Mandalay (/ˌmændəˈleɪ/ or /ˈmændəleɪ/; Burmese:
မန္တလေး; MLCTS: manta.le: [màɴdəlé]) is the
second-largest city and the last royal capital of
Located 716 km (445 mi) north of
Yangon on the east bank of
the Irrawaddy River, the city has a population of 1,225,553 (2014
Mandalay is the economic centre of
Upper Burma and considered the
centre of Burmese culture. A continuing influx of Chinese immigrants,
mostly from Yunnan, in the past twenty years, has reshaped the city's
ethnic makeup and increased commerce with China. Despite
Naypyidaw's recent rise,
Mandalay remains Upper Burma's main
commercial, educational and health center.
2.1 Early history
5.1 Around the city
Buses and cars
10.1 Sport Climbing
13 Health care
14 Twin towns – sister cities
Mandalay in popular culture
17 See also
19 External links
The city gets its name from the nearby
Mandalay Hill. The name is
probably a derivative of a
Pali word, although the exact word of
origin remains unclear. The root word has been speculated to be
mandala, referring to circular plains or Mandara, a mountain from
When it was founded in 1857, the royal city was officially named
Yadanabon (ရတနာပုံ, [jədənàbòʊɴ]), a loan of the
Pali name Ratanapūra (ရတနပူရ) "City of Gems." It
was also called Lay Kyun Aung Myei
(လေးကျွန်းအောင်မြေ, [lé dʑʊ́ɴ
àʊɴ mjè], "Victorious Land over the Four Islands") and Mandalay
Palace (မြနန်းစံကျော်, [mja̰ náɴ sàɴ
tɕɔ̀], "Famed Royal Emerald Palace").
Mandalay Palace Grounds
Like most former (and present) capitals of Burma,
Mandalay was founded
on the wishes of the ruler of the day. On 13 February 1857, King
Mindon founded a new royal capital at the foot of
ostensibly to fulfill a prophecy on the founding of a metropolis of
Buddhism in that exact place on the occasion of the 2,400th jubilee of
King Mindon is the founder of
Mandalay royal capital
A bastion at
The new capital city site was 66 km2 (25.5 sq mi) in
area, surrounded by four rivers. The plan called for a 144-square
block grid patterned citadel, anchored by a 16 square block royal
palace compound at the center by
Mandalay Hill. The 1020-acre
(413-hectare) citadel was surrounded by four 2,032 m
(6,666 ft) long walls and a moat 64 m (210 ft) wide,
4.6 m (15 ft) deep. At intervals of 169 m (555 ft)
along the wall, were turrets with gold-tipped spires for watchmen.
The walls had three gates on each side, and five bridges to cross the
moat. In addition, the king also commissioned the Kuthodaw Pagoda,
the Pahtan-haw Shwe Thein upasampada hall, the Thudamma "Good Dharma"
zayats (IPA: [zəjaʔ]) or public houses for preaching Buddhism
and a library for the Pāli Canon.
In June 1857, the former royal palace of
Amarapura was dismantled and
moved by elephants to the new location at the foot of
although construction of the palace compound was officially completed
only two years later, on Monday, 23 May 1859.
For the next 26 years,
Mandalay was to be the last royal capital of
the Konbaung Dynasty, the last independent Burmese kingdom before its
final annexation by the British Empire.
Mandalay ceased to be the
capital on 28 November 1885 when the conquering British sent Thibaw
Min and his queen
Supayalat into exile, ending the Third Anglo-Burmese
The Thudamma zayats built during the reign of Mindon Min
Map of Mandalay, 1911
Mandalay would continue to be the chief city of Upper Burma
during the British colonial rule, the commercial and political
importance had irreversibly shifted to Yangon. The British view on the
Mandalay (and Burma) was mainly with commercial
intentions. While rail transport reached
Mandalay in 1889, less
than four years after the annexation, the first college in Mandalay,
Mandalay College, was not established until 40 years later, in
1925. The British looted the palace, with some of the treasures
still on display in the Victoria and Albert Museum, also renaming
the palace compound
Fort Dufferin and used it to billet troops.
