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A mandala (Sanskrit: मण्डल, maṇḍala; literally "circle") is a spiritual and ritual symbol in Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism, representing the universe.[1] In common use, "mandala" has become a generic term for any diagram, chart or geometric pattern that represents the cosmos metaphysically or symbolically; a microcosm of the universe. The basic form of most mandalas is a square with four gates containing a circle with a center point. Each gate is in the general shape of a T.[2][3] Mandalas often exhibit radial balance.[4] The term appears in the Rigveda
Rigveda
as the name of the sections of the work, and Vedic rituals
Vedic rituals
use Mandalas such as Navagraha
Navagraha
mandala to this day. Mandala
Mandala
is also used in Buddhism. In various spiritual traditions, mandalas may be employed for focusing attention of practitioners and adepts, as a spiritual guidance tool, for establishing a sacred space and as an aid to meditation and trance induction.

Contents

1 Hinduism

1.1 Religious meaning 1.2 Political meaning

2 Buddhism

2.1 Early and Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism 2.2 Vajrayana

2.2.1 Visualisation of Vajrayana
Vajrayana
teachings

2.2.1.1 Mount Meru 2.2.1.2 Wisdom and impermanence 2.2.1.3 Five Buddhas

2.2.2 Practice 2.2.3 Offerings

2.3 Shingon
Shingon
Buddhism 2.4 Nichiren
Nichiren
Buddhism 2.5 Pure Land
Pure Land
Buddhism

3 Mesoamerican
Mesoamerican
civilizations

3.1 Mayan Tzolk'in 3.2 Aztec Sun Stone

4 Christianity 5 Western psychological interpretations 6 In archaeology 7 In contemporary art 8 In science 9 Gallery 10 See also 11 References 12 Sources 13 Further reading 14 External links

Hinduism[edit]

Mandala
Mandala
of Vishnu

Religious meaning[edit] A yantra is a two- or three-dimensional geometric composition used in sadhanas, puja or meditative rituals. It is considered to represent the abode of the deity. Each yantra is unique and calls the deity into the presence of the practitioner through the elaborate symbolic geometric designs. According to one scholar, "Yantras function as revelatory symbols of cosmic truths and as instructional charts of the spiritual aspect of human experience"[5] Many situate yantras as central focus points for Hindu tantric practice. Yantras are not representations, but are lived, experiential, nondual realities. As Khanna describes:

Despite its cosmic meanings a yantra is a reality lived. Because of the relationship that exists in the Tantras
Tantras
between the outer world (the macrocosm) and man's inner world (the microcosm), every symbol in a yantra is ambivalently resonant in inner–outer synthesis, and is associated with the subtle body and aspects of human consciousness.[6]

Political meaning[edit] Main article: Mandala
Mandala
(political model) The Rajamandala (or Raja-mandala; circle of states) was formulated by the Indian author Kautilya
Kautilya
in his work on politics, the Arthashastra (written between 4th century BCE and 2nd century BCE). It describes circles of friendly and enemy states surrounding the king's state.[7] In historical, social and political sense, the term "mandala" is also employed to denote traditional Southeast Asian political formations (such as federation of kingdoms or vassalized states). It was adopted by 20th century Western historians from ancient Indian political discourse as a means of avoiding the term 'state' in the conventional sense. Not only did Southeast Asian polities not conform to Chinese and European views of a territorially defined state with fixed borders and a bureaucratic apparatus, but they diverged considerably in the opposite direction: the polity was defined by its centre rather than its boundaries, and it could be composed of numerous other tributary polities without undergoing administrative integration.[8] Empires such as Bagan, Ayutthaya, Champa, Khmer, Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and Majapahit
Majapahit
are known as "mandala" in this sense. Buddhism[edit]

Painted 17th century Tibetan 'Five Deity Mandala', in the centre is Rakta Yamari
Yamari
(the Red Enemy of Death) embracing his consort Vajra Vetali, in the corners are the Red, Green White and Yellow Yamaris, Rubin Museum of Art

Sandpainting
Sandpainting
showing Buddha mandala, which is made as part of the death rituals among Buddhist
Buddhist
Newars of Nepal

