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(Based on a broad circumscription of M. officinarum)

Atropa
Atropa
acaulis Stokes Atropa
Atropa
humilis Salisb. Atropa
Atropa
mandragora L., nom. illeg. Mandragora acaulis Gaertn. Mandragora autumnalis
Mandragora autumnalis
Bertol. Mandragora foemina Garsault Mandragora haussknechtii Heldr. Mandragora hispanica Vierh. Mandragora × hybrida Hausskn. & Heldr. Mandragora mas Garsault Mandragora microcarpa Bertol. Mandragora neglecta G.Don ex Loudon Mandragora praecox Sweet Mandragora vernalis Bertol.

Mandragora officinarum
Mandragora officinarum
is the type species of the plant genus Mandragora. It is often known as mandrake, although this name is also used for other plants. As of 2015[update], sources differ significantly in the species they use for Mandragora plants native to the Mediterranean region. In the narrowest circumscription, M. officinarum is limited to small areas of northern Italy
Italy
and the coast of former Yugoslavia, and the main species found around the Mediterranean is called Mandragora autumnalis, the autumn mandrake. In a broader circumscription, all the plants native to the countries around the Mediterranean Sea are placed in M. officinarum, which thus includes M. autumnalis. The names autumn mandrake and Mediterranean mandrake are then used.[2] Whatever the circumscription, Mandragora officinarum
Mandragora officinarum
is a perennial herbaceous plant with ovate leaves arranged in a rosette, a thick upright root, often branched, and bell-shaped flowers followed by yellow or orange berries. Because mandrakes contain deliriant hallucinogenic tropane alkaloids and the shape of their roots often resembles human figures, they have been associated with a variety of superstitious practices throughout history. They have long been used in magic rituals, today also in contemporary pagan practices such as Wicca
Wicca
and Odinism.[3] However, the so-called "mandrakes" used in this way are not always species of Mandragora let alone Mandragora officinarum; for example, Bryonia alba, the English mandrake, is explicitly mentioned in some sources.

Contents

1 Description 2 Taxonomy 3 Distribution and habitat 4 Toxicity 5 Folklore 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Description[edit]

Mandragora plant from Israel
Israel
that some sources would place in Mandragora autumnalis
Mandragora autumnalis
rather than Mandragora officinarum