Old street scene in
Mandalay during the British colonial
Throughout the colonial years,
Mandalay was the centre of Burmese
culture and Buddhist learning, and as the last royal capital, was
regarded by the Burmese as a primary symbol of sovereignty and
identity. Between the two World Wars, the city was Upper Burma's focal
point in a series of nationwide protests against the British rule. The
British rule brought in many immigrants from India to the city. In
1904–05, a plague caused about one-third of the population to flee
During World War II,
Mandalay suffered the most devastating air raids
of the war. On April 3, 1942, during the Japanese conquest of Burma,
Imperial Japanese Army Air Service
Imperial Japanese Army Air Service carried out an extensive
assault on the city. As the city was defenseless and its firefighting
were weak that had been lost in the earlier bombing and that they met
no opposition from the British
RAF as all its aircraft had by now been
withdrawn to India, three-fifths of the houses were destroyed and
2,000 civilians were killed. Many again fled the city when
the city was under Japanese occupation from May 1942 to March 1945.
The palace citadel, turned into a supply depot by the Japanese, was
burnt to the ground by Allied bombing; only the royal mint and the
watch tower survived. (A faithful replica of the palace was rebuilt in
After the country gained independence from Britain in 1948, Mandalay
continued to be the main cultural, educational and economic hub of
Upper Burma. Until the early 1990s, most students from Upper Burma
Mandalay for university education. Until 1991, Mandalay
University of Medicine, Mandalay
University of Medicine, Mandalay and the Defence
Services Academy were the only three universities in Upper Burma. Only
a few other cities had "Degree Colleges" affiliated with Mandalay
University that offered a limited number of subjects. Today, the city
attracts a fraction of students as the military government requires
students to attend their local universities in order to reduce
concentration of students in one place.
In November 1959,
Mandalay celebrated its centennial with a festival
at the foot of
Special commemorative stamps were
During Ne Win's isolationist rule (1962–1988), the city's
infrastructure deteriorated. By the early 1980s, the second largest
Burma resembled a town with low-rise buildings and dusty
streets filled mostly with bicycles. In the 1980s, the city was hit by
two major fires. In May 1981, a fire razed more than 6,000 houses and
public buildings, leaving more than 36,000 homeless. On 24 March 1984,
another fire destroyed 2,700 buildings and made 23,000 people
Fires continue to plague the city. A major fire destroyed Mandalay's
second largest market, Yadanabon Market, in February 2008, and another
major fire in February 2009 destroyed 320 homes and left over
1600 people homeless.
The 1980s fires augured a significant change in the city's physical
character and ethnic makeup. Huge swaths of land left vacant by the
fires were later purchased, mostly by the ethnic Han-Chinese, many of
whom were recent immigrants from Yunnan. The Chinese influx
accelerated after the current
State Peace and Development Council
State Peace and Development Council came
to power in 1988. With the Burmese government turning a blind eye,
many Chinese immigrants from
Yunnan (and also from Sichuan) poured
Upper Burma in the 1990s and many openly ended up in Mandalay.
In the 1990s alone, about 250,000 to 300,000
Yunnanese are estimated
to have migrated to Mandalay. Today, ethnic Chinese people are
believed to make up about 40%–50% of the city's population that is
nearly the same as the natives, and are a major factor in the
city's doubling of population from about 500,000 in 1980 to one
million in 2008. Chinese festivals are now firmly embedded in the
city's cultural calendar. There is a complaint that
becoming little more than a satellite of
China and that the British
colonial romance of old
Mandalay is long gone.
The Chinese are largely responsible for the economic revitalization of
the city centre, now rebuilt with apartment blocks, hotels and
shopping centres, and returning the city to its role as the trading
hub connecting Lower Burma, Upper Burma,
China and India. The Chinese
dominance in the city center has pushed out the rest to the suburbs.
The urban sprawl now encompasses Amarapura, the very city King Mindon
left some 150 years ago.
Mandalay celebrated its 150th birthday
on 15 May 2009, at precisely 4:31:36 am.
