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Manga
Manga
(漫画, Manga) are comics created in Japan
Japan
or by creators in the Japanese language, conforming to a style developed in Japan
Japan
in the late 19th century.[1] They have a long and complex pre-history in earlier Japanese art.[2] The term manga (kanji: 漫画; hiragana: まんが; katakana: マンガ;  listen (help·info); English: /ˈmæŋɡə/ or /ˈmɑːŋɡə/) in Japan
Japan
is a word used to refer to both comics and cartooning. "Manga" as a term used outside Japan
Japan
refers to comics originally published in Japan.[3] In Japan, people of all ages read manga. The medium includes works in a broad range of genres: action-adventure, business and commerce, comedy, detective, historical drama, horror, mystery, romance, science fiction and fantasy, sexuality, sports and games, and suspense, among others.[4][5] Many manga are translated into other languages.[6] Since the 1950s, manga has steadily become a major part of the Japanese publishing industry,[7] representing a ¥406 billion market in Japan in 2007 (approximately $3.6 billion) and ¥420 billion (approximately $5.5 billion) in 2009.[8] Manga
Manga
have also gained a significant worldwide audience.[9] In Europe and the Middle East the market was worth $250 million in 2012.[10] In 2008, in the U.S. and Canada, the manga market was valued at $175 million. Manga
Manga
represent 38% of the French comics market, nearly 260 million Euros which is equivalent to approximately ten times to that of the United States.[11][12] Manga stories are typically printed in black-and-white,[13] although some full-color manga exist (e.g., Colorful). In Japan, manga are usually serialized in large manga magazines, often containing many stories, each presented in a single episode to be continued in the next issue. If the series is successful, collected chapters may be republished in tankōbon volumes, frequently but not exclusively, paperback books.[14] A manga artist (mangaka in Japanese) typically works with a few assistants in a small studio and is associated with a creative editor from a commercial publishing company.[15] If a manga series is popular enough, it may be animated after or even during its run.[16] Sometimes manga are drawn centering on previously existing live-action or animated films.[17] Manga-influenced comics, among original works, exist in other parts of the world, particularly in Algeria
Algeria
("DZ-manga"), China, Hong Kong, Taiwan
Taiwan
("manhua"), and South Korea ("manhwa").[18][19]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History and characteristics 3 Publications and exhibition

3.1 Magazines 3.2 Collected volumes

3.2.1 History

3.3 Dōjinshi

4 International markets

4.1 Europe 4.2 United States

5 Localized manga 6 Awards 7 University education 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Etymology The word "manga" comes from the Japanese word 漫画,[20] composed of the two kanji 漫 (man) meaning "whimsical or impromptu" and 画 (ga) meaning "pictures".[21] The word first came into common usage in the late 18th century[22] with the publication of such works as Santō Kyōden's picturebook Shiji no yukikai (1798),[23][24] and in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's Manga
Manga
hyakujo (1814) and the celebrated Hokusai Manga
Hokusai Manga
books (1814–1834) containing assorted drawings from the sketchbooks of the famous ukiyo-e artist Hokusai.[25] Rakuten Kitazawa (1876–1955) first used the word "manga" in the modern sense.[26] In Japanese, "manga" refers to all kinds of cartooning, comics, and animation. Among English speakers, "manga" has the stricter meaning of "Japanese comics", in parallel to the usage of "anime" in and outside Japan. The term "ani-manga" is used to describe comics produced from animation cels.[27] History and characteristics

A kami-shibai story teller from Sazae-san
Sazae-san
by Machiko Hasegawa. Sazae appears with her hair in a bun.