As of 2015[update], Mandragora officinarum
Mandragora officinarum
has three or four different circumscriptions (see Taxonomy below). The description below applies to a broad circumscription, used in a 1998 revision of the genus, in which the name is used for all the plants native to Mediterranean region.[1] Thus defined, Mandragora officinarum
Mandragora officinarum
is a very variable perennial herbaceous plant with a long thick root, often branched. It has almost no stem, the leaves being borne in a basal rosette. The leaves are very variable in size and shape, with a maximum length of 45 cm (18 in). They are usually either elliptical in shape or wider towards the end (obovate), with varying degrees of hairiness.[1] The flowers appear from autumn to spring (September to April). They are borne in the axils of the leaves. The flower stalks (pedicels) are also very variable in length, up to 45 cm (18 in) long. The five sepals are 6–28 mm (0.2–1.1 in) long, fused together at the base and then forming free lobes to about a half to two-thirds of their total length. The five petals are greenish white to pale blue or violet in colour, 12–65 mm (0.5–2.6 in) long, and, like the sepals, joined together at the base with free lobes at the end. The lobes are between half as long as the petals to almost as long. The five stamens are joined to the bases of the petals and vary in length from 7 to 15 mm (0.3 to 0.6 in). The anthers of the stamens are usually yellow or brown, but are sometimes pale blue.[1] The fruit which forms in late autumn to early summer (November to June) is a berry, shaped like a globe or an ellipsoid (i.e. longer than wide), with a very variable diameter of 5–40 mm (0.2–1.6 in). When ripe, the fruit is glossy, and yellow to orange – somewhat resembling a small tomato. It contains yellow to light brown seeds, 2.5–6 mm (0.10–0.24 in) long.[1] Earlier, a different circumscription was used, in which Mandragora officinarum referred only to plants found in northern Italy
Italy
and part of the coast of former Yugoslavia, most Mediterranean mandrakes being placed in Mandragora autumnalis.[4][5] The description above would then apply to both species combined, with M. officinarum having greenish-white rather than violet petals, up to 25 mm (1 in) long rather than usually 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) or longer, and a berry that is globose rather than ellipsoid.[4] More recently, plants native to the Levant
Levant
have been separated out as Mandragora autumnalis, leaving those found in the rest of the Mediterranean area as M. officinarum. One difference then is that the size of the seeds of M. officinarum is less than half the size of those of M. autumnalis.[6] Taxonomy[edit] Mandragora officinarum
Mandragora officinarum
was first described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
in the first edition of Species Plantarum.[7][8] It is the type species of the genus Mandragora.[5] (Linnaeus later changed his mind and in 1759 placed M. officinarum in the genus Atropa
Atropa
as A. mandragora.[9]) Linnaeus regarded M. officinarum as the sole species in the genus, at that time only known from the Mediterranean region. Jackson and Berry (1979)[5] and Ungricht et al. (1998)[1] have documented some of the subsequent confusion over the number of Mediterranean species of Mandragora and their scientific names. Ungricht et al. describe the confusion as "incredible" and a "morass".[1] The first confusion relates to the name "Mandragora officinalis Mill.", dated to 1768 in the eighth edition of Philip Miller's The gardener's dictionary. However, this work uses the epithet officinarum, not "officinalis".[10] There is a reference to "Mandragora officinalis" as a synonym in the 9th edition of The gardener's dictionary of 1807. However, there was no such earlier use of the name, and Ungricht et al. say that "officinalis" is an orthographic error for the correct epithet officinarum, so that the name "Mandragora officinalis Mill." (and any subsequent uses of this epithet) have "no real nomenclatural standing".[1] The second confusion relates to the number of Mediterranean species of Mandragora (a confusion which continues). At different times, between one and five taxa have been recognized.[1] Dioscorides
Dioscorides
was among those who distinguished between "male" and "female" mandrakes,[5] a distinction used in 1764 when Garsault published the names Mandragora mas and Mandragora foemina. Flowering time was also used to distinguish species; thus in the 1820s, Antonio Bertoloni
Antonio Bertoloni
named two species as Mandragora vernalis, the spring-flowering mandrake, and Mandragora autumnalis, the autumn-flowering mandrake.[1] Since the late 1990s, three main circumscriptions of Mandragora officinarum
Mandragora officinarum
have been used and all three will be found in current sources.

Identifying the spring-flowering mandrake as Linnaeus's M. officinarum, works such as Flora Europaea list two Mediterranean species of Mandragora: M. officinarum and M. autumnalis. On this view, the main Mediterranean species is M. autumnalis rather than M. officinarum, which is a rare species, confined to northern Italy
Italy
and a small region of the coast of former Yugoslavia.[4][5] Using statistical analysis of morphological characters, Ungricht et al. in 1998 found no distinct clusters among the specimens they examined and concluded that Linnaeus's M. officinarum is a single, variable species. They thus include M. autumnalis in M. officinarum, which on this view is the only Mediterranean mandrake.[1] M. autumnalis was again separated from M. officinarum by Tu et al. in 2010 in a molecular phylogenetic study. They regard M. officinarum as the main species in the Mediterranean, but separate out plants native to the Levant
Levant
as M. autumnalis, which was then shown to be more closely related to Mandragora turcomanica than to their circumscription of M. officinarum.[6]