Despite the rise of Naypyidaw, the country's capital since 2006,
Mandalay remains Upper Burma's main commercial, educational and health
Mandalay metropolitan area seen from satellite
Mandalay is located in the central dry zone of
Burma by the Irrawaddy
river at 21.98° North, 96.08° East, 80 meters (260 feet) above
sea level. Its standard time zone is UTC/GMT +6:30 hours.
Mandalay lies along the
Sagaing Fault, a tectonic plate boundary
between the India and Sunda plates. (The biggest earthquake in its
history, with a magnitude of 7, occurred in 1956. The devastation
was greatest in nearby Sagaing, and it came to be known as the Great
Bodies of water near
Mandalay Kantawgyi, a small lake and
Irawaddy River to the west of the city.
Mandalay features a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen Aw),
although the rain shadow of the
Arakan Mountains is so powerful that
the city almost qualifies as having a hot semi-arid climate (BSh).
Mandalay features noticeably warmer and cooler periods of the year.
Average temperatures in January, the mildest month, hovers around
21 °C or 69.8 °F while the hottest month, April, averages
31 °C or 87.8 °F.
Mandalay is very hot in the months of
April and May, with average high temperatures easily exceeding
35 °C or 95 °F. It is not uncommon to see high
temperatures surpass 40 °C or 104 °F during these two
months in the city.
Mandalay also features wet and dry seasons of
nearly equal length, with the wet season running from May through
October and the dry season covering the remaining six months. The
highest reliably recorded temperature in
Mandalay is 48.0 °C
(118.4 °F) on April 24, 1975 while the lowest is 7.6 °C
(45.7 °F) on December 26, 1999.
Climate data for
Mandalay (1961–1990, extremes 1889–present)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average rainfall mm (inches)
Average rainy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: World Meteoroglogical Organization, Meteo Climat
(record highs and lows)
Source #2: Danish Meteorological Institute (sun and relative humidity,
Mandalay Hill, at 790 ft (240 m), is home to many of
Mandalay's religious sites.
Kuthodaw Pagoda – Some of the 729 stupas known as the world's
Atumashi Monastery has been rebuilt as a faithful replica of the
original destroyed by a fire.
Yunnanese Buddhist Temple and Association in
Mandalay is a major
Chinese temple in the city.
Around the city
Atumashi Monastery: The "Atumashi kyaung", which literally means
"inimitable vihara", is also one of the well known sights. The
original structure was destroyed by a fire in 1890 though the masonry
plinth survived. It was indeed an inimitable one in its heyday. The
reconstruction project was started by the government on 2 May 1995 and
completed in June 1996.
Buddha's Replica Tooth Relic Pagoda: One of the Buddha's Sacred
Replica Tooth Relics was enshrined in the
Maha Dhammayanthi Hill in
Amarapura Township. The pagoda was built
with cash donations contributed by the peoples of
Burma and Buddhist
donors from around the world under the supervision of the State Peace
and Development Council. The authorities and donors hoisted Buddha's
Replica Tooth Relic
Pagoda Mandalay's Shwe Htidaw (sacred golden
umbrella), Hngetmyatnadaw (sacred bird perch vane) and Seinhpudaw
(sacred diamond bud) on 13 December 1996.
Kuthodaw Pagoda (The World's Biggest Book): Built by
King Mindon in
1857, this pagoda modeled on the
Shwezigon Pagoda at Nyaung-U, is
surrounded by 729 upright stone slabs on which are inscribed the
entire Tipiṭaka as edited and approved by the Fifth Buddhist
council. It is popularly known as "World's largest book" for its stone
Kyauktawgyi Pagoda: Near the southern approach to
Mandalay Hill stands
the Kyauktawgyi Buddha image built by
King Mindon in 1853–78. The
Image was carved out of a huge single block of marble. Statues of 80
arahants are assembled around the Image, twenty on each side. The
carving was completed in 1865.