Main articles: History of manga
History of manga
and Manga
Manga
iconography The history of manga is said to originate from scrolls dating back to the 12th century, and it is believed they represent the basis for the right-to-left reading style. During the Edo period
Edo period
(1603-1867), Toba Ehon embedded the concept of manga.[28] The word itself first came into common usage in 1798.[22] Writers on manga history have described two broad and complementary processes shaping modern manga. One view represented by other writers such as Frederik L. Schodt, Kinko Ito, and Adam L. Kern, stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions, including pre-war, Meiji, and pre-Meiji culture and art.[29] The other view, emphasizes events occurring during and after the Allied occupation of Japan
Japan
(1945–1952), and stresses U.S. cultural influences, including U.S. comics (brought to Japan
Japan
by the GIs) and images and themes from U.S. television, film, and cartoons (especially Disney).[30] Regardless of its source, an explosion of artistic creativity occurred in the post-war period,[31] involving manga artists such as Osamu Tezuka (Astro Boy) and Machiko Hasegawa (Sazae-san). Astro Boy
Astro Boy
quickly became (and remains) immensely popular in Japan
Japan
and elsewhere,[32] and the anime adaptation of Sazae-san
Sazae-san
drawing more viewers than any other anime on Japanese television in 2011.[28] Tezuka and Hasegawa both made stylistic innovations. In Tezuka's "cinematographic" technique, the panels are like a motion picture that reveals details of action bordering on slow motion as well as rapid zooms from distance to close-up shots. This kind of visual dynamism was widely adopted by later manga artists.[33] Hasegawa's focus on daily life and on women's experience also came to characterize later shōjo manga.[34] Between 1950 and 1969, an increasingly large readership for manga emerged in Japan
Japan
with the solidification of its two main marketing genres, shōnen manga aimed at boys and shōjo manga aimed at girls.[35]

A figure drawn in manga style—typically reduced to black and white and different patterns to compensate for the lack of colors

In 1969 a group of female manga artists (later called the Year 24 Group, also known as Magnificent 24s) made their shōjo manga debut ("year 24" comes from the Japanese name
Japanese name
for the year 1949, the birth-year of many of these artists).[36] The group included Moto Hagio, Riyoko Ikeda, Yumiko Ōshima, Keiko Takemiya, and Ryoko Yamagishi.[14] Thereafter, primarily female manga artists would draw shōjo for a readership of girls and young women.[37] In the following decades (1975–present), shōjo manga continued to develop stylistically while simultaneously evolving different but overlapping subgenres.[38] Major subgenres include romance, superheroines, and "Ladies Comics" (in Japanese, redisu レディース, redikomi レディコミ, and josei 女性).[39] Modern shōjo manga romance features love as a major theme set into emotionally intense narratives of self-realization.[40] With the superheroines, shōjo manga saw releases such as Pink Hanamori's Mermaid Melody Pichi Pichi Pitch
Mermaid Melody Pichi Pichi Pitch
Reiko Yoshida's Tokyo Mew Mew, And, Naoko Takeuchi's Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon, which became internationally popular in both manga and anime formats.[41] Groups (or sentais) of girls working together have also been popular within this genre. Like Lucia, Hanon, and Rina singing together, and Sailor Moon, Sailor Mercury, Sailor Mars, Sailor Jupiter, and Sailor Venus working together.[42] Manga
Manga
for male readers sub-divides according to the age of its intended readership: boys up to 18 years old (shōnen manga) and young men 18 to 30 years old (seinen manga);[43] as well as by content, including action-adventure often involving male heroes, slapstick humor, themes of honor, and sometimes explicit sexuality.[44] The Japanese use different kanji for two closely allied meanings of "seinen"—青年 for "youth, young man" and 成年 for "adult, majority"—the second referring to sexually overt manga aimed at grown men and also called seijin ("adult" 成人) manga.[45] Shōnen, seinen, and seijin manga share many features in common. Boys and young men became some of the earliest readers of manga after World War II. From the 1950s on, shōnen manga focused on topics thought to interest the archetypal boy, including subjects like robots, space-travel, and heroic action-adventure.[46] Popular themes include science fiction, technology, sports, and supernatural settings. Manga
Manga
with solitary costumed superheroes like Superman, Batman, and Spider-Man
Spider-Man
generally did not become as popular.[47] The role of girls and women in manga produced for male readers has evolved considerably over time to include those featuring single pretty girls (bishōjo)[48] such as Belldandy
Belldandy
from Oh My Goddess!, stories where such girls and women surround the hero, as in Negima and Hanaukyo Maid Team, or groups of heavily armed female warriors (sentō bishōjo)[49] With the relaxation of censorship in Japan
Japan
in the 1990s, a wide variety of explicit sexual themes appeared in manga intended for male readers, and correspondingly occur in English translations.[50] However, in 2010 the Tokyo Metropolitan Government
Tokyo Metropolitan Government
passed a bill to restrict such content.[51] The gekiga style of drawing—emotionally dark, often starkly realistic, sometimes very violent—focuses on the day-in, day-out grim realities of life, often drawn in gritty and unpretty fashions.[52] Gekiga
Gekiga
such as Sampei Shirato's 1959–1962 Chronicles of a Ninja's Military Accomplishments (Ninja Bugeichō) arose in the late 1950s and 1960s partly from left-wing student and working-class political activism[53] and partly from the aesthetic dissatisfaction of young manga artists like Yoshihiro Tatsumi
Yoshihiro Tatsumi
with existing manga.[54] Publications and exhibition