Distribution and habitat[edit] In the circumscription in which Mandragora officinarum
Mandragora officinarum
is the only Mediterranean species, it is native to southern Portugal
Portugal
and countries around the Mediterranean sea: Tunisia, Algeria
Algeria
and Morocco
Morocco
in north Africa; southern Spain, Italy, former Yugoslavia, Greece
Greece
and Cyprus
Cyprus
in southern Europe; southern Turkey; Syria, Lebanon, Israel, the Palestinian territories
Palestinian territories
and Jordan
Jordan
in the Levant. It is usually found in open habitats, such as light woodland and disturbed sites, including olive groves, fallow land, waysides, railway embankments and ruins, from sea level to 1,200 m (3,900 ft).[1] When Mandragora autumnalis
Mandragora autumnalis
is regarded as the main Mediterranean species, M. officinarum is native only to north Italy
Italy
and part of the coast of former Yugoslavia.[4] Alternatively, M. officinarum is absent from the Levant, where it is replaced by M. autumnalis.[6] Toxicity[edit] All species of Mandragora contain highly biologically active alkaloids, tropane alkaloids in particular. Hanuš et al. reviewed the phytochemistry of Mandragora species. More than 80 substances have been identified; their paper gives the detailed chemical structure of 37 of them.[11] Jackson and Berry were unable to find any differences in alkaloid composition between Mandragora officinarum
Mandragora officinarum
(using the narrowest circumscription of this species) and Mandragora autumnalis (viewed as the main Mediterranean species). Alkaloids present in the fresh plant or the dried root included atropine, hyoscyamine, scopolamine (hyoscine), scopine, cuscohygrine, apoatropine, 3-alpha-tigloyloxytropane, 3-alpha,6-beta-ditigloyloxytropane and belladonnines. Non-alkaloid constituents included sitosterol and beta-methylesculetin (scopoletin).[5][11] The alkaloids make the plant, in particular the root and leaves, poisonous, via anticholinergic, hallucinogenic, and hypnotic effects. Anticholinergic properties can lead to asphyxiation. Ingesting mandrake root is likely to have other adverse effects such as vomiting and diarrhea. The alkaloid concentration varies between plant samples, and accidental poisoning is likely to occur. Clinical reports of the effects of consumption of Mandragora officinarum
Mandragora officinarum
(as Mandragora autumnalis) include severe symptoms similar to those of atropine poisoning, including blurred vision, dilation of the pupils (mydriasis), dryness of the mouth, difficulty in urinating, dizziness, headache, vomiting, blushing and a rapid heart rate (tachycardia). Hyperactivity and hallucinations also occurred in the majority of patients.[12][13] Folklore[edit] Main article: Mandrake