Mahamuni Buddha Temple: The image of Gautama Buddha at Mahamuni Buddha
Temple is said to have been cast in the life-time of the Gautama
Buddha and that the Buddha embraced it seven times, thereby bringing
it to life. Consequently, devout Buddhists hold it to be alive and
refer to it as the Mahamuni Sacred Living Image. Revered as the
holiest pagoda in Mandalay, It was built by King
Bodawpaya in 1784.
The image in a sitting posture is 12 feet and 7 inches
(3.8 m) high. As the image was brought from Rakhine State, it was
also called the Great Rakhine Buddha. The early morning ritual of
washing the Face of Buddha Image draws a large crowd of devotees
everyday. The Great Image is also considered as the greatest in Burma
next to Shwedagon Pagoda. A visit to
Mandalay is incomplete without a
visit to Mahamuni Pagoda.
Mandalay Hill: The hill has for long been a holy mount. Legend has it
that the Buddha, on his visit, had prophesied that a great city would
be founded at its foot.
Mandalay Hill, 230 metres in elevation,
commands a magnificent view of the city and surrounding countryside.
The construction of a motor road to reach the hill-top has already
Mandalay Palace: The whole magnificent palace complex was destroyed by
a fire during World War II. However, the finely built palace walls,
the city gates with their crowning wooden pavilions and the
surrounding moat still represent an impressive scene of the Mandalay
Palace, "Mya-nan-san-kyaw Shwenandaw", which has been rebuilt using
forced labor. A model of the
Mandalay Palace, Nanmyint-saung and
Mandalay Cultural Museum are located inside the Palace grounds.
Shwenandaw Monastery: Famous for its intricate wood carvings, this
monastery is a fragile reminder of the old
Mandalay Palace. Actually,
it was a part of the old palace later moved to its current site, close
to Atumashi Monastery, by King Thibaw in 1880.
The Chinese Temple of Mandalay: The Chinese Temple, well known for its
old artistic architectures and cultural artifacts, reflects Mandalay's
Yadanabon Zoological Gardens: A small zoo between the
Mandalay Hill. It has over 300 species and is notably the only zoo
to have Burmese roofed turtles.
Mandalay City Development Committee
Mandalay City Development Committee (MCDC) is the city government.
Mandalay District consists of seven townships.
Chanayethazan (city centre)
Mandalay's strategic location in Central
Burma makes it an important
hub for transport of people and goods. The city is connected to other
parts of the country and to
China and India by multiple modes of
Mandalay International Airport
Mandalay International Airport
Mandalay International Airport (MDL) was one of the largest and most
modern airports in
Myanmar until the modernization of Yangon
International Airport in 2008. Built at a cost of US$150 million
in 2000, it is highly underused; it serves mostly domestic flights
with the exception of those to
Kunming and to/from
Bangkok and Chiang
Mai, with daily flights on Air Asia and
Bangkok Airways. The
airport has come to represent the military regime's propensity for bad
planning and penchant for white elephant projects.
opening stance on tourism means the airport is now receiving a growing
number of visitors from
Bangkok and Chiang Mai.
The airport is far from the city, 45 km (28 mi) on a modern
highway. It costs US$8 to central Mandalay, US$6 from central
Mandalay, and US$30 to/from Pyin U Lwin. Collective minibuses to
Mandalay are US$5 each (stops where required). Before
the construction of this airport, the
Mandalay Chanmyathazi Airport
was the main airport of the City.The airport is serving some flights
Ayeyarwady River remains an important arterial route for
transporting goods such as farm produce including rice, beans and
pulses, cooking oil, pottery, bamboo and teak.
Central Railway Station on 78th & 30th
Mandalay Central Railway Station
Mandalay Central Railway Station is the terminus of
main rail line from
Yangon and the starting point of branch lines to
Pyin U Lwin
Pyin U Lwin (Maymyo), Lashio, Monywa, Pakokku, Kalay, Gangaw, and to
the north, Shwebo, Kawlin, Naba, Kanbalu, Mohnyin, Hopin,
Mandalay does not have an intra-city metro rail system. The former
Trams in Mandalay
Trams in Mandalay has been decommissioned.