Delegates of 3rd Asian Cartoon Exhibition, held at Tokyo (Annual Manga Exhibition) by The Japan
Japan
Foundation[55]

A manga store in Japan

In Japan, manga constituted an annual 40.6 billion yen (approximately $395 million USD) publication-industry by 2007.[56] In 2006 sales of manga books made up for about 27% of total book-sales, and sale of manga magazines, for 20% of total magazine-sales.[57] The manga industry has expanded worldwide, where distribution companies license and reprint manga into their native languages. Marketeers primarily classify manga by the age and gender of the target readership.[58] In particular, books and magazines sold to boys (shōnen) and girls (shōjo) have distinctive cover-art, and most bookstores place them on different shelves. Due to cross-readership, consumer response is not limited by demographics. For example, male readers may subscribe to a series intended for female readers, and so on. Japan
Japan
has manga cafés, or manga kissa (kissa is an abbreviation of kissaten). At a manga kissa, people drink coffee, read manga and sometimes stay overnight. The Kyoto International Manga Museum
Kyoto International Manga Museum
maintains a very large website listing manga published in Japanese.[59] Magazines See also: List of manga magazines

Eshinbun Nipponchi is credited as the first manga magazine ever made.

Manga
Manga
magazines usually have many series running concurrently with approximately 20–40 pages allocated to each series per issue. Other magazines such as the anime fandom magazine Newtype
Newtype
featured single chapters within their monthly periodicals. Other magazines like Nakayoshi
Nakayoshi
feature many stories written by many different artists; these magazines, or "anthology magazines", as they are also known (colloquially "phone books"), are usually printed on low-quality newsprint and can be anywhere from 200 to more than 850 pages thick. Manga
Manga
magazines also contain one-shot comics and various four-panel yonkoma (equivalent to comic strips). Manga
Manga
series can run for many years if they are successful. Manga
Manga
artists sometimes start out with a few "one-shot" manga projects just to try to get their name out. If these are successful and receive good reviews, they are continued. Magazines often have a short life.[60] Collected volumes After a series has run for a while, publishers often collect the episodes together and print them in dedicated book-sized volumes, called tankōbon. These can be hardcover, or more usually softcover books, and are the equivalent of U.S. trade paperbacks or graphic novels. These volumes often use higher-quality paper, and are useful to those who want to "catch up" with a series so they can follow it in the magazines or if they find the cost of the weeklies or monthlies to be prohibitive. Recently, "deluxe" versions have also been printed as readers have gotten older and the need for something special grew. Old manga have also been reprinted using somewhat lesser quality paper and sold for 100 yen (about $1 U.S. dollar) each to compete with the used book market. History Kanagaki Robun and Kawanabe Kyōsai
Kawanabe Kyōsai
created the first manga magazine in 1874: Eshinbun Nipponchi. The magazine was heavily influenced by Japan