The so-called "female" and "male" mandrakes, from a 1583 illustration

Mandrake
Mandrake
has a long history of medicinal use, although superstition has played a large part in the uses to which it has been applied. It is rarely prescribed in modern herbalism.[citation needed] The root is hallucinogenic and narcotic. In sufficient quantities, it induces a state of unconsciousness and was used as an anaesthetic for surgery in ancient times.[14] In the past, juice from the finely grated root was applied externally to relieve rheumatic pains.[14] It was also used internally to treat melancholy, convulsions, and mania.[14] When taken internally in large doses, however, it is said to excite delirium and madness.[14] In the past, mandrake was often made into amulets which were believed to bring good fortune, cure sterility, etc. In one superstition, people who pull up this root will be condemned to hell, and the mandrake root would scream as it was pulled from the ground, killing anyone who heard it.[3] Therefore, in the past, people have tied the roots to the bodies of animals and then used these animals to pull the roots from the soil.[3] References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Ungricht, Stefan; Knapp, Sandra & Press, John R. (1998). "A revision of the genus Mandragora (Solanaceae)". Bulletin of the Natural History Museum (Botany Series). 28 (1): 17–40. Retrieved 2015-03-31.  ^ "Mandragora officinarum". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service
Agricultural Research Service
(ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 28 March 2015.  ^ a b c John Gerard
John Gerard
(1597). "Herball, Generall Historie of Plants". Claude Moore Health Sciences Library.  ^ a b c d Hawkes, J.G. (1972). "Mandragora". In Tutin, T.G.; Heywood, V.H.; Burges, N.A.; Valentine, D.H.; Walters, S.M. & Webb, D.A. Flora Europaea, Volume 3: Diapensiaceae to Myoporaceae. Cambridge University Press. pp. 199–200. ISBN 978-0-521-08489-5.  ^ a b c d e f Jackson, Betty P. & Berry, Michael I. (1979). "39. Mandragora - taxonomy and chemistry of the European species" (PDF). In Hawkes, J.G.; Lester, R.N. & Skelding, A.D. The biology and taxonomy of the Solanaceae. London: Academic Press. pp. 505–512. Retrieved 2015-03-29.  ^ a b c Tu, Tieyao; Volis, Sergei; Dillon, Michael O.; Sun, Hang & Wen, Jun (2010). "Dispersals of Hyoscyameae and Mandragoreae (Solanaceae) from the New World to Eurasia in the early Miocene and their biogeographic diversification within Eurasia". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 57 (3): 1226–1237. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.09.007. PMID 20858548.  ^ "IPNI Plant
Plant
Name Query Results for Mandragora officinarum". The International Plant
Plant
Names Index. Retrieved 2015-03-29.  ^ Linnaeus, C. (1753). "Mandragora". Species Plantarum, vol. 1. p. 181. Retrieved 2015-03-29.  ^ "Mandragora officinarum". The Plant
Plant
List. Retrieved 2015-04-02.  ^ Miller, Philip (1768). "Mandragora". The gardener's dictionary (8th ed.). London. Retrieved 2015-04-11.  ^ a b Hanuš, Lumír O.; Řezanka, Tomáš; Spížek, Jaroslav & Dembitsky, Valery M. (2005). "Substances isolated from Mandragora species". Phytochemistry. 66 (20): 2408–2417. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.07.016. PMID 16137728.  ^ Jiménez-Mejías, M.E.; Montaño-Díaz, M.; López Pardo, F.; Campos Jiménez, E.; Martín Cordero, M.C.; Ayuso González, M.J. & González de la Puente, M.A. (1990-11-24). "Intoxicación atropínica por Mandragora autumnalis: descripción de quince casos [Atropine poisoning by Mandragora autumnalis: a report of 15 cases]". Medicina Clínica. 95 (18): 689–692. PMID 2087109.  ^ Piccillo, Giovita A.; Mondati, Enrico G. M. & Moro, Paola A. (2002). "Six clinical cases of Mandragora autumnalis
Mandragora autumnalis
poisoning: diagnosis and treatment". European Journal of Emergency Medicine. 9 (4): 342–347. doi:10.1097/01.mej.0000043855.56375.a7. PMID 12501035.  ^ a b c d A Modern Herbal, first published in 1931, by Mrs. M. Grieve, contains Medicinal, Culinary, Cosmetic and Economic Properties, Cultivation and Folk-Lore. 

Further reading[edit]

Charles Bixler Heiser (1969). Nightshades: The Paradoxical Plants. W. H. Freeman. pp. 131–136. ISBN 978-0-7167-0672-4.  Charles John Samuel Thompson (1968). The Mystic Mandrake. University Books. ISBN 978-0-8216-0124-2. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mandragora officinarum.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Mandragora officinarum

Erowid Mandrake
Mandrake
Vault  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Mandrake". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  Translation of Grimm's Saga No. 84 The Mandrake Mandragora in Wildflowers of Israel

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(PCE) Methoxydine
Methoxydine
(4'-MeO-PCP) PCPr Phencyclidine
Phencyclidine
(PCP) Rolicyclidine
Rolicyclidine
(PCPy) Tenocyclidine
Tenocyclidine
(TCP)

Others

BTCP Gacyclidine PRE-084

Diarylethylamines

Diphenidine Ephenidine Fluorolintane Methoxphenidine

Morphinans

Dextrallorphan Dextromethorphan Dextrorphan Racemethorphan Racemorphan

Others

2-EMSB 2-MDP 8A-PDHQ Aptiganel Budipine Delucemine Dexoxadrol Dizocilpine Etoxadrol Herkinorin Ibogaine Midafotel NEFA Neramexane Nitrous oxide Noribogaine Perzinfotel RB-64 Remacemide Salvinorin A Selfotel Xenon

Deliriants (mAChR antagonists)