Mandalay literally is at the center of Burma's road network. The
highway network includes roads towards:
Upper Burma and China—Mandalay–Tagaung–Bhamo–
Bhamo Road, Mandalay–Lashio–Muse Road
Asian Highway route 14 or AH14)
Burma and India—Mandalay–Sagaing–Monywa–Kalewa–Tamu
Yangon-Mandalay Expressway and AH1
Most stretches of these highways are one-lane roads in poor condition.
A busy street junction
Buses and cars
As the government allows only a few thousands of vehicles to be
imported each year, motor transportation in
Burma is highly expensive
for most of its citizens. Most people rely on bicycles,
motorcycles and/or private and public buses to get around. The most
popular car in
Mandalay is the 1982/83
Nissan Sunny pickup truck.
Because of its utility as a private bus or taxi, the
two-and-a-half-decade old model still had strong demand and heady
prices to match—from K10 million to K14 million (US$8,000
to US$11,000) in mid-2008. To get around severe import limits,
Mandalay have turned to illegally imported and hence
unregistered (called "without" in Burmese English) motorcycles and
cars despite the government's periodic confiscation sprees. (The
number of domestically made cars remains negligible. Mandalay's small
car makers produced i.e. assembled only about 3000 cars in 2007.)
In March 2008,
Mandalay had nearly 81,000 registered motor
vehicles plus an unknown number of unregistered vehicles. Although
the number of cars in a city of one million is low, traffic in
Mandalay is highly chaotic as thousands of bicycles and (unregistered)
motorbikes freely roam around all the lanes of the streets. Unlike in
Yangon where motorbikes, cycle rickshaws and bicycles are prohibited
from entering downtown and busy areas, in
Mandalay it is anything
goes. That many traffic lights in
Mandalay do not work only adds to
A 2007 estimate by the UN puts Mandalay's population at nearly 1
million. The city's population is projected to reach nearly
1.5 million by 2025. While
Mandalay has traditionally been
the bastion of
Bamar (Burman) culture and populace, the massive influx
of ethnic Han-Chinese in the last 20 years has effectively
influenced the ethnic-
Bamar majority there. Although many
native ethnic Han-Chinese could not get Burmese citizenship, the
Yunnanese can easily obtain Burmese citizenship cards on
the black market.
Ludu Daw Amar
Ludu Daw Amar of Mandalay, the native journalist
had said it felt like "an undeclared colony of Yunnan". Today, the
percentage of ethnic Han-Chinese, estimated at 40% to 50% of the city
Yunnanese forming an estimated 30% of Mandalay's
population), is believed to be nearly same as that of the
ethnic-Bamar. A sizable community of Indian immigrants also
resides in Mandalay.
Burmese is the principal language of the city while Chinese dialects
are increasingly heard in the city's commerce centers such as
Chinatown and Zegyo Market. English is a third language, only known by
some urban people.
Buddha relics from
Kanishka stupa in Peshawar, Pakistan, now in
Mandalay. Teresa Merrigan, 2005
Mandalay is Burma's cultural and religious center of Buddhism, having
numerous monasteries and more than 700 pagodas. At the foot of
Mandalay Hill sits the world's official "Buddhist Bible", also known
as the world's largest book, in Kuthodaw Pagoda. The styles of
Mandalay Buddha Images and Buddha Statues were many since King Mandon,
who was a devout Buddhist, and had filled
Mandalay with them and
through the years
Mandalay Buddhist art became established as the pure
art of Myanmar. There are 729 slabs of stone that together are
inscribed with the entire Pāli canon, each housed in its own white
stupa. The buildings inside the old
Mandalay city walls, surrounded by
a moat, which was repaired in recent times using prison labor,
Mandalay Palace, mostly destroyed during World War II.
İt is now replaced by a replica,
Mandalay Prison and a military
garrison, the headquarters of the Central Military Command.