Japan
Punch, founded in 1862 by Charles Wirgman, a British cartoonist. Eshinbun Nipponchi had a very simple style of drawings and did not become popular with many people. Eshinbun Nipponchi ended after three issues. The magazine Kisho Shimbun in 1875 was inspired by Eshinbun Nipponchi, which was followed by Marumaru Chinbun in 1877, and then Garakuta Chinpo in 1879.[61] Shōnen Sekai was the first shōnen magazine created in 1895 by Iwaya Sazanami, a famous writer of Japanese children's literature back then. Shōnen Sekai had a strong focus on the First Sino-Japanese War.[62] In 1905 the manga-magazine publishing boom started with the Russo-Japanese War,[63] Tokyo Pakku was created and became a huge hit.[64] After Tokyo Pakku in 1905, a female version of Shōnen Sekai was created and named Shōjo Sekai, considered the first shōjo magazine.[65] Shōnen Pakku was made and is considered the first children's manga magazine. The children's demographic was in an early stage of development in the Meiji period. Shōnen Pakku was influenced from foreign children's magazines such as Puck which an employee of Jitsugyō no Nihon (publisher of the magazine) saw and decided to emulate. In 1924, Kodomo Pakku was launched as another children's manga magazine after Shōnen Pakku.[64] During the boom, Poten (derived from the French "potin") was published in 1908. All the pages were in full color with influences from Tokyo Pakku and Osaka Puck. It is unknown if there were any more issues besides the first one.[63] Kodomo Pakku was launched May 1924 by Tokyosha and featured high-quality art by many members of the manga artistry like Takei Takeo, Takehisa Yumeji and Aso Yutaka. Some of the manga featured speech balloons, where other manga from the previous eras did not use speech balloons and were silent.[64] Published from May 1935 to January 1941, Manga
Manga
no Kuni coincided with the period of the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
(1937–1945). Manga
Manga
no Kuni featured information on becoming a mangaka and on other comics industries around the world. Manga
Manga
no Kuni handed its title to Sashie Manga
Manga
Kenkyū in August 1940.[66] Dōjinshi Main article: Dōjinshi Dōjinshi, produced by small publishers outside of the mainstream commercial market, resemble in their publishing small-press independently published comic books in the United States. Comiket, the largest comic book convention in the world with around 500,000 visitors gathering over three days, is devoted to dōjinshi. While they most often contain original stories, many are parodies of or include characters from popular manga and anime series. Some dōjinshi continue with a series' story or write an entirely new one using its characters, much like fan fiction. In 2007, dōjinshi sold for 27.73 billion yen (245 million USD).[56] In 2006 they represented about a tenth of manga books and magazines sales.[57] International markets Main article: Manga
Manga
outside Japan By 2007, the influence of manga on international comics had grown considerably over the past two decades.[67] "Influence" is used here to refer to effects on the comics markets outside Japan
Japan
and to aesthetic effects on comics artists internationally.