Atropine Benactyzine Benzatropine Benzydamine Biperiden BRN-1484501 Brompheniramine BZ CAR-226,086 CAR-301,060 CAR-302,196 CAR-302,282 CAR-302,368 CAR-302,537 CAR-302,668 Chloropyramine Chlorphenamine Clemastine CS-27349 Cyclizine Cyproheptadine Dicycloverine Dimenhydrinate Diphenhydramine Ditran Doxylamine EA-3167 EA-3443 EA-3580 EA-3834 Elemicin Flavoxate Hyoscyamine JB-318 JB-336 Meclozine Mepyramine Myristicin Orphenadrine Oxybutynin Pheniramine Phenyltoloxamine Procyclidine Promethazine Scopolamine Tolterodine Trihexyphenidyl Tripelennamine Triprolidine WIN-2299

Others

Cannabinoids (CB1 agonists)

Natural

THC (Dronabinol) THCV

Synthetic

AM-x

AM-087 AM-251 AM-279 AM-281 AM-356 AM-374 AM-381 AM-404 AM-411 AM-630 AM-661 AM-678 AM-679 AM-694 AM-735 AM-855 AM-881 AM-883 AM-905 AM-906 AM-919 AM-926 AM-938 AM-1116 AM-1172 AM-1220 AM-1221 AM-1235 AM-1241 AM-1248 AM-1710 AM-1714 AM-1902 AM-2201 AM-2212 AM-2213 AM-2232 AM-2233 AM-2389 AM-3102 AM-4030 AM-4054 AM-4056 AM-4113 AM-6545

CP x

CP 47,497 CP 55,244 CP 55,940 (±)-CP 55,940 (+)-CP 55,940 (-)-CP 55,940

HU-x

HU-210 HU-211 HU-239 HU-243 HU-308 HU-320 HU-331 HU-336 HU-345

JWH-x

JWH-007 JWH-015 JWH-018 JWH-019 JWH-030 JWH-047 JWH-048 JWH-051 JWH-057 JWH-073 JWH-081 JWH-098 JWH-116 JWH-120 JWH-122 JWH-133 JWH-139 JWH-147 JWH-148 JWH-149 JWH-149 JWH-161 JWH-164 JWH-166 JWH-167 JWH-171 JWH-175 JWH-176 JWH-181 JWH-182 JWH-184 JWH-185 JWH-192 JWH-193 JWH-193 JWH-194 JWH-195 JWH-196 JWH-197 JWH-198 JWH-199 JWH-200 JWH-203 JWH-205 JWH-210 JWH-210 JWH-213 JWH-220 JWH-229 JWH-234 JWH-249 JWH-250 JWH-251 JWH-253 JWH-258 JWH-300 JWH-302 JWH-307 JWH-336 JWH-350 JWH-359 JWH-387 JWH-398 JWH-424

Misc. designer cannabinoids

4-HTMPIPO 5F-AB-FUPPYCA 5F-AB-PINACA 5F-ADB 5F-ADB-PINACA 5F-ADBICA 5F-AMB 5F-APINACA 5F-CUMYL-PINACA 5F-NNE1 5F-PB-22 5F-SDB-006 A-796,260 A-836,339 AB-001 AB-005 AB-CHFUPYCA AB-CHMINACA AB-FUBINACA AB-PINACA ADAMANTYL-THPINACA ADB-CHMINACA ADB-FUBINACA ADB-PINACA ADBICA ADSB-FUB-187 AMB-FUBINACA APICA APINACA APP-FUBINACA CB-13 CUMYL-PICA CUMYL-PINACA CUMYL-THPINACA DMHP EAM-2201 FAB-144 FDU-PB-22 FUB-144 FUB-APINACA FUB-JWH-018 FUB-PB-22 FUBIMINA JTE 7-31 JTE-907 Levonantradol MDMB-CHMICA MDMB-CHMINACA MDMB-FUBINACA MEPIRAPIM MAM-2201 MDA-19 MN-18 MN-25 NESS-0327 NESS-040C5 Nabilone Nabitan NM-2201 NNE1 Org 28611 Parahexyl PTI-1 PTI-2 PX-1 PX-2 PX-3 QUCHIC QUPIC RCS-4 RCS-8 SDB-005 SDB-006 STS-135 THC-O-acetate THC-O-phosphate THJ-018 THJ-2201 UR-144 WIN 55,212-2 XLR-11

D2 agonists

Apomorphine Aporphine Bromocriptine Cabergoline Lisuride Memantine Nuciferine Pergolide Phenethylamine Piribedil Pramipexole Ropinirole Rotigotine Salvinorin A Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, methamphetamine), and precursors (levodopa).