Early and Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism[edit] The mandala can be found in the form of the stupa[9] and in the Atanatiya Sutta[10] in the Digha Nikaya, part of the Pali
Pali
Canon. This text is frequently chanted. Mandalas are traditionally found in large amounts in Buddhist
Buddhist
Monasteries all over the world. One can also buy Mandalas and Thankas/Pauva in places like Thamel. Vajrayana[edit] Main article: Vajrayana In Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhism, mandalas have been developed also into sandpainting. They are also a key part of Anuttarayoga Tantra meditation practices. Visualisation of Vajrayana
Vajrayana
teachings[edit] The mandala can be shown to represent in visual form the core essence of the Vajrayana
Vajrayana
teachings. The mind is "a microcosm representing various divine powers at work in the universe."[11] The mandala represents the nature of the Pure Land, Enlightened mind. While on the one hand, the mandala is regarded as a place separated and protected from the ever-changing and impure outer world of samsara,[12] and is thus seen as a "Buddhafield"[13] or a place of Nirvana
Nirvana
and peace, the view of Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
sees the greatest protection from samsara being the power to see samsaric confusion as the "shadow" of purity (which then points towards it). An example of this type of mandala is Vajrabhairava Mandala
Mandala
a silk tapestry woven with gilded paper depicting lavish elements like crowns and jewelry, which gives a three-dimensional effect to the piece.[14][15] Mount Meru[edit] A mandala can also represent the entire universe, which is traditionally depicted with Mount Meru
Mount Meru
as the axis mundi in the center, surrounded by the continents.[16] One example is the Cosmological Mandala
Mandala
with Mount Meru, a silk tapestry from the Yuan dynasty that serves as a diagram of the Tibetan cosmology, which was given to China from Nepal
Nepal
and Tibet.[17][18] Wisdom and impermanence[edit] In the mandala, the outer circle of fire usually symbolises wisdom. The ring of eight charnel grounds[19] represents the Buddhist exhortation to be always mindful of death, and the impermanence with which samsara is suffused: "such locations were utilized in order to confront and to realize the transient nature of life".[20] Described elsewhere: "within a flaming rainbow nimbus and encircled by a black ring of dorjes, the major outer ring depicts the eight great charnel grounds, to emphasize the dangerous nature of human life".[21] Inside these rings lie the walls of the mandala palace itself, specifically a place populated by deities and Buddhas. Five Buddhas[edit] One well-known type of mandala is the mandala of the "Five Buddhas", archetypal Buddha forms embodying various aspects of enlightenment. Such Buddhas are depicted depending on the school of Buddhism, and even the specific purpose of the mandala. A common mandala of this type is that of the Five Wisdom Buddhas
Five Wisdom Buddhas
(a.k.a. Five Jinas), the Buddhas Vairocana, Aksobhya, Ratnasambhava, Amitabha
Amitabha
and Amoghasiddhi. When paired with another mandala depicting the Five Wisdom Kings, this forms the Mandala
Mandala
of the Two Realms. Practice[edit]

Tantric mandala of Vajrayogini

Mandalas are commonly used by tantric Buddhists as an aid to meditation. The mandala is "a support for the meditating person",[22] something to be repeatedly contemplated to the point of saturation, such that the image of the mandala becomes fully internalised in even the minutest detail and can then be summoned and contemplated at will as a clear and vivid visualized image. With every mandala comes what Tucci calls "its associated liturgy ... contained in texts known as tantras",[23] instructing practitioners on how the mandala should be drawn, built and visualised, and indicating the mantras to be recited during its ritual use. By visualizing "pure lands", one learns to understand experience itself as pure, and as the abode of enlightenment. The protection that we need, in this view, is from our own minds, as much as from external sources of confusion. In many tantric mandalas, this aspect of separation and protection from the outer samsaric world is depicted by "the four outer circles: the purifying fire of wisdom, the vajra circle, the circle with the eight tombs, the lotus circle".[22] The ring of vajras forms a connected fence-like arrangement running around the perimeter of the outer mandala circle.[24] As a meditation on impermanence (a central teaching of Buddhism), after days or weeks of creating the intricate pattern of a sand mandala, the sand is brushed together into a pile and spilled into a body of running water to spread the blessings of the mandala. Kværne[25] in his extended discussion of sahaja, discusses the relationship of sadhana interiority and exteriority in relation to mandala thus:

...external ritual and internal sadhana form an indistinguishable whole, and this unity finds its most pregnant expression in the form of the mandala, the sacred enclosure consisting of concentric squares and circles drawn on the ground and representing that adamant plane of being on which the aspirant to Buddha hood wishes to establish himself. The unfolding of the tantric ritual depends on the mandala; and where a material mandala is not employed, the adept proceeds to construct one mentally in the course of his meditation."[26]

Offerings[edit]

Chenrezig
Chenrezig
sand mandala created at the House of Commons of the United Kingdom on the occasion of the Dalai Lama's visit in May 2008

A "mandala offering"[27] in Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
is a symbolic offering of the entire universe. Every intricate detail of these mandalas is fixed in the tradition and has specific symbolic meanings, often on more than one level. Whereas the above mandala represents the pure surroundings of a Buddha, this mandala represents the universe. This type of mandala is used for the mandala-offerings, during which one symbolically offers the universe to the Buddhas or to one's teacher. Within Vajrayana practice, 100,000 of these mandala offerings (to create merit) can be part of the preliminary practices before a student even begins actual tantric practices.[28] This mandala is generally structured according to the model of the universe as taught in a Buddhist
Buddhist
classic text the Abhidharma-kośa, with Mount Meru
Mount Meru
at the centre, surrounded by the continents, oceans and mountains, etc. Shingon
Shingon
Buddhism[edit] One Japanese branch of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism— Shingon
Shingon
Buddhism—makes frequent use of mandalas in its rituals as well, though the actual mandalas differ. When Shingon's founder, Kukai, returned from his training in China, he brought back two mandalas that became central to Shingon
Shingon
ritual: the Mandala
Mandala
of the Womb Realm
Womb Realm
and the Mandala
Mandala
of the Diamond Realm. These two mandalas are engaged in the abhiseka initiation rituals for new Shingon
Shingon
students, more commonly known as the Kechien Kanjō (結縁灌頂). A common feature of this ritual is to blindfold the new initiate and to have them throw a flower upon either mandala. Where the flower lands assists in the determination of which tutelary deity the initiate should follow. Sand mandalas, as found in Tibetan Buddhism, are not practiced in Shingon
Shingon
Buddhism. Nichiren
Nichiren
Buddhism[edit] The Mandala
Mandala
in Nichiren
Nichiren
Buddhism
Buddhism
is called a moji-mandala (文字曼陀羅) and is a paper hanging scroll or wooden tablet whose inscription consists of Chinese characters and medieval-Sanskrit script representing elements of the Buddha's enlightenment, protective Buddhist
Buddhist
deities, and certain Buddhist
Buddhist
concepts. Called the Gohonzon, it was originally inscribed by Nichiren, the founder of this branch of Japanese Buddhism, during the late 13th Century. The Gohonzon
Gohonzon
is the primary object of veneration in some Nichiren
Nichiren
schools and the only one in others, which consider it to be the supreme object of worship as the embodiment of the supreme Dharma
Dharma
and Nichiren's inner enlightenment. The seven characters Namu Myōhō Renge Kyō, considered to be the name of the supreme Dharma, as well as the invocation that believers chant, are written down the center of all Nichiren-sect Gohonzons, whose appearance may otherwise vary depending on the particular school and other factors. Pure Land
Pure Land
Buddhism[edit] Mandalas have sometimes been used in Pure Land
Pure Land
Buddhism
Buddhism
to graphically represent Pure Lands, based on descriptions found in the Larger Sutra and the Contemplation Sutra. The most famous mandala in Japan is the Taima Mandala, dated to approximately 763 CE. The Taima Mandala
Taima Mandala
is based upon the Contemplation Sutra, but other similar mandalas have been made subsequently. Unlike mandalas used in Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhism, it is not used as an object of meditation or for esoteric ritual. Instead, it provides a visual representation of the Pure Land
Pure Land
texts, and is used as a teaching aid.[citation needed] Also in Jodo Shinshu
Jodo Shinshu
Buddhism, Shinran
Shinran
and his descendant, Rennyo, sought a way to create easily accessible objects of reverence for the lower-classes of Japanese society. Shinran
Shinran
designed a mandala using a hanging scroll, and the words of the nembutsu (南無阿彌陀佛) written vertically. This style of mandala is still used by some Jodo Shinshu Buddhists in home altars, or butsudan. Mesoamerican
Mesoamerican
civilizations[edit] Mayan Tzolk'in[edit]

Mayan Tzolk'in wheel from 498 AD.