Much of the media in
Mandalay – like elsewhere in
Burma – comes
from Yangon. The city's non-satellite
TV programming comes from
Yangon-based state-run TV
Myanmar and military-run Myawaddy, both of
Burmese language news and entertainment. Since December
2006, MRTV-4, formerly a paid channel, has also been available in
Mandalay has two radio stations. Naypyidaw-based Myanmar
Radio National Service is the national radio service and broadcasts
mostly in Burmese (and in English during specific times.)
Mandalay City FM (87.9FM) is the
area's pop culture oriented station.
The military government, which controls all daily newspapers in Burma,
Mandalay to publish and distribute its three national newspapers,
Myanmar Alin and
Kyemon and the English language
New Light of Myanmar. The state-run Yadanabon is published in
Mandalay and serves the
Upper Burma market. The
newspaper is published by
Mandalay City Development Committee
Mandalay City Development Committee since
1997 November 30.
Bahtoo Stadium, billboard advertising
Mandalay FM Radio
Mandalay's sporting facilities are quite poor by international
standards but are still the best in Upper Burma. The 17,000 seat
Bahtoo Stadium is largest in Upper
Myanmar before the construction of
Mandalarthiri Stadium and andsts mainly local and regional association
football and track-and-field tournaments. Since May 2009, professional
football has arrived in Mandalay, with
Yadanabon FC representing the
city in the newly formed
Myanmar National League, the country's first
professional football league. In 2013, a new stadium,
Mandalarthiri Stadium was built to host the Women Football matches of
27th SEA Games and became the largest stadium in
Mandalay and Upper
Inside the Stadium
At Waterfall Hill, the first bolted rock climbing site in
been developed with the help of
Mandalay climbers led by Steve, Tylor
and Technical Climbing Club of
Myanmar since 2010.   
Chinese blankets for the
Mandalay is the major trading and communications center for northern
and central Burma. Much of Burmese external trade to
China and India
goes through Mandalay.
Among the leading traditional industries are silk weaving, tapestry,
jade cutting and polishing, stone and wood carving, making marble and
bronze Buddha images, temple ornaments and paraphernalia, the working
of gold leaves and of silver, the manufacture of matches, brewing and
Chinese immigrants have increasingly dominated Mandalay's economy
since the imposition of sanctions by the United States and the
European Union in the 1990s.
See also: Category:Universities and colleges in Mandalay
Mandalay has the best educational facilities and institutions, after
Burma where state spending on education is among the lowest
in the world. Students in poor districts routinely drop out in
middle school as schools have to rely on forced "donations" and
various fees from parents for nearly everything – school maintenance
to teachers' salaries. Many wealthy
Mandalay parents enroll their
children in the city's English language private schools for primary
and secondary education and Chinese and Singaporean universities for
university education. Some wealthy Chinese families also send their
children to "cram schools" where students study for entrance exams
into Chinese universities from 6am to 8am, then to government high
schools from 9am to 3pm, and finally preparation classes for Singapore
GCE O levels from 4pm to 9pm.
For the rest of the students who cannot afford to go abroad for
Mandalay offers Upper Burma's best institutions of higher
education. The city's University of Medicine, Mandalay, University of
Dental Medicine, Mandalay,
Mandalay Technological University and
University of Computer Studies, Mandalay are among the nation's most
selective universities. The vast majority of university students in
Mandalay attend liberal arts universities:
Mandalay University, the
oldest university in Upper Burma, and Yadanabon University.
See also: List of hospitals in Mandalay
The general state of health care in
Burma is poor. The military
government spends anywhere from 0.5% to 3% of the country's GDP on
health care, consistently ranking among the lowest in the
world. In 2005, the public health care system of Mandalay
Region with over 7.6 million people consisted of slightly over
1000 doctors and about 2000 nurses working in
44 hospitals and 44 health clinics. Over 30 of the so-called
hospitals had less than 100 beds. Although health care is
nominally free, in reality, patients have to pay for medicine and
treatment, even in public clinics and hospitals. Public hospitals lack
many of the basic facilities and equipment.