GABAA enhancers

CI-966 Eszopiclone Ibotenic acid Muscimol
Muscimol
(Amanita muscaria) Zaleplon Zolpidem Zopiclone

Inhalants (Mixed MOA)

Aliphatic hydrocarbons

Butane Gasoline Kerosene Propane

Aromatic hydrocarbons

Toluene

Ethers

Diethyl ether Enflurane

Haloalkanes

Chlorofluorocarbons Chloroform

κOR agonists

2-EMSB Alazocine Bremazocine Butorphan Butorphanol Cyclazocine Cyclorphan Cyprenorphine Diprenorphine Enadoline Herkinorin Heroin HZ-2 Ibogaine Ketazocine Levallorphan Levomethorphan Levorphanol LPK-26 Metazocine Morphine Nalbuphine Nalmefene Nalorphine Noribogaine Oxilorphan Pentazocine Phenazocine Proxorphan Racemethorphan Racemorphan Salvinorin A Spiradoline Tifluadom U-50488 U-69,593 Xorphanol

Others

Glaucine Isoaminile Noscapine Pukateine

v t e

Ancient anaesthesia

Plants / animals

Aconitum
Aconitum
(aconite) Atropa
Atropa
belladonna (belladonna) Cannabis

medical use

Castoreum Coca Conium
Conium
(hemlock) Datura innoxia
Datura innoxia
(thorn-apple) Datura metel
Datura metel
(devil's trumpet) Hyoscyamus niger
Hyoscyamus niger
(henbane) Lactucarium Mandragora officinarum
Mandragora officinarum
(mandrake) Opium Saussurea
Saussurea
(saw-wort) Willow

People

Abulcasis Avenzoar Avicenna Celsus Dioscorides Galen Hippocrates Rhazes Sabuncuoğlu Sushrutha Theophrastus Zhang

Compounds

Aconitine Atropine Cocaine Coniine Hyoscine Δ9-THC Hyoscyamine Morphine Salicylate

Acetylcholine receptor
Acetylcholine receptor
modulators

v t e

Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor
modulators

mAChRs

Agonists

77-LH-28-1 AC-42 AC-260,584 Aceclidine Acetylcholine AF30 AF150(S) AF267B Alvameline AQRA-741 Arecoline Bethanechol Bevonium Butyrylcholine Carbachol CDD-0034 CDD-0078 CDD-0097 CDD-0098 CDD-0102 Cevimeline Choline cis-Dioxolane Clozapine Desmethylclozapine
Desmethylclozapine
(norclozapine) Ethoxysebacylcholine Itameline LY-593,039 L-689,660 LY-2,033,298 McNA343 Methacholine Milameline Muscarine NGX-267 Ocvimeline Oxotremorine PD-151,832 Pilocarpine RS86 Sabcomeline SDZ 210-086 Sebacylcholine Suberyldicholine Talsaclidine Tazomeline Thiopilocarpine Vedaclidine VU-0029767 VU-0090157 VU-0152099 VU-0152100 VU-0238429 WAY-132,983 Xanomeline YM-796