One of several parallels between Eastern and Mesoamerican
Mesoamerican
cultures, the Mayan civilization tended to present calendars in a mandala form.[29] It is similar in form and function to the Kalachakra
Kalachakra
(Wheel of Time) sand paintings of Tibetan Buddhists.[30] The tzolk'in wheel has 260 segments, surprising because the Mayans recognized that the calendar year is 365 days long. Ultimately, the symbol was probably used for ritual purposes, and to measure the interval of a number of 9-month intervals like pregnancy, the cultivation time of some crops, and rituals that were performed at a 260-day spacing each year, for example, spring and fall. This Mayan symbology has even made its way into New Age
New Age
symbolism as the Dreamspell
Dreamspell
calendar, developed by José Argüelles. Sometimes described as an authentic Mayan mandala, it is "inspired by" elements of the Tzolk'in wheel of time. Aztec Sun Stone[edit]

The Aztec Sun Stone as an amate print.

The Sun Stone of the Aztec civilization was once believed to be their equivalent of a Tzolk'in calendar, but is now thought to be a ceremonial representation of the entire universe as seen by the Aztec religious class. The earliest interpretations of the stone relate to its use as a calendar. In 1792, two years after the stone's unearthing, Mexican anthropologist Antonio de León y Gama
Antonio de León y Gama
wrote a treatise on the Aztec calendar using the stone as its basis.[31] Some of the circles of glyphs are the glyphs for the days of the month.[32] The four symbols included in the Ollin glyph represent the four past suns that the Mexica believed the earth had passed through.[33] Another aspect of the stone is its religious significance. One theory is that the face at the center of the stone represents Tonatiuh, the Aztec deity of the sun. It is for this reason that the stone became known as the "Sun Stone." Richard Townsend proposed a different theory, claiming that the figure at the center of the stone represents Tlaltecuhtli, the Mexica earth deity who features in Mexica creation myths.[32] Modern archaeologists, such as those at the National Anthropology Museum in Mexico City, believe it is more likely to have been used primarily as a ceremonial basin or ritual altar for gladiatorial sacrifices than as an astrological or astronomical reference.[34] Yet another characteristic of the stone is its possible geographic significance. The four points may relate to the four corners of the earth or the cardinal points. The inner circles may express space as well as time.[35] Lastly, there is the political aspect of the stone. It may have been intended to show Tenochtitlan
Tenochtitlan
as the center of the world and therefore, as the center of authority.[36] Townsend argues for this idea, claiming that the small glyphs of additional dates amongst the four previous suns—1 Flint (Tecpatl), 1 Rain (Atl), and 7 Monkey (Ozomahtli)—represent matters of historical importance to the Mexica state. He posits, for example, that 7 Monkey represents the significant day for the cult of a community within Tenochtitlan. His claim is further supported by the presence of Mexica ruler Moctezuma II's name on the work. These elements ground the Stone's iconography in history rather than myth and the legitimacy of the state in the cosmos.[37] Christianity[edit]

The round window at the site of the Marsh Chapel Experiment
Marsh Chapel Experiment
supervised by Walter Pahnke

Forms which are evocative of mandalas are prevalent in Christianity: the celtic cross; the rosary; the halo; the aureole; oculi; the Crown of Thorns; rose windows; the Rosy Cross; and the dromenon on the floor of Chartres Cathedral. The dromenon represents a journey from the outer world to the inner sacred centre where the Divine is found.[38] The Cosmati
Cosmati
pavements, including that at Westminster Abbey, are geometric mandala-like mosaic designs from thirteenth century Italy. The Great Pavement at Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
is believed to embody divine and cosmic geometries as the seat of enthronement of the monarchs of England.[39] Similarly, many of the Illuminations of Hildegard von Bingen
Hildegard von Bingen
can be used as mandalas, as well as many of the images of esoteric Christianity, as in Christian
Christian
Hermeticism, Christian
Christian
Alchemy, and Rosicrucianism. Alchemist, Mathematician and Astrologer John Dee
John Dee
developed a geometric symbol which he called the Sigillum Dei
Sigillum Dei
'Seal of God' manifesting a universal geometric order which incorporated the names of the archangels, derived from earlier forms of the clavicula salomonis or key of Solomon.