The reading direction in a traditional manga

Traditionally, manga stories flow from top to bottom and from right to left. Some publishers of translated manga keep to this original format. Other publishers mirror the pages horizontally before printing the translation, changing the reading direction to a more "Western" left to right, so as not to confuse foreign readers or traditional comics-consumers. This practice is known as "flipping".[68] For the most part, criticism suggests that flipping goes against the original intentions of the creator (for example, if a person wears a shirt that reads "MAY" on it, and gets flipped, then the word is altered to "YAM"), who may be ignorant of how awkward it is to read comics when the eyes must flow through the pages and text in opposite directions, resulting in an experience that's quite distinct from reading something that flows homogeneously. If the translation is not adapted to the flipped artwork carefully enough it is also possible for the text to go against the picture, such as a person referring to something on their left in the text while pointing to their right in the graphic. Characters shown writing with their right hands, the majority of them, would become left-handed when a series is flipped. Flipping may also cause oddities with familiar asymmetrical objects or layouts, such as a car being depicted with the gas pedal on the left and the brake on the right, or a shirt with the buttons on the wrong side, but these issues are minor when compared to the unnatural reading flow, and some of them could be solved with an adaptation work that goes beyond just translation and blind flipping.[69] Europe Manga
Manga
has influenced European cartooning in a way that is somewhat different from in the U.S. Broadcast anime in France and Italy opened the European market to manga during the 1970s.[70] French art has borrowed from Japan
Japan
since the 19th century (Japonism)[71] and has its own highly developed tradition of bande dessinée cartooning.[72] In France, beginning in the mid-1990s,[73] manga has proven very popular to a wide readership, accounting for about one-third of comics sales in France since 2004.[74] According to the Japan
Japan
External Trade Organization, sales of manga reached $212.6 million within France and Germany alone in 2006.[70] France represents about 50% of the European market and is the second worldwide market, behind Japan.[10] In 2013, there were 41 publishers of manga in France and, together with other Asian comics, manga represented around 40% of new comics releases in the country,[75] surpassing Franco-Belgian comics
Franco-Belgian comics
for the first time.[76] European publishers marketing manga translated into French include Asuka, Casterman, Glénat, Kana, and Pika Édition, among others.[citation needed] European publishers also translate manga into Dutch, German, Italian, and other languages. In 2007, about 70% of all comics sold in Germany were manga.[77] Manga
Manga
publishers based in the United Kingdom include Gollancz and Titan Books.[citation needed] Manga
Manga
publishers from the United States have a strong marketing presence in the United Kingdom: for example, the Tanoshimi
Tanoshimi
line from Random House.[citation needed] United States Manga
Manga
made their way only gradually into U.S. markets, first in association with anime and then independently.[78] Some U.S. fans became aware of manga in the 1970s and early 1980s.[79] However, anime was initially more accessible than manga to U.S. fans,[80] many of whom were college-age young people who found it easier to obtain, subtitle, and exhibit video tapes of anime than translate, reproduce, and distribute tankōbon-style manga books.[81] One of the first manga translated into English and marketed in the U.S. was Keiji Nakazawa's Barefoot Gen, an autobiographical story of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima issued by Leonard Rifas and Educomics (1980–1982).[82] More manga were translated between the mid-1980s and 1990s, including Golgo 13
Golgo 13
in 1986, Lone Wolf and Cub
Lone Wolf and Cub
from First Comics
Comics
in 1987, and Kamui, Area 88, and Mai the Psychic Girl, also in 1987 and all from Viz Media-Eclipse Comics.[83] Others soon followed, including Akira from Marvel Comics' Epic Comics
Comics
imprint, Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind from Viz Media, and Appleseed from Eclipse Comics
Comics
in 1988, and later Iczer-1 (Antarctic Press, 1994) and Ippongi Bang's F-111 Bandit (Antarctic Press, 1995). In the 1980s to the mid-1990s, Japanese animation, like Akira, Dragon Ball, Neon Genesis Evangelion, and Pokémon, made a bigger impact on the fan experience and in the market than manga.[84] Matters changed when translator-entrepreneur Toren Smith
Toren Smith
founded Studio Proteus in 1986. Smith and Studio Proteus acted as an agent and translator of many Japanese manga, including Masamune Shirow's Appleseed and Kōsuke Fujishima's Oh My Goddess!, for Dark Horse and Eros Comix, eliminating the need for these publishers to seek their own contacts in Japan.[85] Simultaneously, the Japanese publisher Shogakukan
Shogakukan
opened a U.S. market initiative with their U.S. subsidiary Viz, enabling Viz to draw directly on Shogakukan's catalogue and translation skills.[68]