Antagonists

3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate 4-DAMP Aclidinium bromide
Aclidinium bromide
(+formoterol) Abediterol AF-DX 250 AF-DX 384 Ambutonium bromide Anisodamine Anisodine Antihistamines (first-generation) (e.g., brompheniramine, buclizine, captodiame, chlorphenamine (chlorpheniramine), cinnarizine, clemastine, cyproheptadine, dimenhydrinate, dimetindene, diphenhydramine, doxylamine, meclizine, mepyramine (pyrilamine), mequitazine, perlapine, phenindamine, pheniramine, phenyltoloxamine, promethazine, propiomazine, triprolidine) AQ-RA 741 Atropine Atropine
Atropine
methonitrate Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., clozapine, fluperlapine, olanzapine (+fluoxetine), rilapine, quetiapine, tenilapine, zotepine) Benactyzine Benzatropine
Benzatropine
(benztropine) Benzilone Benzilylcholine mustard Benzydamine BIBN 99 Biperiden Bornaprine Camylofin CAR-226,086 CAR-301,060 CAR-302,196 CAR-302,282 CAR-302,368 CAR-302,537 CAR-302,668 Caramiphen Cimetropium bromide Clidinium bromide Cloperastine CS-27349 Cyclobenzaprine Cyclopentolate Darifenacin DAU-5884 Desfesoterodine Dexetimide DIBD Dicycloverine
Dicycloverine
(dicyclomine) Dihexyverine Difemerine Diphemanil metilsulfate Ditran EA-3167 EA-3443 EA-3580 EA-3834 Emepronium bromide Etanautine Etybenzatropine
Etybenzatropine
(ethybenztropine) Fenpiverinium Fentonium Fesoterodine Flavoxate Glycopyrronium bromide
Glycopyrronium bromide
(+beclometasone/formoterol, +indacaterol) Hexahydrodifenidol Hexahydrosiladifenidol Hexbutinol Hexocyclium Himbacine HL-031,120 Homatropine Imidafenacin Ipratropium bromide
Ipratropium bromide
(+salbutamol) Isopropamide J-104,129 Hyoscyamine Mamba toxin 3 Mamba toxin 7 Mazaticol Mebeverine Meladrazine Mepenzolate Methantheline Methoctramine Methylatropine Methylhomatropine Methylscopolamine Metixene Muscarinic toxin 7 N-Ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate N-Methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate Nefopam Octatropine methylbromide
Octatropine methylbromide
(anisotropine methylbromide) Orphenadrine Otenzepad (AF-DX 116) Otilonium bromide Oxapium iodide Oxitropium bromide Oxybutynin Oxyphencyclimine Oxyphenonium bromide PBID PD-102,807 PD-0298029 Penthienate Pethidine pFHHSiD Phenglutarimide Phenyltoloxamine Pipenzolate bromide Piperidolate Pirenzepine Piroheptine Pizotifen Poldine Pridinol Prifinium bromide Procyclidine Profenamine
Profenamine
(ethopropazine) Propantheline bromide Propiverine Quinidine Revefenacin Rociverine RU-47,213 SCH-57,790 SCH-72,788 SCH-217,443 Scopolamine
Scopolamine
(hyoscine) Scopolamine
Scopolamine
butylbromide (hyoscine butylbromide) Silahexacyclium Sofpironium bromide Solifenacin SSRIs (e.g., femoxetine, paroxetine) Telenzepine Terodiline Tetracyclic antidepressants (e.g., amoxapine, maprotiline, mianserin, mirtazapine) Tiemonium iodide Timepidium bromide Tiotropium bromide Tiquizium bromide Tofenacin Tolterodine Tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline (+perphenazine), amitriptylinoxide, butriptyline, cidoxepin, clomipramine, desipramine, desmethyldesipramine, dibenzepin, dosulepin (dothiepin), doxepin, imipramine, lofepramine, nitroxazepine, northiaden (desmethyldosulepin), nortriptyline, protriptyline, quinupramine, trimipramine) Tridihexethyl Trihexyphenidyl Trimebutine Tripitamine (tripitramine) Tropacine Tropatepine Tropicamide Trospium chloride Typical antipsychotics (e.g., chlorpromazine, chlorprothixene, cyamemazine (cyamepromazine), loxapine, mesoridazine, thioridazine) Umeclidinium bromide
Umeclidinium bromide
(+vilanterol) WIN-2299 Xanomeline Zamifenacin

Precursors (and prodrugs)

Acetyl-coA Adafenoxate Choline
Choline
(lecithin) Citicoline Cyprodenate Dimethylethanolamine Glycerophosphocholine Meclofenoxate
Meclofenoxate
(centrophenoxine) Phosphatidylcholine Phosphatidylethanolamine Phosphorylcholine Pirisudanol

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Acetylcholine
Acetylcholine
metabolism/transport modulators

v t e

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
modulators

nAChRs

Agonists (and PAMs)