Mandalay remains the main health care center for Upper
Burma as almost all of large public hospitals and private
hospitals are in Mandalay. The city has ten public hospitals and one
hospital specializing in traditional Burmese medicine. For a semblance
of adequate health care, the well-to-do from
Upper Burma go to private
hospitals and clinics in Mandalay. For more advanced treatments, they
have to go to
Yangon or abroad. The wealthy Burmese routinely go
Bangkok or Singapore) for treatment.
Twin towns – sister cities
Mandalay is twinned with:
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Ulsan, South Korea
Mandalay in popular culture
Rudyard Kipling wrote a poem called "Mandalay" (1890), which is the
origin of the phrase "on the road to Mandalay". In 1907, the poem
was set to music by
Oley Speaks as "On the Road to Mandalay". Speaks'
version was widely recorded. Among the best known renditions is the
Frank Sinatra on Come Fly With Me.
The large hotel/casino/convention center
Mandalay Bay in
Las Vegas is
named for the city, despite the fact that the city is 500 kilometers
from the nearest bay, perhaps in reference to the line in Kipling's
poem, "An' the dawn comes up like thunder outer
China 'crost the Bay!
George Orwell was stationed at
Mandalay for a time while working for
Indian Imperial Police in Burma, and his first novel, Burmese Days
(1934), was based on his experiences in Burma. He also wrote a number
of short non-fiction essays and short stories about Burma, such as "A
Hanging" (1931) and "Shooting an Elephant" (1936).
John Masters wrote
a book about his wartime experiences in
Burma called The Road Past
Maha aung mye bon zhan monastery in Inwa
A view from
Another view from
Mandalay Palace Watch Tower
The "Hman Nan" Building inside
Mahamuni Buddha, A Rakhine masterpiece
Shwe Kyaung, a famous monastery
The Atumashi Monastery
View from Sutaunppyei
Pagoda in the
Now defunct old
Myanmar Thingyan Festival in front of the City Hall
The front of the Palace
Mandalay early Thingyan Festival
Sacred Heart Cathedral, Mandalay
^ "Water Purification Plant No. 8 in
Aungmyethazan Township 60%
Complete". Bi-Weekly Eleven (in Burmese). Eleven Media Group. 28 April
^ Census Report. The 2014
Myanmar Population and Housing Census. 2.
Naypyitaw: Ministry of Immigration and Population. May 2015.
p. 57. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
Myanmar Area Codes".
^ a b China's Ambitions in
Myanmar (July 2000). "China's Ambitions in
Myanmar". IISS Strategic Comments.
^ a b c d Stephen Mansfield (13 May 1999). "Myanmar's Chinese
connection". Japan Times.
^ a b c Zon Pann Pwint, Minh Zaw and Khin Su Wai (18–24 May 2009).
Mandalay marks 150th birthday". The
^ Issac Taylor (1898). Names and Their Histories: A Handbook of
Historical Geography and Topographical Nomenclature (2nd ed.).
Rivingtons. p. 186.
^ ဦးဟုတ်စိန်. "Entry for ratana".
ပါဠိမြန်မာ အဘိဓာန် (Pāḷi-Myanmar
Dictionary) (in Burmese).
Pali Canon E-Dictionary Version 1.94.
Retrieved 15 February 2015.
^ ဦးဟုတ်စိန်. "Entry for pūra".
ပါဠိမြန်မာ အဘိဓာန် (Pāḷi-Myanmar
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mandalay.
Mandalay travel guide from Wikivoyage
See also nearby Pyin Oo Lwin, the historic hill station above Mandalay
Mandalay in 1885–1888 – the letters of James Alfred Colbeck"
(PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 January
2007. (107 KiB) SOAS
Mandalay Gallery with antique, colonial views of Mandalay
Mandalay, the Burmese Heartland by Dr. Constance Wilson, Northern
Asian Historical Architecture –
Mandalay by Prof. Robert D. Fiala,
Concordia University, Nebraska
Mandalay Centenary Song by Than Myat Soe MRTV3
Capital of Burma
23 May 1859 – 29 November 1885
Mandalay Township of the
Maha Aungmye Township
Maha Aungmye Township
Main cities and towns
Administrative divisions of Myanmar