The Seal of God; a mystic pentagram symbol composed by Dee

The Layer Monument, an early 17th-century marble mural funerary monument at the Church of Saint John the Baptist, Maddermarket, Norwich, is a rare example of Christian
Christian
iconography absorbing alchemical symbolism to create a mandala in Western funerary art. Western psychological interpretations[edit] According to art therapist and mental health counselor Susanne F. Fincher, we owe the re-introduction of mandalas into modern Western thought to Carl Jung, the Swiss analytical psychologist. In his pioneering exploration of the unconscious through his own art making, Jung observed the motif of the circle spontaneously appearing. The circle drawings reflected his inner state at that moment. Familiarity with the philosophical writings of India
India
prompted Jung to adopt the word "mandala" to describe these circle drawings he and his patients made. In his autobiography, Jung wrote:

I sketched every morning in a notebook a small circular drawing, ... which seemed to correspond to my inner situation at the time. ... Only gradually did I discover what the mandala really is: ... the Self, the wholeness of the personality, which if all goes well is harmonious. — Carl Jung, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, pp. 195–196.

Jung recognized that the urge to make mandalas emerges during moments of intense personal growth. Their appearance indicates a profound re-balancing process is underway in the psyche. The result of the process is a more complex and better integrated personality.

The mandala serves a conservative purpose—namely, to restore a previously existing order. But it also serves the creative purpose of giving expression and form to something that does not yet exist, something new and unique. ... The process is that of the ascending spiral, which grows upward while simultaneously returning again and again to the same point. — Jungian analyst Marie-Louise von Franz, C. G. Jung: Man and His Symbols, p. 225

Creating mandalas helps stabilize, integrate, and re-order inner life.[40] According to the psychologist David Fontana, its symbolic nature can help one "to access progressively deeper levels of the unconscious, ultimately assisting the meditator to experience a mystical sense of oneness with the ultimate unity from which the cosmos in all its manifold forms arises."[41]

In archaeology[edit] One of the most intense archaeological discoveries in recent years that could redefine the history of eastern thought and tradition of mandala is the discovery of five giant mandalas in the valley of Manipur
Manipur
made with Google Earth imagery. Located in the paddy field in the west of Imphal, the capital of Manipur, the Maklang geoglyph is perhaps the world’s largest mandala built entirely of mud. The site wasn’t discovered until 2013 as its whole structure could only be visible via Google Earth satellite imagery. The whole paddy field, locally known as Bihu Loukon, is now protected and announced as historical monument and site by the government of Manipur
Manipur
in the same year. The site is situated 12 km aerial distance from Kangla
Kangla
with the GPS coordinates of 24° 48' N and 93° 49' E. It covers a total area of around 224,161.45 square meters. This square mandala has four similar protruding rectangular ‘gates’ in the cardinal directions guarded each by similar but smaller rectangular ‘gates’ on the left and right. Within the square there is an eight petalled flower or rayed-star, recently called as Maklang ‘Star fort’ by the locals, in the centre covering a total area of around 50,836.66 square meters. The discovery of other five giant mandalas in the valley of Manipur
Manipur
is also made with Google Earth. The five giant mandalas, viz., Sekmai mandala, Heikakmapal mandala, Phurju twin mandalas and Sangolmang mandala are located on the western bank of the Iril River.[42] In contemporary art[edit] Mandalas can be found in early Buddhist
Buddhist
art from the 14th and 15th centuries. Fashion designer Mandali Mendrilla
Mandali Mendrilla
designed an interactive art installation called Mandala
Mandala
of Desires (Blue Lotus Wish Tree) made in peace silk and eco friendly textile ink, displayed at the China Art Museum in Shanghai in November 2015. The pattern of the dress was based on the Goloka Yantra
Yantra
mandala, shaped as a lotus with eight petals. Visitors were invited to place a wish on the sculpture dress, which will be taken to India
India
and offered to a genuine living Wish Tree.[43][44] In science[edit]

Phylogenetic tree
Phylogenetic tree
of Hexapoda
Hexapoda
(insects and their six-legged relatives). Such trees have been called phylogenetic mandalas.[45]

