, and a new site was chosen several kilometres to the northwest at the foot of Doi Suthep, on the site of an older fortified town of the Lua people.[6] Construction of Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
(lit. "New City") began in 1296. and it has been the capital of the northern provinces more or less ever since.[1] A few years later, Yi Ba's son, King Boek of Lampang, attacked Chiang Mai with a large army. King Mangrai
Mangrai
and his second son, Prince Khram, led the defence against the Lampang
Lampang
army. Prince Khram defeated King Boek in personal combat on elephant-back at Khua Mung, a village near Lamphun. King Boek fled by way of the Doi Khun Tan mountain range between Lamphun
Lamphun
and Lampang, but he was caught and executed.[1] King Mangrai's troops occupied the city of Lampang, and King Yi Ba was made to flee further south, this time to Phitsanulok. Death and succession[edit] King Mangrai's eldest son grew tired of waiting and tried to seize the throne, but his attempt failed and he was executed. Mangrai's second son, Khun Kham, was then named to succeed Mangrai.[1] King Mangrai
Mangrai
died in 1311 in Chiang Mai. According to tradition, he was struck by lightning during a thunderstorm when he was in the city's market.[7] Mangrai's death was followed by period of confusion, with six kings ruling in the next eleven years. This could have been disastrous if the northern powers had not had their own troubles. Sukhothai to the south had also been weakened. Not until the ascension of the Mangrai's grandson, Kham Fu, in 1328 did the kingdom achieve the stability it had had during the lifetime of its founder.[1] Notes[edit]

^ The name according to historical sources is "Mangrai", and this is used in most modern scholarly applications. "Mengrai", popularised by a 1907 publication, is commonly found in popular usage.

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h Wyatt, D. K. Thailand, A Short History, p. 35–38, Bangkok 2003 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Wyatt-Thailand" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). ^ 'King Mangrai
Mangrai
of Lan Na' in: Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Volume 1. Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
,Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ^ a b c Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-12-01. Retrieved 2012-06-03.  ^ http://www.gsid.nagoya-u.ac.jp/bpub/research/public/paper/article/168.pdf ^ http://coe.cseas.kyoto-u.ac.jp/research/sea/social/hayashi/Hayashi_Unnan_9Aroonrut.htm[permanent dead link] ^ http://chiangmai-temple.blogspot.nl/2008/08/wat-jao-mangrai.html

See also[edit] List of the Kings of Lanna

Preceded by Lao Meng King of Ngoenyang 1261–1292 Succeeded by —

Preceded by — King of Lanna 1292–1311 Succeeded by Visuddhadevi

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 72876228 LCCN: n8610002

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