5-HIAA A-84,543 A-366,833 A-582,941 A-867,744 ABT-202 ABT-418 ABT-560 ABT-894 Acetylcholine Altinicline Anabasine Anatoxin-a AR-R17779 Bephenium hydroxynaphthoate Butinoline Butyrylcholine Carbachol Choline Cotinine Cytisine Decamethonium Desformylflustrabromine Dianicline Dimethylphenylpiperazinium Epibatidine Epiboxidine Ethanol (alcohol) Ethoxysebacylcholine EVP-4473 EVP-6124 Galantamine GTS-21 Ispronicline Ivermectin JNJ-39393406 Levamisole Lobeline MEM-63,908 (RG-3487) Morantel Nicotine
Nicotine
(tobacco) NS-1738 PHA-543,613 PHA-709,829 PNU-120,596 PNU-282,987 Pozanicline Pyrantel Rivanicline RJR-2429 Sazetidine A SB-206553 Sebacylcholine SIB-1508Y SIB-1553A SSR-180,711 Suberyldicholine Suxamethonium
Suxamethonium
(succinylcholine) Suxethonium (succinyldicholine) TC-1698 TC-1734 TC-1827 TC-2216 TC-5214 TC-5619 TC-6683 Tebanicline Tribendimidine Tropisetron UB-165 Varenicline WAY-317,538 XY-4083

Antagonists (and NAMs)

18-MAC 18-MC α-Neurotoxins (e.g., α-bungarotoxin, α-cobratoxin, α-conotoxin, many others) ABT-126 Alcuronium Allopregnanolone Amantadine Anatruxonium AQW051 Atracurium Barbiturates
Barbiturates
(e.g., pentobarbital, sodium thiopental) BNC-210 Bungarotoxins (e.g., α-bungarotoxin, κ-bungarotoxin) Bupropion BW-A444 Candocuronium iodide
Candocuronium iodide
(chandonium iodide) Chlorisondamine Cisatracurium Coclaurine Coronaridine Curare Cyclopropane Dacuronium bromide Decamethonium Dehydronorketamine Desflurane Dextromethorphan Dextropropoxyphene Dextrorphan Diadonium DHβE Dihydrochandonium Dimethyltubocurarine
Dimethyltubocurarine
(metocurine) Dioscorine Dipyrandium Dizocilpine
Dizocilpine
(MK-801) Doxacurium Encenicline Enflurane Erythravine Esketamine Fazadinium Gallamine Gantacurium chloride Halothane Hexafluronium Hexamethonium
Hexamethonium
(benzohexonium) Hydroxybupropion Hydroxynorketamine Ibogaine Isoflurane Ketamine Kynurenic acid Laudanosine Laudexium
Laudexium
(laudolissin) Levacetylmethadol Levomethadone Malouetine ME-18-MC Mecamylamine Memantine Methadone Methorphan
Methorphan
(racemethorphan) Methyllycaconitine Metocurine Mivacurium Morphanol
Morphanol
(racemorphan) Neramexane Nitrous oxide Norketamine Pancuronium bromide Pempidine Pentamine Pentolinium Phencyclidine Pipecuronium bromide Progesterone Promegestone Radafaxine Rapacuronium bromide Reboxetine Rocuronium bromide Sevoflurane Stercuronium iodide Surugatoxin Thiocolchicoside Toxiferine Tramadol Trimetaphan camsilate
Trimetaphan camsilate
(trimethaphan camsylate) Tropeinium Tubocurarine Vanoxerine Vecuronium bromide Xenon

Precursors (and prodrugs)

Acetyl-coA Adafenoxate Choline
Choline
(lecithin) Citicoline Cyprodenate Dimethylethanolamine Glycerophosphocholine Meclofenoxate
Meclofenoxate
(centrophenoxine) Phosphatidylcholine Phosphatidylethanolamine Phosphorylcholine Pirisudanol

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Acetylcholine
Acetylcholine
metabolism/transport modulators

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q545550 APDB: 153882 EoL: 486422 EPPO: MNDOF GBIF: 5341748 GRIN: 23342 IPNI: 816733-1 ITIS: 505823 NCBI: 33117 Plant
Plant
List: kew-2506563 PLANTS: MAOF T

.