Circular diagrams are often used in phylogenetics, especially for the graphical representation of phylogenetic relationships. Evolutionary trees often encompass numerous species that are conveniently shown on a circular tree, with images of the species shown on the periphery of a tree. Such diagrams have been called phylogenetic mandalas.[45] Gallery[edit]

Cosmological Mandala
Mandala
with Mount Meru, silk tapestry, China via The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Vajrabhairava Mandala, silk tapestry, China via The Metropolitan Museum of Art

A diagramic drawing of the Sri Yantra, showing the outside square, with four T-shaped gates, and the central circle

Vishnu
Vishnu
Mandala(Traditionally found in Nepal)

Painted 19th century Tibetan mandala of the Naropa
Naropa
tradition, Vajrayogini
Vajrayogini
stands in the center of two crossed red triangles, Rubin Museum of Art

Painted Bhutanese Medicine Buddha mandala with the goddess Prajnaparamita in center, 19th century, Rubin Museum of Art

Mandala
Mandala
of the Six Chakravartins

Vajravarahi
Vajravarahi
Mandala

Kalachakra
Kalachakra
Mandala

Jain
Jain
cosmological diagrams and text.

Mandala
Mandala
painted by a patient of Carl Jung

Floorplan for the 9th-century Indonesian Buddhist
Buddhist
temple Borobudur
Borobudur
in the form of a mandala

Jain
Jain
picture of Mahavira

Easy mandala

Mandali Mendrilla's interactive sculpture dress " Mandala
Mandala
of Desires" at the China Art Museum
China Art Museum
in Shanghai, November 2015

See also[edit]

Buddhism
Buddhism
portal Arts portal

Architectural drawing Astrological symbols Bhavachakra Chakra Dharmachakra Form constant Ganachakra Great chain of being Life energy Magic Circle Mandylion, the first icon in Christianity Namkha Sacred art Sri Yantra Yantra

References[edit]

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Buddhist
Mandala
Mandala
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Symbol
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Symbol
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New Age
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New Age
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Cosmos
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Manipur
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Sources[edit]

Brauen, M. (1997). The Mandala, Sacred circle in Tibetan Buddhism Serindia Press, London. Bucknell, Roderick & Stuart-Fox, Martin (1986). The Twilight Language: Explorations in Buddhist
Buddhist
Meditation
Meditation
and Symbolism. Curzon Press: London. ISBN 0-312-82540-4 Cammann, S. (1950). Suggested Origin of the Tibetan Mandala
Mandala
Paintings The Art Quarterly, Vol. 8, Detroit. Cowen, Painton (2005). The Rose Window, London and New York, (offers the most complete overview of the evolution and meaning of the form, accompanied by hundreds of colour illustrations.) Crossman, Sylvie and Barou, Jean-Pierre (1995). Tibetan Mandala, Art & Practice The Wheel of Time, Konecky and Konecky. Fontana, David (2005). "Meditating with Mandalas", Duncan Baird Publishers, London. Gold, Peter (1994). Navajo & Tibetan sacred wisdom: the circle of the spirit. ISBN 0-89281-411-X.  Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions International. Mipham, Sakyong Jamgön (2002) 2000 Seminary Transcripts Book 1 Vajradhatu Publications ISBN 1-55055-002-0 Somorjit, Wangam (2018). "World's Largest Mandalas from Manipur
Manipur
and Carl Jung's Archetype of the Self", neScholar, vol.04, Issue 01, ed.Dr. R.K. Nimai Singh ISSN 2350-0336 Tucci, Giuseppe (1973). The Theory and Practice of the Mandala
Mandala
trans. Alan Houghton Brodrick, New York, Samuel Weisner. Vitali, Roberto (1990). Early Temples of Central Tibet
Tibet
London, Serindia Publications. Wayman, Alex (1973). "Symbolism of the Mandala
Mandala
Palace" in The Buddhist Tantras
Tantras
Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass. Chris Bell (n.d.). The Maṇḍala

Further reading[edit]

Grotenhuis, Elizabeth Ten (1999). Japanese mandalas: representations of sacred geography, Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press Kossak, S (1998). Sacred visions : early paintings from central Tibet. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.  (see index)

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