A young boy reading Black Cat

Japanese publishers began pursuing a U.S. market in the mid-1990s due to a stagnation in the domestic market for manga.[86] The U.S. manga market took an upturn with mid-1990s anime and manga versions of Masamune Shirow's Ghost in the Shell (translated by Frederik L. Schodt and Toren Smith) becoming very popular among fans.[87] An extremely successful manga and anime translated and dubbed in English in the mid-1990s was Sailor Moon.[88] By 1995–1998, the Sailor Moon
Sailor Moon
manga had been exported to over 23 countries, including China, Brazil, Mexico, Australia, North America and most of Europe.[89] In 1997, Mixx Entertainment began publishing Sailor Moon, along with CLAMP's Magic Knight Rayearth, Hitoshi Iwaaki's Parasyte
Parasyte
and Tsutomu Takahashi's Ice Blade in the monthly manga magazine MixxZine. Two years later, MixxZine was renamed to Tokyopop
Tokyopop
before discontinuing in 2011. Mixx Entertainment, later renamed Tokyopop, also published manga in trade paperbacks and, like Viz, began aggressive marketing of manga to both young male and young female demographics.[90] In the following years, manga became increasingly popular, and new publishers entered the field while the established publishers greatly expanded their catalogues.[91] and by 2008, the U.S. and Canadian manga market generated $175 million in annual sales.[92] Simultaneously, mainstream U.S. media began to discuss manga, with articles in The New York Times, Time magazine, The Wall Street Journal, and Wired magazine.[citation needed][93] Localized manga Main articles: DZ-manga, Manfra, and Original English-language manga A number of artists in the United States have drawn comics and cartoons influenced by manga. As an early example, Vernon Grant
Vernon Grant
drew manga-influenced comics while living in Japan
Japan
in the late 1960s and early 1970s.[94] Others include Frank Miller's mid-1980s Ronin, Adam Warren and Toren Smith's 1988 The Dirty Pair,[95] Ben Dunn's 1987 Ninja High School
Ninja High School
and Manga
Manga
Shi 2000 from Crusade Comics
Comics
(1997). By the 21st century several U.S. manga publishers had begun to produce work by U.S. artists under the broad marketing-label of manga.[96] In 2002 I.C. Entertainment, formerly Studio Ironcat and now out of business, launched a series of manga by U.S. artists called Amerimanga.[97] In 2004 eigoMANGA launched the Rumble Pak and Sakura Pakk anthology series. Seven Seas Entertainment followed suit with World Manga.[98] Simultaneously, TokyoPop introduced original English-language manga (OEL manga) later renamed Global Manga.[99] Francophone artists have also developed their own versions of manga (manfra), like Frédéric Boilet's la nouvelle manga. Boilet has worked in France and in Japan, sometimes collaborating with Japanese artists.[100] Awards The Japanese manga industry grants a large number of awards, mostly sponsored by publishers, with the winning prize usually including publication of the winning stories in magazines released by the sponsoring publisher. Examples of these awards include:

The Akatsuka Award for humorous manga The Dengeki Comic Grand Prix for one-shot manga The Japan
Japan
Cartoonists Association Award various categories The Kodansha
Kodansha
Manga
Manga
Award (multiple genre awards) The Seiun Award
Seiun Award
for best science fiction comic of the year The Shogakukan
Shogakukan
Manga
Manga
Award (multiple genres) The Tezuka Award for best new serial manga The Tezuka Osamu Cultural Prize (multiple genres)

The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs has awarded the International Manga
Manga
Award annually since May 2007.[101] University education Kyoto Seika University
Kyoto Seika University
in Japan
Japan
has offered a highly competitive course in manga since 2000.[102][103] Then, several established universities and vocational schools (専門学校: Semmon gakkou) established a training curriculum. Shuho Sato, who wrote Umizaru
Umizaru
and Say Hello to Black Jack, has created some controversy on Twitter. Sato says, " Manga
Manga
school is meaningless because those schools have very low success rates. Then, I could teach novices required skills on the job in three months. Meanwhile, those school students spend several million yen, and four years, yet they are good for nothing." and that, "For instance, Keiko Takemiya, the then professor of Seika Univ., remarked in the Government Council that 'A complete novice will be able to understand where is "Tachikiri" (i.e., margin section) during four years.' On the other hand, I would imagine that, It takes about thirty minutes to completely understand that at work."[104] See also

Japan
Japan
portal Anime
Anime
and Manga
Manga
portal Comics
Comics
portal

Book: Anime
Anime
and manga

Emakimono E-toki
E-toki
(horizontal, illustrated narrative form) Japanese popular culture Kamishibai Lianhuanhua
Lianhuanhua
(small Chinese picture book) Light novel List of best-selling manga List of films based on manga List of licensed manga in English List of manga distributors Manga
Manga
iconography Oekaki (act of drawing) Q-version
Q-version
(cartoonification) Ukiyo-e Visual novel

Notes

^ Lent 2001, pp. 3–4, Gravett 2004, p. 8 ^ Kern 2006, Ito 2005, Schodt 1986 ^ Merriam-Webster 2009 ^ "Manga/ Anime
Anime
topics". www.mit.edu. Retrieved 2017-06-22.  ^ Brenner, Robin E. (2007-06-30). Understanding Manga
Manga
and Anime. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313094484.  ^ Gravett 2004, p. 8 ^ Kinsella 2000, Schodt 1996 ^ Saira Syed (18 August 2011). "Comic giants battle for readers". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 16 March 2012.  ^ Wong 2006, Patten 2004 ^ a b Danica Davidson (26 January 2012). " Manga
Manga
grows in the heart of Europe". Geek Out! CNN. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc.
Turner Broadcasting System, Inc.
Retrieved 29 January 2012.  ^ Bouissou, Jean-Marie (2006). "JAPAN'S GROWING CULTURAL POWER: THE EXAMPLE OF MANGA IN FRANCE".  ^ Eurasiam. "The Manga
Manga
Market : Eurasiam - Japanese art
Japanese art
& communication School". www.eurasiam.com. Retrieved 2017-06-22.  ^ Katzenstein & Shiraishi 1997 ^ a b Gravett 2004, p. 8, Schodt 1986 ^ Kinsella 2000 ^ Kittelson 1998 ^ Johnston-O'Neill 2007 ^ Webb 2006 ^ Wong 2002 ^ Rousmaniere 2001, p. 54, Thompson 2007, p. xvi, Prohl & Nelson 2012, p. 596,Fukushima 2013, p. 19 ^ Webb 2006,Thompson 2007, p. xvi,Onoda 2009, p. 10,Petersen 2011, p. 120 ^ a b Prohl & Nelson 2012, p. 596,McCarthy 2014, p. 6 ^ "Santō Kyōden's picturebooks".  ^ "Shiji no yukikai(Japanese National Diet
National Diet
Library)".  ^ Bouquillard & Marquet 2007 ^ Shimizu 1985, pp. 53–54, 102–103 ^ "Inu Yasha Ani-MangaGraphic Novels". Animecornerstore.com. 1999-11-01. Archived from the original on 4 December 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-01.  ^ a b Kageyama, Y. "A SHORT HISTORY OF JAPANESE MANGA". Retrieved 1 October 2017.  ^ Schodt 1986, Ito 2004, Kern 2006, Kern 2007 ^ Kinsella 2000, Schodt 1986 ^ Schodt 1986, Schodt 1996, Schodt 2007, Gravett 2004 ^ Kodansha
Kodansha
1999, pp. 692–715, Schodt 2007 ^ Schodt 1986 ^ Gravett 2004, p. 8, Lee 2000, Sanchez 1997–2003 ^ Schodt 1986, Toku 2006 ^ Gravett 2004, pp. 78–80, Lent 2001, pp. 9–10 ^ Schodt 1986, Toku 2006, Thorn 2001 ^ Ōgi 2004 ^ Gravett 2004, p. 8, Schodt 1996 ^ Drazen 2003 ^ Allison 2000, pp. 259–278, Schodt 1996, p. 92 ^ Poitras 2001 ^ Thompson 2007, pp. xxiii–xxiv ^ Brenner 2007, pp. 31–34 ^ Schodt 1996, p. 95, Perper & Cornog 2002 ^ Schodt 1986, pp. 68–87, Gravett 2004, pp. 52–73 ^ Schodt 1986, pp. 68–87 ^ Perper & Cornog 2002, pp. 60–63 ^ Gardner 2003 ^ Perper & Cornog 2002 ^ "Tokyo moves a step closer to manga porn crackdown". The Yomiuri Shimbun. 14 December 2010. Archived from the original on 16 December 2010.  ^ Schodt 1986, pp. 68–73, Gravett 2006 ^ Schodt 1986, pp. 68–73, Gravett 2004, pp. 38–42, Isao 2001 ^ Isao 2001, pp. 147–149, Nunez 2006 ^ Manga
Manga
Hai Kya, Comics : Shekhar Gurera The Pioneer, New Delhi ^ a b Cube 2007 ^ a b Manga
Manga
Industry in Japan ^ Schodt 1996 ^ Manga
Manga
Museum 2009 ^ Schodt 1996, p. 101 ^ Eshinbun Nipponchi ^ Griffiths 2007 ^ a b Poten ^ a b c Shonen Pakku ^ Lone 2007, p. 75 ^ Manga
Manga
no Kuni ^ Pink 2007, Wong 2007 ^ a b Farago 2007 ^ Randal, Bill (2005). "English, For Better or Worse". The Comics Journal ( Special
Special
ed.). Fantagraphics Books. Archived from the original on 23 March 2012.  ^ a b Fishbein 2007 ^ Berger 1992 ^ Vollmar 2007 ^ Mahousu 2005 ^ Mahousu 2005, ANN 2004, Riciputi 2007 ^ Brigid Alverson (February 12, 2014). "Strong French Manga
Manga
Market Begins to Dip". publishersweekly.com. Retrieved December 14, 2014.  ^ Rich Johnston (January 1, 2014). "French Comics
Comics
In 2013 – It's Not All Asterix. But Quite A Bit Is". bleedingcool.com. Retrieved December 14, 2014.  ^ Jennifer Fishbein (27 December 2007). "Europe's Manga
Manga
Mania". Spiegel Online International. Retrieved 30 January 2012.  ^ Patten 2004 ^ In 1987, "...Japanese comics were more legendary than accessible to American readers", Patten 2004, p. 259 ^ Napier 2000, pp. 239–256, Clements & McCarthy 2006, pp. 475–476 ^ Patten 2004, Schodt 1996, pp. 305–340, Leonard 2004 ^ Schodt 1996, p. 309, Rifas 2004, Rifas adds that the original Edu Comics
Comics
titles were Gen of Hiroshima and I SAW IT [sic]. ^ Patten 2004, pp. 37, 259–260, Thompson 2007, p. xv ^ Leonard 2004, Patten 2004, pp. 52–73, Farago 2007 ^ Schodt 1996, pp. 318–321, Dark Horse Comics
Comics
2004 ^ Brienza, Casey E. (2009). "Books, Not Comics: Publishing Fields, Globalization, and Japanese Manga
Manga
in the United States". Publishing Research Quarterly. 25 (2): 101–117. doi:10.1007/s12109-009-9114-2.  ^ Kwok Wah Lau, Jenny (2003). "4". Multiple modernities: cinemas and popular media in transcultural East Asia. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. p. 78.  ^ Patten 2004, pp. 50, 110, 124, 128, 135, Arnold 2000 ^ Schodt 1996, p. 95 ^ Arnold 2000, Farago 2007, Bacon 2005 ^ Schodt 1996, pp. 308–319 ^ Reid 2009 ^ Glazer 2005, Masters 2006, Bosker 2007, Pink 2007 ^ Stewart 1984 ^ Crandol 2002 ^ Tai 2007 ^ ANN 2002 ^ ANN 10 May 2006 ^ ANN 5 May 2006 ^ Boilet 2001, Boilet & Takahama 2004 ^ ANN 2007, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan
Japan
2007 ^ Obunsha Co., Ltd. (2014-07-18). 京都精華大学、入試結果 (倍率)、マンガ学科。 (in Japanese). Obunsha Co., Ltd. Archived from the original on 2014-07-17. Retrieved 2014-07-18.  ^ Kyoto Seika University. "Kyoto Seika University, Faculty of Manga". Kyoto Seika University. Archived from the original on 2014-07-17. Retrieved 2014-07-18.  ^ Shuho Sato; et al. (2012-07-26). 漫画を学校で学ぶ意義とは (in Japanese). togetter. Retrieved 2014-07-19. 

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Further reading

"Japanese Manga
Manga
Market Drops Below 500 Billion Yen". ComiPress. 10 March 2007.  "Un poil de culture – Une introduction à l'animation japonaise" (in French). 11 July 2007. Archived from the original on 8 January 2008.  Hattie Jones, " Manga
Manga
girls: Sex, love, comedy and crime in recent boy's manga and anime," in Brigitte Steger and Angelika Koch (2013 eds): Manga
Manga
Girl Seeks Herbivore Boy. Studying Japanese Gender at Cambridge. Lit Publisher, pp. 24–81. (in Italian) Marcella Zaccagnino and Sebastiano Contrari. "Manga: il Giappone alla conquista del mondo" (Archive) Limes, rivista italiana di geopolitica. 31/10/2007. Unser-Schutz, Giancarla (2015). "Influential or influenced? The relationship between genre, gender and language in manga". Gender and Language. Equinox. 9 (2): 223–254. doi:10.1558/genl.v9i2.17331. 

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